WF WF WF WF

12026 12027 12028 12029

WF 12028 THIS IS ONE IN A SERIES OF FOLK MUSIC RECORDINGS RECORDED IN THE FIELD BY MR. DEBEN BHATTACHARYA UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE INTERNATIONAL MUSIC COUNCIL, UNESCO, AND PRODUCED BY WESTMINSTER RECORDING CO., INC.

VOl. 3

Songs of the Jews from Yemen, th.e Atlas Mountains, Tunisia, and Spain
Side J

NOTES BY DEBEN BHATTACHARYA

Band Band Band Band Band Band
Side 2

1. Folk melody on Khalil
2.

YEMEN

3. 4. 5. 6.

Shir Hashirim (Cantillation) Love Song Hebrew Song: Aleli Nafshi Love Song Yedid Nafshi
THE ATLAS MOUNTAINS

WF 12026 -

VOL. 1

Songs and Dances of the Jews from Bukhara, Uzbekistan, and Cocbin.
Side 1

Band Band

1. 2.

Band L Four Doira-Bukhari rhythms Band 2. Miskin mode on Kamancha and Doira Band 3. Chamona and Ufari on Chang and Doira Band 4. Doira and Tambur Improvisation Band 5. Tulkum (Love Song) Band 6. Popular Dance Music Band 7. Herati melody on Tambur
Side 2 KASHGARCHI (BUKHARI)

BUKHARA

Family's Lament Why Does He Find Fault With Me (Love Song)
TUNISIA

Band 3. Marriage Song in Arabic Band 4. Marriage Blessing Band 5. Perdona Emi_lea Band 6. Market Song
WF 12029 VOL. 4
SONGS SPAIN

Band

1.

Kashgarchi Tuichi (Chorus)
UZBEK

Music of the Jews from Eastern Europe
Side J

Band 2. Uzbek melody on Flute and Doira Band 3. Uzbek love song Band 4. Agricultural chorus Band 5. Shomer Yisrael Band 6. Hope of Jerusalem
WF 12027 Side COCHIN

Band Band Band Band Band Band

1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

VOl. 2
Side 2

Music of the Jews from Morocco Romance in Arabic (Andalusi) Instrumental Overture for Marriage: Hi jaz Masaqui Band 3. Maquarn Hijaz before Huppah Band 4. Shikka (Arabic Romance)
1. 2.

Bar Yohai Tikun Shabbos Askinu S'udoso Sheyiboneh Eileh Chomdo Libi Chassidic Nigunim (Medley) Nigun A - Nigun B - Nigun C: L'shonoh Habo'oh - Nigun D: Kol Rinoh - Nigun E - Nigun F: Ashreinu - David Melech Yisroel
A COMMUNITY CONCERT

LITURGIC

Band Band

J

Band

1.

Band 2. Band
3.

Band Band Band Band Band Band Band

Side 2

1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Bereshit (Cantillation) Shir She! David En Kelohenu Taqsirn on Maquam Bayat Shikka: Bar Yohai Maquam Airag (Jhdal) Ya Ribbon Alam

Band 4. Band 5. Band 6.

Instrumental: Elath (Weissfish) Arava (Nuzik) - A Popular Medley Instrumental: Finjan (Wilensky) Sherele Vocal: Ayil Ben Karnayim (AdmonAshman) Instrumental: Hava Nagila Irn Hupalnu (Baharad) Zemer Lach Vocal: Rachel, Rachel (Wilensky. Mohar) Instrumental: Rad Halayla Hatikva (Imber)

Jacket cover and all booklet photographs by Deben (Except for the photograph of Mr. Bhattacharya and the photograph on page 6)

Bhaltacharya

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ETHIOPIA

album, consisting of four volumes, was selected from many hours of field recordings in Israel, and is an attempt to reproduce the diverse musical features of the country through photographs and documentary sound recordings. I have tried, while editing this, to recapture my own impressions of the country and its people, so that apart from its ethnic interest a listener will be able to enter into the lives of some of the Jewish communities that have emigrated from far and wide. The first thing that struck me on my arrival in Israel was the extraordinary variety of faces and the overwhelming diversity of sounds. People have poured into the country from all parts of the world - from East and West, North and South - bringing with them the habits, languages and music of their previous homelands. On the face of it, it seemed a confusion of old and new, struggling to integrate the Orient with the Occident, to intertwine the ancient and the sacred with contemporary scepticism. As I consulted my diary while preparing this text, I found my appointments with musicians varied in irregular succession with people from different parts of the world. Today it would be with a Spanish

