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Polymer of D-galacturonic acid, pectin. Shown here in powder form.

Pectin (from Greek πηκτικός - pektikos, "congealed, curdled"[1]) is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls ofterrestrial plants. It was first isolated and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot.[2] It is produced commercially as a white to light brown powder, mainly extracted from citrus fruits, and is used in food as a gelling agent particularly in jams and jellies. It is also used in fillings, medicines, sweets, as a stabilizer in fruit juices and milk drinks and as a source of dietary fiber.

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1 Biology 2 Chemistry 3 Sources and production 4 Uses 5 Legal status 6 History 7 See also 8 References

[citation needed] [edit]Chemistry Homogalacturonans are linear chains of α-(1-4)-linked D-galacturonic acid.[4][5] Rhamnogalacturonan I pectins (RG-I) contain a backbone of the repeating disaccharide: 4)-α-Dgalacturonic acid-(1.[5] . pectin is broken down by the enzymes pectinaseand pectinesterase. microorganisms degrade pectin and liberate short-chain fatty acids that have positive influence on health (prebiotic effect).[7] Rhamnogalacturonan II is classified by some authors within the group of substituted galacturonans since the rhamnogalacturonan II backbone is made exclusively of D-galacturonic acid units. The mechanism appears to be an increase of viscosity in the intestinal tract. Pectin is thus a soluble dietary fiber. pectin consists of a complex set of polysaccharides (see below) that are present in most primary cell walls and particularly abundant in the non-woody parts of terrestrial plants.[4][5][6] Another structural type of pectin is rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II).[4] Substituted galacturonans are characterized by the presence of saccharide appendant residues (such as D-xylose or D-apiose in the respective cases of xylogalacturonan and apiogalacturonan) branching from a backbone of D-galacturonic acid residues. Pectin is a natural part of human diet. the types and proportions of neutral sugars varying with the origin of pectin. Pectin is present not only throughout primary cell walls but also in the middle lamella between plant cells where it helps to bind cells together. structure and chemical composition of pectin differs among plants. The daily intake of pectin from fruits and vegetables can be estimated to be around 5 g (assuming consumption of approximately 500 g fruits and vegetables per day). which is a less frequent complex. L-arabinose and D-xylose. The amount. Consumption of pectin has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol levels. highly branched polysaccharide.2)-α-L-rhamnose-(1. but does not contribute significantly to nutrition.[3] In the large intestine and colon. The neutral sugars are mainly D-galactose. leading to a reduced absorption of cholesterol from bile or food. From many of the rhamnose residues.• 9 External links [edit]Biology In plant cells. During ripening. in which process the fruit becomes softer as the middle lamellae break down and cells become separated from each other. pectin goes through the small intestine more or less intact. In human digestion. A similar process of cell separation caused by the breakdown of pectin occurs in the abscission zone of the petioles of deciduous plants at leaf fall. sidechains of various neutral sugars branch off. within a plant over time and in various parts of a plant.

