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Motivation Theory and Leadership

The word motivation is often defined as "getting someone moving." Motivation theory breaks down these forces into internal or intrinsic motivation, and external or extrinsic motivation. If you're in a leadership role, then it's important to understand how employees are motivated, and what you can do as a leader to keep them motivated.

Motivation Theory
When we motivate ourselves, or someone else, we are developing those incentives or conditions that we believe will help move a person to a desired behavior. Whether it is through intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation, most individuals are moved by their beliefs, values, personal interests, and even fear. One of the more difficult challenges to a leader is to learn how to effectively motivate those working for them. One of the reasons it's so difficult is because motivation can be so personal. Typically, inexperienced leaders believe that the same factors that motivate themselves will motivate others too. Additional Resources

Effective Leadership Ethical Leadership Leadership in Sports

Motivation Theory and Another misconception held by inexperienced Leadership leaders is that the same factors that motivate one employee will work on another. In fact, nothing could be further from the truth. As we will learn later on, one size does not fit all when it comes to motivation.

Intrinsic or Self Motivation

Fundamentally, all motivation comes from within. So the most common concepts of motivation are those of self motivation, internal motivation, or intrinsic motivation. All of these terms are used interchangeably to describe the same motivational factors that come from within a person. Later, we will describe a second form of motivation, which is extrinsic or external motivation. While it is certainly recognized that external factors can motivate us, this is a secondary factor. For external forces to be effective in motivating us, they must be in harmony with one of our intrinsic motivational factors. In fact, several theorists such as Combs (1982), or Purkey & Stanley (1991), maintain that there is only a single kind of intrinsic motivation. That motivation is one that can be described as engaging in activities that enhance or maintain a person's self-image or concept of oneself. Other theorists such as Malone and Lepper (1987) define self motivation in broader and

perhaps more useful terms. Malone and Lepper believe that motivation is simply what people will do without external influence. Said another way, self motivation or intrinsically motivating activities, are those in which people will partake in for no reward other than the enjoyment that these activities bring them. Malone and Lepper have integrated a large amount of motivational research into a summary of seven ways we, as the leadership of our organizations, can design environments that are self motivating.

Motivation through Challenges

Individuals are motivated when they are working towards personally meaningful goals. Attainment of those goals must require activity that is increasingly difficult, but attainable. In other words, people like to be challenged, but they must feel their goals are achievable to stay motivated. This can be accomplished by:

Establishing goals that are personally meaningful Making those goals possible Providing feedback on performance Aligning goals with the individual's self esteem

Motivation through Curiosity

In this concept of self motivation, we are talking about providing something in the individual's environment that arouses their curiosity. This can be accomplished by presenting the individual with something that connects their present knowledge or skills with a more desirable level - if the person were to engage in a certain activity. So to motivate someone through curiosity, the environment must stimulate their interest to learn more.

Motivation through Control

Most people like to feel they are in control of their destiny. They want to feel in control of what happens to them. To stay motivated, individuals must understand the cause and effect relationship between an action they will take and the result. To motivate individuals through the use of control you can:

Make the cause and effect relationship clear by establishing a goal and its reward Allow individuals to believe that the work they do makes a difference Allow individuals to choose what they want to learn and how to go about learning it

Motivation through Fantasy

Another intrinsic motivating factor comes via fantasy. That is individuals can use mental images of things and / or situations that are not actually present to motivate themselves. You can foster motivation through fantasy by helping individuals imagine themselves in situations that are motivating. For example, if you know that someone is highly motivated by the thought of being in control, then you can talk to them about a future point in time when they might be in charge of a large and important business operation.

Motivation through Competition

Individuals can also be motivated by competition. That's because we gain a certain amount of satisfaction by comparing our performance to that of others. This type of competition can occur naturally as well as artificially. When using competition to foster motivation, keep in mind the following:

Competition is more motivating to some than others Losing in a competition de-motivates more than winning motivates Competitive spirits can sometimes reduce the likelihood of being helpful to competitors

Motivation through Cooperation

Cooperating with others or the feeling that you can help others is very motivating. Most individuals feel quite satisfied when helping others achieve their goals. As was the case with competition, motivation through cooperation can occur naturally or artificially. When using cooperation to motivate, keep in mind:

Cooperation is more important to some individuals than others Cooperation is a valuable skill that can be used in many different situations Interpersonal skills are important for cooperation

Motivation through Recognition

Finally, individuals are motivated through recognition. When their accomplishments are recognized by others, then they feel motivated. You need to make sure that recognition is distinguished from competition. With recognition you do not compare their achievements to those of others as you might with a competition.