LIS

Page 3

group, and tomorrow with the Yemenites; and then, the day after, I would probably be recording the Bukharis who came from Central Asia. Out of these diverse schools of music, musicians searching for a musicidiom for Israel seem to have narrowed it down to two possibilities. At least, that was the impression I developed during my many talks with the musicians there. One school of thought strongly believes that the music of Israel should be Eastern. But it immediately raises a question: which Eastern? Yernenite, Ind ian, Bukhari, or something else / And the other school of thought believes that Israel, being a Mediterranean country, should draw inspiration from the Mediterranean music with which a fair number of Israeli musicians are already familiar. This of course is the case with the sensitive Sephardic people who kept alive the tradition of Medieval Spanish ballads and romances (Vol. 3, Side II, bands 5 and 6) and carry these beautiful songs with them wherever they go. lt was while searching for these Sephardic ballads, one day, that I combed a quarter of Jerusalem known as the Tent of Moses. The July sun was in its mid-day fury as I kept on knocking at almost every door in the Tent of Moses, looking for one Madame Sherezli who was once well-loved for her singing of these ballads. Finally she greeted me in her charming little terraced apartment, but alas, she said she could not sing any longer! Perhaps she noticed disappointment in my face. "Look," she said, "I have lost all my teeth, and can't you hear how hoarse my voice has gone?" She burst into laughter, and neighbors who had gathered round us, joined in the laughter too. But she insisted that I must have a drink before I once more faced the formidable sun. The life of a collector in the field is always charged with experiences of this sort. Disappointment blends with human charm. At times pride and prejudice mix together in the mind of a performer and the collector comes back enriched with an experience but with empty hands. In this connection, I recall my recording session with a Rabbi of Hungarian origin. I was tremendously excited to have accidentally run into him at an evening gathering, though I suspected it was going to turn into a complete flop - rowdy showing-off, noise, MIDDAY and laughter. Ah well, one learns to take these inconsistencies in one's usual stride while working in the field. Musicians' idiosyncrasies are as human as their sincerity, and there is nothing to it but to resign oneself to those fits of wild laughter and Jeg-pulling in front of a live microphone! Suddenly out of those noises, the Hungarian Rabbi's voice rose like an elegant oak in a jungle of weeds! I was struck dumb with joy as the evening developed. But alas, at the end of it, I had to promise the Rabbi that I would never use those recordings on a disc! He did not want the

IN JERUSALEM

Page 4

risk of anyone, even unknowingly, reproducing his voice on a Sabbath day. He did not wish to be involved with someone who might use a gramophone during the Sabbath. I came across him completely by chance, in this gathering of singers in a private residence in the Hungarian quarter. The house overlooked Meah Sh' arirn, the most picturesque part of Jerusalem. This quarter was built in 1875 and since then it has been well-known for Jewish liturgic learning. Through the narrow streets and up and down the stone steps in this quarter you often come across the members of the Chassidic sect on the Sabbath in their black caftan robes and round fur hats which they have been accustomed to wearing in Eastern Europe since the Middle A RABBI Ages. The streets are silent during the Sabbath evenings. You hear only the individual muttering of prayers or several voices together singing Nigunim in the synagogues. And often, in this quarter, one hears young students chanting in monotone in schools where the scriptures are studied. As I mentioned before, in order to give some form to these recordings, I have had to sacrifice the sequence of my own movements in Israel. Out of that melting pot of an extraordinary variety of human elements and music, the only way I can present the recordings is to follow the geograph.ical background of some of the contributors themselves. As you will see on the map, the communities we are presenting in the album are shown by arrows pointing to Israel. The date of their arrival varies a great deal: from two or three generations to only a year back. For instance, the Ukrainian singer (Vol. 4, Side I, Bands 1 and 2) was born in Jerusalem while his parents emigrated from the Ukraine. On the other hand, the Tunisian bridegroom, whose marriage sequence you will hear (Vol . .3, Side II, Bands .3 and 4) came from Morocco only a year and a half before I joined him in his marriage feast! These records are merely a modest attempt to depict some of the important musical elements that have entered the country with the rush of emigrants from all over the world. There are already signs of influence of one music on another. Some are more spontaneous and effortless while others can be described as the results of precious experiments. Israel, in my opinion, has today the largest variety of musical elements on hand, and has the potentialities to offer, perhaps, the most exciting expression in a new world of music. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My thanks are due to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Kol Israel, Jerusalem; the Embassy of Israel, London; and particularly to Mr. John Levy, whose help in connection with my recording trip to Israel was immensely valuable. I wish to thank Mr. Seymour Silberrnintz for his assistance in editing both the tapes and the notes contained in this booklet. I also wish to thank Mr. Jack Bornoff of the International Music Council, UNESCO, for bringing my collection to the notice of Mr. James Grayson of '\iVestminster Recording Co., Inc. Westminster's devotion to worth-while music has made the publication of this album possible.
DEBEN BHATTACHARYA
Page 5

Page 6

WF 12026 VOLUME 1

KAMANCH

Songs and Dances of the Jews from Bukhara, Uzbekistan
eochin (South India)

