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INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

AUGUST 2011
VOL 3, NO 4

THE EFFECT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON JOB SATISFACTION: A CASE STUDY OF FACULTY MEMBERS
UZMA RASHID CECOS UNIVERSITY Of IT AND EMERGING SCIENCES, PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN SADIA RASHID FACULTY OF FEDERAL URDU UNIVERSITY OF ARTS, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN

Abstract Satisfaction has been extensively studied in the management literature due to its importance to the physical and mental well-being of the employee, therefore it is a topic of major concern for many researchers and is an important organizational variable that should be understood and constantly analyzed for the efficient working of any organization. As teaching require a great deal of diligence and commitment, so in teaching it is more important to have mental commitment and loyalty than only physical presence. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical evidence as to the job satisfaction levels of academic faculty in Pakistan and to determine as to whether job enrichment factors are reliable predictors of their job satisfaction. The study concluded with the fact that faculty members overall job satisfaction increases through enriching their jobs. Further, it has been found that responsibility and achievement contributes more to the satisfaction level of faculty. Whereas, career development was found to be insignificantly contributing to the job satisfaction of teaching staff. Suggestions for university management and authorities are also discussed. Key words: Job satisfaction, job enrichment, career development, achievement, responsibility. 1. INTRODUCTION Job satisfaction is the most investigated topic in the fields of industrial-organizational psychology, social psychology, organizational behavior, personnel and human resource management, and organizational management (Gruneberg, 1979; Cranny, Smith, & Stone, 1992). Job satisfaction is of wide significance to researchers as it affects most organizational members, since most people spend a considerable part of their lives at work. An understanding of the factors involved in job satisfaction is crucial to improving the happiness of workers at workplace (Okpara et al., 2005). Research shows that happy employees are productive while unhappy ones are not therefore; success of the organization depends on the satisfaction of their workforce (Lise & Judge, 2004).

Nowadays educational institutions have to work harder to fulfill the gradually increasing expectations, of themselves, and also of their faculty (Bilge, 2006). However, in recent years, a clear increase has been observed in the number of studies related to the job satisfaction and concerned variables of academic faculty which enhances their job

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career development) and job satisfaction of employees and to make necessary recommendations to the management about factors affecting faculty’s satisfaction. and so on)" (p.Needs. It is an established fact that an employee with a high level of job satisfaction has a positive attitude towards the job. Job enrichment or ‘vertical job loading’ is where individuals can gain more on-job responsibility. development chances. Therefore. p. 2001). 2006). achievement. When people speak of employee attitude. Job satisfaction is imperative to employees. In simple words. 1994. and the different enrichment factors i. Job enrichment is one of the approaches through which jobs can be improvised and making them more appealing and satisfying to employees. Firstly. Job enrichment makes job more interesting and helps employees gain control over their work. and career development. responsibility. Job satisfaction is in regard to one’s feelings or state of mind regarding to the environment of the work (Shamima Tasnim. After analyzing the published works.ijcrb.e. job satisfaction is significant for all those who are interested in the subjective evaluation of working conditions of organizations such as responsibility. Responsibility. 1). Spector (1997) defines job satisfaction as “It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs” (p. the present analysis considers the job satisfaction of academic staff.. values and expectations of the workers are determinants of job satisfaction including job characteristics and its context. Secondly. or lack of leadership (Dormann & Zapf. 2). communication necessities. job satisfaction is important because it is related to consequential variables such as absenteeism. self-sufficiency and appropriate management of the tasks they perform (Riches. Job satisfaction in organizations can be of interest for two main reasons. emotional) reaction to a job that results from the incumbent’s comparison of actual outcomes with those that are desired (expected.240). counterproductive behavior. they generally are referring to job satisfaction (Robbins & Coulter. deserved. COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 107 . Spector (1997) further explained that some people find job as the vital part of their lives and therefore enjoy working and some people do jobs to meet their financial needs only and do not like their work. Weiss and Cropanzano (1996) used emotion as a basis in defining job satisfaction as an emotional experience at work . For any company or institution job satisfaction of total workforce is of utmost importance and with a group of satisfied workers organizations can successfully implement their plan and achieve set goals. which effect their job satisfaction. NO 4 satisfaction. career progression because job satisfaction is strongly caused by such conditions. employers and researchers who study organizations. while an employee who is dissatisfied with the job has a negative attitude.e. Cranny et al. Achievement. inefficiency. the aim of this study is to determine the relationship between job enrichment variables (i. 2004). as it allows investigators and employers to properly analyze the different aspects of job satisfaction in the organization and develop ways to improve those aspects. task variety.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS AUGUST 2011 VOL 3. In this paper an attempt is made to explore. achievement. how employee’s job enrichment leads to employee’s job satisfaction Therefore. it is the degree to which one feels good about their job they perform.webs. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Literature has many definitions of job satisfaction. (1992) concluded that: "there appears to be general agreement that job satisfaction is an affective (that is. achievement.

