Urdu poetry

Urdu poetry (Urdu: Urdu Shayari) is a rich tradition of poetry and has many different types and forms. Borrowing much from the Persian language, it is today an important part of Pakistani and North Indian culture. Like other languages, the history of Urdu poetry shares origins and influences with other linguistic traditions within the Urdu-Hindi-Hindustani mix. Literary figures as far back as Kabir (1440 1518 CE) and even Amir Khusro (1253-1325 CE) inspired later Urdu poets, and served as intellectual and linguistic sources. Meer, Dard, Ghalib, Anis, Mustafa Meerza Urf Piyare Saheb (Rasheed) Syed Sajjad Husain (Shadeed),[1] Talib Khundmiri(Feb 14, 1938 Jan 16 2011), Allama Dr. Syed Ali Imam Zaidi (Gauher) Lucknavi. Syed Sibtey Husain Naqvi (Jauher), Dabeer, Iqbal, Zauq, Josh, Jigar, Faiz, Firaq and Syed Shmad Shah (Ahmad Faraz) are among the greatest poets of Urdu. The tradition is centered in the subcontinent. Following the Partition of India in 1947, it found major poets and scholars residing primarily in modern Pakistan. Mushairas (or poetic expositions) are today held in metropolitan areas worldwide. Forms of Urdu poetry

The principal forms of Urdu poetry are:[2] Ghazal, usually a short love lyric, sometimes a poem on a general subject. Strictly speaking it should have the same rhyme throughout. Urdu ghazals for the most part are artificial and conventional.[2] Qasida, a kind of ode, often panegyric on a benefactor, sometimes a satire, sometimes a poem dealing with an important event. As a rule it is longer than ghazal, but it follows the same system of rhyme.[2] Marsiya (or elegy), is nearly always on the death of Hasan and Husain and their families, but occasionally on the death of relatives and friends. It is usually in six-lined stanzas with the rhyme aaaabb. The recitation of these elegies in the first ten days of Muharram is one of the greatest event in Muslim life. A fully developed marsiya is always an epic. The famous marsia writers who inherited the tradition of Mir Anis among his successive generations are Mir Nawab Ali 'Munis', Dulaha Sahab 'Uruj', Mustafa Meerza urf Piyare Sahab 'Rasheed', Syed Muhammad Mirza Uns, Ali Nawab 'Qadeem', Syed Sajjad Hussain "Shadeed" Lucknavi, Allama, Dr.Syed Ali Imam Zaidi, "Gauher" Luckhnavi the(great grandson of Mir Babber Ali Anis). Masnavi, in the majority of cases a poetic romance. It may extend to several thousand lines, but generally is much shorter. A few masnavis deal with ordinary domestic and other occurrences. Mir and Sauda wrote some of this kind. They are always in heroic couplets, and the common metre is bacchic tetrameter with an iambus for last foot. The Religious masnavi Histori of Islam (Tarikh-e-Islam Az Quran) written by Dr. Syed Ali Imam Zaidi Gauher Lucknavi.[2]

Tazkira, biographical anthology, almost always of poetry alone. This is often a mere collection of names with a line or two of information about each poet, followed by specimen of his composition. On the other hand it may be the history of Urdu poetry with copious illustrative extracts. The best tazkiras give biographical details, but fail in literary criticism, and we get little idea of style or poetical power, still less of contents of poems. Even the large anthologies do not systematically review an author's work. Most of them have the names in alphabetical order, but one or two prefer historical order. The majority quote only lyrics, and the quotations, usually chosen at random, do not illustrate poetry.[2] Nazm Urdu nazm is a major part of Urdu poetry. From Nazeer Akarabadi, Iqbal, Josh, Firaq, Akhtarul Iman to down the line Noon Meem Rashid, Faiz, Ali Sardar Jafri and Kaifi Azmi. They have covered common life, philosophical thinking, national issues and the precarious predecament of individual human being.

Amir Khusrow
Ab'ul Hasan Yam n ud-D n Khusrow (1253-1325 CE) (Persian: / Urdu ; Hindi: ), better known as Am r Khusrow (also Khusrau, Khusro) Dehlaw ( ; ), was an Indian musician, scholar and poet. He was an iconic figure in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. A Sufi mystic and a spiritual disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi, Am r Khusrow was not only a notable poet but also a prolific and seminal musician. He wrote poetry primarily in Persian, but also in Hindavi. He is regarded as the "father of qawwali" (the devotional music of the Sufis in the Indian subcontinent).[1][2] He is also credited with enriching Hindustani classical music by introducing Persian and Arabic elements in it, and was the originator of the khayal and tarana styles of music.[3] The invention of the tabla is also traditionally attributed to Am r Khusrow.[citation needed] A musician and a scholar, Amir Khusrow was as prolific in tender lyrics as in highly involved prose and could easily emulate all styles of Persian poetry which had developed in medieval Persia, from Kh q n 's forceful qasidas to Nizami's khamsa. He used only 11 metrical schemes with 35 distinct divisions. The verse forms he has written in include Ghazal, Masnavi, Qata, Rubai, Do-Beti and Tarkibhand. His contribution to the development of the ghazal, hitherto little used in India, is particularly significant.[4]

Works

Tuhfa-tus-Sighr (Offering of a Minor) his first divan, contains poems composed between the age of 16 and 19 Wastul-Hayat (The Middle of Life) his second divan, contains poems composed at the peak of his poetic career