and

tho music of tho Central Asian jews, wo hod somal streams of music blending successfully together. The rhythmic influence from Persia, a certain amount of melodic influence from India, as well as the Chinese tonal quality are all interwoven with the basic structure of the music of the country. The reason for this, I think, is the geographical situation of the Central Asian countries and their contact with their neighbouring states in the past. Side I of this volume represents the music of the Bukhari Jews from Central Asia. Band 1 on side II is a song performed by the Bukharis but connected with the Central Asian Chinese region of Kashgar. Bands nos. 2, 3 and 4 'are performed by the Uzbek musicians of Central Asia and all these pieces are of secular nature. Bands nos. 5 and 6 on side II are of religious nature, and were recorded in the synagogue of a South Indian Cochin settlement. Though the Central Asia communities of Israel today were among the earlier settlers in Palestine, some of the earlier Bukhari and Uzbek settlers have been living in Israel for two or three generations. But later, during the period of the Russian revolution and particularly when it started spreading to the Central Asian regions, there was another flow of immigrants to the country. In Palestine before the establishment of the State of Israel, as well as in Israel, the Central Asian communities have been well known for their embroidery work. This is a handicraft which they brought with them from their original home, Samarkand, which has an age-old tradition for arts and crafts. The group represented in this record is, perhaps, the only important Central Asian music group in Israel. Most of the members of the concert are engaged in their traditional handicraft of embroidery work, but some of them have also
PHOTOGRAPH BY JOHN LEVY

IN

BUKHARI DANCE

I

Page 8

adopted a small scale hosiery business as a sideline. When I went to visit the family of the leader of the group in Tel Aviv, I was most interested to see that, although the younger generation in the family were avidly practicing traditional jazz instruments, the older members rigidly stuck to the instruments they had brought with them. These consist first of a string instrument, Chang, of Chinese origin. It has forty-two strings in sets of three. It has its counterpart also in Iran where the instrument is called Santu» and is slightly more elaborate: On the flat wooden structure of the instrument the sets of triplestrings were struck by light-weight wooden hammers. Among the other string instruments in the ensemble there was a string and bow instrument called Kamancha, which has its origin in Iran; and another three-stringed instrument called T ambur or Setal'. Setar in Persian means merely "three strings." It should not be confused with the Indian Sitar nor even with the present-day Persian Setar which are instruments of completely different shapes. The Setar, for instance, uses four strings instead of three. In fact, the Central Asian Setar or Tam bur is also popular in some of the Central Asian regions of China as

well as among certain tribesmen in Afghanistan where it is known as DambU1'a. The drums used in the ensemble were a pair of Doiras which resemble the tambourine but are larger in size and have a circle of ringlets round them which produce a continuous jingling sound when the drum is played. It was interesting to come across the drummer - a woman of great competence. This is unusual in the East, as the drum is considered to be a man's instrument. We decided, therefore, to give it the first place in our Volume No.1.
Side 1
Bukhara

1. A pair of doiras playing a medley of four rhythms: Safalak, Chilagi, Ufar and Larzonak. 2. lvIiskin mode on kamancha and accompanied by a pair of doiras. The word

misein means sloth or slow. This is also a fairly popular mode among the folk and tribal musicians of the South of Turkey. 3. A medley of two modes, Chamona and Ufari, played on chang and accompanied by a pair of doiras.

COCHIN SYNAGOGUE AT TA'OZ

4. Improvisation on a pair of doiras accompanied by tambu«. 5. Tulkum, a Bukhari love song in Persian by the leader of the group. The song is accompanied by kamancha, chang, and a pair of doiras. 6. Popular dance music, performed on chang, kamancha, tambul' and a pair of doiras. 7. Herati melody on tambur, accompanied by a pair of doiras. Though the musician introduced this melody as being from Herat, the Afghan city near the Persian border, I believe this to be a case where the musician is, perhaps, unconsciously influenced by the music of Eastern European communities in Israel. For instance, compare the following melodic lines from the Herati melody:

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with that of the Community concert in Moshav Meironin Volume 4, Side II, band 1.
Side 2 Kashgar

1. Kashgarchi

Tuichi, a chorus by the Bukhari musicians and accompanied by kamancha, tambur, chflng and a pair of doiras. The language of the song is Persian but the song is connected with the Chinese region of Kashgar in the North-west border of China.

Uzbekistan

2. A folk melody played on a brass flute

with six finger holes in it. After the prelude to the melody, the drummer joins the flautist with a pair of doiras. 3. Uzbek chorus On love. It is led by a woman and is accompanied by kamancha, tambur, chemg and a pair of doiras. The chorus begins with the words: "Sweet is your mouth, like sugar." 4. Uzbek agricultural chorus, sung in accompaniment with kamancha, tembur, chang. and a pair of doiras. The words of the chorus are in praise of apples and grapes.
Cochin (South India)

Compared with the Central Asian communities, the Cochin Jews from the Malabar coast of South India came well after the establishment of the State of Israel. In South India, they were

COCHIN SYNAGOGUE

AT TA'OZ

Page 9

Page 10

mostly connected with some kind of trade but in Israel they have taken to the land. In

their looks, speech and manners, they carry the geographical and the cultural impacts of the Cochin coast which was their home for many centuries. The Malayalam language of that region is their language and the folk melodies of Cochin are the basis of their music as can be seen in the song entitled "Hope of Jerusalem" (Volume 1, Side II, band 6) :

Yet in their synagogues, when they sing the Hebrew religious songs, they inevitably reflect a deep attachment to their Jewish origin and background. The recordings reproduced here are from an evening service at the Cochin synagogue at Ta'oz, a settlement lying north-east of Jerusalem. 5. Sbomer Y'israel, This is a Hebrew liturgic song led by a young Cochini girl during an evening service in the synagogue of the Cochin community at Ta'oz. 6. Hope of Jerusalem. This is a religious chorus in Malayalam, led by a man during a synagogical gathering at the end of the Hebrew songs. The words of the chorus express: "Our life of olden days still survives, our life turns to the life of David. The city of Jerusalem will be made new ... God who has sent us outwards for our sins, once more will be loving us ... "