So far. or the pleasure one derives from working with other people. Based on the previous studies and literature. they want compatible salaries with their skills and COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 108 . enriched jobs provide a maximum amount of internal satisfaction to employees. company goals could only be best accomplished by providing opportunities for employees to achieve their personal goals. Wright & Kim. and earned recognition motivate employees to work effectively. Job enrichment is said to be a qualitative change to a job that increases the degree of autonomy.ijcrb.webs. that is. growth. distinction. advancement. Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience great motivation and satisfaction at work place (Witt and Nye. 2001) and achievements on job and the internalexternal feedback one receives for his or her performance (Hackman & Lawler. Most research relating to job satisfaction has been done in the business sector and attempts have been made to adapt these findings to higher educational sector and little empirical data is available on job satisfaction of academic institution in general(Okpara. and importance of the job. 1997). that. McCroskey. University settings have not received so much attention because generally it is presumed that university faculty embarks high level of job satisfaction (Pearson & Seiler. job enrichment (Herzberg. responsibility. working environment (Barnowe 1972). Certainly. and reputed social status. Myers (1964) stated that challenging job which allows a feeling of achievement. and enriching because most people continue to work even if their monetary needs are met.Employees look for fair pay structure and promotion/advancement policies and practices in an organization. enjoyment of work itself. 1964). achievement. 84). all have some effect on job satisfaction of employees. responsibility that enhance their personal interests and allow autonomy in task selection and decision-making. 2004. Oldham and Hackman (1980) proposed that jobs that are enriched would lead to high intrinsic motivation. they want a feeling of achievement. when responsibility and roles of an employee are increased in the job. they provide autonomy and freedom to employees as how to plan the work and determine the procedures to be used in carrying out that work. 1992). that. enabling workers to have greater control and feedback in their work environment (Hackman &Oldham. the causal agents of such satisfaction are far less so. Ting. and is positively related with job satisfaction (Ellickson. 1976). & Falchion. more responsibilities. 1966). Landy (1989) was of view. variables such as opportunity to participate in decision making (Daly. as for most people work satisfies their various needs. career development (Nel et al. feedback from supervisors. Employees in an organization become dissatisfied when opportunities for meaningful achievements are eliminated from the job. feedback. In her study Darboe (2003) concluded that a job is not only life supporting by life-enhancing. Oldham and Hackman (1980) was of view. 2005). 2002. prestige and advancement opportunities. 1971). they want clarity as to what is expected of them and collegial working environment. such as a need for individual recognition. Also. 1983).com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS AUGUST 2011 VOL 3. Houston (2000) predicted that private organization employees give more importance to job stature. Also Herzberg (1966) proposed that an opportunity for advancement is a key motivator. Findings indicate that educational faculty want work tasks. Promotion and career development opportunities provide prospect for personal growth. 1976) job enlargement (Argyris. NO 4 While the dimensions of job satisfaction of individuals appear fairly clear. Squillace & Erondu. (p.

