presented by

Under the guidance of

M N SUNEETHA Asst. Professor Dept. of E and E Engineering UVCE , Bengaluru – 01

Executive Electrical Engineers Respective sections K.P.C.L Bengaluru – 01

1. Overview of SCADA:
General components of SCADA system:
• Sensors

• Remote Terminal Units
• Master units • Communication Links • Software

General Functions of SCADA:

Need for SCADA:

• Data Acquisition • Supervisory control
• Plotting • Alarms

•To reduce total cost. •To reduce man power.

•To reduce future capital requirements.
•To improve level of service. •To avoid environmental accidents.

• Logging
• Load shedding • Load restoration

•To comply with regulatory
requirements. •To attain and maintain competitive

• Automatic generation control

•To replace existing aging systems. •To manage complex systems

2. SCADA Configuration :

•UCB (Unit Control Board) •CCB (Common Control Board) •CRB (Control Room Board)

•SCB (Switchyard Control Board)
•Central Control Room Equipment •Video over IP System

•Uninterruptable Power supply

Fig 2 System overview of VUGPH

i. Unit Controlled Board(U.C.B):
15” Touch panel

Cubicle design:
Main device for control and supervision of the unit North bus selected South bus selected Circuit breaker close indication Circuit breaker open indication

Lamp (Green) Lamp (Orange) Lamp (Red) Lamp (Green)

Lamp (Green) Lamp(Orange) Lamp (Red) Push Button Push Button Push Button Key operated cam switch

Indication for Readiness of unit operation Indication for Alarm Indication for Trip Alarm/trip reset Horn reset Lamp reset Control point selector switch with 3 positions:
  Local


Double Voltmeter Double Frequency meter Active power meter Reactive power meter

 Remote For manual synchronization For manual synchronization For MW For MVAR

Push button Key operated cam switch

Selector switch Selector switch

Emergency Shutdown Unit Voltage raise/lower selector switch spring return type Speed raise/lower selector switch spring return type Synchronizing selector switch with 2 positions:

Auto : Synchronization in Auto mode
Manual : Synchronization in Manual mode

Selector switch

( Manual Synchronization is also possible from CRB if UCB is in Remote mode. Bus bar Selector switch with 2 positions:   North bus select in manual mode of synchronizing South bus select in manual mode of synchronizing

Selector switch Selector switch SYN3000

FCB open/close selector switch spring return type Generator CB open/close selector switch spring return type For automatic and manual synchronization

Functions of the UCB: The controller of the UCB executes following software modules:

Control and Sequencing modules:
•Control modes and place of control •Sequence control (automatic start and stop of the unit)

•Automatic & Manual synchronization •Control of auxiliaries
Safety module:

•Alarm System
•Emergency trip system for mechanic faults (“mechanical protection”) Temperature supervision

Control and Sequencing modules:

A . Place of control :
• • Remote : Controlled from HMI in control room Local : at unit’s own unit control board

B. Control Mode :

• •

Auto mode
Auto step by step mode Manual mode

C. Sequencing (automatic starting and stopping of the unit)  covers complete automatic control under normal conditions

provides fully automatic step by step control of TG set
includes control of all auxiliary equipments of TG set

D. Automatic & Manual Synchronization:
Provision for automatic and manual synchronization

Synchroscope , double voltmeter, double frequency meter and
open/close for the breakers will be provided

E. Control of unit auxiliaries:
The control and monitoring of unit auxiliaries such as:

• CW pumps
• governor OPU pumps

motorized valves of CW system
excitation system

• generator brakes

Main inlet valve

•Monitoring of pre-conditions of each auxiliary •Facility to select main & standby devices •Automatic over depending on the duration of the operation or detection of any alarm/trip signals,

Safety module:
All signals which are giving evidence of an abnormal condition in the plant, will be processed in the safety module

The safety module comprises of the following functions:
A. Alarm system: All external and internally created signals (e.g. temperature exceeded) which are used in the safety module are treated as alarm

Every alarm signal causes an acoustic alarm and is displayed on the
touch panel. B. Mechanical Trip System: The mechanical trip system handles all mechanical fault conditions of the unit, which require an emergency shutdown All electrical failures are detected and processed by the electrical protection system

One hardwired contact from unit electrical protection relays indicating internal failure of any relay will be interfaced with the respective UCB.