WF 12027

VOLUME

2

Music of the Jews from Morocco

LE

reason why we are devoting the entire second volume to the Moroccan community is because of the most fascinating and complex background of the Moroccan Jews. Their music and song can hardly be classified as folk music of unsophisticated rural background. Yet, their music cannot be described as purely art music for popular entertainment, since it is related to their everyday life, both in the religious and the social fields. Their songs connected with Andalusia, in a way, show a reversal of the process. Flamenco singing is said to have developed as a result of the Moorish influence in Andalusia. On the other hand, the Moroccan Jewish singers, whose original ancestral home was Spain but who later moved to Morocco, could hardly have forgotten the melodic influence of Spain. Though their songs are in Arabic, the melody as well as the words express a deep nostalgic quality. For example, "I saw a beauty with a beauty mark, with enchanting dark eyes. Oh, that girl from Seville made me mad with her beauty!" Or again, in the words of the song with which we open our Moroccan record, the singer recalls Andalusia and the dark mascaraed eyes of the Andalusian girls. The melody opens with this nostalgic cry:

The singer of this band is a barber by profession and runs a hairdressing shop in the suburbs of Jerusalem. He is accompanied by Arab instruments such as the 'ud, which is equivalent to a lute but has ten strings in five pairs and is plucked by a feather, the qanun, an instrument with 78 strings in sets of three and plucked with a pair of plectrums; and the darabukka - a drum which is shaped like an hourglass and is covered by parchment at one end; a tambourine and a violin complete the ensemble. Although the above-mentioned instruments accompany all their love songs, their religious songs, sung in Hebrew, are not even remotely related to Andalusia; but to a certain extent some of these songs reflect the impact of Moorish music and rhythm which was their last musical influence before undertaking the large-scale immigration to Israel in 1949.

TAMBOURINE

TORAH CONTAINERS OF THE COCHINS

Page 11

Page

12

Side 1:

1. Romance in Arabic, depicting the dark eyes of the Andalusian girls adorned

with mascara. The music opens w-ith a nostalgic prelude which is known as taqsim in Arabic. This establishes the melody with voice accompanied by the 'ud, but without the aid of the rhythm or the words of the song. Once the taqsim is performed, the song begins in accompaniment with the qanu1Z, the darabukka, the tambourine and the violin. . DARABUKKA

'UD AND TAMBOURINE

2. Hijaz Masaqui. Hijaz belongs to the

QANUN

school of maquams, i.e. the classical modes in Arab music. This particular version is used by the Moroccan Jewish community as a musical overture for the marriage. Instruments are the 'ud, the qanun, the darabukka, the tambourine and the violin. 3. Maquctrlz Hijaz, sung before Huppah. This is a conventional version of the mode but here adapted to this Jewish song which is sung before a marriage ceremony takes place in the Moroccan Jewish community. Instruments: 'ud, q anun, darabukka, tambourine and violin. 4. Shikka. Arabic Romance. Though this is said to have been sung in SI7ikka mode, in fact it is a blending of the mode with folk singing. Usually this song is sung before a marriage gathering of the Moroccan Jews. Instruments: 'ud, qanun, darabukka, tambourine and violin.
Side 2:
1.

A SINGER

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.
7.

Beresbit, Moroccan chanting of a section of the first book of the Hebrew Bible describing the beginning of creation. Sbir Shel David ... Song of David, in Hebrew. Religious. Instruments: 'ud, qanun, darabukka, tambourine and violin. En Kelohenu. Religious song in Hebrew. Instruments: 'ud, qanun, dafabukka, tambourine and violin. T aqsim on Maquam Bayat. This is a prelude to the classical mode Bayat. It is played on the string instrument qanun in usual Moroccan style. Shikka. A Sephardi religious song entitled Bar Y ohai. It is sung i11Shikka mode and in Hebrew. Though band 4 of side 1 of this volume is also sung in this mode, it is interesting to note that the religious nature and the Hebrew words of this song give it a character distinct from the other. Instruments: 'ud, qanun, darabukka and tambourine. Maquam Airag. Sephardi religious song in Hebrew. It is entitled Jhdal Elohim Hai and is sung in Airag mode. Instruments: 'ud, qanun, darabukka, tambourine and violin. Ya Ribbon Alam. Sephardi song in Hebrew, accompanied by 'ud, qanun, darabukka, tambourine and violin.

Page 13

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WF 12028

VOLUME 3

Songs of the Jews from Yemen, the Atlas Mountains,
and Spain

Tunisia

1:E Jewish Yemenitescame from the Muslim state of Yemen, south of Saudi Arabia, after many centuries of residence there. The first Jewish Yernenites to arrive in Palestine did so in the 16th century. Some more came during the beginning of the Zionist movement in the early years of this century, but the large-scale immigration that started only after the establishment of Israel brought every single Jew out of Yemen! They are perhaps the most-loved community in Israel. As they came, they brought with them their masterly handicraft and a storehouse of folk-s.inging and dance, as well as, perhaps, a style of chanting liturgic songs which is entirely their own. Their folk songs naturally show an influence of the local Yemeni style of Arab singing as well as melody, but their religious chants (Side 1, band 2) do not seem to show any influence of the conventional Islamic chanting - the only, but very powerful form of musical expression that· is allowed by orthodox Islam.

