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Aum Sree Gana-Adhipatiye Namah
Veluri Annappa Sastry
Col. V.A.Sastry (Retd.)
H.No. 4-190/2A, Bhaskara Rao Nagar,
Secunderabad – 500 094 (A.P.)
Tele Nos.: 27116277 (Res), 94406 57704 (Mobile)
1. There are many Sanskrit and Indian language
words in this book. I tried my best to write them in
English letters and translate them to the nearest
possible meanings. If there are any mistakes in them
readers are requested to forgive me and, if possible,
please send suggestions.
2. First two chapters of Brhadaranyaka Upanishad are
not published. Some books write 3
chapter as 1
the chapter numbers may differ in different books.
3. The essence of this book is further summarized at
‘Essentials of Hinduism’ (Page Nos. 191 to 198).
Copy Rights: Reserved
Matru Devo Bhava, Pitru Devo Bhava
I dedicate this book
to my Mother
(Late) Veluri Subbamma
and to my Father
(late) Veluri Someswara Rao
Aum Namah Bhagavate Veda Vyasaya
Aum Sree Maatreya Namah
The subject matter is infinite and incomprehensible for
human mind, without the pre-requisite of absolute faith,
devotion and finally Grace of Brahman (God). To write on the
subject matter, with the little information I gathered and still
with the little understanding I have (without any claim of correct
meaning and interpretation), is a daring attempt on my part. I
beg for excuse for any misinterpretation and seek your valuable
guidance for further improvement on my part. It is a well known
fact that most of the Hindus have either vague perception and
confused or ignorant about their own religion. I intend to
provide the basic information on Hinduism, to the persons
interested, at my own cost and reach maximum people. The aim
of this book is to provide information for recollection to those
who are aware of it and for guidance for those who are unaware
of it. The cost of printing this book is Rs.60-00 each. Any person
who is not interested to purchase and own this book is
requested to read and pass on this book to another person who
is interested on the subject. You are also requested to intimate
your advice, suggestions and comments for further
improvement. Any voluntary contribution will be accepted, with
humility, with a promise that amount will be utilized for getting
additional copies printed for further distribution.
Veluri Annappa Sastry
Aum (OM) TAT SAT
Aum (OM): Aum (OM) is Pranava revealed first at the
time of Creation. From Pranava, Gayatri Mantra (the Vedic
metre) is revealed. From Gayatri Mantra three Vedas (Rg
Veda, Sama Veda and Yajur Veda) were revealed. So Aum
(OM) is the root to Creation, Gayatri Mantra and the
TAT: TAT means THAT, referring to distance and
invisibility, means the Supreme Person or Reality (Isvara)
(Bhagavad Gita 15: 17), an object of faith and belief. All
actions should be performed, in order to please God,
without expecting any reward whatsoever. Such actions
as His (God’s) own and for His sake only becomes Godly
i.e., those actions lead to God – Realization.
SAT: SAT means truth or reality. SAT is used in the sense
of Existence of Absolute and Saintliness. It refers to (a)
Reality, (b) Goodness, (c) Praiseworthy, (d) Noble
disposition, (e) Steadfastness and Steadiness and (f)
Reverence and Faith. (Bhagavad Gita 17: 23 to 27,
Mahanirvana Tantra 14: 154 and 155).
Note: The above three words refers to the One and the
only Reality (God).
Every part of Hinduism, right from the Vedas all the way
up to Tantras, is dealt with in this book. I collected and compiled
the information from various books and tried my best to present
in a most simple and concise form for the common people, to
enable them to gain the basic knowledge about Hinduism. The
very words Hindus, Hindu Religion or Hinduism is a
misconception. There are no such words in Hindu Scriptures.
The so called Hinduism is Dharma (means righteousness which
is Only One and is applicable to everyone i.e., complete
humanity). Since Dharma has come into existence at the start of
the creation it is prefixed with Sanatana means eternal or oldest.
The most important aspect of Sanatana Dharma is Satyasya
Satyam means Truth of the Truth (i.e., Ultimate Truth) (Maitri
Upanishad 6:32). To realize this Truth everyone should be
Truthful to themselves; control their ego and desires, be devoted
and totally surrender themselves to Brahman (means God i.e.,
Reality). There is only one Reality and that is the Brahman (God).
Brahman Satya Jagat Mithya (i.e., Brahman alone is real; World
i.e., all the rest is Maya or illusion) (Niralamba Upanishad – 11).
The Individual Soul (Jeevatma) is not a distinct entity from
Brahman. The Individual Soul itself is Brahman. Most of the
Hindus (I perforce use the words India for Bharata Varsha,
Hindus for Bharatiyudu and Hinduism for Sanatana Dharma
because everyone understand the subject matter with these
words only) are in false perception that Hinduism means
becoming Sannyasi (recluse), doing ritualistic worship of God,
visiting temples and holy places etc. Most of the Hindus are
misguided and totally ignorant about their religion and proper
way of their religious practices and blindly follow others without
knowing meaning thereof. Many Hindus perceive Hinduism as
dogmatic without knowing the Truth from Vedas, Upanishads,
Puranas, Epics and Srimad Bhagavad Gita. Many Hindus do not
accept ignorance of their own religion and try to blame on other
things, like the Hindu Scriptures are in Sanskrit language, which
they do not know, (though many translated versions are
available in most of the Indian and foreign languages), Brahmins
(Priestly caste) did not tell them and kept it for themselves or
their grandparents/parents did not tell them etc., in spite of the
very fact that they never made any attempt or effort to know
about their own religion. The intentions are not to blame or
criticize or comment on any individual, but to present the reality.
I had come across similar reactions and feelings, during my
discussions with different cross section of Hindus, which
awakened my inner Self to undertake this publication.
All living beings (includes human beings) want to live in
peace and be happy. People perform actions for the sake of
happiness. But they neither attain happiness nor succeed in
ending their sorrows thereby (Srimad Bhagavata Mahapurana,
in short Bhagavata 3: 5: 2). They are driven by two powerful
motivations---firstly—Desire (never ending) which leads to
acquisition and ---secondly—Enjoyment (sensual pleasures)
which are temporary and limited. They spend their entire life to
fulfil these motivations and forget their ultimate goal i.e., Infinite
Eternal Divine Bliss. Hinduism appeals to give up (or control)
these motivations, provide means to overcome these
weaknesses to reconstitute the personality for higher values of
life for attainment of the ultimate goal i.e., Infinite Eternal Divine
Starting from 326 B.C.E (Before Common Era) India (The
use of word India is also inappropriate. This country is called
Bharata Varsha) was repeatedly invaded by Greeks, Dutch,
Portuguese, French, Muslims and British for acquisition of its
abundant natural resources. From 13
century during the rule of
Islamic Sultanates and later during British Colonial Era, rulers of
that period spread their religions through coercion and
incentives. Some Western countries termed Hindu Scriptures as
mythology (i.e., false notions, fictitious), with their vested
interests, which is incorrect. During 18
India Company and later British rulers, with a hidden agenda
(tactics of divide and rule India which has majority of Hindu
population who have firm Hindu religious believes), tried to
distort the Hindu religion and culture and misled/created
divisions among Hindus, between the two major races of Hindus
(i.e., Aryans and Dravidians) between different castes of Hindus
(i.e., Brahmins, Ksatrias, Vaisyas and Sudras) and between
different religions (i.e., Hindus, Muslims and Christians etc.),
published and distributed huge quantities of literature about
Hinduism incorporating their own fictitious theories of origin,
growth and philosophies. These publications affected the minds
of Hindus (since original Hindu Scriptures were rare to obtain in
those days) and started believing those fictitious theories. Some
Hindu writers and organizations also started writing on those
lines and this has further confused many Hindus. For Hinduism
there is no single institution, organization or a congregation with
a hierarchy for spreading and conversion like many other
religions (Note: Hinduism does not profess spreading or
conversion. Hindus consider that everyone is naturally on a
journey to reach higher awareness through the cycle of birth,
death and rebirth and the Soul continues this journey till God -
realization). Though there are many organizations preaching
Hinduism, all are independent from each other and profess
Hinduism in their own individual way. Most of these
organizations commercialized their activities to attract funds
and thus the fundamental theme of Spirituality in Hinduism is
found missing. Over a period of time divisions have developed in
Hinduism because of fanatic work of the zealot followers. Over
90 % portion of Hindu Scriptures stress on the Spiritual aspect
of human beings. The present day followers of Hinduism lost
sight of the Spiritual aspect of their Scriptures and give more
importance on social aspects such as traditions, customs, rituals,
festivals and the so called caste system (which has been
completely misconstrued). Later with the influence of Western
culture and attracted by materialistic values, Hinduism took
further toll. Present generation is in a confused state about
Hinduism, its values, culture, rituals, traditions, social customs
and household practices. Even some political parties take
advantage of these confused Hindus and exploit through
religious and caste divisions for their own ends. Though
Hinduism, being Sanatana Dharma (means eternal religion for
humanity), has the potential to sustain such an onslaught, but
going to oblivious state from generation to generation (because
of the affects of Kali Yuga i.e., the period during which standards
of Dharma (righteousness) decreases and Adharma
(unrighteousness) i.e., evil prevails).
The aim of this book is to provide the essence of
Hinduism in simple language for common people to understand
and in a concise form as present generation cannot spare much
time for this subject due to their day – to - day busy schedule.
Some of the rituals, customs and practices may not be applicable,
relevant or practicable to the present day life and those could be
modified and suitably replaced and be Truthful to yourself.
Hinduism advocates that all paths lead to the same Supreme
Being. One may ask who then is a true Hindu. A real Hindu is one
who searches for the Ultimate Truth and relentlessly pursues
answers to questions, “Who is God? Who am I? What is my
purpose? How to know God? What is the Ultimate Truth?” The
inquiry into the true nature of God, Self and the world and the
practices thereof could be termed as the Hindu way of life. The
ultimate aim of a Hindu is God – realization through the spiritual
practices. What is commonly referred to as Hinduism is the True
Knowledge handed over from generation to generation
(Parampara Vidya) through great Rishis (Seers and Sages who
had directly experienced God and seen those Truths with their
purified and Divine mind) as opposed to the teachings of a single
teacher or a founder. In a way, everyone who is trying to explore
their divinity is practicing Hinduism. As long as an individual is
mindful of ‘raising consciousness of – Self, community and
humanity as a whole’ one is following the tenets of Hinduism.
Hinduism being Revealed Eternal Divine Truth cannot be
understood or dealt with by human beings without proper
teaching from a Sad Guru (means True Teacher who has
established himself in Reality) from Sad Sampradaya (means
True Traditional Teachings) and also without the blessings and
Grace of Isvara (God) Himself.
Aum (OM) Shanthi, Shanthi, Shanthi.
(Means: Supreme, give Peace, Peace and Peace)
Namah means I am not (to subdue the “I” i.e., personal ego), ste
means you are (I respect and bow to the God within you).
1. Introduction 1
2. Brahman (God) 11
3. Creation 25
4. Dharma 45
5. Hindu way of life 53
6. Vedas 72
7. Upanishads 80
8. Smritis 95
9. Darshana Shastras 115
10. Yoga 121
11. Mantra 141
12. Tantra 151
13. Moksa (Liberation) 155
14. Conclusion 163
(a) Indian History - Appendix ‘A’ 167
(b) Hindu Scriptures - Appendix ‘B’ 172
(c) Process of Creation - Appendix ‘C’ 173
(d) Process of Pancikarana - Appendix ‘D’ 175
(e) Cosmic Day and Cosmic Night - Appendix ‘E’ 176
(f) Levels of Dharma - Appendix ‘F’ 178
(g) Divine Aspect of Marriage - Appendix ‘G’ 179
(h) Cycle of Birth–Death–Rebirth - Appendix ‘H’ 183
(j) Raja Yoga - Appendix ‘J’ 188
(k) Kundalini Yoga - Appendix ‘K’ 190
16. Essentials of Hinduism 191
17. Glossary 199
Religion is a faith, opinion or belief. It is an inquiry into
the Truth and its ideal is the Knowledge. All religions aim at
moral, social and ethical order of the society through
Philosophical and Spiritual aspects. Human beings are always
inquisitive of birth, life on the earth and fearful of death. The
questions of who am I?, From where did I come?, What are my
responsibilities?, What am I supposed to do?, What is the
meaning and purpose of my life?, Where will I go (after death)?,
including creation of this Universe, birth, life on earth, death and
after death always puzzled human beings. All religions aim to
find answers to these aspects.
Hinduism deals in detail about the Creator (commonly
known as God), Creation of the Universe, the physical body, Soul
(Self, Atma), life on the earth, death and after death. Since we are
created by God our aim should be to utilize this life, through
spiritual approach, to accomplish and reach our source i.e., God
(which is known as Liberation, Beatitude, Salvation, Moksa,
Mukti). Hinduism explains God (Supreme Person, Brahman,
Paramatma and also called Bhagawan) as the only One, Eternal,
Infinite, Absolute and Bliss etc. God is beyond our time, space and
causation (transcendental state). He is beyond human
imagination (being Mayic) and human description (being
limited). When human beings think of infinite God (Brahman)
with finite mind we unknowingly, project human personality
and characteristics. Hindu Scriptures described God (Brahman)
as Sat–Chit–Ananda. Sat means Existence (Truth, Eternal,
Unnegatable), Chit means Consciousness (all knowing, pure
Knowledge) and Ananda means Bliss (unlimited, whole and
eternal happiness) (Tejo Bindu Upanishad 6: 58). God (Brahman)
is beyond sex i.e., can be male or female. Vedas use neuter
pronoun Tat (THAT) means either He or She. Satyam Jnanam
Anantam Brahma (God is Truth, Knowledge and Infinity)
(Taittiriya Upanishad 2: 1: 1). Brahman Satyam Jagat Midhya
(Brahman alone is real; all the rest (world) is Maya (illusion))
(Niralamba Upanishad - 11). Since God is beyond description,
describing God is by stating what It is not. Describing God means
confining infinite within the finite. In the Brhadaranyaka
Upanishads 2 or 4: 3: 6 the word Neti - Neti (means -- not this,
not this) is the method in which God has been explained because
God is beyond description (Bhagavata 2: 6: 36).
God and Science
Humankind always believed that God had created this
world and was up there in the Heavens guiding its destiny.
Charles Darwin’s theory states that human beings have evolved
from single cell lower creature through millions of years. Other
men of science also started chipping away at the edifice of
institutionalized religion until everything came under a cloud of
doubt. A closer look would reveal that not all scientists had
denied God. They had redefined Him. Johannes Kepler believed
that God is the creative geometer. Sir Isaac Newton said the most
beautiful system of the Sun, planets and comets could only
proceed from the counsel and domain of an intelligent and
powerful Being. Albert Einstein spoke in ecstasy about God, who
revealed Himself in the wonderful harmony of the Universe.
Stephen Hawking has described his whole scientific venture as
an attempt to read the mind of God. God by His mere thought,
created the Universe out of nothing whereas the scientists add
or subtract from the already existing material/substances in the
Universe for their inventions/discoveries (i.e., which are already
existing but are unknown/hidden). Science does not create
anything new from nothing.
In Hinduism Rishis (means who has fore-sight) or Sages
or Seers (means Maha Purusas, Mahatmas or Great Souls), who
had revelation of Brahman (God), explained the Divine science
systematically in Hindu Scriptures (Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas,
Itihasas and Darshanas), the complexities of Creator i.e.,
Brahman (God), creation, life on the earth, death, after death,
rebirth and provided means to reach life’s ultimate goal i.e.,
Moksa (means Liberation from the repeated cycle of Birth, Death
and Rebirth) through God - realization. As such Scriptures are
not at fault if we do not make sincere efforts to gain knowledge
contained in them. Most of the founding fathers of other
religions are neither educated nor literates, but they had
revelation and propagated their religion which appealed the
common people. Maharishi Valmiki, author of Epic – Ramayana,
was a savage in early part of his life but later got enlightenment
through meditation. So no one should think that they cannot
understand Hindu Scriptures and hence they need not attempt
to know their religion.
Dharma (Virtue) and Spirituality are embedded in
Hinduism and in Hindu way of (Social) life. But over the period,
due to attraction towards material (worldly) happiness,
influenced by Arishad Vargas (Page Nos. 50, 51), Dharma and
Spirituality have been lost sight of. People who, blindly follow
the religious practices without properly understanding them and
some may not even believe in some of them, takes him/her away
from Spiritual aspect and God. But if one believes in Spirituality,
it closely connects to God which is the better way to realize Him.
Spirituality is a faith and belief that some super natural power
has created this universe and maintaining it. Atheists, who do
not believe in God, believe in the physical world for the
happiness it provides for the physical body. It means they look
for happiness. But the happiness gained from the physical world
for the physical body is temporary and limited. Hindu Scriptures
describe God as Ananda (Bliss), Love, Peace and Happiness
which is unlimited, eternal and Divine. Every Jeevatma or Soul is
born from Ananda (Bliss), live for Ananda (Bliss), attains Ananda
(Bliss) and finally becomes Ananda (Bliss or God) (Taittiriya
Upanishad 3: 6: 1). So every Jeevatma or Soul at every moment
performs actions with the aim of attaining Ananda (Bliss), Love,
Peace and Happiness (Bhagavata 3: 5: 2). It means that every
Soul (any living being), at every moment knowingly or
unknowingly, is Spiritual (believe in God). If someone has a
strong belief on the advanced science and technology, this so
called advanced science and technology have no conclusive
answers for – say blood, aging, life, death, soul, nature, space,
planetary system, universe and finally God. It means the present
stage of science, technology and knowledge is still in the
primitive stage of human knowledge compared to the Divine
science and technology involved in the above mentioned aspects.
But in Hindu Scriptures one can find a systematic explanation
and conclusive answers to all the above aspects. This is the
evidence that Hindu Scriptures i.e., Vedas includes Upanishads
are the direct descents from Brahman (God), which are
manifested in Hindu Scriptures through eternal Rishis, Sages and
Saints (Maha Purusas, Mahatmas or Great Souls). Hindu
Scriptures are in Sanskrit language, which itself is a Divine
language, came from Lord Shiva (as per the first verse of
Introduction in Panini Grammar). It is in its total perfect form
since it landed on the Earth and there is no change since then
with its 51 alphabets. Its vocabulary is so complex, vast and its
grammar can create any number of words. Divine revelations,
which are complex, require a Divine language to explain and so
is Sanskrit. Human beings (Souls) are eternally under the
bondage of Maya (Cosmic power of Brahman) and under its
influence, are ignorant of the Divine matters, and hence beyond
the reach of human mind (Bhagavata 2: 6: 36). Hindu Scriptures,
being Divine revelations, reveal the form, personality, nature,
qualities, greatness and graciousness of God. Knowledge
contained in Hindu Scriptures is beyond the limits of human
intelligence. Vedic Sanskrit, which is known as Deva Nagara Lipi,
means the language and literature used by Devas (means Demi-
Gods) living in the Heaven (that means one can communicate
with them in this language), and hence it is Divine language.
Such huge literature and Spiritual knowledge contained in Hindu
Scriptures, considering its preciseness, extensiveness and depth,
cannot be produced by any human being without the Grace of
God. Those Rishis (Sages), who had the Grace of God, had
revealed the complete Hindu Scriptures (i.e., Vedas, Upanishads,
Puranas, Epics and Itihasas) for human beings to enable a Soul to
attain its ultimate goal i.e., God - realization (means Moksa) or
Liberation (means Soul’s freedom from the bondage of Maya i.e.,
Cosmic power) and enjoy Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss. It can also
be deducted that such huge literature with perfection, precision,
extensiveness and depth cannot be produced by any single
individual in one’s lifetime. Any literature produced by more
than one individual certainly differs in their thoughts, theme,
approach and method. But none of the thoughts, themes,
approaches and methods contained in Hindu Scriptures
contradicts one another. It is thus obvious, certain and beyond
any iota of doubt that Hindu Scriptures are Divine revelations
and eternal. References: (a) Rg Veda 10:90:9 (b) Yajur Veda 31:7
(c) Atharva Veda 19: 6: 13 (d) Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2 or 4:
4: 10 (e) Maitri Upanishad 6: 32 (f) Bhagavata 3: 12: 37 to 39.
The history of Bharata Varsha (ancient India i.e., complete
land portion on Earth at that period), which stretches from the
present day Iran in the West up to Indonesia in the East and the
history of Sanatana Dharma (Hinduism) has been explained
systematically and in chronological order in Hindu Scriptures
from the start of present Kalpa (i.e., Sveta Varaha Kalpa) (Refer
Appendix ‘A’ - Page Nos. 167 to 171). Sanatana means eternally
exists in God and revealed by Him. Dharma means such actions
and such Spiritual and religious practices that finally result in all
good for the Soul. It also means such thoughts, actions and
practices that promote physical and mental happiness in this
world and also ensure attainment of the final goal of the life i.e.,
God - realization. Bharata Varsha (ancient India) is in such a
location on the Earth planet, which is not much effected by
natural calamities and disasters (except localized floods,
earth - quakes and change of contours), like the ice age and
icy storms and blizzards that happened to many other countries
and parts of the Earth. Because of these calamities the history of
the other countries and parts of the world do not go back to
about 30,000 years B.C.E (Before Common Era). Brahman (God),
who has created this Universe and subsequently on the
evolution of human race on the Earth, sends His eternal Rishis
(Sages), at regular intervals, who reproduce and maintain the
Scriptural Knowledge with their Divine power, for the benefit of
mankind. Even these days, in spite of advanced materialistic
development and technology, there are no physical and material
means that could hold, preserve and reproduce the information
and knowledge of the history in its original form without any
damage or change for such a prolonged period of time. To hold,
retain, protect and to reproduce such a great Divine Knowledge
of the Hindu Scriptures the Divine personalities are needed. So
Lord Brahma (Creator of our planetary system), with the Grace
of Brahman (God), periodically sends such Divine personalities
known as Rishis and Sages (Saints) to undertake such tasks.
These Divine personalities are the eternal associates of Brahman
(God), who are sent on the Earth planet, to protect and maintain
the Divine Knowledge for the benefit of the Souls, in this world,
to build their faith in God and proceed on the path to God
realization or Liberation. Those Rishis (Sages), again with the
Grace of God, revealed many sacred poems, collectively known
as Vedas. Vedas, in Sanskrit, means Knowledge and they are
Revealed Eternal Divine Truths. These poems use many
mnemonic devices to ensure its effectiveness. As they are
taught by word of mouth and learned by hearing (not by
writing and reading) those Truths (which are eternal) came to
be known as Shruti (means sounds produced by mouth). Rishis
and Sages, who had directly experienced God, had seen those
Truths with their Divine and purified mind. Hindu Scriptures
contain answers to Brahman (God) (Creator), Creation, Universe
and Life (before birth, birth, life on earth and after death). Rg
Veda mentions about cosmic order known as Rta. Creation and
destruction is cyclic as well as rhythmic. Everything in this
Universe is pulsating and moves according to a Divine pattern,
which is reflected in the rhythmic and cyclic movements of
Nature. All matter, including human beings, has rhythmic
movements within and our quest should be to create proper
rhythm and harmony within ourselves. Mantras, contain power
packed letters, words and verses, a system of syllables made
with particular frequencies of vibrations, is used to create or
change one’s vibrating frequencies to a better state. According to
expanding and contracting theory, the Universe is rhythmic
more or less like a pulsating heart. Hinduism calls this great
rhythm of the Universe by the name Spandana. Hinduism
teaches to accomplish to synchronize our rhythm and vibrations
(our thoughts and actions including inactions) to that of the
Universe. “I” (Self or Atma) is the centre point of the Universe. As
per Hinduism, every being in the Universe is a focal point. Every
being in the Universe is a Sukshma - Jagat means minutest world
(microcosm). The Universe and human body are made of
identical materials and as such all answers are within. If one can
understand the factors and forces within, then one will be able to
understand all factors and forces in the Universe and Nature.
Human beings actions can affect the Nature and that affected
Nature in turn can affect the well being of the human beings. The
great scientists of those days, called Rishis (Sages), who had
perfected themselves by meditation, with the Grace of God, are
said to have heard in their hearts Eternal Divine Truths and those
Truths were taught to their disciples by talks and conversations
(by shabdas i.e., sounds) as writing and reading does not ensure
desired effects. All Shruti literature existed all through eternity
in the form of sounds. Therefore the sounds of the words of the
Vedas and Upanishads are very important to ensure its
effectiveness. About 5,000 years ago (before 3102 B.C.E. – the
year in which Kali Yuga started) Bhagavan Krishna Dwaipayana
(later known as Veda Vyasa – Veda means Knowledge and Vyasa
means compiler) reproduced and systematized the Mantras and
Vedas. Bhagavan Veda Vyasa dictated and Lord Ganesha (son of
Lord Shiva) recorded them, because this was a huge task and it
needs a Divine mind to record them correctly.
Bhagavan Veda Vyasa
In Dwapara Yuga Bhagavan Veda Vyasa, who is
Knowledge Incarnation of Sri Hari (Lord Vishnu), was born of
Maharishi Parasara (Grandson of Brahmarishi Vasistha and son
of Shakti Muni) with Satyavati. Bhagavan Veda Vyasa is also
known as Satyavati - Suta, Vadrayana, Krishna Dwaipayana and
Vyasa. He was born as a grown – up person and immediately
after birth, he set out for meditation. The Bhagavan Veda Vyasa,
who had unfailing eye and could read the past as well as the
future, saw how by the flux of time, there ensued in every age
(Yuga) an overlapping of duties, as a result of which the potency
of the material objects had diminished and people had grown
slothful, dull – witted, short – lived, unlucky and tormented with
diseases and other evils (Bhagavata 1: 1: 10). The Bhagavan
Veda Vyasa began to investigate by means of his Divine in – sight
as to wherein lay the welfare of human beings. Perceiving the
Vedic sacrifices (i.e., Yajnas) are the purifiers of people; he
reproduced (dictated) the four Vedas, four Upa Vedas including
six Vedangas which were revealed by Brahman (God) to Lord
Brahma (God for Creation). The Eternal Divine Knowledge
contained in these Scriptures was in the abode of Brahman (God)
and protected by Him. Brahman, at the time of Creation, revealed
this Knowledge to Lord Brahma (God for Creation of this
Brahmanda, i.e., one planetary system in which one Lord Brahma
functions the duties of Creation in that planetary system) (Note:
There are innumerable Brahmandas). Lord Brahma reproduced
this Eternal Divine Knowledge to the Rishis and Sages at the time
of Creation of this Brahmanda. Those Rishis and Sages
reproduced them for the people on this Earth planet. Bhagavan
Veda Vyasa reproduced all of them just before 3102 B.C.E. Then
he dictated 17 Puranas, after those 18 Upa – Puranas, then the
Mahabharata (including Srimad Bhagavad Gita), Brahma Sutras
and the Ramayana, which was originally written by Maharishi
Valmiki about 18 million years ago. At the end he dictated
Srimad Bhagavata Mahapurana (means Lord’s Supreme History)
which became 18
Purana. Details of Hindu Scriptures are at
Appendix ‘B’ (Page No. 172).
Brahman (God) is threefold in which the basic Tattvas
(realities or entities) are Brahman (God), Atma and Maya
(Svetasvatara Upanishad 1: 6, 9 & 12). Brahman means big and
capable of making anything big - Bhagavad Gita 11:43. Brahman
is Sad Eva, Saumya, Idam Agra Asid Ekam Evaditiyam means
in the beginning God is alone, One only without a second
(Chandogya Upanishad 6: 2: 1). Anando Brahmeti. God is
Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss and capable of making everyone to
realize Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss (Taittiriya Upanishad 2: 7, 8
and 3: 6 and Bhagavata 11: 26: 1). Brahman is Satya (Reality).
Satyam Jnanam Anantam Brahma means God is Truth,
Knowledge and Infinite. (Taittiriya Upanishad 2: 1: 1). Brahman
is Sat – Chit –Ananda. Sat means Eternal, Truth; Chit means
Consciousness, Knowledge and Ananda means Bliss (Tejo Bindu
Upanishad 6: 58). Vijnanam Anandam Brahma. God is
Knowledge and Bliss. (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 3 or 5: 9: 28).
Brahman also means The Absolute Divinity. Brahman is also
known as Bhagavan or Paramatma or Isvara. In Rg Veda, as per
Nasadiya Mantra (Creation Hymn) Brahman has been described
as an abstract principle – THAT - pure consciousness, pure spirit,
changeless (beyond time, space and causation) and unknown by
ordinary mind. Brahman cannot be seen or perceived by sense
organs (i.e., our physical eyes, ears, nose, mouth and skin as they
can see or perceive only material objects). Brahman also cannot
be understood by the human mind and intellect because they are
Mayic, i.e., evolved from Maya (Cosmic Power i.e., the material
world, delusion). To see, hear, perceive and understand
Brahman (God) one requires Divine faculties (eyes, ears and
mind etc.) which can be given only by Brahman (God)
Brahman (God) (Bhagavata 2: 6: 36, Bhagavad Gita 11: 8, 53 and
54). Brahman is also known as Bhagawan. The word “Bhaga”
denotes – power, virtue (Dharma), fame, affluence, wisdom
and dispassion – each in its fullest measure. If the Soul, which is
under the bondage of Maya, with the Grace of Brahman (God)
and with His Divine power, can break the bondage of Maya then
only the Soul can know Him and realize His Infinite Eternal
Divine Bliss. From that One and the Only, this Universe of many
evolved. God is infinitely big and bigger than the biggest. Nothing
is even equal to Him (Bhagavad Gita 11:43, Bhagavata 2: 4: 14,
Svetasvatara Upanishad 6: 8). He is capable of absorbing within
Himself the entire Universe, including Maya and all the Souls,
after total dissolution. God is also infinitely small and smaller
than the smallest (Svetasvatara Upanishad 3: 20). He lives within
all the Souls (Bhagavad Gita 15: 15) which are smallest subtle
(Sukshma) entities in the Universe. God gives energy to the Souls
to do their duties (work or actions i.e., Karma) through the
physical body, which is Mayic. But the decision as to what to do
(good or bad) is left to the Soul and therefore the Soul gets the
results (fruits) for its actions (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 4 or 6:
4: 5; Bhagavata 11: 3: 20). In the Upanishads the word Neti –
Neti (means not this – not this) is the method in which Brahman
is explained because He is beyond human description. To know
Brahman (God) one must experience one’s oneness with God
through God realization. Brahman Satya Jagat Midhya means
Brahman alone is real and eternal; whereas this Universe is
unreal (means in transit or ever changing) and hence temporary
(Niralamba Upanishad – 11). The Universe is evolved from God,
sustained by God and dissolves in God (Taittiriya Upanishad 3: 1:
1). God is the one Self - effulgent Lord, the Self of all embodied
Souls. He, who appears as the subject and the object, perceive
Him as manifested in multitudinous forms through Maya
(Prakrti) (Bhagavata 1:13: 47). Everything and every Soul in this
Universe long (live) for Brahman (God) (Ananda or Bliss)
(Taittiriya Upanishad 3: 6: 1). But many don’t get Brahman (God)
(Anand or Bliss) due to their Avidya (ignorance) being under the
bondage of Maya (means under delusion and false perception
and association with this material world (Prakrti means Nature).
By knowing Brahman the Soul is freed from all fetters
(Svetasvatara Upanishad 1: 8). Whatever may one say that they
are happy is unreal, temporary and limited. That happiness is
not the real happiness, not permanent and not infinite. God has
two aspects (a) Nirakara or Nirguna or Impersonal form of God
and (b) Sakara or Saguna or Personal form of God.
Nirakara or Nirguna Brahman (Impersonal form of God)
Nirakara means formless or shapeless. Nirguna means
without qualities. Brahman means the Absolute Divinity.
Nirakara or Nirguna or Nirvisesha (without attributes) Brahman
(Impersonal form of God) is an abstract principle – THAT (i.e.,
pure consciousness, pure spirit, changeless and unknown by
ordinary minds). Nirakara aspect of God is formless and action
less. So It does not Create the Universe and Grace the Souls.
Nirakara Brahman, being an existence of absolutely subtle and
dormant state of virtues (Avyakta Shakti means expressionless
power) does not even manifest happiness. Nirakara Brahman is
beyond sex i.e., can be He or She. Vedas use neuter pronoun Tat
(THAT) for Nirakara Brahman. Intend to become many with His
mere thought He assumes Isvara (Supreme Lord) and Sakara,
Saguna Brahman means Personal form of God (Brhadaranyaka
Upanishad 2 or 4 :3:1). Whoever does devotion (Bhakti) to
Nirakara Brahman is called Jnani (knowledgeable). There is very
little description of Nirakara or Nirguna Brahman in Scriptures.
Isvara (Supreme Lord)
Isvara (Supreme Lord) means “Supreme personality of
Godhead, who always does Subham (good)”. Intend to become
many Nirguna Brahman, at will, assumed Cosmic manifestation
with Vyakta Shakti (Eternal Divine Powers) - (a) Lordship, (b)
Righteousness, (c) Renown, (d) Prosperity, (e) Wisdom and (f)
Dispassion - all in their fullest measure (Bhagavata 2: 9: 16). He
has three basic aspects i.e. World - Creation, Preservation and
Destruction (Taittiriya Upanishad 3:1:1). He is also the originator
and upholder of Eternal Cosmic Order (in Sanskrit – Rta) means
regularity and orderliness of the Universe. To execute these
aspects He assumes Saguna or Sakara Brahman.
