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# Digital Electronics (3rd Semester, CSE)

## Submitted by Jatinder Kaur

Question Bank
Very Short Question
1. Complement of a variable is always its_______.
2. Determine the logic gate to implement the following terms--ABC, A+B+C?
3. What is parity generation ?
4. Add the following BCD numbers--- 1001 and 0100?
5. What is the advantage of CMOS over NMOS ?
6. Equivalent Gray code representation of AC2H.?
7. A NAND gate becomes ___ gate when used with negative logic ?
8. Implement the logic equation Y = _ C’ B A’ + C’ B A + CBA with a multiplexer.
9. Subtract the f Suppose that the D input of a flip flop changes from low to high in
the middle of a clock pulse. Describe what happens if the flip flop is a positive
edge triggered type? following hexadecimal numbers--- 8416 - 2A16
10. Give the output when the input of a D-flip flop is tied to the output through the
XOR gate
11. Distributive law states that_____________.
12. Represent standard SOP & POS form?
13. OR operation can be produced by _______gates.
14. ________is known as a universal gate as can be used to implement all Boolean
expressions.
15. Simplify the expression AB + A( B + C ) + B ( B + C )?
16. How many flip flops are required to produce a divide by 32 device ?
17. a positive going pulse is applied to an inverter.the time interval from the leading
edge of the input to the leading edge of the output is 7ns.the parameter
is?(propagation delay)
18. the CMOS family with a fastest switching speed___________.(ALVC)
19. a 3 variable karnaugh map has_______ cells.(eight cells)
20. What is the advantage of synchronous circuits over asynchronous circuits ?
21. On karnaugh map grouping of 0’s produces_______(POS expression).
22. State distributive law?
23. State De Morgans theorem?
24. Give an example of SOP form?
25. According to assosiative law ________.[A(BC)=AB(C)]
26. A logic circuit with an output X=AB’C+AC’ consist of ______ gates,
_______gates and _______inverters.(two,one,two)
27. The OR operations can be produced with two_______gates or
three_______gates.(NOR,NAND)
28. The AND operation can be produced with two_________gates.(NAND)
29. Define the term Glitch?(a voltage or current spike of short duration,usually
unintentionally produced and unwanted)
30. What is a decoder?(a digital circuit that converts coded informationinto a familiar
or noncoded form)
31. Define demultiplexer?(a circuit that switches digital data from one input line to
several output lines in a specified time sequence )
32. Difference between half adder and full adder?
33. A half adder is characterized by _____inputs and______ outputs.(two,two)
34. A full adder is characterized by _______inputs and_____outputs.(three,two)
35. A 4 bit parallel adder can add ___________4 bit binary numbers.(two)
36. Data selectors are basically same as _________.(multiplexers)
37. A multiplexer has ___________data inputs,________data outputs and selection
inputs.(several,one)
38. What is the Purpose of clock input ?(cause the output to assume a state dependent
on the controlling (S-R,J-K or D)inputs)
39. like latch flip-flops belong to the category of_________.(bistable multivibrators)
40. define the term latch?(a bistable digital circuit used for storing a bit)
41. define the term hold time?
42. What is propagation delay time?(time interval required after an input signal has
been applied for the resulting output change to occur)
43. Define the term toggle?(the action of a flip-flop when it changes state on each
clock pulse.)
44. What do you mean by power dissipation?(amount of power required by a circuit.)
45. A feature that distinguishes the J-K flip- flop from S-R flip-flop?(toggle
condition)
46. What do mean by Astable and bistable?
47. What is 1’s complement.
48. What is 2’s complement.
49. Define Gray code with example.
50. What Karnaugh Map.How it represent.

## Short Question Bank

1. Obtain the following operations using NAND gates.
a) NOT b) AND c) OR
2. Obtain the following operations using NOR gates.
a) NOT b) AND c) OR
3. For the logic expression
Y =A B + A B
Obtain the truth table and Name the operation performed.
4. Prove using De Morgan’s theorems.

AB + CD = AB. CD
5. Prove using De Morgan’s theorems.