Hill (1986) used Herzberg’s two-factor theory for explaining faculty job satisfaction. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Having discussed the literature on job enrichment and job satisfaction. the principal sources of satisfaction should be things intrinsic to the work such as teaching responsibilities. recognition and advancement only. it is necessary to explore the different enrichment variables that will reflect workers attitudes towards their job.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS AUGUST 2011 VOL 3. their decisions are exclusively influenced by seeking opportunities for professional growth through compatible. 2002. 2002). Yang.While “Hygiene (or extrinsic factors)” create dissatisfaction in employees. Bergmann. work conditions. 2006). “Motivators or intrinsic factors” are taken into consideration. 1982). & Grahn (1994) found that properly designed COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 109 . status. challenging and more responsible work activities Rice and Austin (1988) suggest that faculty development programs are contributing factor to increase the satisfaction and morale of faculty members. According to Finkelstein (1984) when faculty change jobs they don’t look for compensation package (income). Satisfaction gained by the faculty from the work and working environment promotes teaching and research quality (Chen. Our aim is to measure the satisfaction of employees. motivators create satisfaction while hygiene factors create dissatisfaction (Herzberg. 1989). recognition for a good work done and feedback (Schultz. CoyleShapiro. the person’s sense of achievement. Evidence in this area from developing or less developed nations is unfortunately seriously lacking and is a gap which needs to be filled. NO 4 qualification. advancement and possibility of growth) of their job and least satisfied with the context (company policy. Shiau & Wang. salary. the vast majority of research conducted in the field of job satisfaction and factors causing it have been conducted in developed countries. Hill argued that. recognition. Herzberg in its TwoFactor Theory categorizes motivation into two factors: motivators and hygiene. hence. Additionally. responsibility. relationship with supervisors. In doing so the study will give insight into which enriched facets of the job results in satisfaction of the academic faculty. personal life. Low job satisfaction and dissatisfaction act as barriers to the full utilization of abilities and goal achievement. responsibility. Schmidt (1976) in his study suggested that university members relate job satisfaction to achievement. An important factor to create job satisfaction is advancement opportunity for employees in the academics. The theory considered in this research is Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Two-Factor Theory). 1968). and especially the nature of the work and the development opportunities provided. and want promotions to be awarded fairly (Kelly. Career developments are the opportunities for promotion and development within the organization or field of work. Bergmann. scholarly achievements and creativity. (Conway & Briner.webs. personal development and growth. work itself. supervision. “Motivators (or Intrinsic Factors)” are job-related factors that encourage development and motivate employees to the highest level of satisfaction and are an integral part of the work and include aspects such as the nature of the job. 3. job security) in which their job was performed. To understand these attitudes researchers have produced comprehensive theories on job satisfaction to provide a framework for understanding the factors influencing job satisfaction.ijcrb. relationship with peers. Castillo and Cano (2004) deducted that faculty members were most satisfied with the content (achievement.

1977). Mausner.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS AUGUST 2011 VOL 3. It is found that high job satisfaction is experienced.. as well as intrinsically rewarding.webs. NO 4 employee benefit packages and opportunity for progression is another variable found to be an important factor of job satisfaction. 1959) focused largely on causes of work satisfaction and. Responsibility given to employees makes them feel acknowledged which brings internal satisfaction to workers leading to increased organizational efficiency. On the basis of given literature the following hypothesis is developed Hypothesis 3: Achievement is positively related to job satisfaction. The human relations school has accumulated the evidence that career stagnancy and dull task environment alienate employees (Shepard. Herzberg and colleagues (Herzberg. In an organization tasks and activities that generate the sense of achievement are taken into consideration by the employees. In this research each dimension of job enrichment is separately dealing with job satisfaction such that job enrichment dimensions are taken as independent variables and job satisfaction as a dependent variable. growth. when an employee is engaged in a variety of activities that challenges his/her skills and abilities (Ellis & Bernhardt 1992:180. Intrinsic factors such as responsibility. the relationship between job enrichment factors and job satisfaction has been examined and how these effect job satisfaction of academic faculty. & Snyderman. Therefore. When employees perceive their jobs to be exigent and fascinating. After studying the literature on job satisfaction and career development the following hypothesis has been developed. because in this research. more than simply making a good salary (Nel et al. mainly on ways in which the job could be designed to make the work itself enriching and challenging. the following hypothesis has been developed Hypothesis2: Responsibility positively influences job satisfaction. they are more likely to experience higher levels of job satisfaction.ijcrb. recognition and opportunities motivate employees to high levels of performance and job satisfaction. 2001). Career Development Responsibility Job Satisfaction Achievement Figure 1: A Schematic model COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 110 . Steers & Porter 1991:426). Studies have revealed that employees with a high need for achievement will set higher goals than will those with lower achievement needs. The current study is different from the previous ones. Hypothesis1: There is positive relation between career development and job satisfaction. Khojasteh (1993) found that employees are more concerned with achievement in their workplace.