Sakara or Saguna Brahman (Personal form of God)
Sakara means physical form or shape. Saguna means
virtues (good qualities). In the Upanishads the term Brahman
mostly refers to the personal form of God (Saguna Brahman).
Nirakara Brahman is established in Saguna Brahman. So Saguna
or Sakara Brahman or personal form of God is known as
Paramatma, Bhagavan who is the main form of God. He is
eternal, omnipresent, omniscient, Omnipotent (Sarva Shakti), all
blissful, all pervading, all kindness, all gracious and all loving
Divine personality. His main forms are Lord Vishnu, Lord Shiva,
Goddess Durga, Lord Rama and Lord Krishna etc. Obeisance to
that Supreme Person of infinite glory, who in order to carry on
His Leela (Divine sport) of Creation, Preservation, destruction of
the Universe (in the form of Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu and Lord
Shiva respectively) has assumed the three Shaktis (Powers)
in the shape of Sattva (harmony), Rajas (activity) and Tamas
(darkness) (Bhagavata 2: 4: 12). Lord Vishnu (Sri Hari) has
infinite glory, all pervading, irresistible power, and Supreme
Divine nature, unequalled and unsurpassed known as Brahman
(Absolute, Self-born). By His own Maya (deluding potency,
creative energy) manifests Himself in different forms. He is Veda
(Knowledge). He is Dharma (righteousness). His virtues are
truthfulness, purity, compassion, forbearance, liberality,
contentment, guilelessness, composure of mind, subjugation of
the senses, austerity, evenness of temper, endurance, quietism,
sacred knowledge, self-realization, dispassion (absence of thirst
for sensuous enjoyment), lordship (power to rule), heroism,
majesty, strength, right judgment, independence (absolute
freedom), dexterity, loveliness of form, fortitude, gentleness of
disposition, exceptional intelligence, modesty, amiability,
quietness of mind, acuteness of the senses and bodily vigour,
sobriety, steadiness, reverence, absence of egotism, embodiment
of Supreme Bliss, all spirit, consciousness and many other
excellent virtues (Bhagavata 1: 16: 26 to 29). He puts an end to
the threefold agony i.e., (a) that having its origin in body and
mind, (b) that inflicted by other creatures and (c) that having its
source in the natural calamities. Whoever does devotion (Bhakti)
to personal form of God is called Bhakta (devotee). Impersonal
form of God, manifests as various Personal form of God, through
His own Yoga Maya (Divine Potency) keeping Maya under His
control (Bhagavad Gita 4: 6; 11: 10 & 11). By His mere will, He
manifests Himself as the manifold Universe (Aitareya Upanishad
1: 1: 1; Narayana Upanishad - 1). With His thought He becomes
Nirguna Brahman. So both Nirguna and Saguna Brahman are one
and the same (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2 or 4: 3: 1).
Maya or Prakrti (Cosmic Power or Delusion)
Maya or Prakrti (Cosmic Power) means which conceals
reality and projects unreal as real. It is eternal power of God
(Svetasvatara Upanishad 4: 10). It is eternal, infinite and lifeless
(action less i.e. Maya cannot act on its own) Apara Shakti
(potential power) of Brahman. Maya cannot be destroyed. God
has absolute control over Maya. Maya is in between God and the
Soul. Maya is under the control of God and the Souls (attracted
by the charms of Prakrti, due to their Avidya (ignorance), by
their own will associated with Maya) are under the bondage of
Maya. But the Souls can be eternally liberated from the bondage
of Maya by God’s Grace. Maya is also called Prakrti or Nature and
God is the wielder of Maya. Material world is the bye product of
Maya. Due to Maya we witness duality in this world i.e., good or
bad, right or wrong etc. The world we see and feel with this
materialistic body (which is also Mayic) is not the real world.
True world is beyond Maya and beyond description. Maya
creates inner weakness in living beings to indulge in material
things (again Mayic) and makes us to forget our true Self (Atma).
Brahman alone is real and everything else is Maya
(Svetasvatara Upanishad 4:9). Avidya (Ignorance) disappears
when a person realizes True Knowledge. Why should imperfect
(Maya) come out of perfect (God)? If Brahman transcends all
personality feelings, how did He make a Creation with
consciousness? Why the Absolute and Infinite should descend
into finite? Mundaka Upanishad (1: 1: 7) explains that as hair and
nails (which have no life) are grown from the body (which has
life), similarly from imperishable Brahman arises this lifeless
Universe through His eternal power (Maya). Both Bhagavata and
Bhagavad Gita address these questions in an indirect manner.
Both talk about the instrumentality of Creation. In Bhagavata it
is called Leela (Divine Sport for God) to create things. This Leela
is Sristi Kaarana (means the purpose of Creation) to give a
chance to Soul (Atma or Self under the bondage of Maya) to
attain Moksa (Liberation). Bhagavad Gita, on the other hand,
states that it is part of Nature to create and procreate. In the
Brahma Sutra (1: 4: 24, 26 and 27) the word Leela (Divine sport)
is used to explain Creation as the desire - less expression of God.
In the absence of Maya creation and procreation stops and the
world ceases. During Creation Universe comes from God and
during dissolution Universe merges in God. Primordial matter
(Prakrti) is the womb of all creatures; in which God place the
seed of all life. The birth of all beings follows from the union of
Matter and the Spirit (Bhagavad Gita 14: 3).
Maya has three qualities. They are called Gunas. They are
(a) Sattva Guna (Pious), (b) Rajo Guna (Passion), and (c) Tamo
Guna (Ignorance or Laziness). These Gunas tie down the Soul to
the body (Bhagavad Gita 14: 5). When the Universe is under
absolute dissolution state, Maya stays in Brahman (God) in an
absolute dormant and subtle state along with the Souls that are
under its bondage. Before Creation the qualities of Maya
remained in perfect equilibrium and harmony without over
lapping one another. On Creation the qualities of Maya start
intermingling and over lapping and evolve into this manifold
Universe and represent its existence with the above three
qualities. In evolution process Maya (Prakrti or material Nature)
becomes manifold Universe consisting of Mind and Matter.
Sattva Guna: It is light or buoyant and bright or
illuminating. It has the nature of pleasure or joy and ability
to reveal or makes things known. It binds by creating
attachment for happiness, wisdom and knowledge
(Bhagavad Gita 14: 6). If we see happiness, contentment,
satisfaction, joy or bliss and purity in mind, it is due to
Sattva Guna which has Divine nature that leads to Spiritual
growth and progress. It is mode of goodness and
symbolized as white. (Scientific explanation: – Has great
amount of energy with little matter).
Rajo Guna: It causes passion, attachment, activity,
movement and restlessness, avarice, hankering, anger,
egoism, vanity and wish to dominate over others. It
causes bondage and binds the Soul through attachment to
action and their fruits (results) (Bhagavad Gita 14: 7). It is
mode of passion and symbolized as red. (Scientific
explanation: – It is in between Sattva and Tamo Gunas in
relation to energy and mass).
Tamo Guna: It is inertia, passivity, sluggishness,
heaviness and negativity. It resists, deludes, renders mind
incapable and causes confusion, mental depression,
bewilderment and ignorance. It induces drowsiness and
sleep. It causes senseless violence. It binds the Soul
through inattention, indolence and sleep (Bhagavad Gita
14: 8). It is mode of ignorance and symbolized as black.
(Scientific explanation: – Has less amount of energy and
These Gunas have one common characteristic. They are in
constant conflict with each other and each one try to subdue the
other in order to become predominant. When Sattva Guna
dominates the mind, which happens occasionally, a person is
calm and serene. When Rajo Guna dominates the mind, which is
more powerful than Sattva Guna and easily dominates, a person
is active and ambitious. When Tamo Guna dominates the mind,
which is most powerful and mostly dominates, a person is lazy
and violent. There is always a difference in the degree of
intensity of these Gunas in each person due to their interaction
and constantly fluctuating of the Gunas. As a result a person’s
reaction depends on the dominance of one of these Gunas.
Domination of Sattva Guna leads to happiness, domination of
Rajo Guna leads to suffering and domination of Tamo Guna leads
to confusion. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas are the three attributes or
modes of Prakrti (primordial Matter) assuming these for the
Preservation, Creation and Destruction of the Universe, the one
Supreme Person severally bears the names of Hari (Lord Vishnu),
Virinci (Lord Brahma) and Hara (Lord Shiva) (Bhagavata 1: 2:
23). Lord Krishna said, My Divine power of Maya, consisting of
these three Gunas, can be crossed by the one who totally
surrenders and perpetually worships Me. (Bhagavad Gita 7: 14).
God – Vision
One with Sattva Guna acquires Divine nature which is
conducive to Spiritual growth. The qualities of Sattva Guna are as
follows -- purity in mind, control over his sense organs, fond of
Spiritual growth, strait-forwardness, mental and physical
endurance, truthfulness, non-violence, absence of anger,
renunciation of sensual pleasures, kindness to creatures,
gentleness, modesty, freedom from malice, non-covetousness,
lack of restlessness, vigour, forgiveness, fortitude and knowledge
about his inherent Divine Self. Sattva Guna leads a person to God.
Lord Krishna tells Arjuna that when a Soul goes beyond these
three Gunas attains Immortality (Bhagavad Gita 14: 20). In other
words go beyond matter (Maya) and manifest your Divine Spirit.
Atma or Purusa or Self (Reality) and Soul or Jeevatma
Atma or Purusa or Self means Divinity or Reality. Soul or
Jeevatma means Divinity or Reality having an attire of Ego
(Product of Maya). Atma or Soul is eternal, unborn, immortal,
infinitesimal, conscious and divine entity (Svetasvatara
Upanishad 1: 9; 4: 5), (Bhagavad Gita 2: 20 and 24; 15: 7). Soul in
its pure form (i.e., Atma) is without any blemish and
substantially the same as God. Soul, an eternal fragment of God,
having become embodied (to Maya), this Soul in this world
draws to itself five senses with the mind (as sixth) which are
abiding in nature (Bhagavad Gita 15: 7, Svetasvatara Upanishad
1: 6). There are innumerable numbers of Souls. Soul is not male,
not female, not neuter; whatever body it takes to itself, by that it
is held (Svetasvatara Upanishad 5: 10). Soul has no relationship
with another Soul (Bhagavata 11: 17: 53). Souls are a special
part (Visista Ansh) of God (Divine Power) called Jeeva Shakti or
Tatasta Shakti (Soul power) which is affiliated to Chit Shakti
(consciousness power) of God . Aham Brahmasmi means “I”
(Atma or Purusa or Self) am Brahman (God) (Brhadaranyaka
Upanishad 1 or 3: 4: 10). Tat Tvam Asi means THAT ART THOU,
What I am that is He (God); What He is that am I (Chandogya
Upanishad – 6: 8: 7). Ayam Atma Brahman means this Self is
God (Mandukya Upanishad – 2). Souls are Sukshma means
smaller than the smallest in size and subtle (Svetasvatara
Upanishad 3: 20). Souls, being same as or part (Ansh) of God
(Bhagavad Gita 15: 7), have got Chetana Shakti (power to
perform actions) i.e., Tatasta Shakti (given by God) means in-
between Chit Shakti (God’s) and Apara Shakti (Maya’s) powers
of God. Souls have permanent relationship with God and God
lives within the Soul’s (Katha Upanishad 2: 2: 12; Svetasvatara
Upanishad 3: 20; 4: 6; 6: 7, 11, 14; Bhagavad Gita 7: 9, 10; 15:
15). Souls are always active and cannot remain inactive even for
a moment and compelled to act by the modes (Gunas) of Prakrti
(Bhagavad Gita 3: 5). The Souls have no relationship with Maya,
but fell prey to the charms of Prakrti, accepted of their (Soul’s)
own free will, the unmanifest Divine Prakrti (Maya), which
finally resulted to their (Souls) bondage of Maya due to their
(Souls) Sancita Karmas (destiny of the Souls). Mind, alone, is
responsible for the bondage and emancipation of the Soul.
Attached to the objects of senses, it leads to bondage (Bhagavata
3: 25: 15). Because of the bondage of Maya, Souls lose their
consciousness; lose sight of their identity (as being part of God)
and associate themselves in the Mayic realm and are eternally
blemished with the association of Maya (Eternal Cosmic power)
(Padma Purana 11: 2: 37). Due to this bondage Souls (Jeevatmas)
get attached to the three modes of Prakrti (Gunas) deluded by
egotism feel as doer. Due to this sense of doer-ship, brought
about by the association with Prakrti, they helplessly are thrown
into the wombs of good or evil – has to undergo births, deaths
and rebirths (Bhagavata 3: 27: 3). By the will of God, Maya
(Prakrti) evolves itself in the form of this material world. The
Soul (Jeevatma), because of its power to act, within a body
activates the body (Maya or material world) which we call the
body has Life. When the Soul (Jeevatma) leaves the body, the
body becomes inactive or inert which we call the body has no
Life (Jeevatma) (dead) (Taittiriya Upanishad – 3: 3). The Soul and
the body can be compared to electric power and the bulb
respectively. The body, without a Soul (Jeevatma), is nothing but
Maya or material world. Atma or Self that is bound by Karma
Phalas (fruits of actions – good or bad) is known as Soul
(Jeevatma) and it has to take innumerable births to enjoy or
suffer the fruits of its actions (Karmas), till it exhausts its
Karmas Phalas and breaks loose the bondage of Maya
(Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 4 or 6: 4: 6). Thus a person has to
realize this truth, remove his ignorance for his false (Mayic)
association with Maya, and try to attain the True knowledge
(which burns his Karmas Phalas) of the fact that it does not
belong to Mayic (material) world and it (Soul) is same as God. If
one develops devotion to the Supreme Person (God) that, with
the Grace of God, liberates the Soul (free from the bondage of
Maya). Brahman (God) and the Jeevatma (Soul) have similar
(visista) qualities in certain aspects and also different (vibhinna)
qualities in many other aspects. The following are some similar
qualities of Brahman and Jeevatma (Soul):
Both are unborn and eternal (Bhagavad Gita 2: 20 to 25
and 10: 3).
Both have Chetana (means power to perform actions).
Brahman has Para Shakti (absolute power) and Jeevatma
(Soul) has Brahman’s (God’s) Tatasta Shakti (means in -
between Para Shakti and Apara and Maya Shakti).
Both are no different, do not change and come under the
same category (Svetasvatara Upanishad – 1: 6).
Always both are together and reside at one place (heart)
(Bhagavad Gita 15: 15 and Svetasvatara Upanishad 4: 17).
Though Jeevatma (Soul) is part (ansh) of God it does not have
same amount of qualities of God. The Jeevatma (Soul) differs in
many other qualities of God. The following are few such
qualities. There are innumerable Virtues in Saguna Brahman
that no one can count (Bhagavata 1:18:14).
Brahman (God) Jeevatma (Soul)
Wielder, ruler or above Under the bondage of Maya
Maya (Material World) (it does not belong to Maya)
Creator of the Universe Dwells within the Universe
Cause of everything Relative to cause (Prerit)
Omnipresent Limited to the material body
Omnipotent Limited power
Omniscient Covered by Avidya
(ignorance) due to Maya
Absolute (Complete) Incomplete
Sat-Chit-Ananda Can realize only with God’s
(Truth, Consciousness Grace
and Divine Bliss)
Capable of Creation, Incapable of this action
Protection and destruc- (God’s personal power
tion of the Universe Brahma Sutra 4:4:17)
Has unlimited love, These qualities are limited
kindness and all
Can be compared to Can be compared to
Sun or Clay (say X) Sun rays or Pot (say Y)
Note: X is Y but Y is not X. X can exist without Y, but
cannot exist without X)
References: Bhagavad Gita 15: 15; Svetasvatara
Upanishad 4 : 16; Mundaka Upanishad 1 : 1 : 9;
Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 5 or 7: 1: 1; Taittiriya Upanishad 3:
Chapters 1 to 6; Brahma Sutra (by Bhagavan Veda Vyasa) 1: 1: 2
to 4; 1: 2: 8 and 21; 2: 1: 1 and 22; 3: 3: 21 to 23.
Individual Soul, though beyond the three Gunas, thinks itself
as consisting of the three Gunas and suffers the evil
consequences brought about by this identification (Bhagavata 1:
7: 5). A Soul through its Spiritual Knowledge has to realize the
Truth that it is under the bondage of Maya (Cosmic or material
power) and dispel its ignorance (Avidya) that its body, (which is
Mayic), does not belong to it (Soul) and its (Soul’s) source or
origin and destiny or ultimate goal is Divine God (Brahman)
(Bhagavad Gita 7: 6 and 15: 15). Identify the God that lives in all
the Souls (the indwelling Self or Atma) or God – head (subtle or
Sukshma element of God or power of God). Atma (Self) is one
without change, pure (untainted by Maya) self effulgent, beyond
the three Gunas (modes of Prakrti), the substratum of Divine
attributes, all pervading, unveiled, the witness (of all), having no
other Soul and distinct from the body (Bhagavata 4: 20: 7). One
who understands the Self, existing in this body, as described
above is never tainted by the modes of Prakrti
(Bhagavata 4: 20: 8). He who knows the immutable Self as if it is
unconcerned, though presiding over the body, the senses of
perception, the organs of actions and the mind, attains
blessedness (Bhagavata 4: 20: 11).
Devas (Celestial Gods)
Certain beings, which did meritorious work, are promoted
and they acquire special powers and divine bodies which emit
light (Div means light or shine) and they are called Devas
(Celestial or Demi - Gods). These Celestial Gods have not yet
crossed the barrier of Maya and are subjected to the modes of
Prakrti (Gunas) (Bhagavad Gita 18: 40).
In Hinduism, as per Puranas, Manu Smriti and various
Schools of Hindu Philosophies (Darshanas), there are many
theories for Creation (Sristi). Creation (Sristi) and Dissolution
(Maha Pralaya) of the Universe is cyclic. There is no beginning
and end to this cycle. It is eternal and goes on perpetually.
During Dissolution (Maha Pralaya) the creative energies and the
forces (of God) remain in an absolutely subtle and dormant state
(it is called Avyakta) within God (Bhagavad Gita 9: 7). During
Creation (Sristi) they evolve in the form of the Universe (Vyakta)
(Bhagavad Gita 7: 6 to 12 and 9: 17 to 19). For God Creation and
Dissolution is only a Divine Sport (called Leela).
Aim of Creation
Souls are eternal and unlimited in number. They are in an
infinitesimal and life form having a subtle mind (along with their
Karma Phalas) of their own. During Creation when the Souls
receive the human body they do many good as well as many bad
actions according to the discrimination of their own mind. The
record of all those good and bad actions (called Karma Phalas or
Samskaras) are recorded or stored in a section of the mind and
also by God (Svetasvatara Upanishad 4: 6). The doctrine of
Karma (action) has theory of conservation of energy. As per this
theory the Karmas we do dictate our past, present and future
which are known as Karma – Vada (cause and effect of action).
Karma – Phala is the fruits (results) of the actions. God is Karma
– Phaladata (giver of the fruits of actions) and ultimate
dispenser of natural justice as per Cosmic Law. No Soul can
escape this law. During Maha Pralaya (dissolution period) Souls,
which are under the bondage of Maya, along with their Sancita
Karma Phalas (unfructified, means deeds for which fruits have
not yet been received, actions/deeds accumulated in their past
infinite lives) rest in an absolute subtle dormant state in
Brahman (God). The aim of Creation is to give a chance to all the
Souls to exhaust all their Sancita Karmas in the following
By enjoying Karma Phalas (fruits of actions) in the next
life. But one accumulates further Sancita Karmas in the
next life and this will be never ending process.
By destroying all their Sancita Karmas by Self –
realization through Jnana (Scriptural Knowledge) Yoga.
Jnana (Spiritual Knowledge) is so powerful that it is
capable of destroying all the Sancita Karmas and attain
Liberation (freedom from the cycle of birth, death and
rebirth) after the death of present life.
Through Ananya and Nirantara Bhakti (absolute
Devotion to God) Yoga by totally surrendering to God,
thereby with His Grace, realize God and attain Liberation.
Entities involved in the Creation
There are three eternal entities that are involved in the
Creation (Svetasvatara Upanishad 1:12). They are as under:
Brahman (God): One and the only One. He is Eternal,
Divine and has infinite absolute virtues.
Jeevatmas (Souls): Unlimited in number, Souls are ansh
(part) of God, also eternal, infinitesimal and life form
having a subtle mind of their own along with collective
Sancita Karmas in a subtle, semi - dormant force which
reside in the mind of every Soul.
Maya or Prakrti (Cosmic power): It is eternal, lifeless
power of God with three powerful qualities (Gunas). They
are – (a) Sattva Guna (pious), (b) Rajo Guna (passion) and
(c) Tamo Guna (ignorance and lazy). These qualities exist in
a mixed proportion in every part of Creation. It is a very
strong force that starts the manifestation of the Mayic
attributes which finally becomes the Universe and moves
the Universe forward until Dissolution (Maha Pralaya).
Forces Running the Universe:
The egg-shaped Universe, has a breadth of 5 Million
(50,00,000) Yojanas (or 40 Million miles), covered outside by
seven sheaths (viz., Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Ether, the Ego and the
Mahat - tattva) each of which is ten times larger than the one it
surrounds, constituted as it is as under (Bhagavata 3: 11: 39 to
Eight casual Principles: Primordial Matter, the Mahat -
tattva, the Ego and five subtle elements viz., principle of
Sound, Touch, Colour, Taste and Smell.
Sixteen Evolutes: Manas (the Mind consisting of Citta
means faculty of reasoning, storing and Abhimana (means
Ego) whose thoughts and reflections give rise to desire), five
Sense Perceptions (Auditory, Tactile, Sight, Taste, Olfactory
(smell)) which are invisible permanent enemies within the
body, Five Organs of Actions (Vocal Apparatus, Hands, Feet,
Genitals, Defecation (bowl)) and Five Gross Elements (Ether,
Air, Fire, Water and Earth) none of which evolve further.
There are two forces that keep the Universe to move forward:
Karmas (Actions): The accumulated and collective force
of the accumulated Karmas of all the unlimited number of
Souls, as described above.
Kala (Imperishable Time): Brahman (God) alone is
beyond time. All the rest which emerged from Brahman
(Lord) will change its shape and form in time, including
the Universe. Time is a potency of Lord. Time, which in
itself is undifferentiated and has no beginning or end,
appears in the form of metamorphosis of worldly
phenomena. The time we calculate is the parameter that
gives us the understanding of the period and helps us to
record the events of past, present and future. But the Kala
(force of Time) is an eternal energy, like Maya, that exists
side by side with Maya and pushes the Universe to move
forward. The measure of Time which (in the form of Sun)
flits across the smallest particle of matter (Paramanu) is
the shortest, while that which extends over the whole life
- span of the Universe i.e., one Para (100 Cosmic years –
refer Page No. 176) is the longest measure of Time. Two
Paramanus make one Anu (an atom). Three Anus
constitute a Trasarenu (the minutest particle of matter or
mote). The measure of Time which (in the form of Sun)
travels across a composite of three Trasarenu is known as
Truti (Bhagavata 3: 11: 4 to 9 and Vishnu Purana Book 1
Chapter 3). Further calculation of Time is as under:
100 Trutis: one Vedha
3 Vedhas: one Lava
3 Lavas: one Nimesa (twinkle of an eye)
3 Nimesas: one Ksana (also called a moment)
5 Ksanas: one Kastha
15 Kasthas: one Laghu
15 Laghus: one Nadhika
2 Nadhikas: one Muhurta (48 minutes)
30 Muhurtas: one day and night (24 hours counts
from Sun rise to Sun set)
The time between 3 a.m. to 6 a.m. is considered as Brahmi
Muhurta and supposed to be the most auspicious time of a day.
During this period, it is believed, that all celestial beings take rest
and there is little activity in the ethereal world. It is considered
that this is the best period for meditation and Spiritual activities.
It is also believed that any problem can be solved if one tries
during this period. Time is precious and valuable. Time once
lapsed will never come back. Time is also a healer.
Creation as per Bhagavata
Before Creation this Universe existed in no other form
than the Lord, His powers lay dormant although His conscious
was wide awake. Souls (along with their Karmas i.e., force of
accumulated actions), Maya (Primordial Matter) and Kala (Time)
rest in Brahman (God) in an absolute subtle form and dormant
state during Maha Pralaya (Dissolution period). They are
activated by the will of Brahman (God) (Aitareya Upanishad 1:1).
It is this energy Cit-Shakti i.e., His (God’s Power of intelligence),
Time (Potency of Lord), destiny of all the Souls acted upon Maya
(Primordial Matter) that disturbed the equilibrium of the three
Gunas (products of Maya). Lord placed Himself within all living
beings as Purusa (inner controller, which is His own fragment)
and outside as Kala (Time). From the unmanifest Maya
Primordial Matter), impelled by the Time, was evolved the
Mahat-tattva (the principle of Cosmic intelligent). Mahat-tattva,
as it underwent transformation, was evolved the principle of
Ahamkara (Ego or Self identification with the body). Ahamkara
(Ego) is of three kinds – (a) Vaikarika (Sattvika) Ego: When
underwent transformation evolved Manas i.e., the Mind (Citta
and Ego) – whose thoughts and reflections give rise to desires,
(b) Taijasa (Rajasika) Ego: When underwent transformation
evolved Buddhi (understanding), Prana (Vital Air), 5 Sense
Perceptions (Auditory, Tactile, Sight, Taste and Olfactory) and 5
Organs of Actions (Vocal Apparatus, Hands, Feet, Genitals and
Defecation) and (c) Tamasika Ego: This ego underwent
transformation, sprang up (Subtle and Gross elements). They are
the principle of Sound evolved Ether and auditory sense (which
catches sound). From Ether sprang up the principle of touch and
evolved Air as well as tactile sense (which perceives touch).
From Air evolved principle of colour then Fire as well as sense of
sight (enable to perceive colour). From Fire proceeded the
principle of taste, thence Water as well as the sense of Taste.
From Water proceeded the principle of smell, thence Earth as
well as olfactory sense (perceiving odour) (Bhagavata 3: 10: 14
to 17 and 3: 26: 1 to 50). The above evolution can further be
explained as follows. After certain subtle phases of evolution,
endless empty Space was the first subtle manifestation of Maya
(Cosmic power). In the infinite Space, unlimited space pockets of
various sizes were formed and they become the base of
unlimited sub – Universes. The next phase of evolution of Maya
was Vayu (Air) which created circular movements in the Space,
as if the entire Space was in a circular motion from its central
point. In this motion sub – particles in the Space evenly merged.
The next phase of Mayic manifestation was Agni (Fire). Then the
particles in the Space annihilated to form hydrogen atoms. In the
next phase gravity began to predominate which resulted in the
formation of the basic structure of innumerable galaxies and
their clusters. Due to the already existing motion in the Space the
galaxies look like moving away from each other. The speed and
orbit of movement of these galaxies vary from each other, but
they are perfectly controlled and synchronized, which itself
reflects the Divine activity in the Universe. When the galaxies
begin to stabilize and assume their normal shape, Brahman
(God) creates great number of Divine Celestial Spaces in the
galaxies. Brahman (God), though beyond the three Gunas, He
assumes Rajo Guna (activity) thus known Him as Lord Brahma
(God for Creation). There is one Lord Brahma, for each Celestial
Space. Lord Brahma creates Celestial abodes of gods and
goddesses. Celestial abodes are invisible, for human beings, as
they are in different space dimensions. One planetary system
with its Celestial abodes is called one Brahmanda. Brahmanda
means the material and the celestial creation of one single Lord
Brahma. There are three types of dimensions (Material, Celestial
and Divine) and two kinds of spaces (Material and Celestial) in
this Brahmanda. Material and Celestial Creations are two
dimensions of the material power of Maya. The Divine
dimension is equally omnipresent in both (Material and
Celestial) dimensions, but it is not visible to Mayic beings (both
Material and Celestial beings). Material creation consists of the
planetary system(Earth, Sun, Moon and planetary system etc.) in
the Material space. In the Celestial space, which is next to
Material space, there is Celestial Creation. The top most Celestial
abode i.e., Brahma Loka belongs to Lord Brahma (God for
Creation). The abodes of Lord Vishnu, Lord Shiva and Goddess
Durga represent a branch of Vaikunta abode in the Celestial
abode. Other Celestial gods like Indra (King of the Celestial
abode and also God of thunder and lightning), Vayu (God of air),
Agni (God of fire), Varuna (God of water and rain), Kubera (God
of wealth), Brihaspati (God of wisdom and Guru for Gods) and
Prajapati (President of the God’s kingdom) etc., represent the
Celestial creation. The material reasoning and conditions are
based upon the limitations of material time and space. This is the
reason that happenings, which are beyond the Mayic sphere,
cannot be intellectualized. There are innumerable Brahmandas
along with one Lord Brahma each for each Brahmanda in one
galaxy. After the formation of Earth planet, the ozone layer was
formed, oceans began to exist. Vegetation is the first form of life
that appeared on the Earth planet, as the soil itself contains the
subtle form of the seeds of all kinds of vegetation. Lord Brahma
transfers the Souls (as per their Prarabdha Karma Phalas) into
these seeds and the vegetation grows. Afterwards they create
their own seeds. When the Nature further evolves the bodies of
insects, fishes, birds, animals and human beings are formed and
Lord Brahma transfers the Souls (as per their Prarabdha Karma
Phalas) into them (Bhagavad Gita 9: 8). Lord Brahma produces
the first pair of all living beings on the Earth planet and
afterwards they multiply themselves. Brahman (God), though
beyond the three Gunas, He assumes Sattva Guna (compassion),
thus known Him as Lord Vishnu, who sustains Creation with
Dharma. Due to Avidya (ignorance) Souls, attracted by the
charms of this mayic world, lose sight of their identity as a
reflection or part of God and associate themselves, on their
own will (means accepts bondage), with Maya (body and
material world) to satisfy their senses. There are a total of
84,00,000 varieties of living beings on the Earth planet. This
Knowledge (systematic theory and detailed chronological order
of Creation) was already incorporated in Bhagavata by
Bhagavan Veda Vyasa with His Divine Knowledge over 5,000
years ago. In spite of advanced scientific and technological
expertise none of the existing theories of scientists, cosmologists
and historians could find conclusive answers to their own
theories on Creation. The Creation aspect is further explained in
Puranas, Manu – Smriti and various Darshanas (Philosophies).
Creation as per Puranas
The broad theme as explained in Puranas is as follows. In
the beginning Brahman pervaded the entire Universe. When it
was time for Creation, Brahman manifested Himself as three
Supreme Gods i.e., Lord Brahma (God for Creation), Lord Vishnu
(God for Preservation) and Lord Shiva (God for
Destruction).Then water was created and out of the water many
headed serpent arose which is known as Seshnag. Lord Vishnu
took the Seshnag as his resting place. Next from the waters came
a Golden Egg. Lord Brahma (God for Creation), entered the egg
and within the egg He carried out the work of Creation for
thousands of years. Then the egg hatched into two parts. The
upper part was made the Heaven and the lower part the Earth.
The Sun emerged from the egg and took its ordained place. Since
it is first to emerge Sun is known as Aditya. Then Lord Brahma
created various forms of Life.
Creation as per Manu-Smriti
According to Manu-Smriti the Self-existent Brahman
manifested to dispel the darkness enveloping everything. He
created the Waters and deposited a seed that became Golden
Egg (Hiranyagarbha), from which He was born as Lord Brahma.
He divided the egg in two parts to create Heaven and Earth. Lord
Brahma created ten Prajapathies (mind born sons), believed to
be the fathers of the human race. They are Marici, Atri, Angira,
Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Vasistha, Daksa, Bhrgu and Narada
(Bhagavata 3: 12: 21&22). The first seven are known as Sapta
Maharishis (Seven Great Sages) and fourteen Manus (Manu
Swayambhuva etc.) to help him in Creation (Bhagavad Gita 10:
6). Brahman divided Himself into three parts i.e., Lord Brahma
(became Creator), Lord Vishnu (became Preserver) and Lord
Shiva (became Destroyer) of the Universe.
Creation as per Sankhya Philosophy
Sankhya is the most ancient School of Hindu Philosophy
(which determines the nature of fundamental principles). It
recognizes three ultimate realities i.e., (a) Brahman (God) (b)
Purusa (Soul) and (c) Prakrti (Maya).
Brahman (God): Brahman (God) is all blissful, all
pervading, all gracious and all loving Divine personality.
He is Creator, Preserver and Destroyer.
Purusa (Soul): Purusa (Soul) is pure consciousness or
sentience, uncaused, changeless, eternal and pure spirit
(totally devoid of matter). It is totally passive and all
pervading. There are many Purusas (just like light from
many candles can occupy the same space).