or for higher sugar confectionery jellies.Isolated pectin has a molecular weight of typically 60–130. In high-ester pectins at soluble solids content above 60% and a pH-value between 2. lower pH-values or higher soluble solids (normally sugars) increase gelling speed.8 and 3. The non-esterified galacturonic acid units can be either free acids (carboxyl groups) or salts with sodium. but can do so at lower soluble solids and higher pH-values than high-ester pectins. a gel starts to form. whereas conventional pectin-gels will afterwards remain liquid. ionic bridges are formed between calcium ions and the ionised carboxyl groups of the galacturonic acid. some of the galacturonic acid is converted with ammonia to carboxylic acid amide. gels from amidated pectin are thermo-reversible – they can be heated and after cooling solidify again. with more or less than half of all the galacturonic acid esterified. syneresis or a granular texture are the result. This is idealised in the so-called “egg box-model”. The salts of partially esterified pectins are called pectinates. pectic acid. However. In nature. whilst weak gelling leads to excessively soft gels. if the degree of esterification is below 5% the salts are called pectates. Some plants such as sugar beet.[8] To prepare a pectin-gel. If gel formation is too strong. High-ester pectins set at higher temperatures than low-ester pectins. Here. Low-ester pectins need calcium to form a gel. around 80% of carboxyl groups of galacturonic acid are esterified with methanol. Acetylation prevents gel-formation but increases the stabilising and emulsifying effects of pectin. These bonds form as water is bound by sugar and forces pectin strands to stick together. Upon cooling below gelling temperature. Similarly. [edit]Sources and production . varying with origin and extraction conditions. Also. dissolving the pectin. the ingredients are heated. The ratio of esterified to non-esterified galacturonic acid determines the behavior of pectin in food applications. This is why pectins are classified as high. These pectins are more tolerant of varying calcium concentrations that occur in use. gelling reactions with calcium increase as the degree of esterification falls. In low-ester pectins. low-ester pectins – or in short HM vs. Suitable pectins can therefore be selected for jams and for jellies. potatoes and pears contain pectins with acetylated galacturonic acid in addition to methyl esters. Amidated pectins behave like low-ester pectins but need less calcium and are more tolerant of excess calcium. The gelling-mechanism is called a low-water-activity gel or sugar-acid-pectin gel. This proportion is decreased to a varying degree during pectin extraction. hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions bind the individual pectin chains together. potassium or calcium. LM-pectins.000 g/mol.vs. Amidated pectin is a modified form of pectin. the insoluble acid form. These form a 3-dimensional molecular net that creates the macromolecular gel.6.

contain large amounts of pectin. For conventional jams and marmalades that contain above 60% sugar and soluble fruit solids.5–3. When this process includes ammonium hydroxide. After filtering. thickening agent and stabilizer in food. grapes and strawberries contain small amounts of pectin.5 – 3. During several hours of extraction. gooseberries. amidated pectins are obtained. pectin is also available as a solution or an extract. 30%      The main raw-materials for pectin production are dried citrus peel or apple pomace.0% . 1.5 – 1. From these materials. 0.this is about the same amount of pectin as in fresh fruit. washed and dried. for home jam making.000 metric tons of pectin are produced every year.4% oranges. Treating the initial pectin with dilute acid leads to low-esterified pectins. An old technique of precipitating pectin with aluminium salts is no longer used (apart from alcohols and polyvalent cations. Pectin can also be used to stabilize acidic protein drinks. Typical levels of pectin in plants are (fresh weight):  apples.4% citrus peels. the extract is concentrated in vacuum and the pectin then precipitated by adding ethanol or isopropanol. so that diet products can be made. . 1–1.[citation needed] [edit]Uses The main use for pectin (vegetable agglutinate) is as a gelling agent. pectin also precipitates with proteins and detergents). pectin is an ingredient in gelling sugar (also known as "jam sugar") where it is diluted to the right concentration with sugar and some citric acid to adjust pH. approximately 40. With low-ester pectins and amidated pectins less sugar is needed. After drying and milling. such as drinking yogurt.5% apricot. In some countries. or as a blended powder. which would otherwise be sweet juices. Alcohol-precipitated pectin is then separated. The classical application is giving the jelly-like consistency to jams or marmalades. plums. pectin is usually standardised with sugar and sometimes calcium-salts or organic acids to have optimum performance in a particular application. the protopectin loses some of its branching and chain-length and goes into solution. 1% cherries. 0. For household use. both by-products of juice production. oranges and other citrus fruits. Pomace from sugar-beet is also used to a small extent. guavas. while soft fruits like cherries.5. quince. Typical levels of pectin used as a food additive are between 0.[9] Worldwide. and as a fat substitute in baked goods.5% carrots approx. pectin is extracted by adding hot dilute acid at pH-values from 1. high-ester pectins are used.Apples.