out of which 175 were returned. The Third section of the questionnaire consisted of questions pertaining to the demographic characteristics of the academic staff. The first section is about dependent variable job satisfaction. Parasuraman & Wormely. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the demographic data of respondents. publications.2 Sample A cross-sectional analysis is conducted utilizing Likert Type scale to analyze the effect of factors (career development. career development.0.webs. 1993. 4. Aryee. RESULTS AND FINDINDS 5. that is. NO 4 4.1 Sources of Data Primary and secondary data have been used for the purpose of this study. 4. developed by Hackman and Oldham and contains four-items measuring responsibility. Achievement contains five-items adopted from Growth Satisfaction of Greenhaus. Since it is the case of measure of association and there is one dependent and three independent variables so multiple regression is used as a statistical test.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS 4. Secondary data were collected from available books. Six-item has been used to measure overall job satisfaction adopted from Agho et al. and responsibility. The greatest percentage of respondents. Data was coded and analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).4 Statistical Techniques Used Data is collected in a period of one month. A convenient sampling technique was used for data collection. including academic institutions. The second section is about independent variables of job enrichment.4% were female and just slightly over half the respondents 52. 1999.3% were in the age range of COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 111 . Responsibility has been adopted from Job Diagnostic Survey. past recent literature. Primary data is collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Fields & Luk. responsibility) of job enrichment on job satisfaction. Pakistan. journals. 4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents Of the 175 respondents 47. and articles on job satisfaction of individuals of different professions. Career development contains 4 items adopted from Development experiences of Wayne. achievement. 1997.6% were male. achievement. Faculty members of different ranks of different universities were requested to fill the questionnaire.3 Measures The overall questionnaire consists of three sections and Likert Type scale has been used ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) to measure the dependent and Independent variables. The scope of the study only covers Academic Faculty (Teaching Staff) of Universities at Peshawar & Hazara Division. 58. METHODOLOGY AUGUST 2011 VOL 3. Also correlation test was applied to find out the relationship between stated variables.ijcrb. 1990. A total of 200 Survey questionnaires were distributed among the faculty members of the different universities. 5. Shore & Liden. that is. version 18.

4 Hypotheses Testing Hypothesis 1: The beta value shows that 1 unit increase in the value factor career development would increase 0. r =0. p>0. Of the 175 respondents. 14. 2. 5. and test variable job satisfaction.9% in this study. career development.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS AUGUST 2011 VOL 3.0% were lecturers. The value of F-statistic is 26. other variables being held constant. 9. generally considered acceptable for a reliable measurement tool in social sciences.webs. 13. 26.4% of the respondents have Post Doctorate Degree. and responsibility) explains 31. Private Sector University recipients were 36. where r =0. amongst the independent variables makes the strongest unique contribution to explaining the job satisfaction with p< 0. job enrichment factors (achievement.537.2 Reliability Questionnaire reliability was estimated by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. Career Development shows statistically insignificant contribution in explaining the job satisfaction with p>0.7% were assistant professors. thus we can assume that there is a linear relationship between the variables in our model. 14. achievement. that is.1% are PhD and 3. 5. Graduates are 10. the highest percentage of experience. 80. 5. that is.3% of recipients have experience between 6-10 years. the null hypothesis is accepted and research hypothesis is rejected. career development and responsibility will explain the variance in job satisfaction amongst faculty members.7% are post graduate.3% were associate professors.7% were professors and 2.8% of the variance in the job satisfaction. it is concluded that our model is highly significant.9% are MS/M. and the remaining 4% were in the age range of 51 and onwards.068 units (6.4% were from Public Sector University.Phil. While t-statistics of Career Development also account for insignificant positive variation in dependent variable. responsibility achievement.416 units (41. which suggests a strong positive item-homogeneity in this measurement instrument 5. Hypothesis 2: The beta value shows that 1 unit increase in the value factor responsibility would increase 0. 57. that.05.318.1) Table 3 presents the correlation between job enrichment factors career development. Responsibility. other variables being held constant. 11.374. r = 0.ijcrb. Responsibility accounts for significant positive variation in job COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 112 .05.05).6% and 63.4% were 41-50 years old. Of the given sample 20.407 respectively.1% of respondents have experience between 11-15 years. the F-statistic assesses the overall significance of our model.05.6%) in job satisfaction. Reliability for the overall instrument was 0 .3% is between 1-5 years.868.3 Regression and Correlation The multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the extent to which the job enrichment factors. Job Satisfaction (t = 0. expressed as a percentage this means that our hypothesized model. that is.3% were in the age range of 31-40. The Multiple Linear Regression Model with three explanatory variables have R² value of 0. 5.778. NO 4 20-30. (see table 2) Resultantly.7% have more than 16 years of experience. Furthermore. The tstatistics shows.528 with p<0. Therefore. 54.6% of the recipients have a job experience of less than 1 year. that is. and 5.3% were research assistants. (see table.8%) in job satisfaction.