Prakrti (Maya): Prakrti (Maya) is unconsciousness,
primordial matter. Though it is uncaused, it is the cause
of everything in this Universe whether mind, matter or
energy (Purusa is not caused by Prakrti). It is composed
of three extremely subtle (Sukshma) substances, called
Sattva Guna, Rajo Guna and Tamo Guna (refer Gunas)
Process of Creation: Intent upon becoming many (at the
dawn of Creation), The Brahman (Lord of Maya) assumed
at will (pressed into His service) by His own Maya
(deluding potency), Time, Karmas (destiny of the
Jeevatmas i.e., Souls) and Swabhava (their innate
disposition) that had already existed in the latent form in
His being. The Supreme Person (God) placed His energy
(in the form of Cit – Shakti i.e., power of intelligence and
Kala i.e., Imperishable Time) in His own Maya, the
equilibrium of whose Gunas has been disturbed by the
destiny of various Souls. These forces, unwind the energy
(Creation unfolds), which were in dormant state in
Brahman during Maha Pralaya. Maya gave birth to Mahat-
tattva (the principle of cosmic intelligence) and the
second is Ahamkara (Ego or Self-identification with Maya
or body). There are three types of Egos—(a) From
Sattvika Ego, Mind and deities presiding over the senses
are evolved. (b) From Rajasika Ego, the principle of
Buddhi (analyzer, understanding), Indriyas (5 Sense
Perceptions i.e., Auditory sense (catches sound), Tactile
sense (perceives touch), sense of Sight (perceives colour),
sense of Taste (perceives taste) and Olfactory sense
(perceives odour) as well as 5 Organs of Actions (i.e.,
Vocal apparatus, Hands, Legs, Genitals and Anus) are
evolved. (c) From Tamasika Ego, 5 Subtle elements (i.e.,
Sound, Touch, Colour, Taste and Smell) and 5 Gross
elements (i.e., Ether, Air, Fire, Water and Earth) are
evolved. (Refer Appendix “C” – Page Nos. 173 and 174).
These five subtle elements mingle in different
proportions following certain rules of permutation and
combination, called as Pancikarana, and become the
Pancikarana: The five subtle (Sukshma) elements are
called Pancha Sukshma Bhutas. These five subtle elements
mingled in five different ways to produce five gross
(Sthula) elements. They are called five gross elements
(Pancha Sthula Bhutas). They became manifold Universe
(Refer Appendix “D” - Page No. 175):
½ Subtle Ether+1/8 Subtle Air “Gross Ether
+ 1/8 Subtle Fire+1/8 Subtle Element”
Water+1/8 Subtle Earth
½ Subtle Air+1/8 Subtle Ether “Gross Air
+1/8 Subtle Fire+1/8 Subtle Element”
Water+1/8 Subtle Earth
½ Subtle Fire+1/8 Subtle Ether “Gross Fire
+1/8 Subtle Air+1/8 Subtle Element”
Water+1/8 Subtle Earth
½ Subtle Water+1/8 Subtle “Gross Water
Ether+1/8 Subtle Air+1/8 Element”
Subtle Fire+1/8 Subtle Earth
½ Subtle Earth+1/8 Subtle “Gross Earth
Ether+1/8 Subtle Air+1/8 Element”
Subtle Fire+1/8 Subtle Water
Four Yugas (Krta Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga and Kali
Yuga) along with their Sandhya (transitional period marking the
beginning of each Yuga) and Sandhyamsa (transitional period
marking the end of each Yuga) consisting of 12,000 Celestial
years (43,20,000 human Years) make one Maha Yuga. The
period of Sandhya and Sandhyamsa is twice as many hundred
years of each Yuga. Things in the Universe deteriorate from Yuga
to Yuga. At the end of four Yugas (i.e., one Maha Yuga) the
physical world is destroyed by rain, flood and fire which is called
laya (deluge). After that Creation takes place once again. (Vishnu
Purana Book I; Chapter 3) (Refer Appendix “E” Cosmic Day and
Cosmic Night – Page Nos. 176 and 177).
Krta Yuga or Satya Yuga: Krta Yuga or Satya Yuga has
4,800 Celestial Years (17,28,000 human years) (4 x Kali
Yuga periods). During this period Dharma (God of Virtue
in the form of Austere Penance, Purity, Compassion and
Truthfulness) (who protects the Universe), has been
represented in the form of four legs of a bull, exists
complete on its four legs (Bhagavata 1: 17: 24). During
this period Sattva Guna predominates among people and
pursue for Moksa by following Satyam (Truthfulness),
Dharmam (Religious Merit) and Dhyanam (Meditation).
In this Yuga, children like all other things, come by mere
wishing. Human beings live for about 1,00,000 years.
People are always happy. There are no superiors or
inferiors. Hatred and jealousy are unknown. The earth
yield abundant supply of juices and mankind live happily
with that. There is no concept of sin (Papam) and store of
Treta Yuga: The period of this Yuga is 3,600 Celestial
Years (12,96,000 human years) (3 x Kali Yuga periods).
During this period Austere Penance falls into destitute.
Only Purity, Compassion and Truthfulness are practiced
in the name of Virtue (i.e., Dharma standard reduces and
stands on three legs). During this period Rajo Guna
predominates among people and performs Yajnas and
mainly observes Dharma (Religious Merit). Knowledge is
the chief virtue during this period. Procreation happens
by mere touch. Human beings live for few thousands of
years. Clouds form in the sky and cause heavy rains.
Because of the rains earth no longer yield juices. It rains
so much that trees grow and people live on the sap of
those trees. Individuals slowly turn evil and start to fight
over the possession of those trees. The trees no longer
provide sap, but start giving fruits and human beings live
on fruits and vegetables. When human beings continue to
fight over the possession of the trees, trees start to wither
away. People learn to practice agriculture and animal
husbandry to live on. Heat and cold manifest and people
require building houses to protect themselves from the
heat and the cold.
Dwapara Yuga: The period of this Yuga is 2,400 Celestial
Years (8,64,000 human years) (2 x Kali Yuga periods).
During this Yuga Austere Penance and Purity both
become obsolete; Compassion and Truthfulness alone
prevail and Dharma standard further reduces and stands
on two legs. During this Yuga a mixture of Rajo and Tamo
Gunas predominates and people suspect everything.
People perform Archana (Pooja (Chanting) of God).
Human beings are subject to disease and misery. Children
are born out of male and female union. Human beings live
for about few hundred years. Mankind really starts to
suffer from the time of Dwapara Yuga. Starting of evil
traits like hatred, jealousy, fraudulence, greed and
quarrels can be traced back to this period. Famine and
droughts are first felt on earth in this Yuga.
Kali Yuga: Kali Yuga is the worst of all Yugas. The period
of this Yuga is 1,200 Celestial Years (4,32,000 human
years). During this period Truthfulness alone remains,
the other three Virtues become very rare (Bhagavata 3:
11: 21). Unrighteousness advances and Dharma (Virtue)
standard is further reduces and limps on one leg. During
Kali Yuga, Tamo Guna and Arishad Vargas (Page No. 50)
predominate among people. No one pays any attention to
good and it is the evil that prevails. Few people pray God
through Samkirtana and Stotrams (Singing in praise of
God). During this period people are mostly short-lived,
slothful (little inclined to thread the path of God-
realization), most dull-witted (less knowledge), unlucky
(suffers from poverty) and tormented with diseases and
other evils (Bhagavata 1: 1: 10). Human beings live up to
100 years during Kali Yuga. At the end of Dwapara Yuga,
when Lord Krishna renounced the world and ascended to
His abode, Kali Yuga is supposed to have started
(Bhagavata 12: 2: 29, 33) on the midnight of 17 February
3,102 B.C.E. King Yudhisthira (Dharma Raju) realized the
advent of Kali Yuga (which will be chaos), abdicated the
throne and coroneted Arjuna’s grandson, Parikshit, to the
throne of Hastinapura.
The length of one Maha Yuga (i.e., total of above four
Yugas) is 43,20,000 human years. At the end of one Maha Yuga,
Laya (Destruction) takes place. The physical world is destroyed
by rain, floods and fire. Life on earth dies. Each destructive
period is followed by the succession of Creation. Then the period
of next Maha Yuga starts again with the life on Earth.
Lord Brahma (God of Creation)
Lord Brahma (God of Creation) has a life span of 100
Cosmic years (equivalent to 31,104 Crore or 311.04 Trillion
human years). 100 Cosmic years, which is called Para, is divided
into two halves and each half is called Parardha. Present Lord
Brahma is in his first day of His 51
Cosmic year, i.e., second half
of His 100 Cosmic years of his life, which is called Dwiteeya
Parardha. Each Cosmic year consists of 360 Cosmic days (i.e.,
day time) and 360 Cosmic nights (i.e., night time). Lord Brahma’s
one Cosmic day or one Cosmic night is equivalent to one Kalpa
each for human beings (i.e., there are 720 Kalpas in one Cosmic
year). Till now 36,000 Kalpas i.e., 18,000 Cosmic days time
(Creation) and 18,000 Cosmic night time (Pralaya or
destruction) have already lapsed. The period of each Kalpa is
equivalent to 432 Crore or 4.32 Billion human years. Present
Kalpa is called Sveta Varaha Kalpa, (Sveta means yellow colour,
Varaha means bore, i.e., Lord Vishnu took the form (incarnation)
of yellow colour bore in this Kalpa for the upliftment of the Earth
from the ocean to save Earth from demon Hiranyaksa)
(Bhagavata 3: 11: 33, 34 and 36), which started about 197.29
Crore or 1.9729 Billion human years ago. One Kalpa has 14
Manvantaras. During each Manvantara a Manu assists Lord
Brahma for the Creation. Present Manvantara (i.e., 7
out of total
14 Manvantaras) is called Vaivaswata Manvantara (Manu
Vaivaswata is son of Vivaswan (Sun)) (Bhagavata 8: 13: 1) which
started 12.22 Crore or 122.2 Million human years ago. The
period of each Manvantara is equivalent to 30.672 Crore or
306.72 Million human years. Each Manvantara is separated by
an intervening period called Sandhya Kala that makes 15
Sandhya Kalas separating 14 Manvantaras. The period of each
Sandhya Kala is equivalent to the period of one Krta or Satya
Yuga i.e., 17,28,000 human years. The period of 15 Sandhya
Kalas i.e., 15 x17,28,000 is equal to the period of 6 Maha Yugas
i.e., 6 x 43,20,000 ( 2.592 Crore or 25.92 Million human years).
Each Manvantara has 71 Maha Yugas. Present Maha Yuga is 28
Maha Yuga. The period of one Maha Yuga is 43,20,000 or 4.32
Million human years. Each Maha Yuga has 4 Yugas. The present
Yuga, called Kali Yuga, has 4,32,000 human Years, which has
started at the midnight on 17/18 February 3102 B.C.E. Thus
one Kalpa consists of 1000 Maha Yugas (i.e., 14 (Manvantaras) x
71(Maha Yugas) + 6 (i.e., 15 Sandhya Kalas, which are equivalent
to 6 Maha Yugas) (Bhagavad Gita 8:17). At the dawn of the
Cosmic day (Kalpa period starts) Lord Brahma starts Creation
of three worlds (Bhur Loka (earth), Bhuvar Loka (the space
between the Earth and the Sun inhabited by Munis/Rishis) and
Swarga Loka (the space between the Sun and the Pole Star i.e.,
Indra’s Heaven) as in the preceding Kalpa i.e., sub-human
creatures, human beings and Demi-Gods are born according to
their respective Prarabdha Karma Phalas (Narada Parivrajaka
Upanishad 5: 7; Bhagavata 2: 9: 38). By the end of Cosmic day
(end of the day time) (for human beings Kalpa period ends) Lord
Brahma stops Creation. At the start of the Cosmic night (for
human beings next Kalpa period starts), Lord Brahma assumes
an iota of Tamo Guna (the principle of inactivity), winding up his
activity (Creation) becomes quit (by the force of the Time
withdrawing all the worlds into his belly), starts taking rest (or
sleep) and Pralaya (means “to dissolve”, “melt away”, “liquefy”,
“dissolution”, “reabsorption”, “destruction” and “death”) takes
place. Means the Earth planet and the Sun along with three
Celestial abodes (Bhur, Bhuvar and Swarga Lokas) means
physical world and the subtle worlds are absorbed in the Causal
world and the Souls takes rest in the Causal world until the start
of next Creation. It means they enter into the transition period
and during this period Lord Brahma holds, all the beings of the
material and celestial worlds in a suspended state, within
Himself. Duration of one Cosmic night is equivalent to the period
of one Kalpa. During this period Lord Brahma takes rest (or
sleep) and Pralaya or chaos reigns supreme. When Lord Brahma
wakes up in the morning (at the dawn of the next Cosmic day)
(another period of Kalpa starts) order is restored and
Lord Brahma starts Creation again. The present age of Lord
Brahma is 1
day of His 51
year, which is 15697. 394
Crore or 156.97384 Trillion human years. Thus these processes
of Creation by Lord Brahma during the Cosmic day and
Dissolution during Cosmic night continue till Lord Brahma
reaches His 100 Cosmic years. At the end of his 100 Cosmic years
(end of Maha Kalpa i.e., the period of one Maha Kalpa (72,000
Kalpas) is 100 Cosmic years) Lord Brahma merges in Brahman.
Brahman, though beyond the three Gunas, assumes Tamo Guna
(Destruction) thus known Him as Lord Shiva, who winds up His
energy (forces) in the reverse order of Creation. Maha Pralaya
(great deluge or complete dissolution) of Brahmanda takes place
i.e., all the three Worlds, all time, form and space (i.e., the
planetary system and its celestial abodes means the entire
Universe) (Physical, Subtle and Causal) are withdrawn or
absorbed into Brahman (Bhagavad Gita 9: 18). Space is now
reduced to 100 Cosmic years of chaos at the end of which
Brahman Creates a new life span of a new Lord Brahma
and the above process of Creation and Dissolution
repeats itself and it is a never ending process (Bhagavad Gita
8:19). This view of Cosmic time is given in Puranas and Dharma
Shastras. If one looks at this Creation (Evolution), Laya, Pralaya
and Maha Pralaya (Dissolution) from scientific point of view,
it is nothing but expanding and contracting theory of Energy.
This world is Vyavaharika Satya (means real for the time being
only). It is not Paramarthika Satya (means ultimate reality). This
world has a beginning and an end in time. Therefore, it cannot be
eternal and hence it must be in transition. Being in transition it
cannot be real. The apparent reality of the world is the essence
of its ever changing character. Had it been real, it should be
changeless. Brahman, being eternal and changeless, is the only
reality that exists. To a person who has realized Brahman, this
world appears to him as an illusion (magic) and not real to him
anymore. Major historical events, right from the start of Creation
and also the events of Bharata Varsha (ancient India) are given
in Bhagavata and Puranas. Brahman (Personal form of God)
created present Lord Brahma about 15,697.3 Crore or 156.973
Trillion human years ago or precisely 15697,39,49,110 human
years ago (as in 2008 C.E. i.e., Common Era). During the first
Kalpa (i.e., first day time of Lord Brahma), which is called
Brahma Kalpa, Lord Brahma meditated for Brahman, which is
known as Brahma Samhita, and conceived all the Vedas, with
the Grace of Brahman. Then Brahman appeared in the form of
four brothers i.e., Sanatkumara, Sanaka, Sanandana and
Sanatana and expounded the Truth of the Spirit, which had been
lost during the Dissolution of the previous Kalpa (Bhagavata 2:
7: 5). During the third Kalpa (i.e., second day time for Lord
Brahma) Lord Brahma created Brahmanda, produces the first
ten Rishis, known as Prajapathies (mind born sons of Lord
Brahma) and Celestial Gods (Devas) and Asuras (Demons). The
abode of Lord Brahma is called Brahma Loka or Satya Loka. The
abodes for Celestial Gods (Devas) are called Tapo Loka, Jana
Loka, Mahar Loka, Swarga Loka (the abode of Indra), and
Bhuvar Loka. Then Bhur Loka (Earth) and after the Earth are the
abodes of the demons viz., Atala Loka, Vitala Loka, Sutala Loka,
Rasatala Loka, Talatala Loka, Mahatala Loka and Patala Loka,
are below Bhur Loka (Earth planet). One Brahmanda consists of
the above 14 Lokas. All the other Lokas, except Bhur Loka (Earth
planet), are in a different Space dimensions and therefore cannot
be seen by normal human beings. Later on the Ozone layer is
formed on the Earth planet. Then Lord Brahma produces Manu
Swayambhuva, who assists Lord Brahma for Creation during the
first Manvantara. The Rishis (Sages) on the Earth planet
conceive, with the Grace of Brahman (through Lord Brahma) the
Vedas and Puranas. Gradually the nature evolves and human
The word Dharma is formed from the root word Dhryan
(Dhryan Dharme). Dharma means changeless virtue,
righteousness, morality and religion. It also means duty and such
actions and Spiritual or religious practices that finally result in
all – good for an individual Soul and Humanity as a whole. It also
means such thoughts, actions and practices (virtues) that
promote physical and mental happiness in this world and also
ensure the attainment of the final goal of God - realization.
Dharma also includes moral and ethical duties. Darayati Dharm
Ity Ahu means whatever sustains is Dharma. The Divine Self
(Atma) is the foundation of our being and it is Self which sustains
us. Atharva Veda states that Prithivim Dharmana Dhritam
means the world is sustained by Dharma. Dharmo Rakshata
Rakshitah means whoever protects Dharma, Dharma protects
them. The principles of Dharma are Self-Control and Self-
Sacrifice. There are two kinds of Dharmas. Firstly Apara
(Vyavaharika means worldly) Dharma means good Karmas
(actions), which is secondary or general or preliminary
discipline. It is the religious discipline and injections of Do’s and
Don’ts that are explained in the Scriptures for uplifting the
Sattvic (pious) qualities of human beings in general. It means
having faith in God and then doing all the good actions to please
God and not for personal gain. They are applicable to all kinds
and all classes of people living with various ways of life. Such
good actions pacify the doer in the existing life and in the next
life they create a good destiny. Apara Dharma is preliminary or
preparatory stage for entering into the next stage of Dharma.
The next stage of Dharma is called Para (Brahman) Dharma or
Paramardhika Dharma. This is the main Dharma which ensures
attainment of the final goal of God-realization to a Soul. One can
realize God through Ananya and Nirantara Bhakti (absolute and
continuous Devotion) towards God in His personal form without
any desire (Bhagavata 11: 14: 21). It gives both peace and
happiness in this life as well as attainment of God – realization
and finally Liberation (freedom from birth, death and rebirth),
which is the ultimate goal to any Soul. Devotion (Bhakti) is above
all the religious formalities, practices and rituals. It is true Love
of your Soul towards your beloved God. It can be observed by
any person, at any time, at any place, in any dress and in any
method. It is universal. Nishkama (without desire) and Nirantara
(always) do Bhakti (devotion) which is the Dharma (duty) of the
Atma (Bhagavata 1: 2: 6). Any Dharma which does not induce
Bhakti (devotion) is no Dharma (Bhagavata 1: 2: 8). Dharma
with Bhakti (devotion) is the only Dharma (Bhagavata 11: 19:
27). Thus the Dharma, which is based on such Devotion (Bhakti)
and which establishes Devotion (Bhakti) for God as a universal
religion of the world, is called Sanatana Dharma (Eternal
Religion). God is Dharmadhistana. It means that Sanatana
(Eternal) Dharma (Religion) is established in God and resides in
God as Divine power. It is revealed by Brahman (God) through
Lord Brahma before human civilization and reproduced by Rishis
(Sages) through Vedas, Upanishads and Puranas.
Vyaktigata (Individual) Dharma
Every individual must follow the under mentioned
principles as their moral and ethical duties:
Dama: Control of external organs.
Arjava: Strait forwardness.
Ahimsa: No injury to any form of life.
Satya: Truthfulness in thought, word and deed.
Akrodha: Absence of anger.
Santosha: Contentment and happiness.
Brahmacharya: Control of carnal desires and passion.
Thyaga: Renunciation of selfishness.
Apaishuna: Refrain from backbiting.
Aparigraha: Non-acceptance of unnecessary gifts.
Daya: Kindness and compassion.
Shanthi: Peace of mind (by controlling it).
Shoucha: Purity of body and mind.
Adhroha: Freedom from malice.
(Note: Attainment of absolute perfection of all the above
qualities is very difficult at initial stage. But one should
make efforts for step by step improvement of grading and
after a certain stage they themselves pull up, like a magnet,
towards absolute perfection).
Parivarika (Family) Dharma
Parivarika Dharma starts with marriage which involves
mutual love, self-sacrifice and respect. Wife is called Dharma
Patni. Wife is a co-operating energy of her husband and one
does not have an identity without the other (Example: Agni’s
(Fire’s) wife is Swaaha (burning power), eye and its eyesight).
Wife is Ardhangini (half of husband’s body) (Brhadaranyaka
Upanishad 1 or 3: 4: 3) and Saha-dharma Charini (partner in
husband’s Spiritual practice). Hinduism offers twofold Spiritual
paths or sets of religious duties – (a) Pravrtti Marg for family
man (house holder) involving in worldly activities and (b) Nivrtti
Marg for Sannyasi (Monk) by withdrawing from worldly
activities (Bhagavata 1: 9: 26 to 28). The ultimate goal of human
life, according to Hinduism, is God–realization and Liberation.
Following duties of family man assure this goal (Note: Also refer
Gruhasta Ashram – Page No. 57 to 59 & 153 and 154):
Perform your duties (actions) as per Scriptures.
Surrender the fruits of your actions to God.
Your life is meant for the service of God, poor and
Earn your livelihood through honest means.
Look upon your parents as representatives of God, please
them and must not forget that you owe your physical
body to them.
You must not take food before providing food to your
parents, wife, children and the poor.
You must maintain complete fidelity to your wife.
You should never use improper language in the presence
You should not brag about your achievements, wealth,
power and position.
You must not give excessive attention to food, clothes and
You should maintain cleanliness of your body, purity at
heart and in mind.
You should lovingly bring up your children, properly
educate and marry them.
Be active, should not be lazy and coward.
You should also help brothers and sisters (if poor), needy
and the poor.
You should respect those who are good and noble.
Always speak truth.
You should struggle to become wealthy by honest means.
Engage yourself in social service for the benefit of the
Selfless actions will help you to attain the Spiritual goal.
(Note: Note after Vyaktigata Dharma at Page No. 47 is
also applicable for the above qualities)
Samaja (Society) Dharma
Individuals must observe code of conduct to maintain a
well integrated society. Duties towards the society are as under:
Non-violence. (Ahimso Paramo Dharma means non-
violence is the highest discipline).
Truthfulness. (Satya Meva Jayate means Truth alone shall
Control of anger and lower passions.
Good to neighbours.
Rashtra (Nation) Dharma
Rashtra Dharma means duties towards your Nation.
Individuals must make some self-sacrifice towards their country
Manava (Humanity) Dharma
Every individual has a responsibility and duty towards
humanity. Be compassionate towards all living beings. One
should do service and render help for those who are under-
privileged. Self sacrifice means self - sustenance and not self -
Levels of Dharma
The order of Dharma is Vyaktigata Dharma, Parivarika
Dharma, Samaja Dharma, Rashtra Dharma and Manava Dharma
(Refers Appendix “F” – Page No. 178).
Arishad Vargas (Enemies in subtle form)
In every human being these Arishad Vargas (invisible
enemies in subtle form), caused by Maya (Rajo Guna), are
embedded. Avidya (ignorance), caused due to the bondage of
Maya, leads to three gates to hell i.e., desire, anger and greed
(Bhagavad Gita 2: 62, 63, 71; 3:37 to 40; 6:24; 16: 21). Besides
this ego, attachment, jealousy and hatred etc. (material ailment)
constantly disturb the embodied Soul. Raga (affection,
attachment) leads to Krodha (anger). Krodha leads to Lobha
(greed). Lobha leads to Moha (passion). Moha leads loss of Sruti
(balance). Loss of Sruti leads to loss of Buddhi (discrimination).
Loss of Buddhi leads to death. Numerous vices are greed,
falsehood, thieving, wickedness, proneness to sin, wile and
hypocrisy. The places of vice are dice (falsehood), wine
(intoxication), women (passion) and shambles (cruelty)
(Bhagavata 1:17:32 & 38; 9:19:14). Actions done under their
influence, losing discrimination, cause harm and sufferings to
own self, others and the society which results immense damage
to Dharma. One should control and subdue these enemies and
vices to progress in pursuit of their Spiritual growth. Arishad
Vargas (enemies in subtle form) are as under:-
Kama (Desire): Originates in Mind. When not fulfilled
leads to Krodha. When fulfilled leads to Lobha. When
intensifies leads to Moha.
Krodha (Anger): When intensifies leads to Mada.
Lobha (Greed): When intensifies leads to Macharya.
Macharya (Attachment, Selfishness and jealousy).
The senses, mind and intellect are the seats of desire, an
insatiable fire, which deludes the embodied Soul (Bhagavad Gita
3: 39 and 40). Desire originates in two ways. Firstly, by
observing the world (material) and desiring for it. Secondly, by
the subtle instincts of the old Vasanas (unmanifested form of
desires) those are stored in the mind in previous lives. There are
many shades of desire which are indicative of different states of
mind. As the degree of desire increases, sorrows and problems
also increase proportionately. Desire is classified as under:
Vasana: Subtle and unmanifested form of desire.
Sprha: A feeling of want.
Iccha: Wish, a fully manifested form of desire.
Trupti: Contentment with whatever one gets for the
minimum basic needs of life.
Trsna (Aasha): Seeking to posses more and more even
though one is provided for all his basic needs.
Duraasha: Greed, a feeling that no one should have
anything and everything should be grabbed for himself.
Pancha Kosas (Five bodies or Sheaths)
All living beings bodies consist of the following five
sheaths (Taittiriya Upanishad 2: 5: 1 and Chapter 3 Sections 1 to
Annamaya Kosa: Material or physical sheath or body.
Pranamaya Kosa: Vital sheath – means breath for
sustenance of physical body.
Manomaya Kosa: Mental sheath.
Vijnanamaya Kosa: Intellectual sheath (Buddhi decides
to control the tangible world).
Anandamaya Kosa: Spiritual sheath (the attempt to
connect with the Supreme object succeeds).
Pillars of Virtue
Evolved four pillars of Dharma (Virtues) are as under
(Bhagavata 3: 12: 41):
Vidya: Purity acquired through knowledge of God.
Dana: Charity prompted by compassion.
Avidya (Nescience or Ignorance) or Pancha Klesas
Avidya (nescience i.e., the identification of the Self with
the body), known as Pancha Klesas, which are the sources of
pain/suffering, are as under (Bhagavata 3: 9: 20; Yoga Sutras 2:
Avidya: Fundamental ignorance.
Raga: Attraction or attachment.
Dwesa: Aversion or hatred.
Abhinivesa: Fear of death. Death is an inevitable ultimate
reality. One should realize this truth and develop mental
attitude to accept death gracefully.
Five–fold ignorance is as under (Bhagavata 3: 12: 2).
Tamas: Ignorance about one’s own Self.
Moha: Self - identification with the body etc.
Mahamoha: The craving for the bodily enjoyment.
Andhatamisra: Looking upon death as one’s own end.
Note: - Karma Phalas (fruits of all actions) should be offered
to God without expecting any results (fruits). (Bhagavad Gita
5: 10; 9: 27), (Isa Upanishad – 1).
Ye tat phalam sarvam Sri Krishna – Arpana Mastu :
(After doing any good deed, surrender all its fruits to God).
Hindu way of Life
Hindu way of life is based on the Karma Yoga. So Bharata
Varsha is called Karma Bhoomi. The Scriptures are the authority
as to what is right and what is wrong. Everyone must follow the
instructions of the Scriptures (Bhagavad Gita 16: 24). Hindu’s
main occupation was agriculture and raising cattle. During rainy
and winter seasons the cattle were kept under shelters at night.
As the cattle population increased many families used to keep
their cattle in common shelters at night and during winter due to
shortage of shelters. Then disputes arose as cattle used to get
mixed up. To solve their disputes highly noble people were
appointed as judges who used to resolve their disputes. In
Sanskrit Gotra means cow shelter. Gotradhipaties are those
judges who were Sages, Rishis, Maha Purusas, Mahatmas and
Seers. People and their descendents started identifying
themselves with their Gotradhipaties. All the present Hindu
generations are known by their Gotradhipaties i.e., those Sages,
Rishis or Seers. Example - Bharadwaja, Srivastava, Kasyapa,
Kaundanyasa etc., Gotras.
Varna (Order or Grades of Society or So called Caste System)
Fourfold Varna (order or grades of society) has been
clearly explained in Bhagavad Gita (4: 13). Originally the Varna
(so called caste system) had a qualitative base and all Varnas
(castes) were categorized based on the inherent qualities
(Gunas) or career potential of an individual. A person, naturally
endowed with noble qualities like truthfulness, serenity of mind,
non - violence, compassion, unselfishness, spiritual and moral
virtues (qualities of Sattva Guna), was called Brahmana
(Brahmin caste), was considered as a right person to teach and
give Spiritual guidance to others. One with compassion and
martial qualities (mixture of qualities of Sattva Guna and Rajo
Guna) was considered as Ksatriya (caste). One with business
acumen, farmers, herders and artisans who have mixture of
passion and ignorance (mixed qualities of Rajo Guna and Tamo
Guna) was considered as Vaisya (caste). Slaves and servants in
whom laziness and ignorance dominates (qualities of Tamo
Guna) was considered as Sudra (caste). (Note: This type of
classification i.e., Priests or Teachers, Rulers (Politicians),
Traders (Business community) and Working class exists in every
religion, society and country in one form or the other). Those
who violated the laws of Hindu society pertaining to food and
matrimony were considered as out-caste. Though Sudras and
out-caste people did not enjoy the same social status, they were
never looked down, ill treated or hated at that time. Service is
the root of the successful performance of all sacred duties; no
sacred obligation can be discharged without the service. Hence
the place of the Sudras, whose allotted duty is service, the root of
all virtues, is indeed high among all the Varnas (castes). The
Dharma (duty) of Brahmana has Moksa (final beatitude) for its
goal, that of Ksatriya has Kama (enjoyment) for its objective, that
of a Vaisya has Artha (wealth) for its goal, while that of a Sudra
has Dharma (religious merit and service which is the root of all
virtues) for its goal. In this way while the Dharma (duty) of the
first three Varnas (castes) has the other three Purusardhas (Ends
of human pursuits) for their goal, that of Sudra has Dharma or
service itself for its goal; hence it is declared above, that the very
occupation of a Sudra secures the pleasure of the God.
Brahmanas represents His (God’s) mouth, Ksatriyas (warriors)
represent His arms, Vaisyas (traders, farmers, herders and
artisans) represents His thighs and Sudras (slaves and servants)
represents His feet (Bhagavata 2: 1: 37 and 3: 6: 30 to 34).
Initially the classification of Varna (caste) was based on inherent
traits and qualities (as influenced by the qualities of Gunas) of an
individual. Subsequently it has become hereditary resulting
misfit people became Priests or Gurus (teachers) and Kings etc.
This practice might have emerged due to continued practice of
occupation to cater for the needs of the society during that
period, but as time passed the false sense of superiority of one
Varna (caste) over the other crept in and it became an
aberration on Hinduism. It can be observed from Hindu history
that Maharishi Valmiki (who authored Ramayana) was a savage
in early part of his life and there were many noble people from
the present day belief of lower castes. Mahatma Gandhi said “If
untouchability is part of Hinduism I will discard Hinduism”. He
termed Sudras as “Harijan” meaning “children of God”. Later it
has been termed as Dalit.
Ashramas (Stages) of Hindu way of Life (Bhagavata 3: 12: 41)
Brahmacharya Ashram (Student period).
Gruhasta Ashram (House holder or Family Man).
Vanaprasta Ashram (Semi – Retired period).
Sannyasa Ashram (Monk or hermit or recluse).
Brahmacharya Ashram (Student period)
Brahmacharya means pursuing of Brahman (God) i.e.,
acquiring the Vidya (knowledge) about Brahman (Brahma Jnan).
After completion of 5 years of age children were sent to
Guru Kula (Teacher’s residence) for acquiring Vidya (true
knowledge). Guru (means dispeller of Avidya i.e., ignorance) is an
intermediary between the Jeeva (Soul) and Brahman (God). Guru
is the one who has known, seen, experienced and realized
Brahman (God). In other words the one who has realized God is
called Guru or Maha Purusa or Mahatma or Maharishi (Great
Soul or Saint). Prayer to Guru is “Gurur Brahma Gurur Vishnu
Gurur Devo Maheswarah, Gurur Sakshat Para Brahma
Tasmai Sree Gurave Namah:” Brahmacharya Ashram (student
period) is the period spent by the student for acquiring Brahma
Jnan (Knowledge of God). On completion of Vidya the student is
called Snataka means “bather” which implies that the student
had successfully bathed in the water of True Knowledge. Guru
gives the farewell address to students on completion of Vidya at
his ashram (residence) with the emphasis on the following
aspects (Taittiriya Upanishad 1: 11: 1 to 6):
Satyam Vada. Speak Truth (by thought, word and deed).
Dharmam Chara. Practice Virtue by right Conduct and
right action (as per Scriptures).
Do not cut off the thread of the progeny.
Let there be no neglect of welfare, prosperity, studies and
duties to the Gods and Fathers.
Practice austerity and your own self always come last.
Be always poised and self - controlled.
Do your duties with cheerful heart and unattached mind.
“Matr Devo Bhava, Pitr Devo Bhava, Acarya Devo
Bhava, Atithi Devo Bhava”. (Mother, Father, Guru
(teacher) and Guest are God to you).
Your actions should always be blameless.
Give to others (donation) (dana) in abundance with love,
faith, modesty, reverence, joy, humility and compassion.