Extrinsic or External Motivation

As previously mentioned, extrinsic or external motivation is the term used to describe external factors that stimulate our internal motivation. The concept of externally motivating someone is not at odds with the fact that motivation comes from within. The point here is that it is possible to provide others with situations, or an external environment, that is motivating. Perhaps the most useful lesson for the leader then becomes how to motivate employees that report directly or indirectly to the leader. If you understand the intrinsic motivational factors previously described, then a game plan can be developed to foster motivation among employees.

Employee Motivation
Some of the most effective ways for managers and leaders to motivate their staff includes recognition, providing positive performance feedback, and by challenging employees to learn new things. Many new managers make the mistake of introducing de-motivating factors into the workplace such as punishment for mistakes, or frequent criticisms. When followers feel they are being supported, and they have the ability to remain in control of their workplace, they stay motivated. Leaders can foster this feeling by allowing employees to take on added responsibility and accountability for making decisions. The important thing to keep in mind is that motivation is individual, and the degree of motivation achieved through one single strategy will not be the most effective way to motivate all employees. The most effective way to determine what motivates others is through carefully planned trial and error.

Figuring Out What Motivates Others

That being said, we'll finish up with some tips on how to determine what motivates others:

Talk to your employees, not about what motivates them because they may not realize it themselves, but what they value. This will give you insights into which of the seven motivational factors might be high on their list. Test a factor on an employee. For example, if you think that recognition might help motivate an employee then try using that factor. Check in with employees about their feelings. It's always a good idea to get feedback from your employees. Make sure you're getting the reaction you're looking for. Be on the lookout for signs of de-motivation. Make sure you're not inadvertently

introducing something into the work environment that is being counter-productive to your goal - motivated employees.

Understanding Employee Motivation

Abstract The study examined the ranked importance of motivational factors of employees at The Ohio State University's Piketon Research and Extension Center and Enterprise Center. The hand-delivered descriptive survey addressed ten motivating factors in the context of employee motivation theory. Findings suggest interesting work and good pay are key to higher employee motivation. Carefully designed reward systems that include job enlargement, job enrichment, promotions, internal and external stipends, monetary, and non-monetary compensation should be considered.

James R. Lindner Research and Extension Associate The Ohio State University Piketon Research and Extension Center Piketon, Ohio Internet address:

Introduction to Motivation At one time, employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and services. What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employees was research, referred to as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 (Dickson, 1973). This study found employees are not motivated solely by money and employee behavior is linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). The Hawthorne Studies began the human relations approach to management, whereby the needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of managers (Bedeian, 1993). Motivation Theories Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study results (Terpstra, 1979). Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are

Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two- factor theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, Adams' equity theory, and Skinner's reinforcement theory. According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs (Maslow, 1943): physiological, safety, social, ego, and self- actualizing. Maslow argued that lower level needs had to be satisfied before the next higher level need would motivate employees. Herzberg's work categorized motivation into two factors: motivators and hygienes (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as achievement and recognition, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction. Vroom's theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Rewards may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated. Adams' theory states that employees strive for equity between themselves and other workers. Equity is achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputs is equal to other employee outcomes over inputs (Adams, 1965). Skinner's theory simply states those employees' behaviors that lead to positive outcomes will be repeated and behaviors that lead to negative outcomes will not be repeated (Skinner, 1953). Managers should positively reinforce employee behaviors that lead to positive outcomes. Managers should negatively reinforce employee behavior that leads to negative outcomes. Motivation Defined Many contemporary authors have also defined the concept of motivation. Motivation has been defined as: the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995); a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs (Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995); an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994); and the will to achieve (Bedeian, 1993). For this paper, motivation is operationally defined as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals. The Role of Motivation Why do we need motivated employees? The answer is survival (Smith, 1994). Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. Motivated employees help organizations survive. Motivated employees are more productive. To be effective, managers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform. Of all the functions a manager performs, motivating employees is arguably the most complex. This is due, in part, to the fact that what motivates employees changes constantly (Bowen & Radhakrishna, 1991). For example, research suggests that as