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Music is a forbidden art in the Wahabian state of Saudi Arabia - the seat of Mecca and Medina - and in neighbouring Yemen, too, music is therefore regarded . with a fair amount of disfavour. I was told by the Yemenite musicians recorded in this volume that the Jews in Yemen were not allowed by the ruling race to play any instrument. They developed, therefore, their love for percussion instruments by practicing on their metal eating plates and kerosene tins which were within their easy reach. (Side 1, Bands 3, 4 and 5). It is also interesting to note how this music reflects life in Yemen. If you let your body move with the rhythm you will find yourself moving with the rhythm of a camel's walk, as if you are riding on it! The recordings of the Yemeniie folk songs and religious chantings which are reproduced on Side 1 of this volume were
YEMENITE DANCERS
Page 15

[-:'6
made in Yishi. Lying between Jerusalem and the coast, south of Hartuv, Yishi is a Yernenite settlement with its own synagogue and village haIl, etc. It was founded on July 12, 1950 to house some of the Yemenites who had come to Israel during one of the largest airlifts in the world, known in Israel as "magic carpet." I first met the settlers at the end of their day's work, and then we moved to the village hall where the old and the young, men and women, all took part during an evening gathering.
Side 1:

YEMENITE

KHAlil

PLAYER

Yemen 1. Folk melody on Khalil. Khalil is a recorder-like flute which is fairly popular as an instrument in Israel. This instrument has been taken up by the Yemenites since their arrival in Israel. 2. Sbi« Hasbirim. Hebrew religious chant by two men. 3. Love song in Arabic by two girls with kerosene tin accompaniment. 4. Aleli Naf.rhi. Hebrew song by a man accompanying himself on a kerosene tin.
DARABUKKA AND PETROL CAN

5. Love song in Arabic by a girl accompanying herself with a kerosene tin. 6. Yedid Nafshi. Religious song in Hebrew.
Side 2: The Atlas Mountains

The second side of this volume begins with two songs by a singer from the Atlas Mountains. Most of the immigrants from this area came to Israel about 1949-1950, along with the Jewish people of the Moroccan mainlands. Though the musicians from the Atlas Mountains and the Moroccan mainlands often get together during some of their musical gatherings in Israel, the style of singing as well as the melodic pattern of the songs from the Atlas Mountains are far removed from the more sophisticated and rich musical expression of Jewish musicians from the Moroccan mainland. In comparison, the songs from the former have a simpler charm, enriched by the emotional power behind the private joys and sorrows of a solo singer. The singer in bands 1 and 2 accompanied himself on a violin which he plays in the style of the Bedouin instrument rabab«, of which both the string and the bow are made of horse-tail hair. 1. Family's Lament. As in ancient days, today too the father of the family often has to go away from the highlands to the cities to earn a living. The words of this song, in an Arabic dialect, express the sadness of the family at his absence. Instrument: Violin. 2. Love song, beginning with the words "Why does he find fault with me?" The singer sings in Arabic dialect, accompanying himself on a violin.
Tunisia

Safad, the northernmost town in Israel, is famous for its Cabbalistic traditions. This is so because during the 16th century, the exiled Cabbalists made Safad their center, and also because Izhak Luria, the great exponent of the Cabbalistic movement, lived and died in Safad. But I was there for a different

Page 18

LEADEROF THE YEMENITE ENSEMBLE

reason. It was to attend a marriage between a Moroccan boy and a Tunisian girl. The bridegroom, David, left Morocco only towards the beginning of 1956, and since coming to Israel he had established himself as a tailor in Safad. His bride's family came from Tunisia three years before him, and the marriage ceremony was taking place in her home. The recordings reproduced in Rands Nos. 3 and 4 were made during the Marriage. 3. Marriage song in Tunisian Arabic. One of the women friends of the family sang this song accompanied by hand-clapping and occasional ululating. The song was sung partly in order to inaugurate the marriage ceremony as well as to entertain the family friends and relatives who gathered in a room near the canopy where the marriage was to take place. 4. Marriage Blessing. When the bride and bridegroom were led under the canopy, they were faced by a group of men chanting the blessings. The bridegroom was then offered wine by the chief Hazan, and then smashed the glass into pieces as the delighted women began to ululate.
Spain

A SINGER FROM THE ATlAS MOUNTAINS ACCOMPANYING HIMSELF ON THE VIOLIN

5. Perdona Ernilea. Accompanied by 'ud, the Arab lute, tbese songs are like ballads in Medieval Spanish. The arrangement of the words varies from 4 or 5 stanzas to several more. Perdona Emilea, for instance, has five stanzas, and it begins with the following which is repeated after every stanza. "It was past midnight, The brilliant moon, All were asleep, dreaming, There came a cloud that darkened all." 6. Market Song. Same as band No.5, this too is in the form ofa ballad of six stanzas, with an additional verse for the chorus which is repeated after every stanza. The song is expressive of a cbeerful rogue of a street vendor singing in his mischievous symbolism. The words of the first four stanzas mean: "I am a good salesman, Better than the shops. The whole day I work talking to pretty girls. When they ask me from their windows, I call out I have good bananas. I am a good salesman, I've the best fruits. I go around with a cart through the streets. Come here, my pretty girls, I've tasty fruits, I have cut them open now, And they are as delicious as you."