When in doubt follow the practices of great souls (Maha
Girls also used to receive education similar to that of
boys. Later as society became more rigid, it became customary
for the girls to be educated at home and taught by male relatives.
Because of their natural instinct many girls used to learn
classical music originated from Sama Veda (Veda of melodies)
and Indian classical dance. There were many learned women
Gurus (teachers) and they were given the same status and
honour given to men Gurus (teachers). Among them were Rishi
Gargi Vacaknavi, the daughter of Vacaknu; Pathyasvati (who was
given the title of Vaak means the Goddess of Learning), Rishis
Vishvavara, Ghosha and Apala. In the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad
one of the persons asking grilling questions to Maharishi
Yajnavalkya was none other than his virtuous wife Maitreyi and
female Rishi Gargi.
Gruhasta Ashram (House holder or Family Man)
The stage of Gruhasta Ashram (house – holder or family man)
starts with marriage. Both the wife and the husband live the life
of house - holder following the dictates of the Scriptures.
According to Hinduism, the institution of marriage is a sacred
and divine relationship between a female and a male (Refer
Appendix “G” Page Nos. 179 to 182). This relationship is meant
for their life – time (There is no divorce system in Hinduism).
The Mantras of marriage, if properly cited during the marriage,
have an everlasting effect of bondage of love, affection, mutual
respect and caring for each other between the couple for a
lifelong commitment. The Mantras recited (taking vows) by the
couple means sharing of equal duties and responsibilities for the
fulfilment of three of the four Purusardhas i.e., Dharma
(Religious merit), Artha (Wealth or worldly possessions) and
Kama (Desire). It is the individual responsibility and duty to
fulfil the fourth Purusardha i.e., Moksa (Liberation). However, as
per Hindu philosophy a wife gets 50% of her husband’s Punya
Phalas (fruits of good actions) because a wife encourages,
supports, cooperates and assists her husband to perform such
Punya Karmas (good actions). The rituals during the marriage
ceremony aim to bring the couple and their families together to
understand each other for a lifelong relationship. The growing
menace of dowry system in a sacred and divine institution of a
marriage is the darkest blot. Presently such a sacred and divine
institution of marriage has been made a commercial transaction
where pure love is lost sight off between the couple instead
desire, passion and lust prevail. A house – holder, who performs
his daily duties with his mind completely attached to Me,
remains unentangled in house – hold life and attains Divine Bliss
(Bhagavata 4: 30: 19). Important aspects during Gruhasta
Ashram are as under:
Daily worship ritual called Agnihotra (means offering
(sacrifice) to the Fire). Fire being the purest is considered
as God and courier of all sacrifices.
Study Vedas regularly to gain True Knowledge.
Earn an honest livelihood.
Raise the children with love and affection. Teach them
Be charitable to the poor.
Take care of your parents and other relatives living with
Treat women with honour, respect and make them happy.
In other words of Manu Swayambhuva “Where female
relatives live in grief, the family will soon perish and
the family where they are happy ever prosper.”
Husband and wife are expected to observe absolute
It is the duty of both husband and wife to create a happy
atmosphere at home. As per Manu Swayambhuva
“Everlasting happiness will be assured in
that family where husband is pleased with his
wife and the wife with her husband. Such family
is an Ideal Home and loving environment for the
children to grow”.
Wife is called Ardhangini means half of the husband’s
body. She is also called Saha-dharma-Charini means
partner in Spiritual life. Both the husband and the wife
are expected to help each other in their Spiritual growth
and their ultimate goal of God - realization.
(Note: Refer Vyaktigata and Parivarika Dharma – Page
Nos. 46 to 49 including their Note and also Page Nos.
153 and 154).
Vanaprasta Ashram (Semi – Retired period)
Vanaprasta Ashram is meant for practicing detachment
from this material (Mayic) world and attachment to God,
acquiring Tattva Jnan (Knowledge of Reality) and pursuing Atma
Jnan (Self – Realization). As per Hindu Scriptures people who
attain the age of 60 years (by then it is expected that their
children are grown up, married and settled in their lives) are to
take up (along with wife) Vanaprasta Ashram (semi – retired
life). During Vanaprasta Ashram they are required to detach
from the material world and attachments and lead simple life
with barest minimum food and necessaries just to maintain their
physical body and pursue their Spiritual growth with the
ultimate goal of attainment of Moksa (Liberation).They are not
repeat not supposed to interfere in the personal lives of their
children and relatives. If they are asked for any advice, then only
they may advise what is right and what is wrong and nothing
else. They should not expect that their advice is followed.
Sannyasa Ashram (Monk)
Sannyasa Ashram (Monk) is withdrawal from such
worldly activities endowed with passion/attachment and
following Nivrtti Marg. He not only gives up Karma Phalas (fruits
of actions), but also gives up Kartruttva Bhav (i.e., I am the doer
notion) and pursues for Brahma Jnan (God-Realization) (Narada
Parivrajaka Upanishad 4: 1 to 14 and 5: 1 to 15; Sannyasa
Upanishad 1: 1 to 3 and 2: 1 to 21).
Women as per Hinduism
Hindu society respect women. Hindu girls had the right to
marry the men of their own choice through Swayam Vara
(means self selection of the groom). It is the mother, sister, wife
or daughter who really used to rule the family with her pure
love, affection, kindness, purity, chastity and selflessness. Her
love is superior to any other forms of worldly love. Hindu society
never tolerates any insult done to a mother, sister, wife or
daughter. In Hinduism, the Supreme God is looked upon as
“Divine Mother - Lalita” (superior to three Murthies i.e., Lord
Brahma, Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva). Also Goddess Saraswati
(represents Knowledge), Goddess Lakshmi (represents Wealth)
and Goddess Parvati (represent Shakti or Power) are the highest
respected Deities for Hindus. Three Murties cannot perform their
respective duties without them. As per Manu Swayambhuva
“Where women are honoured, there the Gods are pleased. But
where they are not honoured, no sacred rite yields rewards”
(Manu Smriti 3: 56). When a girl is born in a family, she is
considered as Goddess Lakshmi (Goddess for Wealth) has taken
birth in their home. Parents used to get maximum happiness
during the growth (childhood) of their daughter and because of
their happiness they used to prosper. Hindus consider
Kanyadana (Kanya means unmarried girl and Dana means
donation, meaning giving away (donation) of the daughter in
marriage to the groom, a ritual in Hindu marriage) as the
greatest and highest sacrifice (donation) than any other material
sacrifice (dana). As the time passed and Virtues (qualities of
Sattva Guna) diminished people started considering, due to their
selfish attitude (domination of Tamo Guna qualities), the birth of
a girl as a burden (as they have to grow the child, educate her
and spend for her marriage and finally after the marriage she
goes to another family) compared to the birth of a boy as he
would earn and look after the parents during their old age. Even
the mother and other women relatives also have similar feelings,
which is an utter disgrace to their own gender. In certain Rajput
families they consider the birth of a girl as a disgrace (due to
their inflated ego and domination of Rajo Guna qualities). (There
is a requirement of change of attitude in Hindus in this regard).
Hindu way of Life (Samskaras)
Dharma (Virtue) and Spiritual progress are the main objects
in Hindu way of life. The following Samskaras are important
occasions in a Hindu family which are celebrated with
Garbhadana: Consummation of marriage.
Pumsavan: First sign of conception of wife.
Seemantam: Parting of hair of expecting mother (7th
month of pregnancy).
Jata – Karma: First breast feeding to the child by mother.
Nama – Karana: Naming of child (11
day after the birth).
Nishkramana: Sun and Moon are shown to the child.
Annaprasana: Child is given first solid food.
Chuda – Karana: First hair cut (leaving tuft) to the child.
Karna – Bhedha: Piercing of ears – 7
Upanayanam: Tread Ceremony (for boys only) after 5
years. Afterwards studies of Vedas begin at Gurukula.
Kesanta: After completion of studies, hair is cut and
Gurudakshana is given.
Samavartan: Returns home from Gurukula after studies.
Vanaprastha: Semi-Retired life, after children are settled.
Sannyasa: Shedding all attachments before Death.
Antyeshthi: Last rights after death.
Note: As per Hindu customs there is no celebration at the
time of birth of a child. The child, on birth, first cries which
means that the Soul is unhappy to enter into this Mayic world
(product of Maya) to undergo its Prarabdha Karma Phalas of
sufferings and sorrows. (Example: A convicted person’s
unwillingness to enter a prison to undergo his jail sentence).
Hindu families observe the following rituals:-
Building of a new house.
Entering a new house.
Attainment of puberty (for girls only).
Sraddha (death anniversary).
Note: Sraddha means ritual done with devotion. Rituals
of death, funeral and Sraddha have a significant
importance as per Hindu Scriptures. Dahana Kriya
(disposal of the dead body by burning), the rituals done
during the first thirteen days immediately after the death,
then Masikas (monthly ceremonies during the first year of
the dead), Samvastarika (rituals done for three days on
completion of one year of the dead) and later yearly
Ceremonies of the dead are very important Hindu rituals.
Hindu Scriptures dealt these in detail and laid stress for
performance of these rituals. By performing these rituals
with devotion and love to their parents, their (Parent’s)
blessings and good wishes will provide impetus for the
well being of their children and also act as a shield against
evil forces. Secondly one will be rid of his Pitru Runa
(Debt to ancestors) (refer page No. 71). But it is pity that
many Hindus, because of their ignorance, lost sight of
these important rituals and offer lame excuses to avoid
for the performance of such rituals.
Shodasa Puja (Sixteen Steps of Worship)
Every Puja (worship) of any God has Shodasa (sixteen
steps). Before commencement of worship of any God one should
(a) Take bath; (b) Wear neatly washed clothes; (c) Lit Deepam
(oil lamp) near God’s idol or image or photo picture; (d) First
pray to Lord Ganesha; (e) Then pray to one’s own Guru (Spiritual
mentor). Then one should follow the following sixteen steps of
Puja (worship) of his/her choice of any God or Goddess:
Dhyanam and Avahanam: Meditate and invoke the Deity
into the idol or photo picture.
Asanam: Offer a seat to God.
Padhyam: Wash God’s feet with water.
Argyam: Offer water to God to wash His/Her hands.
Achamanam: Offer water to God to drink.
Madhuparkam: Offer silk cloths to God.
Abhishekam: Give bath with Pancha Amrutams to God.
Vastram: Offer dress to God.
Yajnopaveetam: Offer sacred thread to God.
Gandham: Offer sandalwood powder/paste to God.
Pushpam: Offer flowers and flower garland to God chanting
His/Her various names and virtues.
Dhoopam: Lit Agarbatti (incense sticks) and show to God.
Deepam: Offer lighted lamp to God.
Naivedyam: Offer food (fruits or cooked items) (in-between
offer water to Him/her to drink).
Tamboolam: Offer beetle leaves to God.
Neeranjanam: Light camphor and show to God.
Atma Pradakshanam: Go around yourself and prostate before
Him/Her (indicating one’s absolute surrender to God
subduing ones Ahamkara (Ego) i.e., false identification of the
Soul with the body due to Avidya (ignorance)).
Note: After the above sixteen steps of Puja (worship) of God
one should first offer Prasadam (food offered to God as
Naivedya) to others and then eat that Prasadam as God’s gift.
There are many Hindu festivals observed by various
regions and some of them slightly vary from region to region but
the central theme of either material prosperity or spiritual
enlightenment remains the same. Over the period many forgot
the main central theme of these festivals and attribute different
stories and follow different customs and ways of observing these
festivals. Since Hindus follow Lunar/Solar calendar the days of
these festivals vary from Gregorian calendar (which is
commonly used all over the world). Some of the important and
major Hindu festivals are as under:
Bogi or Lohri: This festival is celebrated on 13
honour of Lord Indra (King of Celestial Gods and also God of
clouds and rain), for sufficient rains for the abundance of
harvest and prosperity of the land.
Makara Samkranti: This festival is celebrated on 14
the day Sun enters the Sign of Makara (the first sign of a new
year and also the first day 90 degrees of Sun rays crosses
equator from Southern to Northern hemisphere). It means
end of winter season and starting of harvesting season.
Maha Shivaratri: This festival falls in Feb – Mar. At
midnight Lord Shiva appeared in the form of a pillar of fire
(Lingodbhavam) to Lord Brahma and Lord Vishnu to
establish Nirguna, Nirakara Brahman (as Linga) and Saguna,
Sakara Brahman (as human form of Lord Shiva) as one. This
day is celebrated by performing marriage ceremony to Lord
Shiva and Goddess Parvati.
Holi: This festival falls in Feb – Mar. Demon King Hiranya
Kasipu, who demanded everybody to worship him but his
own son Praharada, became an ardent devotee of Lord
Vishnu (whom Hiranya Kasipu treated as his number one
enemy). So Hiranya Kasipu wanted his son Praharada to be
killed. Hiranya Kasipu asked his sister Holika, who had a
boon of immunity from fire, to enter a blazing fire with
Praharada. Praharada was saved from fire by Lord Vishnu
and evil minded Holika was burnt to ashes. Holi festival is
celebrated for the victory of good (Praharada) over evil
(Holika) and triumph of devotion to God.
Yugadi or Ugadi: Yuga means epoch or era and adi means
starting point. Yugadi falls in Mar – Apr. It is the beginning of
the first day, the first month of a new year and also the day
on which Lord Brahma (God of Creation) started Creation of
Vasanta Navaratri: Vasanta means spring and Navaratri
means nine nights. This festival falls in Mar – Apr. This
festival starts with the beginning of spring season
(important solar and climatic junction) and climaxes on Sree
Rama Navami. During Navaratri festival period of nine days,
the energy (Shakti) aspect of God in the form of Universal
Mother, commonly referred to as Devi, is invoked for the
protection from evil and also either for material prosperity
or for spiritual enlightenment.
Sree Rama Navami: This festival is celebrated on the birth
anniversary of Lord Sree Rama who is an embodiment of all
virtues and the incarnation of Lord Vishnu. This festival falls
in Mar – Apr and celebrated by performing marriage
ceremony to Lord Rama and Goddess Sita.
Sree Krishnastami or Janmastami: This festival is
celebrated on the birth anniversary of Lord Sree Krishna,
Supreme Personality of all Personal forms of God, an
incarnation of Lord Vishnu. This festival falls in Aug – Sep.
Ganesh Chaturdhi: This festival is celebrated on the birth
anniversary of Lord Ganesha. This festival falls in Sep – Oct.
Lord Ganesha is widely worshipped as the God of
Knowledge, Wisdom, Prosperity and Good Fortune and also
for removal of all obstacles for prosperity.
Sharad or Sravana Navaratri or Dashara or Dussehra:
Sharad or Sravana means autumn and Navaratri means nine
nights. Dashara (means ten days) became Dussehra in
popular parlance. This festival falls in Sep – Oct. It signifies
the beginning of autumn or winter season (an important
solar and climatic junction). Navaratri (nine nights) with the
addition of next day i.e., Vijaya Dashami, which is its
culmination became ten days festival. On all these ten days
various forms of Divine Mother, Goddess Durga (Mahisha –
Asura – Mardini means who killed demon Mahisha) a Divine
manifestation of Shakti (Energy or power of God), are
worshipped with devotion for protection from evil.
Diwali or Deepavali: Diwali or Deepavali means row of
lamps. Diwali marks the return of Lord Sree Rama to His
kingdom Ayodhya after defeating and killing demon King
Ravana. This festival falls in Oct – Nov. This festival of lamps
signifies the triumph of good over evil. Lamps dispel
darkness and bring light which makes everyone to clearly
see and know things around. Awareness of Inner – Self
(Atma Jnan), the knowing of which dispels all ignorance and
removes all obstacles, awakening the individual to ones true
nature of transcendental reality. With Self – Realization
(Atma Jnan) one attains Universal Compassion, Love and
awareness of oneness of all beings/things (higher
Knowledge) which brings Ananda (Bliss, Joy and Peace).
Joint Family System
According to Hindu way of life joint family system is a
great opportunity to subdue the Arishad Vargas (i.e., Desire,
Anger, Greed, Passion, Ego and Selfishness). This system leads to
mutual love, respect, understanding, self-sacrifice, mental peace,
harmony and happiness and a great strength of unity. It also
provides congenial atmosphere and opportunity for the children
to develop and grow with a balanced personality under the
guidance of the elders in the family. Unfortunately, lately with
the decline of religious and spiritual attitude and attracted by
the influence of western culture with materialistic values
resulting the growth of the above mentioned Arishad Vargas, this
joint family system is breaking down. Further these days grown
up children feel that looking after their aged parents as a burden,
is really a shame and pity to Hindu social fabric (Hope they do
not get similar treatment from their own children).
A traditional Hindu family observes food habits
prescribed in Manu Smriti and other Hindu Scriptures. Food
plays an important and major role in all living beings (Taittiriya
Upanishad 3: 2). Universe and nature is evolved from Maya. So
all plants and the food the plants produce contain the three
Gunas (evolutes of Maya). Food contains energy, matter and
Gunas (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) in subtle form. After digestion
of food, energy is supplied into the blood system, matter goes
out as waste and Gunas are absolved in Manas (Mind). So living
beings mind, thoughts and actions depends on the percentage of
Gunas absolved by the Mind. “As is the food, so is the mind”. Few
food items mentioned below against each Guna contain higher
percentage of that particular Guna (Bhagavad Gita 17: 8 to 10).
Sattvika (pious) Food: Augments vitality, intellect,
health and happiness. Cow milk (and its bye products i.e.,
butter and Ghee), fresh green vegetables and leaves
(edibles), fresh fruits and juices, almond, cashew nuts,
raisins and grains etc.
Rajasika (passionate) Food: Causes suffering, grief and
sickness. Bitter, sour, saltiest, pungent, dry, very hot,
alkaline, scorching, other than cow milk, pulses,
condiments, tamarind, lemon, onion, garlic, ginger, spices,
eggs, fish and white meat etc.
Tamasika (violent) Food: Causes drowsiness, sleep and
violence. Half cook, half ripe, over ripe, insipid, putrid,
fermented, off season fruits and vegetables, all stale food
(1 ½ hours after preparation or cooking of food is
considered as stale), frozen, defreeze, processed and
tined food and red meat etc.
Preparation of food also plays an important role. The
following points should be kept in mind while cooking and
serving the food.
Cooking should be a slow process, though time
consuming, and should not be quick with high flames or
oven (microwave) heating etc.
While cooking and severing the food a person’s thoughts,
feelings and purpose also go into the food, in subtle form.
Food should never to be prepared for the purpose of self
consumption. After preparation of food, first it should be
offered to God (whom so ever one believes) and then to
the guests, birds, animals and creatures (for the purpose
of ecological balance) and whatever is left is to be served
as Prasadam (God’s gift) to the family members (children,
parents, elders and then to self in that order) (Bhagavad
Gita 3: 13 to 15; 4: 31). Salt should never to be served to
add later for the individual requirements (whatever salt
was used while cooking should be final).
One should eat only up to ½ the stomach’s capacity, then
is to be filled with water and the remaining 1/4
should be left empty (for the circulation of air and proper
digestion). The food one eats should be considered as
Yajna (a sacred sacrifice to the Soul inside the body and to
the God that resides in the Soul) for the sustenance of the
body (which is the temple of God) and not to just enjoy
and fill the stomach. In this Yajna (sacred sacrifice) the
mouth is considered as Yajna Kundam (place of sacred
sacrifice), the hunger in the stomach is considered as Agni
(sacred fire) and the food that goes into the stomach is
considered as the Havis or Havya (oblation i.e., material of
sacred sacrifice) (Bhagavad Gita 9: 27).
One should not eat food while standing (buffet type of
eating). One should never get up while eating. One should
never pass adverse comments about the taste of the food
and its preparation. One should never get angry while
eating. If this process is observed the energy the body
gets and the Gunas the Manas (Mind) absolves get
purified and becomes Divya (Divine) and become fit and
eligible for the Spiritual enlightenment.
Pancha Runas (Five Debts): All forms of life belong to one
ecological system and they are interdependent. God (Creator)
upholds eternal moral order. As per Manu Smriti (3: 118) every
human being is indebted to the following and without repaying
these debts, no Soul (Jeevatma) can attain Liberation. These
debts can be repaid by following Pravrtti Marg and performing
Yajnas and Nitya Karmas (daily rituals/duties) as laid down in
Scriptures during Gruhasta Ashram only (Refer Page Nos. 57 to
59 and 153 and 154):-
Deva Runa (Debt to God): Because of God the Universe
(Sun, Moon, Space, Air, Fire, Water and Earth etc.) came
into being. Because of the Universe every living being is
surviving. Thus everyone is indebted to God (Bhagavad
Gita 3: 11 and 12).
Rishi Runa (Debt to Sages): Rishis gave knowledge as to
how one has to live in this world and attain Liberation. So
is the debt to Rishis.
Pitru Runa (Debt to ancestors): Because of ancestors
(parents) every being has come into existence. So every
being is indebted to their ancestors.
Manava Runa (Debt to mankind): Human being cannot
survive alone and is dependent on other human beings.
Hence the debt to mankind.
Bhuta Runa (Debt to sub-human beings): Ecological
system is maintained and balanced by sub - human beings
and hence debt to them.
Veda means Knowledge. Vedas are Revealed Eternal
Divine Truths. Vedas are Apourasheya (not human mind
creation), Shabdadmika (sound based i.e., not book based),
Aloukika (beyond the understanding of human mind and senses)
and Pramana (valid means of knowledge). Vedas are known as
Shrutis means oral citations (in those days there was no writing
down and reading). The Eternal Divine Knowledge contained in
the Vedas was in the abode of Brahman (God) and protected by
Him. Brahman at the time of Creation revealed this Eternal
Divine Knowledge to Lord Brahma (God for Creation of this
Brahmanda) (Bhagavad Gita 3: 15 and 17: 23). Lord Brahma
revealed this Eternal Divine Knowledge to the Rishis and Sages at
the time of Creation of this Brahmanda (Bhagavata 3: 12: 37).
Those Rishis and Sages from time to time revealed that
Knowledge to the people on this Earth planet. Bhagavan Veda
Vyasa separated and reorganised all of them just before 3102
B.C.E. They are (a) Rg Veda (21 branches), (b) Yajur Veda (109
branches), (c) Sama Veda (1,000 branches), and Atharva Veda
(50 branches) (Bhagavata 1: 4: 20). There are a total of 1,180
branches having approximately 1,00,000 verses. But now a day’s
only 20,379 verses in total are available. The primary aim of the
four Vedas is to propound the reality of God which is the
supreme goal (duty) of life (Bhagavad Gita 15: 15). Vedas contain
highest Eternal Divine Truths that can lead a Soul to God -
realization. Satyam Eva Jayate means Truth alone conquers
(Mundaka Upanishad 3: 1: 6). It is the motto inscribed on the
Indian national seal. Vedas have four sections. They are as under:
Mantra or Samhita: It is metric texts of hymns, prayers,
benediction, sacrificial formulas and chants. It relates to
Yajnas (sacrifices) and Vedic rituals in the praise of
Celestial Gods. All the Vedic hymns inspire a person
towards God. This section is mainly for Brahmacharya
Ashram (student period).
Brahmana: In Brahmana section there are 1,180
branches. The Brahmana section of each Veda is
explanatory part and describes the details of the actual
performance of the Yajnas (sacrifices), directions,
meaning, connected themes and comments for the
performance of sacrificial rituals for various almighty
forms of God. Out of 1,180 branches only few are now
available (Aitareya, Taittiriya and Kausitaki etc.). This
section is for Gruhasta Ashram (house - holder period).
Aranyaka: Out of 1,180 branches of Aranyakas only few
full branches are now available. Aranyaka contain
Paramardhika Satyas which is the final essence of the
Vedas and explains about God, His supremacy, to
renounce the worldly attachments and surrender to God
to attain His Grace and realize Infinite Eternal Divine
Bliss. This section is Upasana (Devotion) or Sadhana
(Practice) based and is meant for Vanaprasta Ashram
(semi – retired life period).
Upanishad: Upanishad contains spiritual interpretations
(essence) of Mantras or Samhitas at the end and hence
they are also known as Vedanta. Out of 1,180 Upanishads
related to the 1,180 branches of the Vedas about 200
Upanishads only are presently available. Upanishads deal
with Loukika (worldly) as well as Aloukika (God) details
revealing ultimate spiritual truths and ways to attain
Liberation. (This total collection is called the Vedas)
Purusardhas (Ends of Human pursuit)
Vedas contain highest Divine Truths that can lead a Soul
(Jeevatma) to God. The following are Purusardhas (ends of
human pursuit) (Bhagavata 1: 9: 26 to 28):
Dharma (Religious Merit): Consists of moral and ethical
duties (Training in Self – control and Self – sacrifice).
Artha (Worldly Riches): Acquisition of worldly wealth or
possessions through honest means just for basic needs.
Kama (Sensuous Enjoyment): To satisfy the desires of the
senses through sense organs through right means.
Moksa (Final Beatitude or Liberation): To realize, the
ultimate goal of attainment of God - realization and, with
His Grace, Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss.
Rg Veda means Veda of Adoration. It is Veda of Hymns. Its
Chief Deity (Adhi Devata) is Lord Brahma. Gotra is Atreya.
Chandas (prosody) is Gayatri. It has five divisions – (a)
Ashwalayani, (b) Sankhyani, (c) Shaakala, (d) Paushala and (e)
Mandukeya. It explains virtues of Devas (Demi-Gods) and songs
of praise consists a total of 10,600 verses (arranged in 10
mandalas means sections) for Gods like Indra (King of Swarga
Loka i.e., Heaven), Agni (Fire) and Varuna (Rain) etc. A hymn has
three basic parts. The first part is an exhortation, the second part
is the praise of the deity in the form of prayer and the third part
is a special request. Rishi Paila, a disciple of Bhagavan Veda
Vyasa, learnt Rg Veda. The religion (Faith) explained in Rg Veda
can be called Brahmanism or Vedism. It consists worshipping all
the powers of Nature such as Sun (Surya), Moon (Soma), Fire
(Agni), Air (Vayu) and Water (Varuna) etc., for the prosperity of
Nature. The most important aspect of Rg Veda is the Cosmic
order named Rta (Rta means Cosmic and sacred order) an
ultimate and harmonic structure of reality. Later, this Cosmic
order Rta, came to be known Dharma or Sanatana Dharma or
Righteousness. Dharma became not only the Universal Law, but
also the Moral Law of Hinduism. Performance of Yajna (sacrifice)
pleases the Heavenly Gods, who then bless the sacrificer. One of
the most important Yajna (sacrifice) in Rg Veda is the Soma
Yajna (sacrifice). Soma is an essence prepared from an herbal
plant. Among all the Gods, mentioned in the Rg Veda, Rudra
(Lord Shiva) is the most important. The popular caste system
(Varna) is also referred in it. There are also references to
transmigration of Souls from body to body. It also deals with
rituals like, marriage and cremation of the dead etc., (but not
It is Veda of liturgy. Its Chief Deity (Adhi Devata) is Lord
Shiva (Rudra). Gotra is Bharadwaja. Chandas (prosody) is
Trishtup. Yajur Veda contains Knowledge of rituals and
sacrificial formulas. It has 1,975 verses (in 40 chapters). Rishi
Vaisampayana, a disciple of Bhagavan Veda Vyasa, learnt Yajur
Veda. It explains the rules how to perform all rituals (priestly
hand-book) i.e., how to make an altar etc. Yajna (sacrifice) is the
most important aspect of this Veda. Yajur Veda has two branches
i.e., (a) Krishna or Black and (b) Shukla or White. Human beings
are inspired to translate good thoughts into actions. Yajur Veda
inspires human beings to walk on the path of Karma (actions).
That is why it is also referred as Karma-Veda. The first
incantation of Yajur Veda commands us to perform actions,
which reads as follows: “DEVO VAHA SAVITA PRAPRAYATU
SHRESHTAMAYA KARMANE! “ (Means – O, Creator of the
Universe inspire us to perform great deeds).
Sama means melody. It is Veda of Chants and Knowledge
of Melodies. Its Chief Deity (Adhi Devata) is Lord Vishnu. Gotra is
Kasyapa. Chandas (Prosody) is Jagati. Rishi Jaimini, a disciple of
Bhagavan Veda Vyasa, learnt how to chant Sama Veda. The
Indian classical music originated from Sama Veda. It consists of
1,875 verses in 21 chapters. This Veda is also based on Rg Veda.
The verses from Sama Veda were sung by Rishis when Soma
Yajna (sacrifice) was performed. To some extent, much of this
Veda is repetition of Rg Veda sung in melodious format.
Invocations in this Veda are addressed to Soma (Moon), Agni
(Fire) and Indra (King of the Celestial abode). Chandogya
Upanishad is one of the supplementary treatises of Sama Veda.
Atharva Veda means the Veda of Wise and the Old. It has a
large number of magic formulas. Its Chief Deity (Adhi Devata) is
God Indra. Gotra is Vaijnana. Chandas (Prosody) is Trishtup. It
contains 5,977 verses in 20 chapters. Rishi Sumantu, a disciple of
Bhagavan Veda Vyasa, acquired proficiency in Atharva Veda,
known as Brahma Veda. It is used as a manual by the chief
sacrificial priests and the Brahmins for performance of various
Yajnas (Sacrifices). Atharva Veda contains many magic formulas
and incantations. It has poems, glorifying the curative powers of
herbs and waters (for diseases), importance of Sanskrit letters
and power and energy contained in them, relating to sins
and their atonements, about errors in performing rituals and
their expiatory acts and philosophical issues etc.
Maha Vaakyas (Great Sentences/Statements)
The important message in the Vedas is Everything and
Every being is Divine. Divinity, present in everything and every
being, when fully manifest become God-realized Soul i.e., attains
Moksa or Liberation. God is equally present everywhere, but not
equally manifest. Stones, trees, creatures, humans, angels and
deities are at different stages of manifestation of the same
Godhead. Divinity is the True Self of a Soul. Veda’s Maha Vaakyas
speak of the Divinity of every Soul is the nature of God. They are
Prajnanam Brahman (Aitareya Upanishad – 3: 1: 3)
It means ‘All knowing pure Knowledge is God’. He
(God) became all (World). Intelligence is the basis of all
existence and ultimate Reality. The world is established,
supported and guided by intelligence. Brahman (God) is
intelligence. When this ultimate and eternal Divine Truth
(Supreme Knowledge) is realized, Maya (ignorance)
melts in the fire of Knowledge. Then the Atma realizes
and identifies itself with God (Brahman).
Aham Brahmasmi (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 1 or 3: 4:
It means ‘I am Brahman’. ‘I’ means the Atma (not
body) is part (ansh) or reflection of or same as Brahman
(God). Only God-realized masters can experience this
oneness of Atma and Brahman. All of us find it difficult to
overcome delusion (due to Maya) which makes us believe
that “I am the body, this body is mine. I am doer” (doer ship
notion) due to ignorance. If this ignorance is removed by
True Knowledge then Atma is nothing but Brahman
(God), who became all and this entire Universe.
Tat Tvam Asi (Chandogya Upanishad – 6: 8: 7)
It means That art thou. What I am, that is He
(God); what He (God) is, that am I. I, means the Atma, is
Brahman (God). Brahman alone is real. The subtle
essence of the entire world is the Atma (Self). As long as
the Atma is under the bondage of Maya, the Soul
(Jeevatma) cannot realize this reality.
Ayam Atma Brahman (Mandukya Upanishad - 2)
It means ‘This Atma is Brahman’. The subtle
essence is the Atma which is real. The Soul (Jeevatma),
which is deluded by its past and present Karmas
(actions), forgets that it is none other than the
Paramatma (Brahman). Knowledge or realization of one’s
own identity with God is Moksa (Liberation).
Note: Atma is Ansh (eternal fragment of or same as) of
God. God lives within Atma. God gave, Tatasta Shakti or
Jeeva Shakti (Soul power) which is affiliated to Cit Shakti
(consciousness power) of God, to Atma. With that power
only Atma activates the body it enters. Everything is
nothing but God. So Atma (i.e., “I”) is same as or nothing
Vedangas, means limbs of Vedas, are subsidiary science to
Vedas. One should first study and understand Vedangas, the
science and rules dealing with the sacrificial acts, to enable to
understand Vedas. There are six Vedangas on the following
technical subjects (Mundaka Upanishad 1:1:5; Bhagavata 3:3:2):
Siksa (Phonetics): Study of vocal sounds corresponding to
Vyakaranam (Grammar): Study or rules of language
(here Sanskrit) inflections and other means of showing
the relation between words.
Chandas (Prosody or Meter): Science of versification
(study of speech – rhythms).
Niruktam (Etymology): Explains the meaning of Vedic
Jyotisam (Astronomy): Science of celestial bodies.
Kalpa Sutras: Rituals, Ceremonials and Sacrificial acts.
The term Upa Veda means subsidiary Knowledge
(Bhagavata 3: 12: 38). These Upa Vedas deal certain technical
subjects. Upa Vedas are as under:
Ayur Veda (The Science Medicine): It is medical science.
It is associated with the Rg Veda.
Dhanur Veda (The Science Archery): It is science of war.
It is associated with the Yajur Veda.
Gandharva Veda (The Science Music): It is science of
music. It is associated with the Sama Veda.