(A+B) + (C+D)
6. Define De Morgan’s theorems.
7. Verify OR gate with Truth Table.
8. Verify AND gate with Truth Table.
9. Verify NOT gate with Truth Table.
10. Verify NAND gate with Truth Table.
11. Verify NOR gate with Truth Table.
12. Verify XOR gate with Truth Table.
13. Verify XNOR gate with Truth Table.
14. What is a digital signal.
15. Differentiate between analog & digital signals.
16. For the RTL logic circuit, Derive the truth table.
17. Differentiate between saturated and non-saturated logic.
18. Define the terms ‘fan in ‘ and ‘ fan out ‘.
19. Define the term ‘figure of merit’ of a digital IC.
20. What is meant by open-collector output.
21. What is meant by ‘wired logic’.
22. Explain the problem of ‘current hogging’ in DCTL.
23. What are the advantages of I2L.
24. Why TTL is faster than DTL.
25. What is meant by open emitter outputs.
26. Why emitter followers are used at the outputs of ECL circuits.
27. Compare schottky TTL with standard TTL.
28. Why TTL is preferred over DTL.
29. Convert the binary number into octal number
11011100.101010
30. Add the binary numbers
1011 + 1101
31. Add the binary numbers
1010.1101 + 101.01
32. Subtraction the binary numbers
1011 – 0110
33. Subtraction the binary numbers
1110 – 1001
34. Find 1’s complement of the numbers.
a) 10100111 b) 01111
35. Find the 2’s complement of the number
01100100
36. Represent the following decimal numbers in the signed binary number system.
+29 & -29
37. Perform the subtraction using 2’s complementary arithmetic
11011 – 11001
38. Convert the BCD number to their decimal equivalent.
0100 0011 1001
39. What is Excess-3 Code. and perform Excess –3 code of 14.
40. Convert the binary number into Gray code.
110100
41. Convert the Gray code into binary number
101110
42. Define ASCII Code.
43. Define EBCDIC Code.
44. Define Hollerith Code.Where does Hollerith code used.
45. What is a min term & max term.
46. What is the parity of the binary number 100110011.
47. Implement the Boolean expressions using minimum number of gates.
Y = ABC + ABC
48. What is the difference between saturated and non-saturated logic.
49. What do you mean by irredundant.
50. Draw & explain binary half adder.
51. Draw & explain binary full adder.
52. Draw & explain binary half subtractor.
53. Draw & explain binary full subtractor
54. How can full adder be realized using two half adders
55. What is the difference between synchronous & asynchronous.
56. What is an IC 555 timer. Draw its pin diagram.
57. Define flip flop and write the types of flip flop.
58. What are MOSFET and CMOS.
59. What is a Flip flop and clocked flip flop.
60. Explain the operation of a J-K flip flop.
61. Why S=R=1 is not permitted in the S-R Flip flop.
62. What is meant by race around condition in flip flop.
63. What is a master- slave Flip flop.
64. What is meant by a D-type and T-type flip flop.
65. Explain positive and negative edge triggered Flip flop.
66. What are the various methods used for triggering Flip flops.
67. Differentiate between S-R and J-K Flip flop.
68. What is CMOS.
69. Explain a term “Resolution” in A/D converter.
70. Name different methods of A/D conversion.
71. What is the main disadvantage of a dual slope integrator A/D converter.
72. What is difference between clipping & clamping circuits.
73. Show how to connect NAND gate to get an AND gate.
74. What is clock frequency if the clock cycle time is 250ns.
75. How many flip flops are required to construct a mod-128 counter and mod-9.
76. Perform 9’s complement of 234.
77. Perform 10’s complement of 567.
78. Explain tri-state logic.
79. Why negative supply is preferred in ECL.
80. Why fan-out of ECL gates is higher.
81. What are the advantages of CMOS logic.
82. What is meant by a combinational circuit.
83. Explain SOP form and POS form of logic expression.
84. What is a Karnaugh –map and what for it is used.
85. What is meant by don’t care condition.
86. What is a sequential logic circuit.
87. What are the different types of multivibrator.
88. What is D/A converter and define the term resolution of D/A Converter.
89. Convert (1001110)2 to its octal equivalent.
90. Convert (247.36)8 to equivalent hex number.
91. What is meant by parity of a digital word.
92. What is AND-OR realization.
93. What is OR-AND realization.
94. Represent the decimal numbers in 2’s complement format.
a) –5 b) –9
95. Find the two’s complement of 10010010 & 11011000.
96. Perform subtraction using 2’s complement method.
0011.1001 – 0001.1110
97. Write the truth table of XNOR gate.
98. Write the truth table of NAND gate.
99. Write the truth table of NOR gate.
100.What is meant by ‘modulus’ of a counter.