These signals will be integrated in the trip scheme to create ESD.
Each signal which has to initiate an emergency shutdown And is handled independently by the control system through mechanic trip system within the safety module It causes an alarm as well as a shutdown of the unit

additionally a normal stop sequence of the sequencing software will also be
initiated Any trip has to be reset manually of the “trip reset” button after all fault signals

have disappeared and the unit has come to stand still.
The reset can be carried out from the HMI in control room “REMOTE” mode or

from the UCB in “LOCAL” mode either through the touch panel or by the push
button provided on the UCB.

C. Temperature Monitoring: All temperature values are supervised up to four limits. The limits are split into two main groups: Upper and lower limits as follows –
Limit Too High High Type Trip Alarm Definition “Temperature too high” “Temperature high”

Too low

Starting prevention

“Temperature high”
“Temperature too low”

Table 9.2 Temperature Limit Table

The mechanical safety module always compares the actual temperature values with set limits and initiates the requisite action such as alarm or trip

Each temperature signals can be monitored on the HMI in the control room or
the touch panel on the UCB in form of a bar graph.

 Hardwired logics: In addition to the trip signals the emergency shutdown logic will be implemented in hardwire also

Emergency shutdown can be initiated through the push button provided on
the respective UCBs and Control Room Board in the control room. The emergency shutdown will work in case of failure of the UCB controller.  Sequence of Event Recording:

The binary input modules of the controller are capable of acquiring the data
with a resolution of 1ms transmit the same spontaneously to the control system

This data along with the time stamp can be viewed in the “Chronological
Event List (CEL)” on the HMI in the control room and on the touch panel in the UCB. This feature is available on other control boards also.  Touch Panel- Local HMI: The UCB is provided with 15” touch panel mounted on the control board for the purpose of local operation.

ii. Common Controlled Board(C.C.B):
Device 15” Touch Panel

Cubicle design:
Function Main device for control and supervision of the unit

Lamp (Orange) Lamp (red)
Key operated cam switch

Indication for alarm Indication for trip
Control Point selector switch with 2 positions:  Local  Remote Alarm trip/reset

Push button

Push button Push button

Horn reset Lamp test

The CCB configuration is the same as that of UCB This component control all relevant plant facilities which are responsible for common auxiliaries e.g. Drainage, dewatering, Air compressor, low voltage

system/switchgear, DG set, Battery etc

Functions of the Common Controlled Board(C.C.B):

Control and sequencing module:
• Control modes and place of control : The AUTO Step by Step control Mode is not available for CCB.

• Sequence control (automatic change-over scheme)
• Control of station auxiliaries

Safety Module:
• Alarm system

 Hardwired logics:
Interlocking of breaker operation to avoid paralleling of power sources at the

415V bus bar or at SSB or UABs will also be provided in hardwired logic in
the respective control panels.

 Touch Panel- Local HMI: The UCB is provided with 15” touch panel mounted on the control board for the
purpose of local operation.

iii. Control Room Board(C.R.B):

The control room board contains all equipment necessary for metering, network
node for different interfaces, NTP timeserver

A. CRB Configuration: The CRB consists of
•GPS-NTP Timeserver •Pushbuttons, emergency pushbutton for all the units operation

• Auxiliary devices, such as miniature circuit breakers, relays, terminals etc. as
required B. Unit synchronization: Provision for automatic and manual synchronization Synchroscope , double voltmeter, double frequency meter and open/close for

the breakers will be provided
synchro-check function will be part of SYN-3000 synchronizer. The breaker open/close commands will be hardwired to the CBs in the

SWITCHYARD and status of the CBs will also be monitored through
hardwired signals from the SWITCHYARD.