employees' income increases, money becomes less of a motivator (Kovach, 1987). Also, as employees get older, interesting work becomes more of a motivator. Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of certain factors in motivating employees at the Piketon Research and Extension Center and Enterprise Center. Specifically, the study sought to describe the ranked importance of the following ten motivating factors: (a) job security, (b) sympathetic help with personal problems, (c) personal loyalty to employees, (d) interesting work, (e) good working conditions, (f) tactful discipline, (g) good wages, (h) promotions and growth in the organization, (i) feeling of being in on things, and (j) full appreciation of work done. A secondary purpose of the study was to compare the results of this study with the study results from other populations. Methodology The research design for this study employed a descriptive survey method. The target population of this study included employees at the Piketon Research and Extension Center and Enterprise Center (centers). The sample size included all 25 employees of the target population. Twenty-three of the 25 employees participated in the survey for a participation rate of 92%. The centers are in Piketon, Ohio. The mission of the Enterprise Center is to facilitate individual and community leader awareness and provide assistance in preparing and accessing economic opportunities in southern Ohio. The Enterprise Center has three programs: alternatives in agriculture, small business development, and women's business development. The mission of the Piketon Research and Extension Center is to conduct research and educational programs designed to enhance economic development in southern Ohio. The Piketon Research and Extension Center has five programs: aquaculture, community economic development, horticulture, forestry, and soil and water resources. From a review of literature, a survey questionnaire was developed to collect data for the study (Bowen & Radhakrishna, 1991; Harpaz, 1990; Kovach, 1987). Data was collected through use of a written questionnaire hand-delivered to participants. Questionnaires were filled out by participants and returned to an intra-departmental mailbox. The questionnaire asked participants to rank the importance of ten factors that motivated them in doing their work: 1=most important . . . 10=least important. Face and content validity for the instrument were established using two administrative and professional employees at The Ohio State University. The instrument was pilot tested with three similarly situated employees within the university. As a result of the pilot test, minor changes in word selection and instructions were made to the questionnaire. Results and Discussion

The ranked order of motivating factors were: (a) interesting work, (b) good wages, (c) full appreciation of work done, (d) job security, (e) good working conditions, (f) promotions and growth in the organization, (g) feeling of being in on things, (h) personal loyalty to employees, (i) tactful discipline, and (j) sympathetic help with personal problems. A comparison of these results to Maslow's need-hierarchy theory provides some interesting insight into employee motivation. The number one ranked motivator, interesting work, is a self-actualizing factor. The number two ranked motivator, good wages, is a physiological factor. The number three ranked motivator, full appreciation of work done, is an esteem factor. The number four ranked motivator, job security, is a safety factor. Therefore, according to Maslow (1943), if managers wish to address the most important motivational factor of Centers' employees, interesting work, physiological, safety, social, and esteem factors must first be satisfied. If managers wished to address the second most important motivational factor of centers' employees, good pay, increased pay would suffice. Contrary to what Maslow's theory suggests, the range of motivational factors are mixed in this study. Maslow's conclusions that lower level motivational factors must be met before ascending to the next level were not confirmed by this study. The following example compares the highest ranked motivational factor (interesting work) to Vroom's expectancy theory. Assume that a Centers employee just attended a staff meeting where he/she learned a major emphasis would be placed on seeking additional external program funds. Additionally, employees who are successful in securing funds will be given more opportunities to explore their own research and extension interests (interesting work). Employees who do not secure additional funds will be required to work on research and extension programs identified by the director. The employee realizes that the more research he/she does regarding funding sources and the more proposals he/she writes, the greater the likelihood he/she will receive external funding. Because the state legislature has not increased appropriations to the centers for the next two years (funds for independent research and extension projects will be scaled back), the employee sees a direct relationship between performance (obtaining external funds) and rewards (independent research and Extension projects). Further, the employee went to work for the centers, in part, because of the opportunity to conduct independent research and extension projects. The employee will be motivated if he/she is successful in obtaining external funds and given the opportunity to conduct independent research and extension projects. On the other hand, motivation will be diminished if the employee is successful in obtaining external funds and the director denies the request to conduct independent research and Extension projects. The following example compares the third highest ranked motivational factor (full appreciation of work done) to Adams's equity theory. If an employee at the centers feels that there is a lack of appreciation for work done, as being too low relative to another employee, an inequity may exist and the employee will be dis-motivated. Further, if all