Ghurratul-Kamaal (The Prime of Perfection) poems composed between the age of 34 and 43 Baqia-Naqia (The Rest/The Miscellany) compiled at the age of 64 Qissa Chahar Darvesh The Tale of the Four Dervishes Nihayatul-Kamaal (The Height of Wonders) compiled probably a few weeks before his death. Qiran-us-Sa dain (Meeting of the Two Auspicious Stars) Mathnavi about the historic meeting of Bughra Khan and his son Kyqbad after long enmity (1289) Miftah-ul-Futooh (Key to the Victories) in praise of the victories of Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji (1291) Ishqia/Mathnavi Duval Rani-Khizr Khan (Romance of Duval Rani and Khizr Khan) a tragic love poem about Gujarat s princess Duval and Alauddin s son Khizr (1316) Noh Sepehr Mathnavi. (Mathnavi of the Nine Skies) Khusrau s perceptions of India and its culture (1318) Tarikh-i-Alai ('Times of Alai'- Alauddin Khilji) Tughluq Nama (Book of the Tughluqs) in prose (1320) Khamsa-e-Nizami (Khamsa-e-Khusrau) five classical romances: Hasht-Bahisht, Matlaul-Anwar, SheerinKhusrau, Majnun-Laila and Aaina-Sikandari Ejaaz-e-Khusrovi (The Miracles of Khusrau) an assortment of prose compiled by himself Khazain-ul-Futooh (The Treasures of Victories) one of his more controversial books, in prose (1311 12) Afzal-ul-Fawaid utterances of Nizamuddin Auliya h liq B r a versified glossary of Persian, Arabic, and Hindawi words and phrases attributed to Amir Khusrau, but most probably written in 1622 in Gwalior by iy ud-D n husrau Jawahar-e- Khusrovi often dubbed as the Hindawi divan of Khusrau

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah (1580-1611 CE) (Urdu: ) was the fifth sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golkonda in south India. He founded the city of Bhaganagar i.e. Hyderabad Hyderabad, India and built its architectural centerpiece, the Charminar. He was an able administrator and his reign is considered one of the high points of the Qutb Shahi dynasty.The name Bhagyanagar is the true translation of the previous name,"Farkhunde Buniyad" is therefore an assumed name.Similarly Bhagnagar is mis-pronounced name and it is wrong to understand the meaning of 'city of garden'by this name too.

He ascended to the throne in 1580 at the age of 15 and ruled for thirty-one years. Some historian say that he was 17 years of age at the time of his crowning also. He modelled the well planned city of Bhaganagar i.e. Hyderabad on the then legendary city of Esfahan of Persia, in his words unparalleled in the world and a replica of heaven itself.

Wali Mohammed Wali
Wali Muhammad Wali (1667 1707), (also known as Wali Deccani, Urdu: Wali Aurangabadi) was a classical Urdu poet of the subcontinent. , Wali Gujarati and

He is the first established poet to have composed Ghazals in Urdu language and compiled a divan (a collection of ghazals where the entire alphabet is used at least once as the last letter to define the rhyme pattern). Before Wali, Indian Ghazal was being composed in Persian - almost being replicated in thought and style from the original Persian masters like Saa'di, Jami and Khaqani. Wali began using not only an Indian language, but Indian themes, idioms and imagery in his ghazals. It is said that his visit to Delhi along with his divan of Urdu ghazals created a ripple in the literary circles of the north, inspiring them to produce stalwarts like Zauq, Sauda and Mir.

Mirza Mazhar Jan-e-Janaan
Mirz Mazhar J n-i J n n (Urdu: ), also known by his laqab Shamsudd n Hab bull h (1699 1781), was a renowned Naqshband Sufi poet of Dehli, distinguished as one the "four pillars of Urdu poetry."[1] He was also known to his contemporaries as the sunn tar sh, "Sunnicizer", for his absolute, unflinching commitment to and imitation of the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad.[1] He established the Naqshband suborder Mazhariyya Shamsiyya.

Mirza Rafi Sauda
Mirza Muhammad Rafi 'Sauda' (1713 1781) (Urdu: ) was one of the best known poets of Urdu language in Delhi, India. He is known for his Ghazals and Urdu Qasidas.[1]

Works
He is recognized as a great qasidah poet, perhaps the greatest in Urdu. He was a major ghazal poet too. The [4] soundest rock on which Sauda¶s reputation rests today are his satires. At first he always used to compose verses in Persian then on his ustad h n-e rz 's advice he started composing in Urdu.[2] Kulliyat of Sauda was compiled by ak m Sayyid A la ud-D n h n he wrote an introduction for [2] [10] it. Later in 1872 it was literally translated by Major Henry Court, Captain, Bengal Cavalry List of Sauda's work [11] from his Kulliyat are: 1. Masnavi dar hajv-e hakim ghaus,

2. Masnavi dar hajv-e amir-a daulatmand bakhil, 3. Masnavi dar ta'rif-e shikar, 4. Masnavi dar hajv-e pil rajah nripat singh, 5. Masnavi dar hajv-e sidi faulad khan kotval-e shahjahanabad, 6. Masnavi dar hajv-e fidvi mutavatan-e panjab kih darasal baqal bachchah bud, 7. Masnavi dar hajv-e chipak mirza faizu, 8. Qissah-e darvesh kih iradah-e ziyarat-e ka'bah kardah bud, 9. Mukhammas-e shahr ashob, 10. Qasidah dar madh-e navab vazir imad ul-mulk

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