Sthapatya Veda (The Science of Architecture): The art of
Architecture is associated with the Atharva Veda.
Upanishad means Sit down closely and devotedly. Upa
means - near, Ni means – down and Shad means - to sit. An
Upanishad is a teaching taught by the Guru for which the disciple
sits close to him because it is Shabda Pramana (Sound based). It
is also called Vedanta means culmination of Knowledge (acme).
They contain highly Paramardhika Satyas (Ontological Truths) of
the Vedas in a dialog form, revealing ultimate Spiritual Truths,
ways to realize them and help a person to realize the illusive
charm of the worldly pleasures and attachments and teach that
absolute devotion (Ananya, Nirantara Bhakti) towards God is the
only way to attain Liberation and Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss
with the Grace of God. They also contain Spiritual interpretations
of the Vedas and regarded as their essence, thus they are known
as Vedanta (means the end of the Vedas). So Upanishads are
called Jnana Kanda (means the true Knowledge of the Vedas).
Souls are under the influence and bondage of Maya (Cosmic
power) since eternity. Due to the influence of Avidya (ignorance),
every being has an inherent weakness of leaning towards
worldly pleasures and attractions (which are temporary, limited
and Mayic). So they keep on running after the mirage of illusive
hope of receiving happiness (which is temporary) through
sensual gratification, acquisition of wealth and egoistic attitude
of name and fame in the world (again temporary and limited).
Their life ends, but the search for happiness never ends because
of never ending desires. The Upanishads reveal the form of God,
who is beyond Maya and its wielder, and explain the ways of
freeing oneself from the bondage of Maya and with the Grace of
God to attain Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss (Taittiriya Upanishad
2: 7). Out of 1,180 Upanishads related to the 1,180 branches
of the Vedas about 200 Upanishads are presently available. Out of
these 108 Upanishads contain Tattva Jnan (True Knowledge) for
God – realization (Muktiko Upanishad 1: 3, 6 to 8). Among them,
the following Upanishads are called principal (Mukhya)
Upanishads. They are: (a) Isa, (b) Kena, (c) Katha, (d) Prasna, (e)
Mundaka, (f) Mandukya, (g) Taittiriya, (h) Aitareya, (j)
Chandogya, (k) Brhadaranyaka and (l) Svetasvatara etc.
Isa or Isavasya Upanishad
Isa also called Isavasya Upanishad belongs to the Vajasaneyi
School of the Yajur Veda. Its main purpose is to teach Isa (God)
and God - realization and essential unity of God and the World,
being and becoming. Its main teaching is Isa (i.e., Brahman) is
pervaded in His entire Creation. Isa Upanishad covers Brahma
Vidya (Knowledge regarding the nature of the Brahman),
Upasana (Devotion) and prayer of the Upasaka (Devotee).
It (God) moves and It moves not. God is farther than the
farthest and at the same time nearer than the nearest. He
is spread everywhere i.e., within as well as outside of all
He, who sees all beings in his own Self and his own Self in
all beings, does not feel any revulsion (6).
Knowledge and Ignorance -- He, who knows the two
together, crosses death by ignorance and attains eternal
life through knowledge (11).
Kena Upanishad belongs to Sama Veda. It deals with the
Supreme Brahman, the absolute principle underlying the world
of phenomena, and also the Supreme as God, Isvara. The
Knowledge of the Absolute, which secures immediate Liberation,
is possible only for those who are able to withdraw their
thoughts from worldly objects and concentrate on the ultimate
fact of Brahman. The worshipping Soul gradually acquires the
higher wisdom which results in the consciousness of the identity
with the Supreme.
Brahman is the ear of the ear, the mind of the mind, the
speech of the speech, the breath of the breath and the eye
of the eye. Give up the false identification of the Self with
senses, sense organs and the mind (1: 2).
Him (Brahman) the eyes do not see, the mind does not
grasp, we neither know nor able to teach, different from
the known and different is He from unknown (means
difficulty in explaining the nature of Brahman) (1: 3).
If God is not understood in this human life, it is
irrevocable loss. Hence, seeing or seeking God in all
beings, wise men become immortal on departing this
world (2: 5).
Katha Upanishad belongs to Taittiriya School of the Yajur
Veda. Vajasravasa, a poor and pious Brahmin hoping for Divine
powers, performed Visvajit Yajna (sacrifice) which required
giving away (donation) (dana) all his possessions. He donated
only few old, feeble and barren cows. His son, Naciketas, feeling
disturbed by his father’s action asked his father “I too belong to
you. To whom will you give me?” When his father did not reply,
he repeatedly asked and insisted. Vajasravasa got fed up and
replied, “I give you to Yama (God of death)”. Naciketas goes to the
abode of Yama and finding Yama had gone out, waits there for
three days and nights unfed. Yama, on his return seeing
Naciketas, offers him three boons in recompense for the delay
and discomfort caused to Naciketas. Naciketas asked the
“Let me return alive to my father and my father should
not be angry with me and accept me back with love” --
Yama grants (1: 1: 10 and 11).
“Give me the Knowledge of fire sacrifice by which one
goes to Heaven and gains immortality” -- Yama grants (1:
1: 13 to 19).
“When a man dies some say he is dead and some say he is
not. Please impart me this knowledge (i.e., Atma Jnan)”
(1: 1: 20). Yama said it is not easy to understand and even
the gods were once puzzled by this mystery. Yama said to
Naciketas to ask any other boon. But Naciketas refused
any other boon and insisted to impart Atma Jnan to him.
After testing Naciketas and knowing his fitness for
receiving the True knowledge, Yama commented that a
seeker of True Knowledge is rare among men and
explained the great secret to Naciketas as under:
The wise chooses the good in preference to the
pleasant (1: 2: 2).
He, who is filled with selfish desires and attracted
by worldly possessions, becomes subject to the
laws of Karma which leads him to repeated birth,
death and rebirth (under the bondage of Maya)
and under the control of Yama (1: 2: 6).
Knowledge of Self, taught by a Sad Guru (true
teacher), who has realized his oneness with
Brahman, attains the Truth (1: 2: 8).
Realizing through Self – contemplation, that
Primal Person (God) seated in the heart of all and
difficult to be seen, the wise leaves behind both joy
and sorrow (1: 2: 12).
The syllable Aum (OM) is Brahman (God) and
everlasting spirit (1: 2: 16).
Self is unborn, eternal, abiding and primeval (1: 2:
Smaller than the smallest, greater than the
greatest Self dwells within the heart of all (1: 2:
The Self is not known by hearing, reading, intellect
and instructions. Self is to be attained by the one
whom the Self chooses (1: 2: 23).
Self is not known by him who, has not desisted
from evil ways, not he who is not tranquil, not he
who has not composed/concentrated his mind can
reach the Self through True Knowledge (1: 2: 24).
Know the Self as the lord of a chariot, the body as
chariot, the Buddhi (intellect) as the charioteer and
the mind as the reins. The senses are the horses,
the objects of senses are the paths and the Self,
associated with the body, senses and mind, is the
enjoyer (1: 3: 3 and 4).
He, who has understanding, who has controls his
mind and is ever pure, reaches the goal from
which he is not born again. He, who has the
understanding for the driver of the chariot and
controls the reins of his mind, reaches the end of
his journey i.e., that Supreme Abode of All –
Pervading (1: 3: 8 and 9).
Beyond the senses are objects of senses. Beyond
the objects is mind. Beyond the mind is the Buddhi
(understanding) and beyond the understanding is
the great Self. Beyond the Self is the unmanifest
(Maya). Beyond the unmanifest is the Spirit (God).
There is nothing beyond this. This is the ultimate
goal and the end of the journey (1: 3: 10 and 11).
Mundaka Upanishad belongs to the Atharva Veda. It is in
the form of questions and answers between Rishis Saunaka (who
was in Gruhasta Ashram) and Angiras. This Upanishad states
clearly the distinction between the higher Knowledge of the
Supreme Brahman and the lower Knowledge of the empirical
World. It is by this higher Knowledge (Wisdom) and not by
sacrifices and worship that one can reach Brahman.
There are two kinds of Vidyas (knowledge). (a) Apara
Vidya is the all Vedas (4) and all Vedangas (6). (b) Para
Vidya or Brahma Vidya is that Knowledge by which
changeless reality (Brahman) is apprehended (1:1: 4 & 5).
Brahman, who is all - knowing and all - wise, whose
austerity consists of knowledge, from Him are born Lord
Brahma (God of Creation) and the Universe (1: 1: 9).
What is luminous, what is subtle than the subtle, in which
are centered all the worlds and those that dwell in them –
that is the imperishable Brahman. That is the Truth,
which is to be known (2: 2: 2).
The Self within the body, light and pure, is attainable by
truth, by austerity, by right knowledge and by constant
practice of chastity (3: 1: 5).
Those, who are free from desires, worship the Person
(God), pass beyond the seed (of rebirth) (3: 2: 1).
Mandukya Upanishad belongs to Atharva Veda. It is an
exposition of the principle of AUM (OM) as consisting of three
elements A, U, M which refers to the three states of waking,
dream and dreamless (deep) sleep. The Supreme Self
(Paramatma) is manifested in the manifold Universe in its gross,
subtle and casual aspects/forms. The above three states and
threefold time of past, present and future as well as the fourth
state unmanifested Absolute i.e., Transcendental Consciousness
is the only syllable A U M (OM) (Verse – 1).
The syllable A U M, is the symbol of Brahman. This Self is
Brahman which has four quarters (Verse – 2).
The first quarter is Vaisvanara, whose sphere (of activity)
is the waking state, who cognizes material objects. This state
leads all creatures of the Universe in diverse ways of enjoyment
of various material objects (Verse – 3).
The second quarter is Taijasa (means conscious of
internal i.e., inward – movement or mental state) is dream state,
who cognizes internal objects. In this state one experiences
mental state dependent on the predispositions left by the waking
state experiences and fashions its own world in the imagining of
the dreams (subtle form) (Verse–4).
The third quarter is Prajna (means pure wisdom) whose
sphere (of activity) is deep sleep. In this state conscious has no
perception of either external or internal objects, hence no desire
and no thought/dream whatsoever, and enjoys peace. In deep
sleep, in the absence of duality i.e., external self (perception) and
internal self (imaginative), all impressions have become
one; only Knowledge and Bliss remain. It is the state of
Knowledge of conceptual Self. The Self, liberated from empirical
world leads to the final state of union with Brahman (God) and
consciousness realizes (enjoys, experiences) Bliss and Peace
(Verse – 5 and 6).
The fourth quarter is Turiya (transcendental
consciousness means Atma or Self) is to know the Self, the
deepest essence of the Soul, the image of Godhead. In Turiya (i.e.,
Brahman) there is objective consciousness and hence there is
permanent union with Brahman (God) (Verse – 7) (Also refer
Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 4 or 6: 3: 19 to 29).
Self is the nature of syllable A U M (OM) (Verse – 8).
‘A’ represents Vaisvanara (waking state). He, who knows this,
obtains all desires (Verse – 9).
‘U’ represents Taijasa (dreaming state). He, who knows this,
exalts the continuity of knowledge in his family and knows
Brahman (Verse – 10).
‘M’ represents Prajna (deep sleep). He, who knows this,
knows all and also merges in himself. This Aum is the very Self
(Verse – 11).
The fourth, which cannot be written or spoken (beyond
description) and hence has no syllable i.e., element, represents
Turiya (transcendental consciousness). He, who knows it, thus
enters the Self (God) with his Self (Atma) (Verse – 12).
Taittiriya Upanishad belongs to the Yajur Veda. It deals with
the Knowledge of the Supreme Self (Paramatma-Jnan) and
Creation of the Universe.
A U M (OM) is the symbol of both Brahman and Isvara (1:
Conduct yourself as under. This is the command, teaching,
instruction, worship and the secret doctrine of the Veda
(1: 11: 1 to 6):
Satyam Vada. Always speak Truth.
Dharmam Chara. Always practice Virtue.
Daily read teachings of the Scriptures.
Do not cut the thread of the off-spring.
Do not neglect the welfare and prosperity.
Don’t neglect the duties towards gods and fathers.
Treat mother, father, teacher and guest as God.
Your duties should be blameless (cheerful with
Sacrifice (donate) plenty with faith, modesty,
humility and sympathy.
If there is any doubt regarding any deed (action) –
follow the great Souls.
Satyam Jnanam Anantam Brahma. From God (Brahman),
with His will, first Ether (Space) came into being, from
Ether - Air (Vayu), from Air - Fire (Agni), from Fire -
Water (Ap), from Water - Earth (Prithvi), from Earth –
herbs and food and from food - the person (2: 1: 1).
Then by His mere desire to become many and be born the
Universe was created. Then He entered it and He Himself
became the Universe (2: 6: 1).
Brahman is Bliss – the essence of existence (2: 7: 1).
Brahman is that from which the origin, continuance and
the dissolution of the world comes is of Isvara – who is
world creator, sustainer and dissolver (3: 1: 1).
Anando Brahmeti (God is Bliss). Beings are born from
Bliss, live by Bliss and enter Bliss when departing (3: 6:
Aitareya Upanishad belongs to Rg Veda. The purpose of
this Upanishad is to lead the mind of the sacrificer away from the
outer material ceremonial to its inner meaning. All true sacrifice
is inward. There are three classes of men who wish to acquire
wisdom. The highest are those who have turned away from the
world, whose minds are freed and collected and who are eager
for freedom. This Upanishad (Aranyaka 2: 4-6) is intended for
them. There are others who wish to become free gradually by
attaining to the world of Hiranyagarbha (interpreted as Golden
Embryo or Womb or Lord Brahma). For them the Knowledge and
worship of Prana (life-breath) is intended (refers Aranyaka 2: 1-
3). There are still others who care only for worldly possessions.
For them the Meditative Worship is intended (Aranyaka 3).
Before Creation all that existed was the One only
(Brahman) and Brahman alone. Then the Brahman thought, “Let
me now create the worlds” (1: 1: 1). He created Ambho Loka
(Heaven), then Marici Loka (Sky), then Mara Loka i.e., Mortal
World (Earth), then Jala Loka (world beneath the Earth) (1: 1: 2).
Then He created guardians (human beings) (1: 1: 3) and then
food for guardians (1: 3: 2). Then He thought, “How shall there be
guardians and I have no part in them? Without Me functions
speech, breath, eyes, ears, skin, mind and generative organs?”
Then He thought, “Let Me enter the Guardians” (1: 3: 11). The
door by which He entered is called Vidrti (Door of Bliss – situated
at the topmost of the brain i.e., Sahasrara) (He lives in the subtle
form at three places i.e., in the eyes, throat and heart) (1: 3: 12).
Its purpose is to lead the mind that all true sacrifice is inward.
Chandogya Upanishad belongs to the Sama Veda. This
Upanishad deals with sacrifices and other forms of worship and
chants. It discusses the problems of liturgy and doctrine such as
the genesis and significance of Aum (OM).
One should meditate and chant the syllable Aum (OM),
the Udgitha (1: 1: 1).
The essence of these beings (life) is Earth. The essence of
the Earth is Water. The essence of the Water is plants.
The essence of plants is human beings. The essence of
human beings is Speech. The essence of Speech is Rg
(Hymn). The essence of Rg is the Saman (Chant). The
essence of Saman (Chant) is Udgitha. This is the
quintessence of the essence, the Supreme, the highest -
Udgitha (1: 1: 2 and 3).
Both the life (breath) and the Sun are Udgitha (1: 3: 2).
What is Udgitha is Aum (OM). What is Aum (OM) is
Udgitha. The Udgitha is the yonder Sun and Aum (OM), for
the Sun is continually sounding Aum (OM) (1: 5: 1).
Ether (Space) is said to be the origin, support and end of
all (1: 9: 1). This is the Udgitha – the highest and the best.
He, who meditates on Udgitha, the highest and the best
becomes the highest and the best and obtains the highest
and the best of the worlds (1: 9: 2). (Also refer Page Nos.
86 to 87 and 141 to 142).
There are three branches of duty – (a) Austerity: All
forms of pursuit of Self – control and sacrifice, (b)
Brahmacaryam (Control over the body) and pursuit of
sacred wisdom and (c) Dwelling in Guru Kula (teacher’s
residence) and Guru Seva (service to teacher). All these
attain to the worlds of the Virtuous (2: 23: 1).
In this Upanishad, Brahman (God) and Self (Atma) or
Jeevatma (Soul) have been explained as under:
Tat Tvam Asi. THAT ART THOU. What I (Atma) am, that
is He (God); What He is, that am I (6: 8: 7).
Everything is Brahman. Brahman, who dwells within the
heart of this body (Self), should be sought after and one
should desire to understand (8: 1: 1 and 2).
It is as large as the Universe outside; even so large is the
Universe within the lotus of heart. Within It are Heaven,
Earth, Fire, Air, Sun, Moon, Lightening and Stars. What is
in the macrocosm is in this microcosm (8: 1: 3).
It is the true city of Brahman, untouched by age,
death, desires are contained, free from sin, old age, death,
sorrow, hunger and thirst (8: 1: 4 and 5).
Prajapati (President of God’s kingdom) explains to Indra
(King of Celestial abode) the highest Truth of the Self
He who has found out and understands that Self
obtains all the worlds and all desires (8: 7: 1).
This body is mortal (gripped by death). But within
this dwells the immortal Self (8: 12: 1).
This Self, when associated with the
consciousness in the body (causes desires), is
subjected to pleasure and pain. So long as this
association continues freedom from pleasure and
pain cannot be found. Rising above physical
consciousness and when this association ceases,
knowing that the Self is distinct from the senses
and mind, pleasure and pain ceases, one rejoices
and is free (8: 12: 6).
He, who concentrates all his senses in the Self, who
practices non - hatred towards all creatures and
who behaves thus throughout his life reaches
Brahman and does not return to this world again
(8: 15: 1).
Note: 1. As per Jagadguru Adi Sankaracharya –
Brahman and Atma are identical (Advaita
2. As per Jagadguru Ramanujacharya – Brahman
and Atma are inseparable but not identical
This is one of the earliest and longest Upanishad. This
Upanishad expounds the teachings of the basic identity of the
individual Self (Atma) and the Universal Self (Brahman),
philosophical justification of the teachings and certain modes of
worship and meditation (i.e., Upasana – Sravana (hearing),
Manana (logical reflection) and Nidhidhyasana (meditation)).
One of the teachers of this Upanishad is Maharishi Yajnavalkya.
This Upanishad discusses multiple Gods and finally states that
there is only one Truth and that is Atma. It also explains God as
Brahman (Paramatma). It states that the Atma is only a
reflection of the Brahman. Everything in this world has a name,
form and activity. The Absolute is the manifestation of these
three aspects. One of the most popular prayers of Hindus, which
is from this Upanishad (1 or 3: 3: 28) (Note: First two chapters
of this Upanishad are not published. Some books write 3
chapter as 1
. So the chapter numbers may differ in different
books) is as under:
Asato ma Sad gamaya
– means - Lead me from unreal to real
Tamaso ma Jyotir gamaya
– means - Lead me from darkness to light
Mrtyor ma Amrtam gamaya
– means - Lead me from death to immortality
OM Shanthi, Shanthi, Shanthi
– means - Protect me with Peace, Peace and peace.
This Upanishad talks about the Self (perceiver) and organs of
perception as under (3 or 5: 2: 2to 7):
When one breaths, one knows him as breath,
When one speaks, one knows him as speech,
When one tastes, one knows him as taste,
When one sees, one knows him as the eye,
When one hears, one knows him as the ear,
When one desires desires, one knows him as the mind.
You cannot see the Seer of seeing,
You cannot hear the Hearer of hearing,
You cannot think Thinker of thinking,
You cannot understand the Understander of understanding,
He is Your Self which is in all things,
Everything else is of evil and perishes (3 or 5: 4: 2).
Note: Svetasvatara Upanishad has not been covered separately
here to avoid repetition since the important verses have already
been mentioned/quoted in the book at various places.
Smriti means “to be remembered”. They are Dharma
Sutras and manuals of Code and Conduct for Hindus. There are
18 Smritis (Manu, Brihspati, Daksa, Gautama, Shankh, Parasara,
Yajnavalkya, Vishnu, Atri and Yama etc.) There are over 30 Upa
(subsidiary) Smritis (only few are available now). They are
Narada, Garga, Baudhayana, Viswamitra, Skanda, Vyasa, Vasistha,
Bharadwaja etc.). Change is constant in nature, so is religious
norms. So Manu Smriti is applicable during Satya or Krta Yuga,
Gautama Smriti during Treta Yuga, Shankh Smriti during
Dwapara Yuga and Parasara Smriti is applicable during Kali
Yuga (present Yuga).
Dharma Sutras (Law Books)
Dharma Sutras give elaborate details about the conduct
and the duties for the men of different Varnas (Castes) at
different stages of life (Ashramas) and rights and duties of Kings.
They deal with the rights and duties of women, judicial matters
and describe penances for various sins. They also deal with
religious matters such as purification and funeral ceremonies.
Manu - Smriti
Of all the Dharma Sutras, Manu-Smriti, or the Code of
Manu (Ethical Code) written by Manu Swayambhuva, who was
the first Manu to assist Lord Brahma for the Creation during the
first Manvantara of this Kalpa, is the most important. Manu
means Patriarchal Earth Ruler. The Code of Manu is known as
Manava Dharma Shastra. It comprises rites and ritual
obligations encompassing proper conduct and the right way to
lead one’s life. The moral dimension of Dharma comes to the
forefront and touches all aspects of life.
Manu wrote in Book 5 “Women are to be honoured and
adored who desire much prosperity. Where women are
honoured there the Gods rejoice”. Women should be protected
by her father during childhood, by her husband during her youth
and by her son during her old age. There were certain
restrictions on women not to do certain things independently.
Women, being weaker sex physically and emotionally, these
restrictions were meant to give protection to women from evil
(They may not be relevant for the present day women).
Manu wrote “Human beings obtain the life of plants
(motionless) as a result of evil committed by the body, the life of
birds and beasts because of the evil committed by the speech and
the lowest form of life for the evil committed by the mind”.
Parasara - Smriti
Maharishi Parasara is the grandson of Brahmarishi
Vasistha, son of Shakti Muni and father of Bhagavan Veda Vyasa.
Parasara Smriti, which is applicable during this Kali Yuga,
endorses all the ideologies of human life which are capable of
improving the life of common people. Paradoxes are the main
features of human life during Kali Yuga irrespective of region,
religion and society. In Kali Yuga irreligion is more powerful
than the religion. So it is more necessary during this period than
ever before to abide by the path of religion. There are 12
Chapters in Parasara Smriti.
Chapter 1: Deals with the conduct of people of
various Varnas (Castes) at various Ashramas (Stages
of Life), hospitality and donations etc.
Chapter 2: Deals with married life. Agriculture has
been given importance keeping in view of increase in
Chapter 4: Deals with expiation for the sins arising
out of evil deeds, duties of husband and wife etc.
Chapter 10: Deals with sins of having illegal carnal
relations with women other than his wife etc.
Chapter 12: Deals norms of eating, earning money
and decision of expiations etc.
Purana means ancient or history which always appears as
new. Puranas are post Vedic texts. Puranas are considered as
fifth Veda (Bhagavata 3: 12: 39). They explain Vedas and Vedanta
(Upanishads) (Chandogya Upanishad – 7: 1: 4). Bhagavan Veda
Vyasa revealed (dictated) 17 Puranas and at the end Bhagavata,
which is known as Maha Purana. These illustrate the Truths of
Vedas and Upanishads. Deeper Truths of Vedas and Upanishads
are difficult and beyond the scope of understanding by most of
the people. In order to present those Truths in an interesting and
easily understandable manner Puranas were created with
stories of history. Although these texts are related to each other,
each one present a view of ordering the society from a particular
perspective to propagate particular vision, whether it is focused
on Lord Vishnu, Lord Shiva, Lord Brahma, Goddess Durga, Lord
Rama and Lord Krishna or any other deities. There are 18
Puranas. To name few they are Agni, Bhagavata (on Lord Vishnu
and Lord Krishna), Brahma, Brahmanda, (includes Lalita Sahasra
Namam), Garuda, Linga, Markandeya (includes Devi Mahatyam
which extols the virtues of Goddess Durga as Supreme Being),
Narada, Padma, Skanda, Vayu, Vishnu etc. These Puranas are
classified by the three aspects of Three Murties i.e., Lord Brahma,
Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva. They are also classified by the Gunas
(qualities of Maya, material nature) i.e., Sattva Guna (Virtue),
Rajo Guna (Passion) and Tamo Guna (Ignorance). Vedas
Knowledge alone is insufficient without Puranas Knowledge
(Vayu Purana 1: 1: 180). With Purana Knowledge one is
considered as completely Knowledgeable (Narada Purana 1: 92:
21). Purana Purusa is Narayana means Puranas are the body
limbs of Lord Vishnu (Padma Purana, Adi Kanda 828).
Srimad Bhagavata Mahapurana: Srimad Bhagavata
Mahapurana is on par with the Vedas, revealed by
Bhagavan Veda Vyasa for stabilizing Bhakti (devotion),
Jnana (knowledge) and Viragya (dispassion). It has
emanated from the essence of the Vedas and the
Upanishads. Jnana Yajna (sacrifice in the form of
knowledge) is the reading of Srimad Bhagavata
Mahapurana (Bhagavata Mahatmya (Extracts from
Padma Purana) Discourse 2: 60, 67 & 71). Bhakti
(devotion) is the mother and her two sons are Jnana
(Spiritual enlightenment) and Viragya (dispassion)
(Bhagavata Mahatmya (extracts from Padma Purana)
Discourse 1: 45). Lord Krishna infused all His glory and
energy into Bhagavata and disappeared in the ocean of
Srimad Bhagavata (Bhagavata Mahatmya (extract from
Padma Purana) Discourse 3: 61). It consists of 18,000
Verses divided into 12 Skandas (books). Bhagavata is the
fruit (essence) of the wish-yielding tree of Veda came
from Parama Hansa Sukadeva (son of Bhagavan Veda
Vyasa) and full of nectar of Supreme Bliss (Bhagavata
Mahatmya (extract from Padma Purana) Discourse 6: 80).
Upa Puranas: Upa means subsidiary. There are 18 Upa
Puranas. To name few they are Adi Purana, Bhaskara,
Durvasa, Kapila, Naradiya, Narasimha, Parasara, Shiva-
Dharma, Vamana, Varuna etc.
Ousha Puranas: There are 18 Ousha Puranas. To name
a few they are Aditya, Bhargava, Devi-Bhagavatam,
Parananda, Sanat-Kumara, Saura (Surya i.e., Sun)
Upa-Ousha Puranas These are subsequently
Upa-Oupa Puranas added.
He (God) is Truth, Infinite, Omnipotent and dwells in all
beings and all things. Find joy in worship, devoted service and
make sacrifice (renounce all pleasures) as all work done is
towards the service of God. He, who surrenders himself to God
(Divine Self within) becomes pure, tranquil and attains the
Knowledge, Truth and Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss. He (God) is
all Gracious, all forgiving, ever kind and lives in all beings
waiting and hoping that the Soul may realize Him at any moment
and totally surrenders to Him so that He can bless the Soul with
Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss. I am the servant of My devotees. My
heart having been (completely) taken possession of My pious
devotees, I am not independent, but really subject to the control
of their devotion (Bhagavata 9: 4: 63). My devotees are more
dear to Me than My Divine Consort Goddess Lakshmi, My son
Lord Brahma, My own elder brother Balarama, My own Self
(Lord Shiva) and My own (Divine) personality (Bhagavata 11:
14: 15). I follow My devotees so that I may be cleansed by their
foot dust (Bhagavata 11: 14: 16). At the same time He (God) is
selfish also. He (God) wants the Soul to love Him and only Him
alone and does not want to share the love with anyone else
unlike human beings who love their mother, father, wife,
children and others at the same time. When a person loves God
and at the same time loves someone also, it means that person
has still not broken the bondage with Maya and still has got
attachments to the worldly objects (Mayic), in which case that
person (Soul) has not yet totally surrendered to God and the
Soul has not yet become Divya (Divine) vessel and hence not yet
fit enough to receive God’s Grace.
Knowledge of Self
Ego (“I” thought or notion) causes ignorance (Avidya)
which leads to all the problems. Objects attract senses and the
mind become attached, loses power of discrimination, deluded
and loses the Knowledge of Atma (losing one’s own Self). He,
whose ego is consumed in the fire of Knowledge, manifold
Universe (false or illusion) gets falsified, crosses the passions,
lust, anger, greed, pride, delusion and jealousy, realizes Sat-Chit-
Ananda (Absolute Existence, Knowledge and Divine Bliss).
Epics are called Itihasas. Itihasa means “It happened like
this” (facts of history). They are mainly Ramayana (means
journey of Lord Rama), Mahabharata (means the great tale of the
Bharata Dynasty) and Mahakavyas (means the great literature).
Ramayana, which was originally authored by Maharishi Valmiki
about 1,80,00,000 or 18 Million years ago, was again reproduced
by Bhagavan Veda Vyasa about 5,000 years ago. Mahabharata
along with Srimad Bhagavad Gita was also composed/revealed
by Bhagavan Veda Vyasa. They explain fundamental teachings of
Hinduism, greatest Universal Truths and highly compressed
Philosophy of the Vedanta-Sutras by using historical events and
factual stories of many great Kings, Demons (represents evil),
Rishis and Demi - Gods.
Ramayana means journey of Lord Rama. Maharishi
Valmiki, in the early part of his life, was a high - way robber
without a name. He used to rob travellers to support his wife and
children. One day the great Deva Rishi Narada was passing by
and the robber attacked him. Deva Rishi Narada asked the
robber why he was robbing him. The robber replied, “To support
and take care of my family”. Deva Rishi Narada asked the robber,
“When you rob a person, you incur lot of sin. Would your family
also share your sins?” The robber replied, “I am sure, they will”.
Then the Deva Rishi said, “All right. Why don’t you tie me up here
to a tree, go home and ask everyone in your family whether they
are willing to share your sins also, along with the money you are
bringing home for them.” The robber agreed, tied the Deva Rishi
against a tree and ran to his home. There he accosted all the
members of his family including his wife with the question, “Will
you share my sins also as you are all sharing the money I bring
home?” All the members of his family including his wife gave an
emphatic reply “No”. For the first time in his life, the robber
understood the Truth of Life. He ran to the Deva Rishi Narada and
begged for his forgiveness. Because of his sins the robber should
not utter the sacred word Rama. So Deva Rishi Narada taught the
robber the word Rama in reverse order i.e., Ma-ra and told him
to meditate as Ma-ra. On constant repetition of the word Ma-ra
that word automatically becomes Rama. The robber got so
engrossed in meditation of Lord Rama that ants built anthills
surrounding him. After many years, a voice came from the sky
asking the meditating robber to get up from the meditation. The
voice named him Valmiki meaning born out of anthill.
Once Maharishi Valmiki was walking through a forest and
saw two doves were romantically involved with each other. As
the Maharishi was engrossed in that delightful sight, a cruel
arrow passed by him and struck the male dove. The female dove
went down in remorse and started chirping around the dead
companion. Maharishi Valmiki saw the hunter and called him a
wretch, but immediately realized that being a Saint he should
not have said like that. Then a voice from the sky said, “Oh
Valmiki, your words are poetic. Don’t be depressed. This is the
right time for you to write the story of Lord Rama, who is the
incarnation of Lord Vishnu.” With the blessings of Lord Brahma,
Maharishi Valmiki wrote Ramayana. Ramayana is (Itihasa or
history) of Lord Rama and His wife Sita. It is a poem with about
24,000 couplets. Ramayana is struggle of virtue over evil and
projects the Hindu ideals of life. Lord Rama is the perfect son,
Purusottama (noblest man), King and a ruler who inspired all His
subjects with the greatest Love. Lord Rama has been referred to
as Veda Dharma (Ananda Swarupa and Dharma Swarupa) in
human form and an embodiment of virtues and Ravana as evil.
He established the proper execution of Karma (duties)
prescribed by the Scriptures. Sita is a perfect, faithful and ideal
wife and Shakti (Power, Energy) of Lord Rama. Bharata and
Lakshmana are perfect brothers and Hanuman is a perfect
Mahabharata means the great tale of the Bharata
Dynasty. This Epic has been revealed by Bhagavan Veda Vyasa. It
is the longest Epic containing about 1,10,000 couplets in 18
Parvas or sections. Mahabharata was composed in order that
women, Sudras, fallen Brahmanas, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas (who
are debarred even from hearing Vedas and do not know how to
perform acts that are conducive to good) too to attain
blessedness through the Mahabharata (Bhagavata 1: 4: 25).
Mahabharata deals with the struggle of Dharma (righteousness)
over Adharma (unrighteousness). This includes Srimad
Bhagavad Gita (song of God) also. It is considered as fifth Veda.