TUNISIAN BRIDE AND BRIDEGROOM

Page 19

WF 12029

VOLUME

4
Concerts}

Music of the Jews from Eastern Europe
(Liturgic S01~gS and Communit"

1 of this volume is devoted completely to religious singing recorded in Jerusalem. The first two bands are sung by a Ukrainian singer and the other four bands represent songs by some of the singers from the Hungarian community. Even though there is a certain amount of cantorial background to these songs, we have tried to select those which are usually sung at homes and have a strong flavour of folk music. Most of the singers on this side have been in Palestine for two or three generations, as is the case with the Ukrainian singer who was born in Jerusalem. His parents came from the Ukraine. Though today the members of the Eastern European communities are found in all walks of life in Israel, originally, Meah Sh'arirn, the walled quarter established around 1875, and its annexes such as the Hungarian Colony, were their strongholds in Jerusalem. Even today this quarter retains its fame in preserving the traditions of learning the Torah and its commentaries. As a contrast to Side 1, Side 2, though performed by the Eastern Europeans, represents a community concert of a popular nature. The recordings were made with a Tel Aviv Police band that was entertaining the settlers at Moshav Meiron, northwest beyond Upper Galilee. Mount Meiron is the highest mountain in Israel. There were whispers about certain roads being closed to the public around this region due to trouble with a neighbouring territory when, quite by chance, I ran into this cheerful group of entertaining policemen. The band was composed of four, and, strangely enough, consisted of people from four different countries of Europe! As they introduced themselves, the leader, who played the concertina, came from Austria, the drummer from Czechoslovakia, the saxophonist from Roumania, and the trumpet player from Greece. And then, of course, the Roumanian singer who later in the evening joined the gathering, was a great success in drawing out the village audience to take part in the singing (Side 2, band 3).

SIDE

1. A CANTOR AT A PRIVATEGATHERING 2. AUDIENCE IN MOSHAV MEIRON 3. COMMUNITY CONCERT IN MEIRON

Page 20

In planning the second side, we have tried to present a composite picture of the whole evening's gathering, which lasted for nearly four hours, by condensing. It was most interesting in that there was constant contact between the audience in the village hall and the Police performers from Tel Aviv, the big city. All songs and music which were performed during the evening are popular all over Israel, particularly among the jewish people of Eastern European origin. In order to maintain the continuity of the evening, we have also followed the order of the concert.
Side 1: liturgic Songs 1. Btu'

Hey E-lat, hey E-Iat, hey E-lat Od niv-nech ir va-ern ba-rnid-bar Hey E-Iat, hey E-lat, hey E-Iat At kir-yat ha-pla-irn l'rna-char A caravan wends its way over the desert towards Elath, It is nightvTherc is a blue sky above and sand below. 'We will build up the city and it will be a city of wonders.
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(M'!lj-jc

by Nw~ik

-

'Words

b" Orland)

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Avra-va, a-ra-va ad ketz Ein ha-bok-rim ta-ra Lo ar-ar, 10 dar-dar, 10 etz) Ru-ach ba ha-rnid-ba-ra. )2 Ze-mcr ha-bok-rirn ya-a-le v'yiv-ka Al mer-cha-vim a-vo-dim ad ein ge-mer V'tiz-rarh ha-cha-rna v'tish-ka U-rno-s if v'ko-le-ach ha-ze-mer. A-ra-va a-ra-va al-mon Sh'not ;I-pa-yi~ ka-rnu Ha-bo-ker al gay sod kad-rnon ) Bid-ra-chim she-na-sha-rnu. )2

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2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

Y obai. The first two stanzas of a Hebrew song sung on the anniversary of the death of Shim' on Bar Yohai, author of Zohar, telling the story of his life. Tikun Shabbos. Aramaic song sung on Friday night before the evening meal on Sabbath, Chassidie. Aseinu S'udoso. Hebrew song sung before meal after Sabbath. Sbeyiboneb. (May the temple be rebuilt). This is a cantonal solo with interludes of group refrain. Language: Hebrew. Eileh Cbomdo Libi. Chassidic song at third meal of Sabbath; recited before evening service before Sabbath. Language: Hebrew, Chassidic Nigllnim. A medley of Nigllnim and other Hebrew songs by a Hungarian group: Nigun A - Nigun B igun C: L'shonoh Habo'ohNigun D: Kol Rinoh - Nigun E (Note version performed on Side 2, Band 6, with Israeli text) Nigun F: Ashreinu (in Israel this Chassidic melody is well known as Artsa Alintl) ; Dovid Melech Yisroel.
Concert

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S'dei Bo-ker, s'dei sha-lom, ha-or r Sol n'ti-vot ha-ra Ki a-ta ha-rna-oz la-dor ) Ben ha-rnar-dut, ben ha-pe-re.) 2 A song of the Israel i cow-herders, in which they describe their life and work - the sun rises and sets but their song goes on ..