the employees at the centers feel that there is a lack of appreciation for work done, inequity may exist. Adams (1965) stated employees will attempt to restore equity through various means, some of which may be counter- productive to organizational goals and objectives. For instance, employees who feel their work is not being appreciated may work less or undervalue the work of other employees. This final example compares the two highest motivational factors to Herzberg's twofactor theory. The highest ranked motivator, interesting work, is a motivator factor. The second ranked motivator, good wages is a hygiene factor. Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman (1959) stated that to the degree that motivators are present in a job, motivation will occur. The absence of motivators does not lead to dissatisfaction. Further, they stated that to the degree that hygienes are absent from a job, dissatisfaction will occur. When present, hygienes prevent dissatisfaction, but do not lead to satisfaction. In our example, the lack of interesting work (motivator) for the centers' employees would not lead to dissatisfaction. Paying centers' employees lower wages (hygiene) than what they believe to be fair may lead to job dissatisfaction. Conversely, employees will be motivated when they are doing interesting work and but will not necessarily be motivated by higher pay. The discussion above, about the ranked importance of motivational factors as related to motivational theory, is only part of the picture. The other part is how these rankings compare with related research. A study of industrial employees, conducted by Kovach (1987), yielded the following ranked order of motivational factors: (a) interesting work, (b) full appreciation of work done, and (c) feeling of being in on things. Another study of employees, conducted by Harpaz (1990), yielded the following ranked order of motivational factors: (a) interesting work, (b) good wages, and (c) job security. In this study and the two cited above, interesting work ranked as the most important motivational factor. Pay was not ranked as one of the most important motivational factors by Kovach (1987), but was ranked second in this research and by Harpaz (1990). Full appreciation of work done was not ranked as one of the most important motivational factors by Harpaz (1990), but was ranked second in this research and by Kovach (1987). The discrepancies in these research findings supports the idea that what motivates employees differs given the context in which the employee works. What is clear, however, is that employees rank interesting work as the most important motivational factor. Implications for Centers and Extension The ranked importance of motivational factors of employees at the centers provides useful information for the centers' director and employees. Knowing how to use this information in motivating centers' employees is complex. The strategy for motivating centers' employees depends on which motivation theories are used as a reference point. If Hertzberg's theory is followed, management should begin by focusing on pay and job security (hygiene factors) before focusing on interesting work and full appreciation of work done (motivator factors). If Adams' equity theory is followed, management should