Shanthi Parva: After the Mahabharata battle, Lord
Krishna tells Yudhisthira to approach Bhisma (who is well
versed in Dharma), who was lying on the bed of arrows
at the bank of river Oghavati, with reverence and to
request him to impart his Knowledge (various Dharmas
means virtues) to you. Otherwise such Knowledge will die
with him. When Yudhisthira approaches Bhisma and
requests him to impart his Knowledge to him, Bhisma
explains to Yudhisthira various Dharmas (duties) with
due regard to Varna (social grade or caste), Ashramas
(stages of Hindu way of life) and two fold Dharmas – (a)
Pravrtti Marg - The Dharma involving worldly activities
for those who are full of worldly attachment and (b)
Nivrtti Marg – Marked by withdrawal from such worldly
activities for those who are endowed with dispassion,
Dharma relating to charitable gifts, the duties obligatory
to Monarchs, the duties of women, the course of conduct
that are intended to propitiate the God and the
Purusardhas (four ends of human pursuit i.e., Dharma
(religious merit), Artha (worldly riches), Kama (sensuous
enjoyment) and Moksa (final beatitude) (Bhagavata 1: 9:
26 to 28). Few of them are as under:
In the fourth age (Kali Yuga) Dharma (virtue)
becomes Adharma (no virtue) and Adharma
If one fights with trickery, one should oppose him
If one fights lawfully, one should check him with
One should conquer evil with good.
Death by Dharma is better than victory by evil
Human endeavour is greater than the dependence
Truthfulness and strait forward actions bring
Do good to others by your thought, word and deed.
Sacrifice your pleasures.
Conquer your own Self.
Avoid lust and anger.
Follow the path of the duty.
Treat others as you would like to be treated.
Greed is the root cause of sin. Be self-controlled
and destroy avarice.
Passion, hatred, melancholy, anger, pride,
delusion, laziness and envy constitute ignorance.
Forbearance, bravery, non-injury, truthfulness,
calmness, affection, steadiness of mind and
freedom from envy constitute Self control.
Truth is the Eternal Brahman. Truthfulness is the
Happiness gained through the stilling of senses or
renunciation of desires is 16 times greater than the
happiness derived from fulfillment of desires.
The secret meaning of the Vedas is ‘Truth of the Truth,
Self-control of Self-control and freedom from all
bondages’. This is the sum of all Scriptures.
Alms giving is way to fame. Truthfulness is the way to
Heaven. Right conduct is the way to happiness and
Kindness and compassion are great virtues.
Giving up of vanity, anger and greed leads to
Do not harm thy neighbour.
Worship God with devotion.
Freedom from anger, malice, avarice and evil thought
leads to happiness.
Conduct yourself with pure thought, speech and
(Note: Attainment of absolute perfection of all the above
qualities is very difficult at initial stage. But one should make
efforts for step by step improvement of grading and after a
certain stage they themselves pull up, like a magnet, towards
Srimad Bhagavad Gita
Srimad Bhagavad Gita means song of God. Bhagavad Gita
is the essence of the Vedas and summation of Upanishads,
explaining Brahma Vidya giving it the status close to that of
Upanishads. Some place Bhagavad Gita in the category of Shruti
(Revealed Truths). It contains 700 verses in 18 chapters. Lord
Krishna, incarnation of Lord Vishnu, is considered as Supreme
God with unlimited and ultimate virtues. Hindu Scriptures extol
Lord Krishna as an ultimate Brahman (supreme to Saguna
Brahman) in human form (Bhagavata 1: 3: 28). He is the King of
Yogas and gives excellent divine spiritual teachings to Arjuna at
the onset of the Mahabharata war. It deals, in depth, with all the
Yogas or ways of God-realization. Its aim is to dispel and destroy
Moha (Delusion, Passion) which causes Vishada (Sorrow,
Dejection) born out of Ajnana (Ignorance) and to gain Jnana
(True Knowledge) and overcome Vishada (Bhagavad Gita 18: 72
and 73). Bhagavad Gita has an answer for every problem one
may face in their life. It gives the pros and cons of every issue
and the final decision is left to the individual (18: 63). In
Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna explains way for Liberation (Moksa)
for all in various couplets (11: 54 and 55; 12: 3, 4 and 8; 13: 30
and 34; 16: 22; 18: 53, 55, 56, 65 and 68). Every one whether
one believes in God or not, is destined to attain Liberation one
day or the other. But only the time factor differs for the best and
the worst. Bhagavad Gita says, “The Truth shall set you free”. It
advocates/teaches selfless actions, importance of the
annihilation or sublimation of desires, falsified ego and different
ways to control the mind and senses. It describes oneness with
God with lines such as Realize Me, Attain Me, I am the way, Abide
in Me, Come to Me, and Merge into Me etc. (Note: Here the word
‘Me’ is not the person Lord Krishna but Tattva (reality) existing
in the person). Lord Krishna says, “All senses (Indriyas) love the
sense objects. Just like tortoise withdraws its limbs into its shell
when it perceives danger, so too wise men withdraw their senses
from sense objects when they feel that the senses are losing
themselves in the sense objects” (2: 58 to 68). He (Lord Krishna),
who is seated in the heart of all living beings as the inner
controller; source of memory, knowledge and reason; is the only
object worth knowing through the Vedas, who is the knower of
the Vedas and the father of the Vedanta (15: 15). Without proper
control of senses, nobody can realise the Absolute Truth. Gita
finally teaches the secret of devotion (Bhakti) – (18: 64 and 65)
that selfless devotion to God by fixing the mind on God,
devotedly worshiping Him, sacrificing to Him is the only way to
realize God (Bhagavad Gita 8: 7, 8 and 9: 34). In other words it is
Sarva Sanga Parityaga (detachment from all attachments) and
by God’s Grace leads to God-realization.
The Yoga of Knowledge (Jnana Yoga) (Chapter – 2)
The wise grieve neither for the living, nor for the dead. I,
you and all exist forever. Never shall we cease. The
dweller (Soul) in this body (at death) passes into another
body. Body dies, but that which posses the body is eternal
(2: 11 to 13).
Embodied Atma (Soul), has no beginning, unborn,
undying, indestructible, imperishable, unchanging,
perpetual, eternal, unmanifest, constant and immutable.
Weapons do not wound, fire do not burn, water does not
wet, wind does not wither and all pervading. It is eternal
ever and forever (2: 20 to 25).
If you avoid your own duty (inaction) you shall incur sin.
If you do your duty with equanimity and treating alike
success or failure, gain or loss, pleasure and pain, not
hoping for the fruits of your actions, you shall not incur
sin (2: 33, 38 and 47).
Yoga is evenness of mind and skill in action (2: 48 & 50).
The wise, renounces craving, abandons fruits of actions,
leaves behind all desires emerging from the mind, is
content in the Self by the Self, restrains and controls
senses, withdraws senses from the sense objects and
frees himself from desire, fear, anger, passion, greed, ego
and bonds of flesh (2: 51, 55 to 59).
From sense objects attachment is born, from attachment
springs desire, from unfulfilled desires originates
anger, from anger arises delusion, from delusion
confusion of memory, from which grows loss of
discrimination and from loss of discrimination paves the
way for self - destruction. Uncontrolled mind, cannot feel
the presence of Atma, turns better judgement, loses
discrimination, cannot meditate, will have no peace and
happiness (2: 62 and 63).
Recollected and stable mind, is awakened, knows Atma,
melts ignorance, abandons all desires, acts free from
longing, is indifferent to possessions, is free from ego
and pride, feels Brahman and Soul as one and attains
enlightenment and Divine Bliss (2: 64, 65, 68, 71 and 72).
The Yoga of Action (Karma Yoga) (Chapter – 3)
Two-fold path is (a) Yoga of Knowledge (who ceases to
identify himself (i.e., Soul) with his body) and (b) Yoga of
Action (who overcomes the sense of possession,
attachment and desire for fruits for his actions). He, who
controls his senses by the mind and who engages the
organs of action without attachment, is superior in the
Yoga of Action. Perform your duty for action is superior to
inaction (3: 3, 7 and 8).
He, whose delight is only in the Self, whose satisfaction is
in the Self, who is content only in the Self, for him the
need to act, does not arise (3: 17).
Actions, in all cases, are performed by the qualities
(Gunas) of material nature (Prakrti). Those who, are
deluded by egotism (the quality of material nature), and
attached to the actions of the qualities thinks, “I am the
doer”). Dedicating all actions in Me (allowing God to
initiate all actions), having become free from desire and
selfishness, meditate on the Supreme Spirit (3:27 to 30).
Passion (attraction, attachment) and hatred (aversion)
are seated in the senses in relation to their objects. These
forces are desire and anger (element of Rajo Guna). One
should not come under the influence of these two. Know
that these are your enemies (3: 34 and 37).
Intellect is obscured by passion. Knowledge is obscured
by desire (which is insatiable like fire). Desires, seated in
senses, the mind and the intellect, delude embodied Atma
(Soul) obscuring and destroying one’s Knowledge and
discrimination. Controlling the senses kills the evil and
sinful demons (desire, anger and passion) (3: 38 to 41).
Senses are superior to gross body. Mind is superior to
senses. The intellect is superior to mind. Greater than the
intellect is Self. Kill this enemy, in the form of desire,
(which subdues the Self) which is a tough enemy and
hard to conquer. (3: 42 and 43).
The Yoga of Renunciation of Action in Knowledge (Chapter -
Whenever there is decline in righteousness (Dharma) and
upsurge in unrighteousness (Adharma) then I (God)
manifest Myself, for the protection of the virtuous and
expiration of wicked and evil doers, for the sake of
establishing righteousness (Dharma) (4: 7 and 8).
I serve the devotee according to the sentiments with
which he worships Me and to the degree of his surrender
to Me (4: 11).
Fourfold social grade (Varna or caste system) (refer Page
Nos. 53 to 55) has been classified by Me according to the
distribution of qualities (Gunas) and their actions (4: 13).
Those, who have no desire for the fruits of their actions,
are not bound by their actions (4: 14).
He, who perceives inaction in action and action in
inaction, who knows what to do and what not, who
remains free from impurities and who is poised in the
tranquility of the Atma, is wise. He is Yogi and performs
all actions (4: 18).
He, who has excluded desire and motive, who acts
without scheming and not for the rewards (fruits), who
breaks the chain of Karma, who melts in the flame of
Knowledge and who consumes his Karmas (actions) in
the fire of wisdom, is a Sage (4: 19).
He, who performs necessary actions for
maintenance of his body, having no desire, with his mind
and body fully subdued, giving up all attachments and
possessions (is Karma Yogi), incurs no sin (4: 21).
He, who is content in mind with whatever ever comes to
him (without desiring for it), who transcends and
indifferent to the dualities (i.e., pleasure or pain; gain or
loss; success or failure) and who is free from envy and
jealousy, is not bound by his actions (4: 22).
All actions of a person, who is devoid of attachment,
whose thought is established in Knowledge of the Self, are
destroyed (4: 23).
All his actions, whose bonds are broken, whose actions
are worship, whose heart beats in Brahman and who sees
Brahman in every action finds Brahman. The sacrifice is
Brahman, the sacrificer himself is Brahman, the utensils
are Brahman, the fire in which the sacrifice is offered is
Brahman and the entire act consist of Brahman because
Brahman is everything and everywhere (4: 24 and 25).
Wisdom (Knowledge) sacrifice is superior to material
sacrifice. Know this through humble submission, enquiry
and service to Guru. Then you will perceive Truth and
Knowledge. Knowing this you shall not fall into delusion
and you shall see all beings and Brahman in yourself. The
fire of Knowledge reduces all actions and sins to ashes.
No purifier is equal to Knowledge. He, who possesses
faith, attains Knowledge. Devoted to that Knowledge, who
restrains his senses, in time, attains Peace (God-
realization) (4: 33 to 39).
Perform actions with senses, mind, intellect and the body,
abandon doer-ship notion, attachment and fruits of
actions. Perform actions towards Self-purification (5: 11).
Knowledge is enveloped by ignorance. Ignorance of Self is
destroyed by True Knowledge (5: 15 and 16).
The Yoga of Meditation (Self - Control) (Chapter – 6)
He (Soul), who has conquered his Self (Mind, Senses and
Body), his own Self is a friend. But to him who has not
conquered his Self, his own Self acts as his foe (6: 6).
He, who conquered his Self, is perfectly calm (in mind) in
the midst of antithetical pairs i.e., cold and heat;
favourable and unfavourable; joy and sorrow: honour and
dishonour, is in constant communication with the
Supreme Spirit (6: 7).
Practice of Yoga for Self-purification is concentrating the
mind, controlling mind and the senses (6: 12).
He, who controls his mind and constantly meditates on
Me, attains everlasting peace (Supreme Bliss) (6: 15).
Yoga is not successful for him who eats too much or too
less and who sleeps too much or too less (6: 16).
He, who perfectly controlled his mind and fixes on the Self
(Atma) alone, free from desires for enjoyment, is said to
be established in Yoga (i.e., Yogi) (6: 18).
When the mind, disciplined by practice of Yoga becomes
tranquil, the Yogi, realizing God by his Self (Atma),
rejoices only in God (6: 20).
He, who sees Me (the universal Self) present in all
creatures, who sees all beings existing in Me, I am never
out of sight for him nor is he out of My sight (6: 30).
He, who established in union with Me, worships Me as
abiding in all beings, though engaged in all forms of
activities, dwells in Me (6: 31).
The mind is restless, turbulent, obstinate, powerful and
difficult to control, but by repeated practice (meditation)
and by dispassion it can be done (6: 34 and 35).
Even a little practice of this discipline saves one from the
fear of birth and death (2: 40). He is born in the family of
enlightened Yogis, regains his spiritual insight in his
previous birth, and strives harder for perfection for God-
realization (6: 42 and 43).
The Yogi is superior to ascetics (not devoid of desires)
and superior to Jnani (who has knowledge of Scriptures)
and rituality (who perform elaborate rituals). Such Yogi,
who devotedly worships Me (with his mind focused on
Me), is most devout one (6: 46 and 47).
The Yoga of Renunciation (Chapter -- 18)
He, whose own (natural) work or action is worship of
God, attains perfection (18: 46).
He, who has conquered the Self, who becomes free from
desire, with his intellect unattached at all times, attains
the supreme state of non - action and attains perfection
He, who attains perfection, attains Brahman i.e., the
highest state of Knowledge (18: 50).
He, who is endowed with pure intellect; who controls the
senses with firmness; who abandons objects of senses;
who has casted off attractions and aversion; who dwells
in solitude; who eats Sattvika diet; who controls mind,
speech and body; who is constantly devoted to Yoga and
meditation; who takes refuge in dispassion; who
relinquishes egotism, violence, arrogance, lust, desire,
anger and possession of property; who is devoid of the
notion of mineness and tranquil in mind, is fit for oneness
with Brahman (18: 51 to 53).
He, who is absorbed in Brahman, whose Self is serene,
who does not mourn, who has no desire, who sees
Brahman among all beings, has supreme devotion for Me
By devotion to Me, he comes to know that I am in Truth,
having known Me in Truth; he merges unto Me (18: 55).
Performing all duties (actions) he, whose reliance is
always in Me, by My Grace, attains the eternal and
imperishable abode (18: 56).
He, who has mentally dedicated all his actions in Me, who
is devoted to Me as the Supreme Goal, who constantly
thinks of Me, who takes refuge in the Yoga of
discrimination, who fixes his mind on Me, through My
Grace, shall pass all his obstacles (18: 57, 58).
Thus the Knowledge (Brahma Jnan) that is more secret
than all that is secret has been expounded to you by Me.
Do as you please (18: 63).
Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me,
prostrate yourself before Me, you shall come to Me. I
promise you (18: 65).
After surrendering to Me, one need not worry about the
sins committed by them. From the moment one
completely surrenders to Me, I (Lord Krishna) become
his/her Governor or Protector and I will redeem all
his/her sins and liberate him/her from Maya (18: 66).
Having performed the highest devotion to Me, he who
shall teach this Supreme Secret to My worshipers shall
come to Me (18: 68).
He, whosoever studies this sacred Gita, worships Me
through Jnana Yajna (Wisdom Sacrifice) (18: 70).
Darshana means “to see”. There are primarily six
Darshana Shastras means systems of Hindu Religious
Philosophies developed at different periods of time. All of them
are based on the Vedas. The Vedic literature is so exhaustive that
it very difficult even for the Vedic genius to comprehend the
theme of Vedas. So many Rishis and Sages wrote Darshana
Shastras to facilitate proper understanding of the Vedas and
direct the Soul towards God - realization. Original treatises using
very concise aphorisms called Sutras were written.
Sankhya Philosophy is the most ancient system of Hindu
Philosophy, founded by Lord Kapila. This Philosophy explains
the nature of fundamental principles, Divinity and Mayic
Creation which leads to true knowledge. It is dualistic
Philosophy in the sense between the Atma (Self) and Maya
(Cosmic power). It sees the Universe with the forces of Purusa
(Soul) and Prakrti (Maya). It explains that discarding the Mayic
attributes is essential to attain Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss.
(Bhagavata Book 3 Discourses 24 to 33).
Yoga is derived from the root word Yuj means “to yoke”
or “to join” or “to connect”. This Philosophy is founded by
Maharishi Patanjali. It is similar to Sankhya system but more
theistic. This philosophy explains about the practical process of
mind and heart purification and practice of meditation which
may qualify a person to experience the absolute Divinity.
These ideas are based on dualism (seeing the Universe as two
i.e., subject and object). To some extent this Philosophy talks
about God as an inanimate object with the word It. Raja Yoga
and Hatha Yoga are most important in this system of Philosophy.
Vaisheshika means “Particularity”. Maharishi Kanada’s
Vaisheshika Sutras describe the logical steps as to how to
determine right or wrong in terms of finding what is good for a
person. It refers God as THAT. It teaches that the Universe is
made of nine elements i.e., Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Soul, Mind,
Ether, Time and Space. Brahman is regarded as the fundamental
force that causes consciousness in these elements.
Nyaya means “Justice”. It is similar to Vaisheshika
Philosophy. Maharishi Aksapada Gautama’s Nyaya Sutras
primarily deals with the logical analysis of the world and its
atheistic nature. It believes that obtaining valid Knowledge is the
only way to gain release from suffering. This Philosophy
identified valid sources of Knowledge as (a) Perception, (b)
Inference, (c) Comparison and (d) Testimony and developed
several criteria for validity of Knowledge obtained through these
Poorva Mimamsa Philosophy
Maharishi Jaimini, who was the disciple of Bhagavan Veda
Vyasa, wrote Sutras on Poorva Mimamsa to facilitate proper
understanding and practice of Karma Kanda (section pertaining
to actions for higher evolution of Jeevatma i.e., Soul) of the Vedas.
Its aim is Abhyudaya (higher evolution of Jeevatma for better
enjoyment means for the purpose of attaining Swarga Loka
(Heaven). Keeping in view the above aim of attaining Swarga
Loka, this philosophy does not contradict with the Jnana Kanda
(section pertaining to True Knowledge of the Self) of the Vedas.
Uttara Mimamsa (Brahma Sutra)
Uttara Mimamsa (Brahma Sutras) means later part of
Vedas, is also known as Vedanta means essence of the Vedas.
Bhagavan Veda Vyasa’s Brahma Sutras (Total of 555 Sutras in 4
Chapters) reveal Jnana Kanda of the Vedas that God (Brahman) is
absolute Divinity, Bliss and Gracious. The ignorance of true
nature of Atma results in the endless cycle of birth, death and
rebirth. It explains that God has Infinite Divine Virtues. So
lovingly surrender to God and with His Grace, realize His
Absolute Divine Bliss eternally (1: 1: 7). His Grace would break
the bondage of Maya (Cosmic power) and free the Soul. The
Souls are unlimited in number and infinitesimal in form and are
part (ansh) of God (Bhagavad Gita 15: 7). Here the meaning of
Soul is part (ansh) of God is that Souls are God – like, Divine by
nature and not a fraction of God as God being absolute cannot be
made fractions. It reveals the importance and greatness of
absolute Devotion (Ananya, Nirantara Bhakti) and through
devotion a devotee can easily realize God (3: 4: 38). Brahma
Sutras reveals the total theme of the Upanishads which are the
essence of the Vedic literature. The central doctrine is that God
(Brahman) and the Soul is one and the same. Nothing exists
except Brahman (God). The human problem is not sin but
ignorance. The ignorance of true nature of Self results in the
endless cycle of birth, death and rebirth. From the Vedanta
Philosophy the following three Philosophies are formed based
on different interpretations/stand points:
Jagadguru Adi Sankaracharya was born in 788 C.E. at Kaladi
in Kerala. By the age eight he had mastered all the four Vedas
and by age twelve he was well versed in all Hindu Scriptures. He
went to North India and became the disciple of Sri Govinda
Bhagavad Pada, who was the disciple of Sri Gauda Pada. By the
age sixteen he had completed writing many religious books
which can be broadly categorised as under:
Bhashyas: Copious commentaries and interpretations of
Scriptural Texts on ten major Upanishads, Brahma Sutras
and Bhagavad Gita.
Prakaranas: These are Philosophical Treatise. They are
Upadesa Sahasri, Viveka Choodamani, Atma Bodha, Tattva
Bodha and Pancha Dasi etc.
Stotras: These are devotional hymns. They are Shivananda
Lahari, Soundarya Lahari, Bhaja Govindam and Kanaka
Durga Stotram etc.
He established four monasteries which are known as
Sankara Mathas. They are at Sringeri (Karnataka), Badrinath
(Himalayas), Dwaraka (Gujarat), and Puri (Orissa). Through his
commentaries on Upanishads and Brahma Sutras he established
Advaita Philosophy and its basic tenets are as under:
Brahman (The Absolute) is non-dual, One without the
second and alone is Truth and Real (Paramardhika Satya).
Atma is same as Brahman (refer Maha Vaakyas – Page Nos.
77 and 78). Atma being identical to Brahman and He (God)
dwells in all beings. Moksa always exists to Atma.
As long as Jeevatma (Soul) identifies itself with the body,
mind, senses and material world, it is bonded to Maya,
deluded by Avidya (ignorance), identity of Atma and
Brahman is concealed and duality of Atma and Brahman is
Brahman is Sat-Chit-Ananda and not an object. It is Adrusya
(invisible) and beyond the reach of Mayic senses, mind and
Yogic practices of controlling Antahkarana (consisting of
Senses, Mind, Intellect and Ego) dawns True Knowledge in
Jeevatma resulting Citta-Suddhi (makes Antahkarana
Then Avidya (ignorance) is dispelled and Jeevatma is freed
from its bondage of Maya. With God’s Grace, Jeevatma
realizes its Sat-Chit Ananda nature and merges itself in the
ocean of Bliss.
Realizing this identity leads Atma to Jeevan Mukti/Moksa.
At the age of 32, (i.e., in 820 C.E.), Jagadguru Adi
Sankaracharya departed from this world. He is considered as an
incarnation of Lord Shiva. Jagadguru Adi Sankaracharya came to
fill the Spiritual vacuum and restored its past glory in India when
Buddhism was on the raise.
Jagadguru Ramanujacharya (1040 – 1137C.E.) is the founder
of Vishistadvaita Philosophy and a devotee of Lord Vishnu. This
Philosophy is based on both Paramarthika Satya as well as
Vyavaharika Satya which combines Advaita (oneness of God)
with Visesha (attributes). He is the foremost proponent of the
concept of the Supreme Being having definite form, name and
attributes (without Gunas – Sattva, Rajo and Tamo). He saw this
form as that of Lord Vishnu and taught that reality has three
aspects i.e., (a) Lord Vishnu, (b) Soul and (c) Maya or Matter
(Prakrti). Lord Vishnu is the only independent reality, while
Souls and Maya (Matter) are internal distinctions and are
dependent on Lord Vishnu for their existence. It is thus known as
qualified non - dualism. It believes that all qualities or
manifestations are real and permanent and under the control of
the Brahman. The Lord Vishnu (Narayana) has two inseparable
modes (Prakaras), namely the world and the Souls. They are
related to Him as the body is related to the Soul. They have no
existence apart from Him. They inhere in Him as attributes in a
substance. Maya (Matter) and Souls constitute the body of Lord.
The Lord is their indweller. He is the controlling reality. Maya
(Matter) and Souls are subordinate elements to Lord. He used a
word Prapatti (complete surrender to God) to express the
feelings of a devotee, who very humbly surrenders his heart,
mind and the Soul at the lotus feet of his loving God and
earnestly desires for His Divine Vision.
Jagadguru Madhavacharya (1218 – 1317 C.E.) propagated
Dvaita Philosophy based on Vyavaharika Satya of duality and
devotion to God alone can lead for attainment of God and
Liberation. He identified Brahman with Lord Vishnu, but his view
of reality is pluralistic. According to Dvaita Philosophy there are
three ultimate realities i.e., (a) Lord Vishnu, (b) Soul and (c) Maya
or Matter. There are five distinctions i.e., (a) Lord Vishnu is
distinct from the Souls, (b) Lord Vishnu is distinct from the Maya
or Matter, (c) Souls are distinct from the Maya or Matter, (d) A
Soul is distinct from another Soul and (e) Maya or Matter is
distinct from another Maya or Matter. Souls are eternal and are
dependent on the will of Lord Vishnu. The basic tenets of Dvaita
Supremacy of Lord Vishnu.
Supremacy of Vayu (Air) among Jeevas (lives).
The world is Real (Satya) and not illusory.
Fivefold distinction (mentioned above).
Bhakti (devotion) towards God is the sure route to God.
Yoga, derives from Sanskrit word Yuj (to unite), means
getting something new (which was not there before). It also
means method and techniques to unite or connect the Soul
(Jeevatma) to God (Paramatma). Yoga is science that enables the
Soul to its ultimate possibility. Yoga has originated from Lord
Shiva. He is the Adi Yogi or first Yogi. There are three types of
Yogas. They are (a) Karma (action) Yoga, (b) Jnana (Knowledge)
Yoga, and (c) Upasana or Bhakti (devotion) Yoga (Bhagavata 11:
20: 06 to 09).
Laws of Karma and Reincarnation
Hinduism believes in rebirth after death. Hindus also believe
that whatever a person sowed, that shall he/she also reap. This is
the basis of Karmic Law (Bhagavata 10:24:13). Every action has
a reaction. Even every thought, speech and action is weighed on
the scale of Eternal Justice or unwritten Karmic Law which is
universal and nobody can get away from the claws of this Karmic
Law. According to Hinduism, the body alone dies and the Soul is
eternal. This body, constituted of the five elements (earth, water,
fire, air and ether), is subjected to the control of Time, Karma-
Phalas (fruits of actions) and three modes of Prakrti (Sattva,
Rajas and Tamas) (Bhagavata 1:13:45). The path the Soul takes,
after death, is decided upon by the past actions (Karmas) which
are known as Prarabdha-Karma (process of yielding the fruits of
actions). The Soul continues this journey with heavy load of
Sancita-Karmas Phalas (stored fruits of actions) from one life to
another until it exhausts all its Karmas Phalas by under - going
pain or pleasure sensation in the body and mind. When this
Karma Phalas exhaust Soul (Jeevatma) will merge with the
Absolute Soul (Paramatma) and this merging process is Moksa.
God has given free will for the human beings to decide whatever
they wanted to do. God never interferes in their decisions and
actions. So individual is responsible for his actions, so he has to
bear the results of his actions (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 4 or 6:
4: 5; Bhagavata 11: 3: 20).
Doctrine of Karma
The word Karma is derived from Sanskrit word Kri means
“to do”. Here the meaning of Karma is work or action. Vikarma
means sinful actions or actions which are condemnable
(Bhagavad Gita 16: 19). Karma implies strict observance of
ritualistic actions specified in the Scriptures. Not doing work
also turns out to be work. God gave Chetana Shakti (power to
perform action) to Soul (Jeevatma) (Kena Upanishad 1: 1 to 9).
Because of this power, Soul always and at every moment does
action. It cannot stop from doing actions. Everyone is compelled
to act, by the modes born of Nature (Prakrti) (Bhagavad Gita 3: 5
& 33; 18: 59 & 60). But God leaves the decision making authority
to the Soul. God never interferes in the decision making of the
Soul. It is left to the Soul either to do good actions or bad actions
(Svetasvatara Upanishad 4: 6 & 7). (Example – when one has
Nuclear energy and if one decides to use as bomb for military
purpose it causes destruction and suffering for everyone and if
one decides to use for civilian facilities it provides comforts to
everyone. So it is the decision that matters). So the Soul
(Jeevatma) has to get results or fruits for its decisions and
actions as per eternal Cosmic Law (Prasna Upanishad 3: 7;
Bhagavad Gita 3: 9). The Karmas (actions) we do dictate our
past, present and future. In Nyaya Darshana it is explained that
we observe, that one person though puts lot of efforts but get
little or less results, where as another person with little effort
get great results (i.e., people are born with a particular talent).
This is the result of Cosmic Law, which takes into account the
Karmas Phalas of previous lives. We do Karmas (actions) to
satisfy our desires. Desires originate in two ways. Firstly, by
observing the world (material) and desiring for it. Secondly, by
the subtle instincts, of the old Vasanas (unmanifest form of
desires) of previous lives, those are stored in the mind. Such
impressions are stored in a very subtle form in the unconscious
section of the mind and then emerge into the conscious mind in
the form of a desire. It is impossible to abstain from desires until
one attains Divine Bliss (Khatha Upanishad 2: 3: 14; Bhagavata
7: 10: 7 to 9)). Compelled by these desires Jeevatma (Soul)
performs actions. These actions generate Punya Phalas (for good
actions) and Papa Phalas (for bad actions). Such Punya/Papa
Phalas are called Agami Karma Phalas which will fructify in
subsequent lives. Their accumulation is unaccountable. They
cannot be destroyed by any means, except to enjoy their fruits.
Sancita Karma Phalas of a person can be destroyed, only with the
Grace of God, upon God - realization. It means that a person can
get rid of worldly desires and attachments by constant practice
of Yoga. When he devotedly surrenders to God, His Divine Grace
destroys all his Sancita Karma Phalas. However, he has to
undergo Prarabdha Karma Phalas in his present life. When his
present life ends he is free from both Sancita and Prarabdha
Karma Phalas. Then he breaks the bondage of Maya, crosses its
effects and Brahman (God) is revealed to him (Brhadaranyaka
Upanishad 4 or 6: 4: 6). According to Hinduism all duties
prescribed in Hindu Scriptures (DO’s) are good Karmas (because
they have holistic vision) popularly known as Swadharma.
Nishkam Karma (unselfish actions) purifies a person. Selfish
actions retard our goal. Unsefish actions take us towards our
goal. Karma has the theory of conservation of energy. Karma-
Vada is cause and effect of action. Karma-Phalas is fruits
(results) of our actions. God is Karma-Phala-Pradata (giver of
fruits of actions) and ultimate dispenser of justice. Good actions
(Punyam) will give good results (Swarga Loka) and bad actions
(Papam) bad results (Naraka Loka) (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 4
or 6: 4: 5). God is always with the Soul and He resides in the Soul
(Mundaka Upanishad 2: 2: 7 and 8; Svetasvatara Upanishad 6: 7;
Bhagavad Gita 15: 15). He notes all the Karmas (actions) done by
the Soul (as doer through the modes of Prakrti) and gives the
fruits for those actions (Karmas) according to Cosmic Law
(Svetasvatara Upanishad 4: 6, 7and Bhagavad Gita 18: 61). The
Karmas one does have three phases:
Agami Karma Phalas: Agami means arriving. In this life
when one is enjoying the fruits of his Prarabdha Karma
Phalas, he is earning fresh Agami Karma Phalas for his
actions in this life. Some of such Agami Karma Phalas are
fructified in this life itself. When those are enjoyed those
Agami Karma Phalas get exhausted. The remaining
unfructified Agami Karma Phalas will be converted into
Sancita Karma Phalas (after death) and added to his
already stored Sancita Karma Phalas.
Sancita Karma Phalas: Sancita means stored. It is
unfructified results of one’s actions (Karmas) performed
during past lives. These are stored in cosmic intelligence
and remain in potential state (like a term deposit).
Prarabdha Karma Phalas: Prarabdha means which has
begun to give results. When Sancita Karma Phalas
mature, they become kinetic energy, which is called
Prarabdha (destiny). Out of the above accumulated
Sancita Karma Phalas, some portion of Sancita Karmas
Phalas, which are due to bear fruits, are converted into
Prarabdha Karma Phalas and give the present life.
Prarabdha Karma Phalas alone determine the type of
body, the type of parentage, the time and place of birth
and death etc. No one can get rid of (even Saints are not
exempted) from the process of the Prarabdha Karma
Phalas. When one exhausts his Prarabdha Karma Phalas
his Soul leaves his body and his body dies.
Thus the cycle of fructification of Agami, Sancita and
Prarabdha Karma Phalas goes on and on. A person can get rid of
Sancita Karma Phalas with the Grace of God upon God -
realization except Prarabdha Karma Phalas. One does not earn
Agami Karma Phalas if one performs actions without expecting
the fruits (Bhagavad Gita 4: 22, 23; 9: 27, 28; 18: 11 to 18). After
doing any good deed, wholeheartedly surrender all its fruits to
God (Ye tat phalas sarvam Sri Parameswara arpana mastu:
means – I surrender all the fruits of this action to God (Isa
Upanishad – 1). Thus he will not earn fresh Agami Karma Phalas
also (provided he does not do any bad deeds).
Karma Yoga is the path of right action (Karma). It is the
path for the one who is extremely attached to the world. It is a
very difficult path because there are many conditions, rules and
restrictions for the performance of right action (Bhagavata 11:
27: 06). Any action done with the attachment to its fruits
generates a kind of psychological bondage. The art and science of
performing Nish - Kama Karma (without desire for fruits of
actions) is Karma Yoga (Yoga of right action). Always one has to
perform actions with proper attitude and method to please God.