C. NTP Time Server: For time synchronization of the whole automation system Via GPS receiver and the Ethernet station bus the time server synchronizes every single component using the Network Time Protocol (NTP)

The antenna will be mounted at a suitable location in the open within a
distance of 50m from the GPS server.

iv. 220kV Switchyard Control Board:

The 220kV Switchyard Control Board contains all equipment, necessary for interfacing
with bay controllers and supervision of the 220kV Circuit Breakers and Isolators A. Configuration: •1AK1703 ACP rack equipped with •Redundant power supply •Redundant processor modules

•Redundant control system Ethernet interface to the power plant station bus system for
communication to the other functional areas using optical fiber •Hardwired input/output modules (non-redundant)

•Interface to bay controllers
•Interface to protection relays •Interface for engineering tool access •Push buttons, selection switches, emergency push button for local operation •Auxiliary devices, such as miniature circuit breakers, relays, terminals etc. as required.

•Fiber optic converter for interfacing with bay controllers
•Control point selection switch

B. Functions of SCB: The Switchyard Control Board is configured to execute the following functions:

Interfacing with bay controllers: The SCB interfaces with the bay controllers over IEC 60870-5-103 protocol over a fiber
optic link

The SCB will acquire the data concerning status of various devices such as CB’s and
isolators, electrical parameters of respective feeders, abnormal conditions from bay controllers

display the same on the HMI in the control room
The operator commands given at the HMI in the control room are passed on to the respective bay controllers through the SCB

 Inter bay operation: The SCB will carry out the following inter bay operations: •Bus bar changeover – performing the switching sequence for change over of entire bus bar

section by coordinating different bay controllers. The bay specific interlocks are part of the ba
controllers. •Inter tripping connections across different bay level

•Inter-bay data logic, such as summed up events signal or calculated values.
•Operation of bus bar PT isolators.

 Acquisition of Switchyard related data:
The SCB will be interfaced with the common field devices of the switchyard such as auxiliary power supply and common switchyard signals.

 Synchronization of line CBs:

Automatic synchronization of the CBs by the respective bay controllers depending on the
command issued from HMI in the control room. The synchronization of the CBs is also possible from individual bay controllers switching

it to local mode
The bay controllers perform the synchrocheck function before closing the CBs Based on the selection of the bus, the SCB switches the selected bus PT connection to the bay controllers The breaker open/close commands will be hardwired to the CBs in the Switchyard.

status of CBs will also be monitored through hardwired signals from the switchyard.
 Alarm System: The alarms from the bay controllers will be acquired by the SCB And displayed on the HMI in the control room and on the touch panel Every alarm signal causes an acoustic alarm and is displayed on the touch panel as well as control room HMI in the alarm list.

v. Butterfly Valve Control Board:

The butterfly valve control board controls the operation of the butterfly valve. A. Butterfly valve RTUs: For tele-control of two Butterfly Valves, a RTU for each Butterfly Valve is
provided The scope includes the data transmission and the hardwired I/O interfacing to the primary control systems (i.e. transmission of position indications and up/down pulses). B. Control Board:

Consisting of 1 cubicle for each Butterfly Valve, each equipped with:
1 RTU with respective inputs and outputs 1 set of auxiliary devices (MCB’s, relays, terminals etc) as required C. Interfacing of both BFV with SCADA

Interfacing of both with SCADA to VUGPH will be done by optical fiber cable through Ethernet switches.

A start-stop sequence is an inbuilt feature of SCADA The sequencing of starting and stopping of the generating unit under normal, emergency,

controlled operation etc. is programmed in the processor of SCADA system (UCB).
The starting and stopping is executed in steps on obtaining the feedbacks of the previous

step and fulfilling of the preconditions only the next step will be executed. A. Standstill Conditions: When the Hydel plant is not in operation, there are some conditions which should be
fulfilled which might result in the saving of energy which was used for operation of those components.