begin by focusing on areas where there may be perceived inequities (pay and full appreciation of work done) before focusing on interesting work and job security. If Vroom's theory is followed, management should begin by focusing on rewarding (pay and interesting work) employee effort in achieving organizational goals and objectives. Regardless of which theory is followed, interesting work and employee pay appear to be important links to higher motivation of centers' employees. Options such as job enlargement, job enrichment, promotions, internal and external stipends, monetary, and non-monetary compensation should be considered. Job enlargement can be used (by managers) to make work more interesting (for employees) by increasing the number and variety of activities performed. Job enrichment can used to make work more interesting and increase pay by adding higher level responsibilities to a job and providing monetary compensation (raise or stipend) to employees for accepting this responsibility. These are just two examples of an infinite number of methods to increase motivation of employees at the centers. The key to motivating centers' employees is to know what motivates them and designing a motivation program based on those needs. The results presented in this paper also have implications for the entire Cooperative Extension Sysyem. The effectiveness of Extension is dependent upon the motivation of its employees (Chesney, 1992; Buford, 1990; Smith, 1990). Knowing what motivates employees and incorporating this knowledge into the reward system will help Extension identify, recruit, employ, train, and retain a productive workforce. Motivating Extension employees requires both managers and employees working together (Buford, 1993). Extension employees must be willing to let managers know what motivates them, and managers must be willing to design reward systems that motivate employees. Survey results, like those presented here, are useful in helping Extension managers determine what motivates employees (Bowen & Radhakrishna, 1991). If properly designed reward systems are not implemented, however, employees will not be motivated. References Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press. Bedeian, A. G. (1993). Management (3rd ed.). New York: Dryden Press. Bowen, B. E., & Radhakrishna, R. B. (1991). Job satisfaction of agricultural education faculty: A constant phenomena. Journal of Agricultural Education, 32 (2). 16-22. Buford, J. A., Jr., Bedeian, A. G., & Lindner, J. R. (1995). Management in Extension (3rd ed.). Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Extension. Buford, J. A., Jr. (1990). Extension management in the information age. Journal of Extension, 28 (1). Buford, J. A., Jr. (1993). Be your own boss. Journal of Extension, 31 (1).

Chesney, C. E. (1992). Work force 2000: is Extension agriculture ready? Journal of Extension, 30 (2). Dickson, W. J. (1973). Hawthorne experiments. In C. Heyel (ed.), The encyclopedia of management, 2nd ed. (pp. 298-302). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Harpaz, I. (1990). The importance of work goals: an international perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, 21. 75-93. Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Higgins, J. M. (1994). The management challenge (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan. Kovach, K. A. (1987). What motivates employees? Workers and supervisors give different answers. Business Horizons, 30. 58-65. Kreitner, R. (1995). Management (6th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, July 1943. 370-396. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Free Press. Smith, G. P. (1994). Motivation. In W. Tracey (ed.), Human resources management and development handbook (2nd ed.). Smith, K. L. (1990). The future of leaders in Extension. Journal of Extension, 28 (1). Terpstra, D. E. (1979). Theories of motivation: borrowing the best. Personnel Journal, 58. 376. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.

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Robi Axiata Limited

Type Industry Headquarters Products Parent Website

Joint Venture Mobile Telecommunication Robi Corporate Office, 53 Gulshan South Avenue, Gulshan-1,Dhaka, Bangladesh Mobile Telephony, GPRS, EDGE, International Roaming Axiata Group Berhad (70%) and NTT DoCoMo (30%)

Robi Axiata Limited, DBA Robi (formerly known as Aktel), is a joint venture between Axiata Group Berhad, Malaysia (70%) and NTT DoCoMo Inc, Japan (30%). Robi is the third largest mobile phone operator in Bangladesh in terms of subscribers (11.326 million as of July 2010)[1]. Robi boasts of the widest international roaming service in the market, connecting over 500 operators across 207 countries. It is the first operator in the country to introduce GPRS. Robi uses GSM 900/1800 MHz standard and operates on allocated 12.8MHz frequency spectrum.[2]


1 History 2 Numbering scheme 3 Products offered 4 Customer care 5 CSR 6 Awards/ Achievements 7 References 8 External links

[edit] History
Robi launched its operations on the 15 November, 1997 in Dhaka and on 26 March, 1998 in Chittagong as Aktel. Its founding chairman is Late Mr. Zahiruddin Khan, an excommerce minister. Aktel was formed as a joint-venture between Telekom Malaysia and A.K. Khan Company. All along through its insception it was ranked as No.2 mobile operator and was placed far behind the industry leader GrameenPhone in terms of

revenue and no. of subscribers. Aktel started investing heavily with funds from Telekom Malaysia (the majority stake owner) on expanding its network in 2001 but the investment was far too inadequate in comparison with GrameenPhone's investment. Although customer base was increasing heavily its position remained at No.2. Unlike GrameenPhone, Aktel kept very low in marketing its brand. But from the end of 2004, Aktel spent heavily to market its brand all over the media, outdoor and other marketing mediums. It was a huge success and the Aktel brand became well established. Credit was given to the then Chief Operating Officer Mr. Vijay Watson who is believed to be the mastermind behind the change and success of Robi. In mid 2008 news broke out that A.K.Khan & Company was selling its 30% and Vodafone, etisalat and NTT DoCoMo were among the potential buyers. Mr. AK Shamsuddin Khan, Chairman A.K.Khan & Company and Mr. Salahuddin Kasem Khan, former Chairman of Aktel and Managing Director of A.K.Khan & Co Ltd represented the sellers [3]. After months of negotiation NTT DoCoMo sealed a deal with A.K.Khan & Company for US $ 350mln on June 2008.[4] The deal was completed on September 19, 2008 [5]