Keep your mind completely attached to Me and perform your
Karma (actions). The attachment of the mind to God (with
devotion) while the body is engaged in Karma is referred to as
Karma Yoga (Bhagavad Gita 3: 7, 9 and 8: 7). Then the fruits of
your actions will not be accumulated by you. It results in
Liberation from material (Mayic) bondage and attainment of God
- realization. Any Dharma Karma (religious or right action)
without Bhakti (devotion) is no Dharma (Bhagavata 1: 2: 6),
(Bhagavad Gita 11: 55). Any Dharma Karma with Bhakti
(devotion) is the only Dharma (Bhagavata 11: 19: 27). According
to Sankhya Philosophy Karmas are performed by three forces i.e.,
Sattva, Rajas and Tamas (also known as Gunas). Rajas represent
activity, Tamas represents inactivity and Sattva is the
equilibrium of the former two. Karma Yoga involves employing
these three forces to do our work properly. Attaining freedom by
unselfish work is known as Nish-Kama Karma. Selfish actions
retard our goal and unselfish actions take us towards our goal
i.e., Salvation or Liberation (Mukti or Moksa). He, who performs
all actions, taking refuse in Me, by My Grace, attains the
Eternal imperishable State (Bhagavad Gita 18: 56). If one does
Dharma Karmas (Virtuous actions) with the qualities of Sattva
Guna (pious) he/she gets Swarga Loka (Heaven) till the fruits of
those actions are exhausted (means limited period). If one does
Karma with the qualities of Rajo Guna (passion/attachment)
he/she gets Mrtyu Loka ( life on Earth) and if one does Karma
with the qualities of Tamo Guna (evil) he/she gets Naraka
Loka (Hell) (Bhagavata 2: 10: 41; Bhagavad Gita 14: 18; Prasna
Upanishad 3: 7). It is the contact with these Gunas that is
responsible for the Soul to take birth in good or bad wombs. If
one does actions according to his Swadharma (duties according
to his Varna and Ashrama) (refer Page Nos. 53 to 55) without
expecting the fruits for those actions is called Karma Yoga. One
who devotionally and exclusively surrenders to God can cross
over the barrier of Maya (Bhagavad Gita 7: 14). One whose mind
is not attached to any material object, motive, sense of mine and
egotism (i.e., giving up of all desires) alone deserves to attain
God - realization (Bhagavad Gita 2: 71). Whatever you do,
whatever you eat, whatever you sacrifice, whatever you give in
charity do it for Me alone. If your mind is attached to Me, then
your actions will not bind you (Bhagavad Gita 9: 28). Karma
Yoga is a system of attaining freedom through selfless actions.
With selfless actions, mind gets purified and with devoid of
sense of agency or doer-ship, fruits of their actions do not come
back to them, then no new links will be created, continuity of
birth, death and rebirth will be broken, becomes free and attains
Liberation. Take refuse in Me and perform your duties (actions)
for Me. Then the fruits of your actions (good or bad) will not
come to you. (Means you will not accumulate fruits of your
actions (Karmas) (Bhagavad Gita 4: 22, 23 and 9: 28). The
practical form of Karma Yoga is to perform your duties with your
senses and body while lovingly attach your mind to God. Refer
Appendix “H” Cycle of Birth–Death–Rebirth (Page Nos. 183-187).
Jnana means “Knowledge”. Jnana is of two types – (a)
Apara Vidya i.e., Vedas and Upa Vedas (b) Para Vidya i.e., Brahma
Vidya with which one can realize Brahman (God) (Mundaka
Upanishad 1: 1: 4, 5). The theoretical knowledge without
practical the knowledge does not lead to the goal. Prajnanam
Brahman means “All knowing Pure Knowledge (Brahma Jnan)
is God” (Aitareya Upanishad 3: 1: 3). God is in the form of
Knowledge and that Knowledge is the Vedas. There is no purifier
equal to Jnana (True Knowledge) (Bhagavad Gita 4: 38). This is
the path for the one who is totally detached from the world and
feel Self and Brahman as one. First know yourself and True Self is
Divine. Everything in this Universe is Divine. You are not your
physical body. Question yourself “Who am I”? “Who/What is
mine” “Am I, my body or my body is owned by the I in me?” I,
means not the body, senses, mind or intellect, but it is the Soul,
an eternal fragment of God (Bhagavad Gita 15: 7). Fool is he who
looks upon the body as his Self and that connected with it as his
(Bhagavata 11: 19: 42). Discard everything whatever you consider
as My and Mine. Finally what is left is Me or “I” (i.e., Self or Atma).
What is not My or Mine (i.e., body, mind, buddhi (intellect) and ego
etc.) is Me. Where My or Mine ends what is left is Me. In Jnana
Marg one ceases to identify himself (i.e., Soul) with his body. To
follow Jnana Marg one has to have absolute control over mind
(which is root for lust, anger, vanity, greed, sorrow, infatuation,
fear and many other evils) with tranquillity and guilelessness
which is very difficult (Bhagavata 5: 6: 3 to 5; 11: 16: 11; Maitri
Upanishad 6: 34 Bhagavad Gita 6: 34, 35 and Mahopanishad 4: 5).
Mind is a good servant, but a bad master. As long as one
performs actions for himself, one has affinity for them, his mind
remains impure. But when one does not perform actions for
himself, his mind is purified (Bhagavad Gita 6: 35). The mind is
tainted by three kinds of defects–(a) Sins, (b) Volatility of mind
and (c) Ignorance. When one performs actions without any
selfish motive, his first two defects i.e., sins and volatility of
mind, come to an end. In order to get rid of the third defect i.e.,
ignorance, having renounced actions, one has to go to his Guru,
so that he may impart Knowledge. At this stage, one does not aim
his actions for material objects, but his aim is God–Realization.
This is known as culmination of all actions and material objects,
in Knowledge i.e., God–Realization through attainment of True
Knowledge. In the Scriptures, there is Viragya Mukha Sadhana
Chatustayam (i.e., four inward Spiritual means) to attain True
Knowledge (Varaha Upanishad 2: 1; Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 4
or 6: 4: 23). These are as under:
Nitya - Anitya Vastu Vivekah (Discrimination):
Distinguishing the Eternal (Atma) from the Non-Eternal
(Temporary – Material World, including our body).
Viragya (Dispassion): Total renunciations from the
enjoyment of fruits of actions by winning over (Control
forever) body, sense perceptions and the mind.
Sama Adi Shatka Sampatti:
Sama (Quietism): Control mind and detach the mind
from worldly objects and direct towards Brahman (God).
Dama (Win over or Control forever of Karma
Indriyas): Not desiring to enjoy material world with
Karma Indriyas (Organs of Actions).
Uparama (Indifference): Total renunciation from the
material world by Jnana Indriyas (Sense Perceptions),
mind and Intellect.
Titiksha (Endurance): To endure all kinds of affliction
i.e., forbearance in the pairs of opposites (pleasure or
pain, happiness or sorrow, heat or cold, gain or loss etc).
Sreddha (Piety): Faith and firm conviction towards
teachings of Scriptures and Guru (Teacher).
Samadhi (Composure): With calm and alert mind
concentrate the intellect upon pure Brahman and
surrender to Him.
Mumukshuttva (Determined desire for Salvation): When
this is aroused, the striver goes to a God - Realized
preceptor (Guru), hears Vedantic Texts (Scriptures) from
Him, which removes his doubts about God (Reality) and
the World (unreality). Removal of this contrary
conception is called meditation (Nididhyasana). With
renounced affinity for all material objects, one gets
established in the Self. It is called Tattvam Padardha
Samsodhana (Self-Realization) and practice the following:
Observe preparatory discipline of moral and ethical
practices. Purify yourself through selfless work.
Meditate on the Divinity of your True inner Self (there is
God in you). The fundamental teaching of Vedas is
Everything in this Universe is Divine and in dwelling Self
After mind and ego falsified, infinite Divinity reveals.
Bhakti comes from the root word Bhaj which means to be
attached to. Bhakti means absorption of mind in God (Bhagavata
10: 29: 15). Bhakti Yoga is the path of devotion to connect to
Personal form of God (Saguna Brahman). The path of Bhakti
Yoga is Jnana (Spiritual enlightenment) and Viragya (dispassion)
worn out by the process of time (Bhagavata Mahatmya (Extract
from Padma Purana) Discourse 1: 45). One of the greatest
exponents of Bhakti Yoga is Deva Rishi Narada and the
Philosophy of Bhakti is described in Narada Bhakti Sutras.
Nishkama (desireless) and Nirantara (always) Bhakti (devotion)
is serene and a direct relation of the Soul with Personal form of
God (Bhagavata 1: 2: 6). It is above religion, nationality, caste,
creed and sect etc. It can be adopted by anyone, at any place and
at any time. There are no requirements, conditions, restrictions
and any rituals. If selfish Love in human beings is directed
towards God through Navada Bhakti (Nine fold Devotion) i.e.,
Smarana (thinking with mind), Sravana (hearing), Samkirtana
(singing), Pada Seva (service to His feet), Archana (Pooja),
Vandana (bow and Pray), Daasya (doing His service), Sakhya
(friendly), and Atma-Nivedana (surrendering yourself – with
mind and not by mere physical actions) are effective means for
God – realization. In the initial stage of devotional practice, one
should minimize the contact with the material world so that the
mind should not get attracted and attached to any material
object. Devotion eradicates elements of passion (Rajo Guna) and
ignorance (Tamo Guna) (Bhagavata 1:5:28). In the highest
aspect of Bhakti Yoga the devotee goes for total Self-surrender to
God. By doing Dharma Karma only Pap (stored bad Sancita
Karma Phalas) is destroyed, but heart is not purified. My Divine
power (Maya), consisting of three Gunas (Sattva, Rajas and
Tamas), can only be crossed by the one who surrenders to Me
(Bhagavad Gita 7:14). God can only be captured through
exclusive Devotion with reverence (Bhagavata 11:14:21). Lord
Krishna said that neither My own divine personality (Lord
Himself), nor My better half (Goddess Lakshmi), nor My own Self
(Lord Shiva), nor My son (Lord Brahma – God for Creation) nor
My brother (Balarama) is so dear to Me than My devotee. I even
dog the footsteps of My devotee in order that I may be cleansed
(absolved from the stigma of not being able to repay my debt to
him) by the dust of his feet (Bhagavata 11: 14: 15, 16). God
showers His Grace on His devotee, the devotee so blessed gives
up Karmas (actions) (Bhagavata 4:29:46). Bhakti leads to the
total dissolution of the feeling of I (ego) and desires which is the
cause of all the problems. Free yourself from the delusion of I
and Mine. In Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna explains Bhakti Yoga
(Chapter 12) as under:-
He, who is eternally steadfast, who worships fixing his
mind on Me, who is endowed with supreme faith on Me, is
most perfect Yogi (12: 2).
Those, who worship (controlling senses and mind) on
imaginary form devoid of all attributes (i.e., impersonal
form of Brahman), also come to Me (12: 3 and 4).
I take the responsibility of those who surrender all their
actions to Me, regard Me as supreme goal and worship Me
(personal form of Brahman) with devotion. I liberate
them from the endless cycle of birth, death and rebirth
(12: 6 and 7).
Fix your mind and establish your intellect on Me alone.
You shall dwell in Me entirely (12: 8).
If you cannot fix your mind and intellect steadily on Me,
then seek to attain Me by constant practice of chanting
Divine name etc. (Yoga) (12: 9). If you cannot practice
this, perform selfless actions for My sake. You will attain
perfection (12: 10). If you cannot even do this, resorting
to devotion towards Me, act with self - restraint (subduing
your mind, senses and intellect) renouncing the fruits of
your actions (12: 11). Knowledge is better than practice.
Meditation is superior to Knowledge. Renunciation of
fruits of actions is even superior to meditation. Peace
follows renunciation (12: 12).
He, who hates no being, who is friendly and
compassionate to all, who is free from attachment to
possessions (sense of I and mine), who is free from
egoism, who is indifferent to pain and pleasure (12: 13),
who is forgiving, always contended and balanced in mind,
who is self - controlled, whose conviction is firm, whose
mind and intellect are fixed on Me, who is devoted to Me,
is dear to Me (12: 14).
A devotee, who is free from evils of attachment, aversion,
rejoices and grief, is dear to Me (12: 17).
He who, with faith, solely devoted to Me holds Me as his
supreme goal, follows this nectar of wisdom (law or
doctrine) is exceedingly dear to Me (12: 20).
Other Yogas: In Hinduism the other popular Yogas and practices
are (a) Raja Yoga, (b) Kundalini Yoga and (c) Pranayama.
Raja means King. Raja Yoga provides perfect path to
enlightenment if one has the right understanding and practices
correctly. This is the path of mental concentration and suitable
for meditative people. It is Kriya Yoga. It is stoppage of
vibrations or modification of mind, to achieve a state above the
mind to reach a mindless state for God-realization. This clears
the mind of past thoughts in sub-conscious mind (Samskaras).
In the course of practicing this Yoga one gets super human
powers (Siddhis). (Refer Appendix “J”- Page Nos. 188 and 189).
One should ignore these powers and proceed in their Spiritual
path. Then their inherent Divinity will manifest and will become
free from human limitations. Then the mind and the ego melt in,
and then Yogi enters Nirvikalpa Samadhi. According to
Maharishi Patanjali, the following are the eight limbs of Yoga
(Yoga Sutras 2: 29):-
Yama (Self-control): Non-violence, truthfulness, non-
thieving, continence, non-accumulation of worldly
possessions (Bhagavata 2: 9: 39) (Yoga Sutras 2: 30).
Niyama (Religious observance): Observe good habits i.e.,
purity of body and mind, contentment, austerity, study of
Vedas, repetition of Divine name and meditation on God
(Yoga Sutras 2: 32).
Aasana: Learn proper posture for meditation (Yoga
Sutras 2: 46).
Pranayama: Practice proper controlling of breath
(concentrating restless mind) (Yoga Sutras 2: 49). (Note:
For details see Page Nos. 137 to 139).
Pratyahara: Withdraw (win over) (control forever)
senses from sense objects (Yoga Sutras 2: 54).
Dharana: Fix the mind on chosen object(Yoga Sutras 3:1)
Dhyana: Practice meditation (Yoga Sutras 3: 2).
Samadhi: Practice mental concentration. Ego dissolves
(suspends), the mind loses its identity, assumes formless
state and realizes ultimate Truth (Yoga Sutras 3: 3).
In Sanskrit Kundali means coil. Kundalini, (means one with
ear rings) refers to Shakti (Goddess of Power), which is said to
lie asleep like a coiled serpent in the base of one’s spine. The
vital energy or nerve current of a person passes through two
vertical channels (Ida channel and Pingala channel) which are
on both sides of spinal cord. When Kundalini power is awakened,
vital energy (power) rises from the base of the spine, passes
through Sushumna channel (which is inside the spinal cord and
normally closed) and through six Cosmic centers known as
Cakras (wheels) to the final centre called Sahasrara, located
under the top of the skull or at the crown of the head, envisaged
as a thousand petalled lotus. Then Spiritual illumination takes
place (Refer Appendix “K” – Page No. 190).
Ida Channel: It is on the left side of the spine. It meets
Sushumna channel at Ajna Cakra (central point between
eyebrows) and flows through left nostril. When exhales, if
breathe is stronger through left nostril, means vital
energy is passing through this channel. When resting,
energy passes through this channel.
Pingala Channel: It is on the right side of the spine. It
meets Sushumna channel at Ajna Cakra and flows through
right nostril. When exhales, if breathe is stronger in the
right nostril, means vital energy is passing through this
channel. When copious amount of physical activity is
done, energy passes through this channel.
Sushumna Channel: It runs through the centre of the
spinal cord to the top most point of the brain under the
skull. Pingala and Ida channels join this Sushumna
channel at Ajna Cakra. Normally this channel is closed. It
opens when Kundalini power is awakened and Kundalini
power rises upward through this channel up to
Cakras (Cosmic Centers): There are six Cakras (Cosmic
Centers). They are:
Muladhara (at the lower end of the spinal cord).
Svadhishthana (at the base of the genital).
Manipuraka (at the level of the navel).
Anahata (at the level of the heart).
Visuddhi (at the medulla oblongata in the throat).
Ajna (at the middle of both the eyebrows).
Solar Plexus, which is between the navel and the heart,
activates the body. When Kundalini power passes
through these Cakras, Spiritual level enhances as the
level goes higher.
Space: There are three types of Spaces:
Maha Akasa or Pancha Bhuta Akasa: Outer Space i.e.,
Earth, Planets and the Stars etc.
Citta Akasa or Dahara Akasa: Mental Space i.e.,
Dreams and the Imagination world.
Cida Akasa or Para Akasa: Knowledge Space i.e., one
gets access to this Space when Kundalini power
awakens and enters Sushumna Channel.
Asamprajnata Samadhi: This is the goal of the Kundalini Yoga.
When Kundalini power passes through Cakras (Cosmic Centers),
Spiritual illumination enhances as the level goes higher. When
Kundalini power enters Sahasrara, through Sushumna channel,
Spiritual illumination takes place (unites with Purusa i.e., God).
Leaving the body (dying) through this Yoga, the Self disciplined
Yogi does the following (Bhagavata 2: 2: 18 to 21):
Sits squat pressing anus with heels.
Draws air located in the circle located within the navel
(Manipuraka Cakra) upward into Anahata Cakra, located
at the heart.
Following the course of Udana air, takes to Visuddhi
Cakra, located at the medulla oblongata in the throat.
With the help of reason gradually pushes it to the root of
the palate (i.e., to the top of the Visuddhi Cakra).
Closes the seven passages (2 eyes, 2 ears, 2 nostrils and
mouth) takes air from the root of the palate to Ajna
Cakra (the circle located at the middle of the eyebrows).
If one has no desire to visit the higher worlds, he pauses
at the Ajna Cakra for about half an hour with his gaze
fixed on his goal and taking the air into the Sahasrara (at
the crown of the head) attains union with God. Finally
breaking upon the crown of the head, he
abandons his body and the senses.
(Caution: Swami Vivekananda, master of this Yoga said
“This must be learned from competent Guru. There must
be perfect chastity in thought, word and deed. Otherwise
it may lead to insanity.”)
Prana means Life Energy. Some say it means vital current
in the body. Ayama or Yama means expansion or extension (i.e.,
to bring forth to Nature). Some define Prana as the link between
Absolute Consciousness, the mind and the body. Strivers should
clear the passage of the breath, inhale the air to ones utmost
capacity, and hold the breath and then finally exhaling it. Or by
reversing the process i.e., by exhaling the air, then hold the
breath outside and finally inhaling. Eradicate the disorders of
three cardinal humours of the body (wind, bile and phlegm).
Prana (vital airs) is of ten kinds. They are (a) Pancha Prana (i)
Prana (the air which we inhale or exhale either through nostrils
or though mouth and has its seat in the lungs), (ii) Apana (the air
which has downward course and has its seat in the anus), (iii)
Samana (the air which is essential for digestion and has its seat
in the navel), (iv) Udana (the air which has an upward course
and has its seat in the throat, functions at the time of vomiting),
(v) Vyana (the air which circulates in every direction and
diffuses through the body) and (b) Pancha Upa Prana (i) Naga
(the air which enables us to belch), (ii) Kurma (the air which
helps us to open and close our eyes), (iii) Krkala (the air which
excites our hunger), (iv) Devadatta (the air which enables us
to yawn) and (v) Dhananjaya (the air which nourishes the
body) (Bhagavata 3:6:7). These ten airs again manifest into
three forms - vigour, will–power and bodily strength.
Pranayama is combination of Puraka (means inhaling),
Kumbhaka (means holding breath) and Rechaka (means
exhaling). Maharishi Patanjali in his text of Yoga Sutras (2: 49)
explained Pranayama as means for attaining higher state of
Samadhi. It is the most scientific method of expansion of vital
current in the body. It has been found that those animals which
take longer duration of breath (i.e., time for one cycle) live
longer lives and those which take shorter duration of breath live
shorter lives. A person’s character and health are a reflection of
his/her breathe pattern. Generally people who take shorter
breath are weak, nervous and unpredictable, where as those
who take longer breath are usually stronger, trust worthy and
happy people. The following types of Pranayama (while chanting
mystic word OM (AUM)) are commonly practiced:
Bhastrika: Take deep breath and then completely
breathe out by pulling stomach inside (2 to 5 minutes).
Kapala Bhati: Push air forcefully out by pulling stomach
inside (30 times or maximum 10 minutes).
Baharya: Breathe air out, touch chin to chest, squeeze
stomach inside completely, hold for a while, then raise
the chin to normal position and breathe in slowly (10
Anuloma and Viloma: Close the right nasal with right
hand thumb, breathe in from left nasal. Now open the
right nasal and close the left nasal with right hand middle
finger and breathe out from right nasal (Anuloma).
Similarly opposite process is Viloma. Close the left nasal
with right hand middle finger, breathe in from right nasal.
Now open the left nasal and close the right nasal with
right hand thumb and breathe out from left nasal and so
on (10 minutes).
Bhramri: Close both ears with thumbs, put both index
fingers on forehead and rest the other three fingers at the
base of the nose, breathe in. Now breathe out humming
like a bee (10 minutes).
Udgitha: Breathe in deeply. Chant AUM (OM) while
breathing out (10 minutes).
(Caution: Pranayama is to be learned from competent
and learned Guru (teacher) and practiced properly.
Otherwise it will have negative and dangerous effects).
Character of Yoga
The character of Yoga (meditation) gets the mind purified and
takes to the path of God (Bhagavata 3: 28: 2 to 7):
Do your allotted duty to the best of your ability.
Shrink from prohibited acts.
Remain contended with whatever you got as a
dispensation of Providence.
Cease from duties connected with pursuit of religious
merit, worldly possessions and sensuous enjoyment
(ends of human pursuit except Moksa). Take delight in
duties tending to final beatitude (Moksa).
Take pure food in measured quantity.
Practice non-violence (in thought, word and deed).
Speak truth. Abstain from thieving.
Limit your possessions to the barest needs.
Abstain from sexual commerce.
Practice austere penance and worship the Deity.
Observe purity – both body and mind.
Control breathes by slow degree. Observe silence.
Withdraw senses from their objects and direct towards
the Soul (Self) with the help of the mind.
Fix the mind as well as vital airs (Prana or life) and
compose the mind.
Curb the wicked mind – addicted to evil ways, apply it to
the contemplation (meditation) on God.
Mantra (Man means repeating and Tra means protection)
means something by repeating/reflecting on which a person is
protected from the danger of the bondage of Maya (this world).
Mantras contain power packed letter, word or a verse, a system
of syllables made with particular frequencies of vibrations, is
used to change one’s vibrations and frequency of vibrations to a
better state. According to expanding and contracting theory, the
Universe is rhythmic more or less like a pulsating heart.
Hinduism calls this great rhythm of the Universe by the name
Spandana. Mantra is a method to accomplish to synchronize our
rhythm and vibrations to the rhythm and vibrations of a
particular Divine power. A Mantra has to be taught and given
(revealed) by a realized Guru and learned and received by a
competent disciple (student) and meditates it inside (secretly)
repeatedly to gain its immense power. If there is any slightest
error in the pronunciation, rhythm and sound vibrations of Vedic
Mantra, it can have adverse effects than any benefit.
ॐ - OM (Aum)
ॐ – OM (AUM) means that which protects. Its Sanskrit name is
Udgitha or Pranava. Udgitha or Pranava (the mystic syllable of
Aum (OM)) flowed from the cavity of Lord Brahma’s heart.
Mandukya Upanishad (Page Nos. 86, 87); Chandogya Upanishad
(Page Nos. 90 to 92) and Taittiriya Upanishad (1: 8: 1) gives
elaborate explanations to this Udgitha. It is the first sound (big
bang) that came on Creation. It is the symbol of Brahman, Isvara
and also Hinduism. It is the seed of the Veda (Bhagavata
Mahatmya (extract from Padma Purana) Discourse 3: 34;
Bhagavad Gita 9: 17). It is the ultimate essence of Vedas (True
Knowledge). It represents Three in One:
Three Murties i.e., Lord Brahma (God for Creation),
Lord Vishnu (God for Preservation) and Lord Shiva (God
Three Vedas i.e., Rg Veda, Sama Veda and Yajur Veda.
Three Gunas i.e., Sattva (serenity), Rajas (activity) and
Avasta (Consciousness or state) i.e., awakening
(consciousness), dreaming (sub-consciousness) and deep
Material world i.e., Body, mind and intellect.
Three Lokas (worlds) i.e., Patala (below the Earth), Earth
and Heaven (above the Earth).
Three levels i.e., Gross, Subtle and Causal.
Three Universal processes i.e., Coming, Being and Going.
Gayatri Maha Mantra
Maharishi Viswamitra, who is the Mantra Drasta (to
whom Mantra reveals itself), has been associated with Gayatri
Maha Mantra. Gayatri is the mother of Veda (Bhagavata
Mahatmya (extract from Padma Purana) Discourse 3: 34). It is a
prayer from Rg Veda. Gayatri has three names i.e., Gayatri
(master of Senses), Saraswati (presiding deity of Speech i.e.,
Vaak) and Savitri (master of Prana i.e., life force and Truth).
These three represent purity of thought, word and deed. Prime
source of this Creation is Shakti (energy) which is the power of
God. We all come from the same source and merge into the same
source. That Shakti (energy) is Gayatri. It is addressed to Shakti
(energy) of Surya (Sun) (i.e., Brahman (God) can be seen in the
form of Sun), which is an imminen1t and transcendental
Divinity. Gayatri Maha Mantra, with its proper pronunciation,
rhythm and sound vibrations has the infinite potentiality,
vibrant formula and immense power. It purifies the subtle
Karmas, helps in Spiritual awakening and Self - realization. It is
the supreme method for gaining the Spiritual enlightenment. It
activates Kundalini Shakti at all the seven major Cakras and
connects them to seven great Spiritual realms of Existence.
Gayatri (or Savitri), the sacred verse reads as under (Rig Veda 3:
57: 10) (refer Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 5 or 7: 14: 1):
Aum Bhu Bhuvah Suvah
Means: A is the ultimate essence of Bhu, U is the ultimate
essence of Bhuvah and M is the ultimate essence of
Suvah. Bhu (essence of Rg Veda) which means Earth.
Bhuvah (essence of Yajur Veda) which means Sky and
Suvah (essence of Sama Veda) which means Heaven.
“Tat Savitur Varenyam,
Bhargo Devasya Dhimahi,
Dhiyo Yo Nah Pracodayat”.
Many eminent people derived and translated the meaning
of Gayatri Maha Mantra. Some of them are as under:
We meditate on the adorable glory of the radiant Sun;
may He inspire our intelligence.
OM, we meditate upon the Spiritual effulgence of THAT
adorable supreme Divine reality, the source of the
Physical, Astral and the Heavenly spheres of existence.
May THAT Supreme Being enlighten our intellect (so that
we may realize the supreme Truth).
I invoke the Earthly plane, the Astral plane, the Celestial
plane, the plane of human Spiritual Knowledge, the plane
of Spiritual austerities and the plane of ultimate Truth.
Oh, the great Spiritual light, which is the brilliance of all
Divinity, we meditate upon You. Please illumine our
OM, the absolute reality and its planes, on THAT finest
Spiritual light, we meditate, as remover of all obstacles
that, IT may inspire and enlighten us.
OM, we meditate on the effulgence of that adorable Divine
Being, who is the source and protector of three Worlds
i.e., The Earthly plane (Bhur Loka), the subtle Ethereal
plane (Bhuvar Loka) and The Heavenly plane (Swarga
Loka). May that supreme Divine Being stimulate our
intelligence in order that we may realize the supreme
May we meditate on the effulgent light of Him, who is
worshipful and who has given birth to all the Worlds. May
He direct the rays of our intelligence towards the path of
May the almighty God, illuminate our intellect to lead us
along the right path.
Oh God ! Thou art the giver of life,
Remover of pain and sorrow,
The Bestower of happiness,
Oh, Creator of the Universe,
May we receive Thy supreme sin destroying light,
May Thou guide our intellect in the right direction.
Maha Mrtyumjaya or Rudra or Trayambaka Mantra:
Mrtyumjaya means conquering death. This Mantra is in Rg
Veda and Shiva Purana which reads as under:
AUM, Tryambakam yajamahe
-- means: OM, We worship all knowledgeable, all knowing
Isvara (Lord Shiva who has three eyes)
Sugandhim pushti varadanam
-- means: Who spreads sweet fragrance of knowledge,
which nourishes, grows and provides life to all beings
Urvarukam iva bandhana
-- means: May He liberate us from decease, attachment
and death for the sake of immortality
Mrtyor mrksheeya mamrtat
-- means: Be pleased and bless us to be liberated into Your
Beeja Mantras (Powers in seed form):
Beeja Akshara (seed letter that does not deteriorate or
destroy) consists of a single letter, sometimes constitutes several
syllables or compound letters. Their meaning is subtle, mystical
and it is a very power packed Mantra. In Sanskrit language there
are 51 Aksharas (letters) (i.e., 16 letters from अ to अः then 25
letters from क to म then 10 letters from य to (that makes
total of 51). In Akshamala, each bead represents one letter and
Mantra pertaining to that letter is to be repeated in mind. 50
small beads represent अ to ह and one big bead represents
(all the beads should be either Rudraksha or Spatika or Tulasi
beads) and not mixed. Every Devata (Goddess or God) has
her/his own Beeja Mantra representing their Divine power
which is very sacred. This topic is not discussed in detail in this
book because they have to be taught by a competent Guru and
received, known and meditated upon by deserving Sishya
(student). Some of the Beeja Mantras are as under:
The greatest of all the Beeja Mantras is ॐ OM (Aum).
×ी Îवqया (Sree Vidya) represents Tripura Sundari or
Bhuvaneswari or Maha-Maya). §|ं (Hreem) represents to Maha-
Maya or Bhuvaneswari. द
ं (Dum) represents to Durga. 4|ं
(Kreem) represents Maha-Kali. ×ीं (Shreem) represents Maha-
Lakshmi. ऐं (Aim) represents to Maha-Saraswati. ह
ं or ह
or Hoom) represents to Shiva. 4ल|ं (Klim) represents to Krishna.
गं or Iल
ं (Gam or Glaum) represents to Ganesha. हं (Ham)
represents Ether. यं (Yam) represents to Air. रं (Ram)
represents to Fire. वं (Vam) represents to Water. लं (Lam)
represents to Earth etc.
Pancha - Dasi (means Fifteen) Maha Mantra (Sree Lalita
Maata) (Tripura Upanishad – 3):
Pancha - Dasi Maha Mantra leads to transcend the
dualities. This Mantra cannot be truly translated, being the most
secret and a very powerful Mantra. However, this Mantra can be
divided into three parts of five seed letters each and the broad
meaning is as under:
Vak Bhava Kuta (Source of Speech): 1. Ka (Kamah) (to
shine) Lord Shiva as Creator Lord Brahma. 2. Ye (Yoni) (to
study, pure consciousness) Goddess Saraswati (Goddess of
Jnana – Knowledge). 3. Ee (Kama Kalhaa) Pervades desire to
create the Cosmos. Goddess Lakshmi bestows wealth and
prosperity. 4. La (Vajra Paanhi) (Stithi) God Indra
(represents Victory). 5. Hreem (Guhaa) Creation – merger of
Shiva and Shakti thus Lord Brahma and Goddess Saraswati
enjoying the dance and music of Creation.
Kama Raja Kuta (King of Desire – which protects and gives
all desired material and Spiritual power): 6. Ha (Ha) (to
injure – passion) Sustainer of life and cause of vanquishing
the enemy. 7. Sa (Saa) (to enjoy or procreate) Feeling of
ecstasy and depression alternating in cycles, language of
gestures, wealth and aid to enjoyment. 8. Ka (Maata Risvaa)
(Kama – desire) Agitations of heart and mind due to thinking
about the world. 9. Ha (Abhram) Hamsa i.e., Swan.
Discriminating between love, power, lust, fear and life
sustaining breath refers to achievement of valour, wealth
and desires etc. 10. La (Indrah) God of pleasure, enjoyment
and controller of all other Deities (power).
Shakti Kuta (Peak of Power): 11. (Hreem (Guhaa) Shiva and
Shakti in union protecting and nourishing the world. 12. Sa
(Sa) (Para) Transcendent Goddess who manifests as this
world the source of Cosmos and this world. 13. Ka (Ka)
(Desire) Brings forth this world out of Shiva with the help of
Para Shakti. 14. La (Laa) (Hara) Shiva’s, existence without
awareness is like a corpse without any movement. 15.
Hreem (Mayaa) (to remain) Shiva – Shakti – fulfillment of
desires of desires, divine union and liberation from desires.
Note: If seed letter Sreem (Maha-Lakshmi) is added after the
above 15 seed letters then it becomes Sho - Dasi (16 letters)
Mantra. Whatever may be the form they all lead to the same
Panchakshari (means five syllables) Maha Mantra:
Namah Shivaya. If OM (AUM) is prefixed to this it
becomes six syllables. There are many spiritual meanings
referring to Pancha Kosa, Pancha Bhutas etc. But simple general
meaning of this Mantra is “I offer my prostrations (salutations)
to the most auspicious one who eliminates all inauspiciousness”.