2. Finan and Sberele (Freilacb, an East European Wedding Dance). Instruments: Concertina, saxophone, trumpet, and drums,
FINJAN
(Music by Wile-nsk)· Words by Feiner)

Ha-ru-ach no-she-vet kri-ra No-si-Fa ki-sam lam-du-ra V'chach biz-ro-ot ar-ga-mao Ba-esh ya-a-Ie kkor-ban Ha.esh m'hav-he-vet Shi-ra m'Iav-le-vet So-vev 10 so-vev ha-fin-jan .,., , , La-Ia-Ia . The winds blow cooly, let's add chips to the bonfire. The fire is flickering, the song heartwarming as the Finjan (Arabian coffeepot) keeps revolving. (The double handclaps at the phrase endings add to the popular appeal of this lilting melody.)
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Side 2: A Community

1. A medley of popular concert tunes as Elath, Araua

(cowboy song), and an unidentified popular tune. Instruments: Concertina, saxophone, trumpet, and drums. It is interesting to compare the following music as played by this band

3. Ayil Ben Karnayim. The band begins with an introduction by the singer, who instructs her audience how to follow her in singing Ayil Ben Karnayim. This is a fairly popular song in Israel. The singer is accompanied by the instruments as well as by clapping from the audience. She begins with the third line of the fi rst verse, then sings the refrain, and then goes back to sing the complete song - verses 1, 2, and 3.
AYIL
(Music

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ElATH
(Mlfsic by Wcissfish Words

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KARNAYIM
W(}rd~ by Asbm.an)

with that in Volume 1, Side 1, Band 7, as adopted by a musician from Bukhara.
by MQhar)

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Sha-ya-ra po-na E-la-ta Al mid-bar ha-e-rev rad Ka-chel me-al v'chol rnil-rna-ta Zot ha-de-rech l'E-lat

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Hoy ro-i hu gi-bor "tza-yid (tza-yid ) Lo ti-sog kash-to-a-chor (a-chor) Hu ko-Ie-a el ha-sha-chal ( sha-chal ) Ll-fo-ge-a ba-cha-rnor Refrain: A·yil a-yil ben kar-na-yim Ba-rnach-na-yirn teo rna-chol.

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Page 21

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Hoy, ro-i, g'luy e-na-yirn Lo yaf-le ben tz'vi l'dov Ben ar-ba-yirn ta-cnat keves Et ha-ta-yish ya-cha-Iov. A-yil a-yil . Hoy, ro-i mas-kit el ta-ar A-mu-not la-gcz ya-dav Ta-aro ko-ret oz-ml.-yim
Kol

'\,le sing to you, dear homeland, as we dance the hora. Your mountains shall delight with our whirling circle. And whilst your dance rages, thousands of flowers shall blossom forth to cover your barren deserts .

A-yil a-yil .

hat-zon

k'tzu-tzey-za-nav

5. Rachel, Rachel. This lament for a country girl expresses the popular trend in Israeli music, as this song has achieved a tremendous popularity among the youth of the country.
(Music RACHEL, b), Wi!t'nsky RACHEL Words b), ltfohar'}

My shepherd's a huntsman; at a lion he'll aim; If he hits but a donkey, to him it's the same. My shepherd, when shearing time comes, will not fail. There won't he a Jamb left who still has a tail.

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4, Hava Nagila, 1m Hupalnu, and Zemet' Lach, A medley of three instrumental pieces On concertina, saxophone, trumpet, and drums.
HAVA NAGllA

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Yal-da Bei-ta Ka-Iat L'vein

bay-ta i sham ba-kfar en-val his-dot da-gan ka-naf hay-ta par-par ha-go-ren v'-ha-gan

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Ha-va na-gi-Ia (3) V'nis-rn'cha Ha-va n'ra-n'na (3)
V'nis-rn'cha Ll-ru, u-r u a-chirn

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(2) (2)

Ra-chel, Ra-chel o-rech ya-hel B' -tza-mo-ta-yich ha-za-hav no-shek za-hav Ra-chel, Ra-chel yei-nech a-fel Uvv'ei-ria-yich ha-ei-nav no-shek ei MV, Ra-chel

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U-ru a-chim b'lev sa-rne-ach U-ru a-chi", (2) B'Iev sa-me-ach

(4)

Come! Let us shout for joy and be happy. (This is a popular melody for Hora dancing.)