The reason could be that no proper environment is provided to the employees with regards to their career development. professional development seminars and workshops to encourage them to see their work in its wider context. The t-statistics also shows.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS AUGUST 2011 VOL 3. University policies and practices should be as such that they reflect some of the interests and concerns of the academic faculty. COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 113 . As a result. however. benefiting the students. which will ultimately bring creativity and innovation in their routine works. This will build a more trust based relationship between university management and teachers. University management should assess and evaluate their faculty members’ performance to know their strengths and weaknesses from time to time. Hypothesis 3: The beta value shows that 1 unit increase in the value factor achievement would increase 0. p<0. NO 4 satisfaction (t = 5. They should be provided facilities such as travel support to attend research meetings. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Job satisfaction in academic faculty can be attained through enriching their jobs. acknowledgment and incentives.168 units (16. high quality research and publications in educational institutions. and to persevere with their own educational development. the null hypothesis is rejected and research hypothesis is supported. In fact most of the Pakistanis prefer to have better pay package along with career development programmes. Faculty members’ achievements should. In case of weaknesses proper training facilities should be provided to effect improvements and modifications in their behavior. achievement oriented. challenging responsibilities and collegial environment along with other fringe benefits enhance intrinsic satisfaction among faculty that leads to improved teaching.05).05. the Achievement accounts for significant positive variation in job satisfaction (t = 2.212. that. the null hypothesis is rejected and research hypothesis is supported. Consequently.05). in explaining the dependent variable. After all. creating job satisfaction. especially aspects that have a direct influence on their performance and satisfaction levels. p<0. The relationship between job enrichment factors and job satisfaction is hypothesized and empirically tested. 6. other variables being held constant. (see table 2). knowledge.webs. University management should provide adequate funds to support faculty development programs which can be a contributing factor to increase the satisfaction and morale of faculty. skills and attitude.222. (see table 2). The results are consistent with hypothesis but career development is found to have no relationship with job satisfaction as compared to responsibility and achievement which have strong positive relation. It will ultimately prepare them for higher work and greater responsibility and attune their outlook and methods with the new and growing needs of changing time. be awarded in the form of appraisal.8%) in job satisfaction. due to poor socio-economic conditions in the country. The career progressive. It is suggested that university management should involve the faculty members in decision-making process.ijcrb. the satisfaction of faculty with management is surely to the advantage of all individuals involved. While Achievement also made a statistically significant contribution with p<0.

As a result. differences between this sample and other organizational cultures may exist. Dependent Variable: Job Satisfaction Table 3: Correlations Career Development Achievement Responsibility Job Satisfaction Career Development Achievement Responsibility Pearson Correlation . Although the current study examined several job enrichment variables.407** . Dependent Variable: Job Satisfaction Table 2: Coefficients VARIABLES Constant Career Development Responsibility Achievement 0.068 0. these variables were assessed in the context of academic faculty.028 a.000 ** .868 5.000 . NO 4 There is a limitation in our empirical study. Responsibility.000 . future research might want to reproduce and extend the current study in a wider work environment.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS 7.547** . 1 0.306 F Sig. Table 1: Model Summary MODEL R R Square Adjusted R square 0. Career Development b.222 Sig. Predictors: (Constant).528 0. resulting in decreased confidence when it comes to making generalizations. Career Development b.250 0. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig.01 level (2-tailed). Predictors: (Constant).467 .537** .000 .168 Standardized Beta t-statistics 8. due to short time span and financial constraints convenience sampling was used that might limit the external validity of our results and findings cannot be generalized.212 2.ijcrb. Therefore.564 0.000 .000 COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 114 . Responsibility. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig. 0.416 0. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig.374** Sig.000 a. Achievement.498** . LIMITATIONS AUGUST 2011 VOL 3. (2-tailed) ** Correlation is significant at the 0. Achievement.000 0. .000 0.318 26.387 0.webs.

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