## Long Question Bank

1. Prove using the Boolean algebraic theorems.
A+ A.B+ A B=A+B
2. Prove using the Boolean algebraic theorems
A.B + AB + A B = A + B
3. Prove using the Boolean algebraic theorems
ABC + A B C +ABC + ABC = AB + BC + CA
4. Prove using the Boolean algebraic theorems
AB + CD = (A+C)(A+ D)(B+C)(B+D)
5. Prove using the Boolean algebraic theorems
A ( A + C)(A B + C )=0
6. Prove using the Boolean algebraic theorems
AB + BC +CA = A B + B C + A C
7. Prove using the Boolean algebraic theorems

AB + A + AB = 0
8. Prove using the Boolean algebraic theorems
A B C +A B C +A B C = A C+ A B
9. Simplify the Boolean expression
ABC+ABC+A BC+A B C +ABC+ A BC
10. Simplify the Boolean expression
A B C D +AB CD+ABCD+ABCD
11. Determine the decimal numbers represented by the following binary numbers:
a) 110101 b) 1100.1011
12. Determine the binary numbers represented by the following decimal numbers:
a) 37 b) 10.625
13. Convert the following decimal numbers to octal numbers
a) 375 b) 27.125
14. Convert the following octal numbers into decimal numbers
a) 237 b) 6327.4051
15. Convert the decimal numbers to hexadecimal.
a) 375 b) 2047
16. A seven bit Hamming code is received as 1111001. Locate the error position and find the correct
code.
17. Realize the following logic operations using only NAND gates
a) NOT gate b) AND gate c) OR gate d) NOR gate e) XOR gate f) XNOR gate
18. Realize the following logic operations using only NOR gates
a) NOT gate b) AND gate c) OR gate d) NAND gate e) XOR gate f) XNOR gate
19. Write a short note on the following:
a) Shift registers b) Ring Counter
20. Draw the TTL circuit diagram. Also explain its working.
21. Draw the ECL circuit diagram. Also explain its working.
22. Explain the principle and working of a successive approximation A/D converter. Also mention its
23. Name different methods of A/D conversion and explain the principle of dual slope integrator A/D
converter.
24. Explain the principle of variable resistive divider and binary ladder D/A Converters.
25. Draw and explain the working of a mono-stable multivibrator using transistors, Also draw the
necessary wave forms.
26. Draw and explain the working of an astable or free running multivibrator using transistors, Also
draw the necessary wave forms
27. Draw and explain of J-K flip flop. Also explain the race around problem.
28. Given the logic equation
f = ABC + BC D + A BC
Simplify using K-map. Realize f using NAND gates only.
29. Minimize the logic functions.
f(A,B,C,D)= ∑m(1,3,5,8,9,11,15) + d (2,13)
30. Minimize the logic functions.
f(A,B,C,D)= ∏M(1,2,3,8,9,10,11,14) + d (7,15)
31. Using the excitation tables of S-R and J-K Flip flops, carry out the following conversions
a) S-R to J-K
b) S-R to D
c) J-K to D
d) D to J-K
e) S-R to T
f) J-K to T
32. Find out the minimal expression for the switching function given below using the karnaugh map.
∑ (A,B,C,D) = (0,1,4,5,6,7,12,14)
33. Simplify and minimize the following four-variable switching function using the Quine-McClusky
tabulation method.
f (A,B,C,D) = ∑ (0,1,2,3,4,6,8,9,10,11)
34. Simplify and minimize the following four-variable switching function using the Quine-McClusky
tabulation method.
f (A,B,C,D) = ∑ (0,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15)
35. Compare the various logic families like RTL, DTL, TTL, ECL , I2L, PMOS and CMOS in terms of
their fan in, fan out, propagation time, clock rate, power dissipation and noise margin.
36. Explain the working of TTL, ECL and DTL.
37. Explain all gates ( OR, AND, NOT, NOR, NAND, XOR , XNOR) with truth tables.
38. Given the logic equation
Y = (A + BC)(B + C A)
Design a circuit using gates to realize this function. Specify the number of gates required.
39. Minimize the functions and realize using minimum number of gates.
f = ∑m(0,3,5,6,9,10,12,15)
40. Minimize the functions and realize using minimum number of gates.
f = ∑m(0,1,2,3,11,12,14,15)

## 41. Add the binary numbers:

01101010
00001000
10000001
11111111

42. Draw a basic RTL and DTL circuit diagram and explain its working.Also mention its
various specifications.
42. Explain Resistor divider D/A converter with circuit diagram.
43. Explain Binary Ladder Network D/A converter with circuit diagram.
44. Convert decimal 1996 to an equivalent binary number.
45. Convert the binary number 11111001100 to its equivalent decimal number.
46. Convert the decimal number 274.1875 to its equivalent binary number.
47. Convert the Hexadecimal number CD42 to binary number.
48. Convert Hex numbers D2763 and B3D8 into decimal.
49. Convert decimal number to their equivalent octal numbers.
a) 4429.625 b) 11.9375
50. Write short notes on
a) Half Adder b) Full Adder c) Half Subtractor d) Full Subtractor e) Serial in Serial out
Shift register f) Parallel in parallel out Shift register.