A-la she-shan min ha-che-lot Va-yif m'od b'al-a-lav V'ein ma-chol barn-cho-Iot She-lo tir-kod ka-Iat ka-naf tz-lil ko-la ben ha-ko-Iot Mar-id b'rnei-ta-rav Ra-chel. Ra-chel Rachel. a little village girl, flits joyfully around the house and through the fields like a butterfly without a care in the world. She is like a rose that blooms in the desert and her dance is like the continuous rhythmic vibrations of violin strings.
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6. Rad Heleyl«,
(Music 1M HUPALNU by Baharad - Words b), Orland}

an instrumental

piece performed

by

concertina, saxophone, trumpet, and drums (compare Chassidic version sung on Side 1, Band 6), followed by the National Anthem, Hatileua, played on the same instruments.
RAD HALAYLA (ChaH/die A{'!ody Words by Or/all.d) ray shi-re-nu

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Im hu-pal-nu, 10 niv-hal-nu AI kol sit-ri-ya u-stru-rna shuv Irn nish-bar-nu, oz hug-bar-au Oz hug-bar-nu ,,.nag-bir \ Ki zot ha-a-retz Zot, a-che-ret a-yin U-va nif-kach, al na-a-tzom e-na-yim Ki chai, od chai Od am yis-ra-el chai!
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Ha-bo-ke-a la-sha-rna-yim Shu-vi shu-vi ho-ra-te-nu M'chu-de-shet shiv-a-ta-yim Shu-vi shu-vi v'na-sov . Ki dar-ke-nu en la sof Ki od nim-she-chet ha-shal-she-Iet Ki li-be-nu lev e-chad Mi-ni az v'a-dey ad Ki. od nim-she-chet ha-shal-she-Iet La, la, la ...

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A song of hope. This is our land, and despite all adversity we shall live here forever. We will not relax our vigilance - even though downtrodden we will survive and surmount all our difficulties.
ZEMER {Paleui1tian LACH Melody}

The night descends; our many songs pierce the skies. Hora, return to us; return re-newed seven-fold. Return and we shall turn, for our road has no end. Our heart was always one heart and the chain will ever continue.
HATIKVA {WorJs
n,,,d Ahuie

by .Imber}

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Ze-iner ze-mer lach Ze-mer ze-rner lach Ze-mer lach m'cho-ra-ti rn'cho-ra-ti Ha-mal-gal so-vev Ze-rner lath do-vev Zemcr lach rn' cho-ra-ti m'cho-ra-ti Ha-ca-ra-yich he-rna yis-ma-chu Et rn'chol ha-ho-ra yus'ar E-Ief p'ra-chirn l'fe-ta yif-ra-chu Y'cha-su et en ha-rnid-bar

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Kol od ba-Ie-vav p'ni-rna Ne-fesh y'hu-di ho-mi-ya Ul'fa-a-te miz-rach ka-di-ma A-yin l'tzi-yon tzo-Fi-ya Od 10 sv-da tik-va-te-nu Ha-tik-va shnot al-pa-yirn Li-h'yot am chof-shi b'ar-tze-nu E-retz tzi-yon y'ru-shs-Ia-yim .

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As long as a Jewisb heart beats, and as long as Jewish eyes look eastward, then our two-thousand-year-old hope to be a free nation in. Zion is not lost.

PHOTOGRAPH

OF DEBEN

BHATTACHARYA

BY ELLA

MAILLART.

OEBEN BHATTACHARYA
DEBEN BHATTACHARYA is one of the uiorld's leading authorities on folk music, wellenou/n both [or his on-the-spot field recordings and for his radio broadcasts on the BBe's Third Programme. Over the last several years his annual field trips have taken him 'IJany thousands of miles through Afghanistan, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Southern France, Southern Spain, Syria, and Turkey. On hundreds of "eels of tape and innumerable photographs )\1r. Bhattacharya has brougb! back in .right and sound the age-old culture of remote comers of the globe u/here folk song and folk dance have not yet been touched by modem civilization. On some of his journeys 1111'. hatB tacharya ases his oum fully-equipped van; at other times he relies on airlines, railroads, bus lines 01', iohere these are lacking, on carts, river
boats, or any other of the more primitive modes of travel. Expert enoioledge of the culture of Eastern and South em Europe, Africa, and Asia enables 2\11'.Bhattacharya to seek out and preserue the purest and most representative examples of folk song and dance exhting today, and his sincere devotion to this task has greatly enriched Westem appreciation of this fascinating art. Deben Bhattachaf'ya has produced the Bengali Programme for the BBG, contribiaed to various other programs of the BBG, of Radio Geneva, Radio Bremen, and Radio Hiluersurn, and to such British publications as The Observer, Encounter, and Envoy. He has also lectured on folk music at Oxford, at the School of Oriental and African Studies of the University of London, and at the Musee Guimet in Paris.

This is (J monophonic recording, processed according to the R.I.A.A. characteristic. It may be played on any phonograph - either monophonic or stereophonic - designed to play microgroove (33·/ /3 RPM) recordings. The multiple channels of stereophonic
equipment wil1 enhance the sound of the monophonic recording, making it richer

and

more brilliant. To achieve the greatest
level technically suited

sounds best to your ears and, for maximum listening pleasure, we recommend thet you sit at least six teet from the speaker. variations in listening room and olevbock equipment rnCJy require additional udjus+rnenf only with an unworn, microgroove stylus, of bass and treble preferably diamond. controls. Play this recording

to

fidelity,

it. Therefore,

.eech Westminster

set your

volume

record

is mastered
control

er the

at the volume
level

which

IJ

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