The standstill conditions are as follows: •Cooling water pumps OFF •Generator brakes OFF & Brake jack released •220KV CB OPEN •Excitation OFF •MIV CLOSED


•UGB Oil vapour exhaust OFF
•LGB Oil vapour exhaust OFF •All 6 Needles CLOSED •Transformer Oil Pump OFF These Conditions don't have any sequence

Any of the above conditions failing to respond, will lead to an alarm to the operators and
he can take appropriate actions.

B. Pre-conditions: •ESD & QSD relays RESET •Generator brakes OFF & Brake Jack release

•220kV Earth switch open
•220kV CB open

•Excitation OFF
•MIV closed •BPV Closed

•Selector switch GEN/COND in generator position
•HPOS OFF •CB(52G) Trip coin HEALTHY •All 6 Deflectors CLOSED •OPEN status of the MIV

•CW Pumps selection on HMI

•Following should be in remote mode:  HPOS motor

 UGB vapour exhaust motor
 LGB vapour exhaust motor  Transformer oil pumps

Pre-conditions for Turbine operation- No load operation:
•Turbine operation mode completed •Excitation ready

•Transformer cooling oil pump ON
•Transformer Oil Flow OK •Transformer Alarms/trips not active

•Transformer Cooling water flow OK
•220kV CB OPEN Pre-conditions for No Load Operation-Line operation: •No load operation mode completed

•North bus or South bus isolator CLOSE
•220kV CB not tripped/no alarms

•220kV CB OPEN

C. Start Sequence:

Each step has to be completed mandatorily for the next step to be executed.
Each step is followed with a feedback Different sensors are being installed at different parts for the required system to collect

the data and sent to the SCADA servers
If any of the above mention feedback is unavailable, the next start step will not be activated and sequence will be shifted to Stop sequence automatically in an AUTO operation. For every step there are some pre conditions as well as the feedbacks

Without the preconditions getting fulfilled, it is not possible to start any step
For every step there is time supervision If time taken is more than it is considered as fault and the Stop sequence is initiated.

Command Start Step: 1 Turbine Oil Pump Unit On Pre-conditions Pre-condition for Turbine operation Feedback Standstill- Turbine Oil Pump Main/Standby feedback Unit

Start Step: 2 MIV Oil Pump Unit ON Start Step: 3 CW Pump ON Start Step: 4 Transformer Cooling pumps ON Oil

Step 1 completed Step 1-2 completed Step 1-2-3 completed

MIV Oil pump Main/Standby ON feedback CW Pump A/B/C ON feedback 1. Transformer pumps ON feedback Cooling Oil flow fail A/B


Start Step: 5 Step 1-2-3-4 completed HPOS Motor ON Start Step: 6 Step1-2-3-4-5 completed 1. Start LGB Oil Vapour Exhaust motor 2. Start Oil Vapour Exhaust Motor Start Step: 7 All the steps 1-6 should be 1. Start Step Valve finished with all the feedbacks 2. BPV OPEN required.

Start Step: 8 Service seal Valve OPEN
Start Step: 9 MIV OPEN

Bypass valve OPEN
1. 2. 3. 4. BPV OPEN Service Seal Valve OPEN No Service seal pressure Pressure equalised

Service seal valve OPEN

Start Step: 10 BPV CLOSE
Start Step: 11 TG ON

1. 2.
1. 2. 3. 4.

MIV OPEN Service Seal OPEN
MIV OPEN Bypass CLOSE TCOP ON Transformer cooling flow OK

1. 2. 3. oil Needles OPEN Deflector OPEN Rated speed

TURBINE OPERATION COMPLETED Start Step: 12 1. Turbine Operation 1. Excitation ON completed 2. Pre-conditions for Turbine 2. operation 3. No load operation

Check Generator voltage should be equal to 11kV No alarms from excitation.