no numerical acceptable daily intake (ADI) has been set. pectins are differentiated into the E numbers E440(i) for non-amidated pectins and E440 (ii) for amidated pectins. pectin is GRAS – generally recognized as safe. pectin has the number 440. Pectin is also used in wound healing preparations and specialty medical adhesives.[11] In the US. In cosmetic products. though the action of pectin to make jams and marmalades was known long before.In medicine. pectin-rich fruits or their extracts were mixed into the recipe. The authors report on the positive results of using pectin food additive preparations in a number of clinical studies conducted on children in severely polluted areas. . with up to 50% improvement over control groups. pectin increases viscosity and volume of stool so that it is used against constipation and diarrhea. it is considered a natural remedy for nausea.. [edit]History Pectin was first isolated and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot. Pectin is also used in throat lozenges as a demulcent. pectin acts as stabilizer. writing about the aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. In most foods it can be used according to good manufacturing practices in the levels needed for its application.[citation needed] Yablokov et al. Pectin rich foods are proven to help nausea. along with kaolinite. To obtain well set jams from fruits that had little or only poor quality pectin. depending on the extent of lignification of the cell wall. pectin is considered an excellent substitute for vegetable glue and many cigar smokers and collectors will use pectin for repairing damaged tobacco wrapper leaves on their cigars. quote research conducted by the Ukrainian Center of Radiation Medicine and the Belarussian Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology with the conclusion that "adding pectin preparations to the food of inhabitants of the Chernobyl-contaminated regions promotes an effective excretion of incorporated radionuclides". Ruminant nutritionists recommend that the digestibility and energy concentration in forages can be improved by increasing pectin concentration in the forage. "quantum satis". During the industrialization. Also. such ascolostomy devices. There are specifications in all national and international legislation defining its quality and regulating its use. as pectin is considered safe. the makers of fruit preserves soon turned to producers of apple juice to obtain dried apple pomace that was cooked to extract pectin. In the cigar industry. [10] In ruminant nutrition. pectin is up to 90% digestible by bacterial enzymes. it was one of the main ingredients used in Kaopectate. Until 2002. [edit]Legal status At the FAO/WHO joint Expert Committee on Food Additives and in the EU. Pectin is also used in jellybeans. In Europe. In the International Numbering System (INS).

in the 1920s and 1930s. Food Chemistry. Grosch. 8. ^ Yablokov. but nowadays pectin is often used as dried powder that is easier to store and handle than a liquid.[12] [edit]See also Food portal   [edit]References Gelling agent Jam 1. Berlin.13 June 2007 [edit]External links . Chemistry of Pectin and its Pharmaceutical Uses: A Review 4. 187-190 3. R. At first. 6. W. L. "A Greek-English Lexicon". ^ a b c "Galacturonans".ccrc. ^ International Pectin Producers Association .ccrc. New York Academy of Sciences. Chernobyl Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment.uga. Mai 2006 10.-D. Alexey V. P. pectin was sold as a liquid extract. MD USA: American Society of Plant Biologists.. Keppler. Frank et al.. Complex Carbohydrate Research Centre. B. Rockville. US. RÖMPP Lexikon Lebensmittelchemie. ^ Braconnot. 304-309 11. (2000).edu ^ H. Retrieved 2010-07-23. University of Georgia. factories were built that commercially extracted pectin from dried apple pomace and later citrus-peel in regions that produced apple juice in both the USA and in Europe. Robert Scott.uga. Schreier. ^ RG-I on www. Eisenbrand. P. ISBN 0943088372. Schieberle. 5. ^ a b c Buchanan. Gruissem.Later. Jones. Thieme. April 2004 9. 7. Nature 439. Springer. Belitz. pp. ^ JECFA 12. ^ Pornsak Sriamornsak. ^ rhamnogalacturonan II on www. Henry George Liddell. Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions. ^ G. Henri. W. ^ Pektikos. at Perseus 2. Stuttgart. B. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants.

Note: The link points to a "consleg"-version of the directive.  View page ratings Certo Health: Information on reported health benefits of apple pectin. further link to the JECFA (…) specification of pectin. A list of permitted uses of pectin.  European parliament and council directive No 95/2/EC of 20 February 1995 on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. pectin may be used in. Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) Submit ratings Categories: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Log in / create account Polysaccharides Food additives Food science Cell biology Edible thickening agents Greek loanwords Demulcents Article Discussion Read Edit View history Top of Form .  Pectin chemical structure Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) Online Database. (UK). that may not include the very latest changes. The Directive will be replaced by a new Regulation for food additives in the next few years. EU-Directive that lists the foods.

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