[edit] Numbering scheme

Robi uses the following numbering scheme for its subscribers: +88018 N1N2N3N4N5N6N7N8 Where, 880 is the International subscriber dialing code for Bangladesh. 18 is the access code for Robi as assigned by the Government of Bangladesh. Omitting +88 will require to use 0 in place of it instead to represent local call, hence 018 is the general access code. N1N2N3N4N5N6N7N8 is the subscriber number.

[edit] Products offered

Robi offers an array of different packages. In addition to offering the fundamental prepaid and post-paid mobile services, it offers a wide range of value-added products and services such as, SMS, GPRS, EDGE, International Roaming, SMS banking, Caller Ring Back Tone, MMS, Voice Greetings, Call Blocking[6] on 4 August 2008, which give subscriber to control which call he or she receive or not [7] and Bengali SMS. Robi has got the widest International Roaming coverage among all the operators in Bangladesh.

Robi Corporate Office in Gulshan houses the Robi headquarters

Silver Tower

[edit] Customer care

Robi has 20 Customer Care Centers[8] and 430 Robi Care Points in 64 districts all over the country[9]. Robi has over 25,000 retail selling points along with 100,000 voucher sales point all over Bangladesh.

[edit] CSR
Robi has been offering scholarships to three Bangladeshi students every year for bachelor courses in engineering, information technology and business administration since 1998 to study at Multimedia University in Malaysia. It is the founding member of Chittagong Skills Development Center (CSDC) that is offering technical training and business management education through its strategic partnership with Penang Skill Development Center (PSDC) of Malaysia and its internal members. In 2007 Robi received Standard Chartered-Financial Express Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Award 2006 for their significant contributions to CSR and philanthropic activities.

[edit] Awards/ Achievements

1. Robi has been conferred the prestigious Frost & Sullivan Asia Pacific ICT Award 2010 for "Emerging Market Service Provider of the Year". 2. Awarded the prestigious fund grant from GSMA MMU (Mobile Money for the Unbanked) in 2009. 3. Crossing 10 million subscribers mark in 2009. 4. Ranked within top 6 global comparable telcos in A.T. Kearney benchmarking exercise in 2009. 5. Cost optimization project saved 2 times of what was projected. 6. Bangladesh Mobile Phone Businessmen Association (BMBA) Award 2008-2009 as the best service provider in Bangladesh 7. The Weekly Financial Mirror Samsung Mobile & Robintex Business Award 2008-2009 as the best Telecommunication company. 8. TeleLink Telecommunication Award 2007 TeleLink Telecommunication Award 2007" for its excellence in service, corporate social responsibilities and dealership management for the year 2006 in commemoration of WORLD Telecommunication Day 2007. 9. Arthakantha Business Award Given by the national fortnightly business magazine of Bangladesh for its excellence in service in telecom sector. 10. Financial Mirror Businessmen Award Given by the national weekly Tabloid business magazine. 11. Deshbandhu C. R. Das Gold Medal For contribution to telecom sector in Bangladesh. 12. Beatification Award for exceptional contribution to the Dhaka Metropolitan city from Prime Minister Office on 13th SAARC Summit. 13. Standard Chartered - Financial Express Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Awards 2006 For contribution in Education, Primary Health, poverty alleviation and ecological impact. 14. Arthokontho Business Award 2006 For better telecom service provider in Bangladesh. 15. Financial Mirror & Robintex Business award 2006 For its excellence in service, corporate social responsibilities activities throughout Bangladesh. 16. Desher Kagoj Business Award 2006 For Corporate Social Responsibilities activities. 17. TeleLink Telecommunication Award 2005 for its excellence in service for the year 2005.