Start Step: 13 1. No Load operation Auto changeover UAP completed Supply Preferential 2. Pre-conditions for No Load operation- Line operation 3. UAP Preferential supply healthy 4. UAP Preferential 5.Breaker control in AUTO mode
Start Step: 14 Auto synchronizer ON 1. 2. 3. 4. 89N or 89S CLOSE 89G CLOSE CB OPEN Earth Switch OPEN GCB CLOSE

1. UAP supply source Preferential 2. UAP Supply healthy 3. UAP Non Preferential Breaker OFF 4. Two CW Pumps running 5. CW inlet pressure OK 6. CW flow OK

Start Step: 15 Power Control Mode ON

1. 220 kV GCB CLOSE 2. Machine synchronised 3. Active Power set point is given to TG 4. Machine running at Base load of 10 MW

D. Shutdown Sequence: For every step to work it is necessary that all the feedbacks are proper. If any step is not completed then the emergency shutdown of the system is carried out.

Command Stop Step: 1 1. Special Stop Command to TG given

Pre-conditions 220 kV CB CLOSE

Feedback MW decreased to 0 MW.

2. Decrease the Load to 0 MW Stop Step: 2 Decrease MVAR to minimum Stop Step: 3 220 kV GCB OPEN Stop Step: 4









220 kV CB OPEN 1.

Changeover of preferential supply to non- 2. preferential supply

UAP Non Preferential 2. supply healthy
UAP Non Preferential Breaker healthy AUTO Mode

Supply CAP



UAP preferential breaker OPENS.



Stop Step: 5 Excitation OFF Stop Step: 6 TG OFF Stop Step: 7 MIV CLOSE Stop Step: 8

220 kV CB OPEN

Excitation OFF

220 kV CB OPEN

Excitation OFF

Needles and deflectors MIV CLOSE CLOSE 1. Needles and SSV CLOSE deflectors CLOSE

Stop Step: 9

HPOS Motor ON Stop Step: 10
Pneumatic Brakes OFF Stop Step: 11 MIV OPU OFF Stop Step: 12 Start Stop Valve OFF Stop Step: 13 Turbine OPU Pumps OFF Stop Step: 14

2. SSV OPEN Speed less than 240 HPOS motor ON RPM

Speed at 75 RPM

Brakes applied feedback from limit switches,
Brakes applied feedback from limit switches MIV OPU Main & Standby Pumps OFF 1-12 Turbine OPU Pumps OFF

Speed at 0 RPM


Stop Step completed Stop Step Completed

Pneumatic Brakes OFF

1-13 Brakes Released feedback from limit switches

Stop Step: 15
Auxiliaries OFF

Speed 0 RPM


CW pumps OFF
LGB Oil Vapour Exhaust Motor OFF


UGB Oil Vapour Exhaust Motor OFF
Transformer Oil Pump OFF GOV&MIV OPU OFF



E. Sequence for Quick Shut Down (QSD):

In this first reduce the load to base load (5MW) by closing the needles and deflectors
and then trip the unit If the feedback for MW=5 is not received within 20seconds, then system

doesn’t wait anymore, but issues ESD command.
Following are the conditions for QSD:
Sl No. 1 2 Conditions Temperature of generator hot air is very high Temperature of generator cold air is very high Main pilot line filter is 75% clogged Oil pressure is too high or too low in oil pressure tank Oil level is too low in oil pressure tank Table 9.10 Conditions for QSD

4 5

Fig 9.3 Sequence for QSD

F. Sequence for Emergency Shut Down:

2 3 4 5 6 7

Temperature of Stator winding is very high
Temperature of any generator core is very high Temperature of any generator tooth is very high Unit protection system fault occurs Unit protection DC supply failure Oil level of upper bearing very high Fault in UCB processor


Generator Backup Earth fault protection
Cooling water pump trips


Vibrations in the guide bearing are too high
Table 9.9 Conditions for ESD

Fig 9.2 Sequence for ESD

vii. Relay Protection

Fig Protection scheme for generator