Where am I? Personal Employment and Personal Development

Motivation in the Workplace

Last Updated July 21, 2010

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Many business managers today are not aware of the effects that motivation can (and does) have on their business, and it is therefore important they learn and understand the factors that determine positive motivation in the workplace. The size of your business is irrelevant: whether you are trying to get the best out of fifty of your staff or just one, everyone needs some form of motivation. Motivation is something that is approached differently by different businesses and the responsibility of its integration lies with all immediate supervisors of staff. However, it is the business owner who must initiate motivation as a strategy to attain corporate goals. The aim of this article is to help you (as a manager) to understand the importance and effects of motivation by identifying key factors that determine the rate of motivation in your employees. These factors are linked directly to their individual needs, behaviour and attitudes as you will find out from the following content.

What is Motivation?
Motivation is the force that makes us do things: this is a result of our individual needs being satisfied (or met) so that we have inspiration to complete the task. These needs vary from person to person as everybody has their individual needs to motivate themselves. Depending on how motivated we are, it may further determine the effort we put into our work and therefore increase the standard of the output. When we suggest factors (or needs) that determine the motivation of employees in the workplace, almost everyone would immediately think of a high salary. This answer is correct for the reason that some employees will be motivated by money, but mostly wrong for the reason that it does not satisfy others (to a lasting degree). This supports the statement that human motivation is a personal characteristic, and not a one fits all option.

The Importance of Motivation

Motivation can have an effect on the output of your business and concerns both quantity and quality. See it this way: your business relies heavily on the efficiency of your production staff to make sure that products are manufactured in numbers that meet demand for the week. If these employees lack the motivation to produce completed products to meet the demand, then you face a problem leading to disastrous consequences. The number of scenarios is extreme but you get the general picture.

Your employees are your greatest asset and no matter how efficient your technology and equipment may be, it is no match for the effectiveness and efficiency of your staff.

Motivational Theory: Herzbergs Two Factor Theory

Motivation has been studied for many years stretching beyond the 19th century. As a result, a number of theorists have compiled their own conclusions and consequently a wide variety of motivational theory has been produced. Without going into the fine details and depth of all the motivational theory, we will use Fredrick Herzbergs (1966) research to outline the main issues concerning motivation. In 1966, Herzberg interviewed a number of people in different professions at different levels to find out two things:

Those factors that motivated them in the workplace

These were identified as factors that gave employees an incentive to work resulting in job satisfaction. They are also referred to as motivators. These motivators increased the job satisfaction of the employee and further increased their efficiency.

Those factors that prevented job dissatisfaction

These were identified as factors that prevented job dissatisfaction. These did not make the employees happy (or have job satisfaction): it just removed the unhappiness out of working. They are also referred to as hygiene factors. Such hygiene factors, if not satisfied, had an effect of reduced employee efficiency. Herzberg believed that all factors fell into one of these categories and therefore had separate consequences. His research concluded that some factors fell into both categories although they held a stronger position in one of them. See the diagram below for examples of the factors that he determined for each category.

By looking at the diagram, it shows that a sense for achievement, recognition of their effort, the nature of the work itself, and the desire for responsibility are all strong factors for motivation. At the bottom of the diagram, the way the business is run, how they are supervised, the work conditions and their pay, are all factors that can lead to job dissatisfaction if not met to the standards of the employee. The size (or width) of the bars that represent each factor compensate for the level at which it is a concern. For example, from the diagram, the way the business is run is a higher dissatisfaction cause (if it is run badly) then the concern of bad working conditions. You may look at pay and think that this bar should be a lot wider on the job dissatisfaction side, but most people would not take the job in the first place if they considered the pay as totally unacceptable. Take another example: the employee does not see the lack of personal responsibility as a major job dissatisfaction, but when people do seek responsibility, it is a huge motivational factor for them: hence the long extension of the bar more on the motivation side of the diagram. You will further notice that those factors encouraging motivation (job satisfaction) have little connection with money and are more associated with personal development and achievement. Hygiene factors concern more the employees personal attitudes towards the context of their job and involve money in most cases to provide a solution to the issue. You may also have noticed that two bars on the diagram (achievement and pay) are shaped differently. This is to illustrate that, for Achievement, it is something that is only acquired for a short term and is therefore an ongoing need that is searched for over and over again. In other words: one week you may achieve, say, a good personal sales figure, and the following week your standard drops to a disappointing level in which you seek to

achieve this figure yet again. The Pay factor (salary) also has a similar concern: you may increase an employees salary that removes job dissatisfaction at first, but in time (can be as low as days) the employee will increase their personal spending to what they are earning and will eventually, again, become dissatisfied. In such a case, it may be for your benefit that you offer an additional incentive to keep the employee further satisfied to prevent this on-going cycle from occurring.


by Steve Falkenberg Department of Psychology Eastern Kentucky University Richmond, KY 40475 There are two factors which operate to determine if an employee will be a "problem" employee or if they will be a "motivated" employee. One of these factors has to do with meeting needs and achieving goals--Getting that BMW, swimming pool, etc. The other factor has to do with how meaningful the work is and whether the person feels they are appreciated for what they do.

People have certain needs and goals. In order to attain their goals and meet their needs they will enter into agreements to do work and provide services in exchange for the things they need and want. One key to making these agreements satisfactory is fairness. Before entering into the agreement the person wants to know that he/she will be treated fairly.

The individuals concern with salary, benefits, perks, etc. is a part of the concern about a fair agreement. The salary and benefits do not serve as motivators. The workers motivation doesn't depend on the salary. The workers view is that she/he is entitled to the salary and benefits. It is an entitlement, not an incentive. If the agreement is perceived as unfair, the worker will be dissatisfied and poor morale will result. But if the agreement is fair, it will play little role in determining whether she/he is a motivated/satisfied employee.

Poor morale can result from the workers perception that she/he will is being treated unfairly by the organization or that he/she is being deprived of something to which she/he is entitled as part of what they thought was a fair agreement.

This can result from real unfairness--the organization welshes on a deal, goes back on a contract, etc. Can result from failures in communication when the two parties have different understandings of an agreement.

This can be fixed by:

organizational integrity improved communication


Even when the agreement is fair and understood it takes something more to motivate the worker-- to keep the worker interested and committed to perform. It is quite common for someone to be getting an excellent salary and benefits, to not have to work too hard, and to hate every minute of their job. Some of these individuals quit that job and take one with lower salary and worse benefits because it is motivating to them. Kiersy says that what motivates people is appreciation (Kiersy and Bates, 1978). A motivated employee is one that feels appreciated. Most people will spend a lot of time (after work and on weekends) working for no pay, and often working a lot harder than they do at their job, to do something that will be appreciated. Morale problems can result if the employee does not feel appreciated.

This can happen if manager fails to communicate appreciation to the employee. The manager must convince the workers that their skills and knowledge are valued. This can happen if the worker feels that management does not care about their input.

The easiest way to deal with this type of problem is to increase the participation of the workers in management decisions and to increase communication.


Lack of appreciation/value cannot be compensated for by incentives.

If you give an incentive to an employee who doesn't feel appreciated she/he will label you a fool and take your money and curse you behind your back. A merit increment given to this employee will not result in increased productivity. In fact it may result in increased alienation. And you certainly can't compensate for lack of appreciation by withholding incentives. When you reduce or withhold the merit increment for an employee who doesn't feel appreciated you simply confirm that she/he is not appreciated. Withholding the incentive will increase the alienation of the employee and more than likely lead to reduced productivity. If an employee feels appreciated already, then a bonus or incentive increment is an ideal way to prove to that employee that she/he is appreciated. It is putting your money where your mouth is. And then the employee will work even harder to achieve the objectives of the organization. But it is not the incentive that produces the increased productivity. If the incentive works to improve the employee's performance, it is because it confirms her/his feelings of being appreciated--a valued member of the organization.

Reference Keirsey, D. and Bates, M (1978) Please Understand Me: Character and temperament types.Prometheus Nemesis Books, Delmar CA. (Third Edition) Send comments to: Steve Falkenberg Copyright 1997 Steve Falkenberg