Ashtakshari (means eight syllables) Maha Mantra:
OM (AUM) Namo Narayanaya. There are many spiritual
meanings. Naara (means water, Jeevas) and Ayana (means
resting place). Simple general meaning of this Mantra is “I offer
my prostrations (salutations) to the most auspicious one who is
the resting place to all living beings”.
Asato ma Sad gamaya
-- means: Lead me from unreal to real
Tamaso ma Jyotir gamaya
-- means: Lead me from darkness to light
Mrtyor ma Amrtam gamaya
-- means: Lead me from death to immortality
Aum Shanti, Shanti, Shanti
-- means: Protect me with Peace, Peace and Peace
(Brhadaranyaka Upanishad – 1 or 3: 3: 28)
Aum, Purnam adah, Purnam idam
-- means: That (God) is Full, this (Soul) is full,
Purnat Purnam udacyate
-- means: From the Full, full is created,
Purnasya Purnam adaya
-- means: If the full is taken out from the Full,
Purnam eva avasisyate
-- means: The Full itself remains.
Aum Shanti, Shanti, Shanti
-- means: Protect me with Peace, Peace and Peace.
Note: In this Sloka (verse) God and the Soul are compared to
complete, full or totality. Full, being without the beginning
and an end, so also God and the Soul, being eternal, are
without a beginning and an end (Invocation of Isa Upanishad).
Aum, Sa ha nav avatu, saha nau bhunaktu
-- means: May He Protect us, be pleased with us both
Saha viryam kara vavahai:
-- means: May we work together with vigour
Tejasvi nav adhitam astu:
-- means: May our study make us illumined
-- means: May we not envy among ourselves
Aum Shanti, Shanti, Shanti
-- means: Provide us Peace, Peace and Peace
(Invocation of Katha Upanishad and Taittiriya Upanishad)
Stotram means prayer to Goddess/God by their various
forms/names/attributes, which are power packed Mantras
(letters/words) so that they are pleased and bless the devotee.
The following are important Stotrams:
Lalita Sahasra Nama Stotram: Goddess Lalita Devi is Divine
Mother and God’s feminine power. Goddess Lalita Devi is Cit-
Shakti (Maha-Maya) (Supreme personal Power of Brahman) with
which Creation started. Saraswati Devi Vasinis i.e., 8 Vaag Devis
have first composed Sri Lalita Devi Sahasra Nama Valli
(Prayer with Mantras of 1000 Forms/Names/Attributes of Sri
Lalita Devi). These are organised as a hymn in the form of
Stotram. This Stotram was revealed by Bhagavan Hayagriva (an
incarnation of Lord Vishnu) to Maharishi Agasya which is in
Shiva Sahasra Nama Stotram: Lord Shiva Sahasra
Nama Stotram has two versions. They are as under:
Shiva Sahasra Nama Stotram was taught by Lord Krishna to
Sage Markandeya which is in Linga Purana.
Shiva Sahasra Nama Stotram is in Anusasana Parva of
Mahabharata. After Mahabharata war Yudhisthira after
hearing Vishnu Sahasra Nama Stotram from Bhisma, requests
Bhisma also to teach him Shiva Sahasra Nama Stotram. But
Bhisma expresses his inability to the same and requests Lord
Krishna to teach it to Yudhisthira. Then Lord Krishna teaches
Shiva Sahasra Nama Stotram to Yudhisthira.
Vishnu Sahasra Nama Stotram: Lord Vishnu Sahasra
Nama Stotram is in Anusasana Parva of Mahabharata. Vishnu
Sahasra Nama Stotram was first composed by Sanaka (one of
the Manasa Putra i.e., mind born sons of Lord Brahma). Later it
was transmitted to Bhisma. After Mahabharata war when
Yudhisthira approaches Bhisma to impart his knowledge to him,
Bhisma first chanted Vishnu Sahasra Nama Stotram.
Tantra means “weave” denoting continuity. Tantras are
associated during medieval period having been written between
500 and 1,800 C.E (Common Era). There are 92 Tantras (64
Bhairava Tantras, 18 Rudra Tantras, and 10 Shiva Tantras).
These are parallel set of disciplines to Mantra/Veda discipline.
Tantrism is marked by rejection of the Vedic notions and points
that the precepts of the Vedas are too difficult for our age and an
easier cult or doctrine has been revealed to them. Tantric texts
are classified as Shaiva Agamas, Vaishnava Pancaratra Samhitas
and Shakti (Divine Mother) Tantras. In the process of evolution,
Maya conceals reality and separates into opposites i.e.,
consciousness and unconsciousness, pleasant and unpleasant
etc. Evolution or the Out-going Current is only one half of the
functioning of Maya. Involution or the Return Current takes the
Jeeva back towards the source or root of the reality, revealing the
Infinite. Tantra is understood to teach the method of changing
the Out-going Current into the Return Current, transforming the
fetters created by Maya into that which Releases or Liberates.
The following Tantric Pujas, to please and gain Kshudra Shaktis
(Divine Power for destructive purposes), became popular during
medieval period (which were conducted at midnight at burial
Akarshana Tantra Puja: To attract other people.
Vikarshana Tantra Puja: To reject other people.
Bhuta, Preta and Pisacha Tantra Puja: To remove negative
Marana Tantra Puja: To kill other persons.
Vaseekarana Tantra Puja: To subjugate other people by
God is looked upon as both male and female principle
called Lord Shiva and Goddess Shakti. Lord Shiva can be
compared to potential energy and Goddess Shakti, who is
creative power of Lord Shiva, is kinetic energy (when potential
energy becomes active it becomes kinetic energy). When Lord
Shiva becomes active, He is called Goddess Shakti. When Goddess
Shakti becomes inactive she is called Lord Shiva. According to
Tantras the creative principle of the world is union of Goddess
Shakti (Divine Mother) with Lord Shiva. Goddess Shakti is not
indistinct from Lord Shiva, the Absolute of the Upanishads, but is
the power of the Absolute. Their relationship is inseparable, like
fire and burning power. Goddess Shakti has many other names;
one of them is Goddess Parvati. The texts in the Tantras are
generally in the form of dialogues between Lord Shiva and
Goddess Parvati. When Lord Shiva is giving Spiritual teachings
and Goddess Parvati is listener they are called Agamas. When
Goddess Parvati plays the role of teacher and Lord Shiva listener,
the texts are called Nigamas. Tantra Spiritual discipline is
suitable for people from the highest to the lowest cultural levels.
Some of the popular Tantra texts are as under:
The essence of all Tantra discipline is contained in
Swatantra Tantra. Tantra discipline gained importance in the 5
Century C.E. When images of deities are installed in temples,
geometric drawings (Mandalas) representing Deities, the
Cosmos are drawn on the floor for the people to meditate and
perform rituals. By Tantric discipline we come to know the
nature of Brahman (Sat-Chit-Ananda) i.e., Absolute Existence,
Consciousness and Bliss. Then we are freed from desire, live
detached life from objects of senses, break the chain of Karmas
and finally from the repeated cycle of birth, death and rebirth, no
longer return to this world and enter the ocean of Immortal
Aum (OM) TAT SAT – By uttering this sacred text
whatever action a house - holder or a Sage begins, with it he gets
the desired fruits (14: 154 and 155). There are two paths i.e.,
Pravrtti Marg for family man (house - holder) and Nivrtti Marg
for renouncing monks. Duties of family man (Gruhasta Ashram or
house - holder) as per Pravrtti Marg are as under:
Surrender the fruits of your actions to God.
You should earn your livelihood through honest means
(struggle to become rich through honest means).
Life is meant for the service of God, poor and helpless.
You must look after your parents, Guru and guests as
tangible representatives of God.
You must look after your wife well (do not scold, hurt
and show anger) and maintain with complete fidelity.
Please her with love, faithfulness, sweet words, gifts,
cloths and money.
Do not use foul language and brag about yourself i.e.,
fame, wealth, power, position or poverty.
You should maintain with pure heart and clean body.
Do not pay excessive attention to food, clothes and
You should be enthusiastic, active and brave and fight
for the right.
You must lovingly bring up your children, educate and
You should take care of your brothers, sisters, relatives
(if poor) and servants.
Carefully judge and select good friends.
Always speak truth and earn good name.
Do social service and plant trees.
(Note: Please refer Page Nos. 47 to 49 and also 57 to 59)
Human birth, the highest step in the ladder to
liberation, is difficult to obtain. Pity on him who gets
this birth and yet does not save himself.
One who bears the body; it is not possible for him to
give up all his activities. He, who abandons the fruits of
his actions, truly renounces.
Ananda (Bliss) is the form of Brahman and that Ananda
is installed in this body.
The body is temple, Jeevatma (Soul) is God and
Sadashiva is Brahman.
There is no mantra higher than the meditation, no God
higher than the Self and no worship higher than the
pursuit of Inner-Self.
Samsaara (Mayic and Material world) means repeated
passing of Soul through different worlds of gross, subtle and
causal (repeated cycle of birth, death and rebirth) in other words
everything in the Universe other than God. Moksa, Mukti,
Salvation or Liberation of Soul from Samsaara can be obtained
only through God - realization. Due to Avidya (ignorance), Soul is
bonded to Maya which is the barrier in between God and the
Soul. Foremost requirement for God - realization of the Soul and
Liberation from Samsaara is to break the bondage and cross
over the barrier of Maya. Whoever may be, he/she cannot cross
over the bondage of Maya without devotion (Bhakti) towards
God. Whoever devotionally surrenders to God, He would bestow
His Grace to His devotee and then only the devotee is freed from
the bondage of Maya (Bhagavata 2: 7: 42). The greatest quality
of Brahman (God) is that He resides in every Soul (Svetasvatara
Upanishad 4: 17). He is so kind, gracious, ever ready and always
resides within the Soul (omnipresent), hoping and awaiting that
at any moment the Soul may realize Him so that He can bless and
Grace the Soul with Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss (Ananda). God
cannot be understood by hearing and reading (Mayic senses)
without His Grace (Katha Upanishad 1: 2: 23), (Mundaka
Upanishad 3: 2: 3) and (Bhagavata 10: 14: 38). When a devotee
has infallible love and devotion to God, totally dedicated and
surrenders to Him, only then that Soul, with the Grace of God,
crosses the barrier of the bondage of Maya and then with Divine
senses understand, perceive, conceive and becomes God realized
(Svetasvatara Upanishad 1: 10; 6: 23; Bhagavad Gita 7: 14). God
realization (Brahma Jnan) can never be obtained without
devotion (Bhakti) and God’s Grace (Brahma Sutra 2: 3: 41). He,
who understands the Self and controls the reins of his mind,
reaches the end of his journey i.e., the Supreme Abode of the All-
Pervading (Katha Upanishad 1: 3: 9). When the Soul attains
union with Brahman, it loses its identity and merges in Brahman
(Mundaka Upanishad 3: 2: 8). Manu Swayambhuva (first Manu of
this Kalpa) told his grandson Bhakta Dhruv (greatest devotee)
that “It is through forbearance (towards our elders); compassion
(towards our inferiors); friendliness (towards our equals) and
even-mindedness towards all living beings – that the Lord is
thoroughly pleased (with us). On being thoroughly pleased by
Lord, a man is rid of three modes of Prakrti (Gunas and their
evolutes i.e., the subtle body) and becomes one with the all blissful
Brahman (Bhagavata 4: 11: 13 and 14).
Qualification for Moksa (Liberation)
People who realize God are (a) Who is free from desires
and worships the Supreme Person, pass beyond the seed of
rebirth (Mundaka Upanishad 3: 2: 1); (b) Whose all desires
(along with their subtle form) are totally destroyed and
eliminated from their mind attain Brahman (Katha Upanishad 2:
3: 14) and (c) Who whole heartedly worships and adores the
personal form of God and Spiritual (Divine) Guru (teacher) ,
through whom he receives the Divine Knowledge, Vision and
Love of God (Svetasvatara Upanishad 6: 23). Human body/birth
is a rare boon to embodied Soul (Bhagavata 11: 2: 29 & 30)
through which one can easily attain Liberation. Hinduism
suggests the following approach to attain Liberation (Varaha
Upanishad 2: 1; Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 4 or 6: 4: 23):
Nitya - Anitya Vastu Vivekah (Discrimination):
Distinguishing the Eternal (Atma) from the Non-Eternal
(Temporary – Material World, including our body).
Viragya (Dispassion): Total renunciations from the
enjoyment of fruits of actions by winning over (Control
forever) body, sense perceptions and the mind.
Sama Adi Shatka Sampatti:
Sama (Quietism): Control mind and detach the mind
from worldly objects and direct towards Brahman (God).
Dama (Win over or Control forever of Karma
Indriyas): Not desiring to enjoy material world with
Karma Indriyas (Organs of Actions).
Uparama (Indifference): Total renunciation from the
material world by Jnana Indriyas (Sense Perceptions),
mind and Intellect.
Titiksha (Endurance): To endure all kinds of affliction
i.e., forbearance in the pairs of opposites (pleasure or
pain, happiness or sorrow, heat or cold, gain or loss etc).
Sreddha (Piety): Faith and firm conviction towards
teachings of Scriptures and Guru (Teacher).
Samadhi (Composure): With calm and alert mind
concentrate the intellect upon pure Brahman and
surrender to Him.
Mumukshuttva: Desire for Moksa. Free yourself from
Avidya (ignorance- i.e., ego, intellect, mind, senses etc.)
through realization of one’s True Self.
In Bhagavata (2: 2: 15 to 18) it has been explained that an
enlightened Soul at the time of leaving the body (death) observes
Detaches mind from time and place (space).
Controls breathe and restrain senses with mind.
Merges intellect (along with mind) in Ksetrajna (the
conscious principle in the body) and Ksetrajna in the
Then merges the Self in the Supreme Spirit.
Abstains from all the activities.
There is neither Sattva nor Rajas nor Tamas (i.e.,
Gunas) in that state, much less the Ahamkara (Ego) or
Mahat (the principle of Cosmic Intelligence) or
Pradhana (Primordial Matter).
Gives-up false identification with the body, embrace
with heart (every moment) the adorable form of Lord
In Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna explains Soul, God and
ways for Liberation as follows:
Soul: Soul is unborn; eternal; constant; primeval;
imperishable; free from decay; cannot be cut by weapons,
burn by fire, wet by water and dried by wind; unmanifest;
inscrutable and immutable (Bhagavad Gita 2: 18 to 25).
Tat Tvam Asi (That art thou). Tat (THAT) refers to
Brahman and Tvam (you) refers to Soul. Means What He
(God) is, that am I (Atma) (Chandogya Upanishad 6: 8: 7).
The greatest secret is that if any Soul (Jeevatma) desires
to come to Me and be with Me forever, the easiest path is
that he/she should fix his/her mind on Me, be devoted to
Me, worship Me, prostrate before Me, love Me, remember
Me all the time and dedicate his/her life for Me. Then
surely he/she will come to Me. It is My promise
(Bhagavad Gita – 18: 64 and 65).
Brahman: Brahman is immutable, independent of any
cause but Itself, unborn, origin unknown, eternal, pure
consciousness, omniscient, omnipresent, all pervading
and seated in the heart of all beings. The creative
energy of Brahman is that which causes all existence to
come into being. Brahman is Satyam (Truth), Jnanam
(Knowledge), Anantam (Infinite) is Brahman (Bliss).
Ways to Moksa (Liberation):
There are many schools of thoughts describing Moksa. They
are as follows:
Jeevan Mukti according to Advaita Philosophy
As per this Philosophy one can attain Moksa from
Samsaara even when alive (Jeevan Mukti). Brahma Vidya is
the only way for Jeevan Mukti in whom (a) Prajna (Jnana) is
attained, (b) Who is not confined, concerned and influenced
with the body/world, (c) Who liberates himself from all
bondages and (d) Who is established in Eternal Bliss
(Ananda). One has to go through various religious, ethical and
moral practices and worship (Upasana) God. This purifies the
mind. After that intense meditation enables him/her to
acquire Atma-Jnan (Knowledge of his/her inner Divine Self)
through Sad Guru by Sravana (Hearing), Manana (Dispelling
doubts) and Nidhidhyasana (Contemplation). It destroys
Avidya (ignorance) that covers the Knowledge of reality. Then
he/she attains Jeevan Mukti. To him/her the body, like rest of
the world, appears illusory. The illusory body exists as long as
his/her Prarabdha Karma Phalas last. When his/her
Prarabdha Karma Phalas exhaust, his/her illusory body dies.
Then he/she attains Atyentika Moksa (Ultimate Moksa).
Moksa According to Sankhya School of Philosophy
The Soul or Atma is Purusa. Purusa is pure consciousness.
The mind – body complex is an evolved form of unconscious
primordial matter i.e., Prakrti (Maya). Prakrti, inherently
unconscious, functions borrowing consciousness from
Purusa. The bondage of Purusa with Maya is caused due to
Avidya or Aviveka or ignorance and its evolved products are
mind and body. While in bondage Purusa suffers mental and
physical pain because of its false identification with mind –
body complex. Purusa has to acquire Knowledge (Viveka
Jnana). In this Philosophy Moksa (also called Kaivalya)
means complete cessation of suffering and pain. It is Viveka
Jnana which causes disconnection of Purusa from Prakrti
and connecting to God, there by Purusa attains Moksa.
Moksa According to Dvaita School of Philosophy
This Philosophy believes in post-mortem Moksa. A
person who goes through religious, ethical and moral
discipline followed by right Knowledge, action, devotion and
meditation lead to Moksa. There are five gradations or levels
of Moksa (which are finite and for a limited period), which a
true devotee does not accept in exchange for God’s service.
(Bhagavata 3: 29: 13 and 14). They are as under:
Salokya (residence in His Divine realm): It is the
lowest level of Moksa. Atma goes to Ista Loka (desired
world) and enjoys His presence blissfully.
Sarsti (Atma enjoys His powers except Creation,
Preservation and Destruction of the Universe): It is
next higher level of Moksa.
Samipya or Saanidhya (living in His presence): It is
the next higher level of Moksa. Atma enjoys bliss of His
Sarupya (possessing a form similar to His): It is next
higher level of Moksa. Atma acquires the form of
personal God and enjoys His intense Bliss.
Sayujya (absorption into Him): Sayujya or Kaivalya
is the next higher level of Moksa. Atma blissfully
absorbed in Brahman (Mundaka Upanishad 3: 1: 3).
Bhakti Yoga: It has been described that Bhakti Yoga
is the highest (final) goal, for transcending the realm
of three Gunas (modes of Maya or Prakrti) the devotee
thereby becomes qualified for My (God’s) state and
attains Premanand (Bliss).
Moksa According to Vishistadvaita School of
This Philosophy does not believe in Jeevan Mukti. As per
this Philosophy, a person can attain Moksa only after death.
Karma Yoga and Jnana Yoga are the only aids to Bhakti Yoga.
One can attain Moksa only through Bhakti Yoga with God’s
Grace (Brahma Sutra 2: 3: 41). A person who attains Moksa
lives blissfully in Vaikunta in a Spiritual body in the presence
A person who has intensely meditated upon Saguna
Brahman (Personal form of God) using sacred Mantra Aum
(OM) goes to Brahma Loka after death. There he/she attains
the Knowledge of Para Brahman through Lord Brahma
(Hiranyagarbha). When the entire Universe is dissolved,
after Kalpa, his/her Atma becomes one with Brahman.
Moksa from Holy Places and Rivers
Puranas and Epics extol the sanctity of many holy places
and rivers. To live at or to undertake pilgrimage to those
places and bathe in those rivers is enough to destroy one’s
sins (Karma Phalas) and assist in the attainment of Moksa.
Moksa from any form
God liberates the Soul and gives Moksa, if the mind is
fixed on God even one does Karma (actions) with any form
i.e., devotion, love, affection, passion, anger, fear, enmity and
hatred (Bhagavata 7: 1: 25, 29 & 39 to 46 and 10: 29: 13 to
Hindus use Fire (dispeller of darkness, symbol of purity,
giver of warmth) as symbol of God. Hindus worship the Supreme
Being in temples in the form of Vigraha (idol) rendered as
incarnation, embodiment or form. During the consecration ritual
called Prana Pratishta (establishment of life) as per Agama
Shastras an idol ceases to be a gross matter and becomes an
actual presence or incarnation of Divinity on earth. The Divine
Spirit is believed to remain in the idol as long as the devotee
wishes. The temples and shrines are dedicated to many Deities,
but consider only one as the supreme or may consider all Gods
and Goddesses as equal, but worship the one who is their
favourite. Most Hindus view all Divinities to be the
manifestations of a single Godhead (Bhagavad Gita 7: 6 to 12 and
9: 15 to 19). Hinduism has a unique characteristic of tolerance.
Hindus believe that God is one and He has many names and
forms as per Rg Veda. Ekam Sad Vipra Bahudh Vadanti means He
is one but wise call Him by many names.
Note: Salagrama (smooth stone) is considered as natural
form of Lord Vishnu.
Over the years, due to increased usage of different local
vernacular languages and also due to lack of knowledge of
Sanskrit language, diminished the status of Sanskrit works of
Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas and Epics as Scriptures and
challenged the orthodox claim that Sanskrit is the exclusive
vehicle for revelation and theological communication. It is not
that vernacular language is different with the message of the
Vedas and Upanishads. It is a belief that holy people, who
composed in the living tongues, gathered the Truths from
incomprehensible Vedas and Upanishads and made them
accessible to everyone (including Sudras and out-castes). They
were held up as ideal followers of the God and Goddesses they
revered. Hindus started identifying themselves with reference to
their caste, community, region and regional language and thus
created internal divisions. Local traditions, culture, customs,
language and pattern of rituals played important role than the
Spiritual aspect of Hinduism. Holy texts of all religions provide
with Spiritual paths to Liberation from the repeated cycle of
birth, death and rebirth. More meaningful terms in Hindu
context are Dharma and Moksa. Dharma is to sustain Truth,
Righteousness, Duty, Law and Justice in this world. Moksa is
Liberation of the Soul from the cycle of birth, death and rebirth
until to attain a state of Bliss (Ananda). Present day Hindu life
and rituals do not directly lead to such transformation, but
enhance quality of life on the earth. While few people have
always learned and kept alive Sanskrit Vedic traditions, others
may only know few Sanskrit hymns and heard some stories from
Puranas and Epics (as they are not able to read or understand
Spiritual interpretations of Sanskrit versions of Vedas and
Upanishads) and gradually shifted to devotional Bhajans,
Sankirtanas and songs written in their regional languages by
various Hindu Saints. Gautama Buddha (founder of Buddhism)
and other religions do not accept Vedas as Divine Revelations,
Pramanika (valid means of Knowledge) and questioned the
structure of traditional Hindu religion such as religious
leadership of priestly caste Brahmins and the Varna (caste
system) itself. They said that paths of Liberation are open to all
and not just to higher Varnas (castes) (these days those people
only knew Sanskrit language) of the society. There are many
Hindus Saints, who wrote devotional verses, poems, songs in
local vernacular languages and offered hope, inspired and
consoled the masses. Some of them are as under:
Jagadguru Adi Sankaracharya (788 – 820 C.E): Advaita
Jagadguru Ramanujacharya (1040 – 1137 C.E):
Jagadguru Madhavacharya (1218 – 1317 C.E): Dvaita
Sri Kabir (1440 – 1518 C.E): Blend of Hinduism and Islam.
Sri Surdas (1483 – 1563 C.E): Lord Krishna devotee.
Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1485 – 1533 C.E): Lord
Sri Tulasi Das (1543 – 1623 C.E): Lord Rama devotee.
Smt. Mira Bai (1547 – 1614 C.E): Lord Krishna devotee.
Sri Bhakta Tukaram (1598 - 1650 C.E): Lord Krishna
Sri Tyagaraja (1757 – 1847 C.E): Lord Rama devotee.
Sri Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772 – 1833 C.E): Reformer
and founder of Brahmo Samaj.
Swami Dayananda Saraswati (1824 – 1883 C.E):
Reformer and founder of Arya Samaj.
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahansa (1836 – 1886 C.E):
Witnessed Divine Light.
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Col Henry Steel Olcott and
William Q. Judge (1875): Founders of
Theosophical Society (Universal Brother - hood,
Religion, Philosophy and Nature).
Swami Vivekananda (1863 – 1902 C.E): Founder of
Ramakrishna Math and Mission.
Bhagawan Ramana Maharishi (1879 – 1950): Silent
teacher (Guru) of “Pure non-dual Essence”.
Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (1896 – 1977
C.E): In 1966 established International Society for Krishna
Consciousness (ISKCON) in New York.
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (1911 – 2008 C.E): Founder of
Transcendental Meditation movement.
Jagadguru Sri Kripalu Maharaj Ji (1922 - ): Known as
Bhaktiyogarasavatara (Dissension of Divine Love and
Bliss). Established Jagadguru Kripalu Parishat. Devotee of
Radha – Krishna.
Sri Satya Sai Baba (1926 - 2011): Charismatic Religious
Ye tat phala sarvam Sri Paramesvara arpana mastu:
I surrender all this fruit to Brahman (God)
(Refers to Introduction, Page No. 6)
1. 197,12,21,110 (Human years ago – as in 2008):
Present Kalpa, known as Sveta Varaha Kalpa, started
day of the 51
year of Lord Brahma).
2. First Manvantara, known as Swayambhuva Manvantara
(30,672 Crore human years): Period of Manu
Swayambhuva and his wife Satarupa. Manu Swayambhuva
assisted Lord Brahma in the process of Creation during
this period. He had two sons (Priyavrata and Uttanapada)
and three daughters. Bhakta Prahrada (son of demon
Hiranya Kasipu) was in the family succession of his first
son Priyavrata. Bhakta Dhruv (who became Pole Star,
with the Grace of Lord Vishnu) was from his second son
Uttanapada. Earth rotates along the axis of the center
point of Earth and Pole star, means Bhakta Dhruv is the
guiding personality for human beings.
3. Manu Swayambhuva ruled the entire Earth during the
Swayambhuva Manvantara. Swayambhuva’s son
Priyavrata had ten sons and two daughters. Last three of
his sons – Medha, Agnibhahu and Mitrulu became Yogis
and did not become Kings. Priyavrata divided his
kingdom (then entire Earth) into seven parts (Dweepams)
and gave one Dweepam each to his remaining seven sons.
Eldest son Agnidra was made the king of Jambu Dweepam.
(Medhatidhi - Plaksha Dweepam; Vapushman – Salmili
Dweepam; Jyotishman – Kusa Dweepam; Dyutiman –
Crowncha Dweepam; Bhawya – Saka Dweepam; Savana –
Pushkara Dweepam). Agnidra’s eldest son was Nabhi.
Nabhi’s son was Rushabha. Rushabha’s son was Bharata.
Rushabha gave Hima (Dakshin Varsha means Southern
part of Jambu Dweepam i.e., Great Indian Peninsula) to his
son Bharata. Since Bharata ruled the present Indian
peninsula, it is named as Bharata Varsha (ancient India)
which is the land of Karma (action) and Dharma (Virtue).
4. Second Manvantara known as Swarocisa Manvantara:
The period of Manu Swarocisa started 166,27,73,110
human years ago.
5. Third Manvantara known as Uttama Manvantara: The
period of Manu Uttama started 135,43,25,110 human
6. Fourth Manvantara known as Tamasa Manvantara: The
period of Manu Tamasa started 104,58,77,110 human
7. Fifth Manvantara known as Raivata Manvantara: The
period of Manu Raivata started 73,74,29,110 human
8. Sixth Manvantara known as Caksusa Manvantara: The
period of Manu Caksusa started 42,89,81,110 human
9. Seventh (present) Manvantara known as Vaivaswata
Manvantara: The period of Manu Vaivaswata (son of
Vivaswan) started 12,05,33,110 human years ago. Manu
Vaivaswata had ten sons and one daughter. Surya (Sun)
Vansha (family) started from his elder son Ikswaku and
Chandra (Moon) Vansha (family) started from his
10. Parashurama (incarnation (Avatar), of Lord Vishnu): To
annihilate the then Kings, who used to obstruct the Rishis
to pursue their Spiritual progress, during Kali Yuga
period of 19
Maha Yuga of the Vaivaswata Manvantara
i.e., between 3,88,85,110 to 3,84,53,110 human years ago.
11. Lord Rama (incarnation (Avatar), of Lord Vishnu):
During Treta Yuga period of 24
Maha Yuga of the
Vaivaswata Manvantara i.e., between 1,94,45,110 to
1,81,49,110 human years ago. He remained on the Earth
planet for about 11,000 years.
12. 27 Maha Yugas of the Vaivaswata Manvantara: The
period of 27 Maha Yugas of the Vaivaswata Manvantara
i.e., 11,66,40,000 have already lapsed.
Maha Yuga (present Maha Yuga) of the Vaivaswata
Manvantara (present Manvantara): The period of present
Maha Yuga started 38,93,110 human years ago.
14. Lord Krishna (incarnation (Avatar), of Lord Vishnu):
During Dwapara Yuga period of the 28
Maha Yuga of the
Vaivaswata Manvantara i.e., 3228 – 3102 B.C.E. He
remained on the Earth planet for 125 years and 7 months.
15. Mahabharata War: It lasted for 18 days in 3139 B.C.E.
16. First three Yugas of the present 28
Maha Yuga (i.e., Krta
or Satya, Treta and Dwapara Yugas): The period of the
first three Yugas of the present 28
Maha Yuga i.e.,
38,88,000 human years have already lapsed.
17. Ascension of Lord Krishna and start of Kali Yuga
(present Yuga) of the present 28
Maha Yuga: Kali Yuga
(present Yuga) started in 3102 B.C.E (i.e., 5,110 years ago
as in 2008) (Bhagavata 12: 2: 29 and 33).
18. Indus Valley Civilization (Harappa Culture): 3300 – 1300
(a) Early Harappan Period: 3300 – 2600 B.C.E.
(b) Mature Harappan Period: 2600 – 1900 B.C.E.
(c) Late Harappan Period: 1900 – 1300 B.C.E.
19. Magadha Dynasties: 3128 – 1994 B.C.E.
(a) Brihadratha Dynasty (24 Kings): 3128 – 2118 B.C.E.
(b) Pradyota Dynasty (5 Kings): 2122 – 1994 B.C.E.
20. The 16 Maha Jana Padas or Avanti: 700 – 300 B.C.E.
16 Kingdoms are Anga, Kosala, Kasi, Megadha, Videha,
Malla, Chedi, Vatsa, Kuru, Panchala, Machcha, Surasena,
Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara and Kamboja.
21. Gautama Buddha: Founder of Buddhism 563 – 483 B.C.E.
22. Nanda Dynasty (10 Kings): 424 – 321 B.C.E.
23. Shishunaga Dynasty (3 Kings): 413 – 345 B.C.E.
24. Alexander invasion of India: 327 – 325 B.C.E.
25. Mauryan Empire (9 Kings): 322 – 185 B.C.E. Important
and most popular Rulers are as under:
(a) Chandra Gupta Maurya: 322 – 298 B.C.E.
(b) Bindusara: 298 to 272 B.C.E.
(c) Ashokavardhan Maurya (Ashoka The great): 273 – 232
26. Chola (Tamil) Dynasty (29 Kings): 300 B.C.E. – 1279 C.E.
27. Pandyan (Tamil) Dynasty (46 Kings): 300 B.C.E.–1345 C.E.
28. Satavahana (Andhra) Empire (30 Kings): 230 B.C.E. –220
C.E. Satakarni (son of Gautami), also known as
Shalivahana, was 23
ruler of Satavahana Empire during
78 C.E. – 102 C.E. He established Shalivahana Era or Saka
Calendar in 78 C.E.
29. Shunga Empire (10 Kings): 185 B.C.E. – 75 B.C.E.
30. Vikramaditya Emperor of Ujjain: 102 B.C.E. - 15 C.E.
31. Kanva Dynasty (4 Kings): 75 B.C.E. – 26 B.C.E.
32. Kushan Empire (15 Kings): 30 C.E. – 375 C.E.
33. Gupta Empire (17 Kings): 320 C.E. – 600 C.E.
34. Rajput Princely States: 6
Century – 20
35. Pala Empire (18 Kings): 750 C.E. – 1174 C.E.
36. Hoysala (Kannadiga) Empire (12 Kings): 1026 – 1343 C.E.
37. Kakatiya Dynasty (9 Kings): 1083 – 1323 C.E.
38. Islamic Sultanates: 1192 – 1757 C.E (565 Years). Delhi
Sultanates (27 Sultans) 1206 – 1526 C.E.; Mughal Empire
(23 Sultans) 1526 – 1757 C.E. and Deccan Sultanates (45
Sultans) 1527 – 1686 C.E.
39. Vijayanagara Empire (28 Kings): 1336 – 1646 C.E.
40. Colonial Era: East India Company arrived to India in 1619
C.E. and established its regime in Bengal in 1757. In 1857
British rule was established all over India and ruled up to
15 Aug 1947 for a total period of 190 years.
41. Independent India: 1947 C.E onwards.
42. Balance period of the present Kali Yuga of the
) Maha Yuga: The remaining period of the
present Kali Yuga of the present (28
) Maha Yuga is
4,26,890 human years (as in 2008).
Note: In Puranas there are many more details of important rulers
and Divine personalities from Surya (Sun) Vansha (family) between
Ikswaku and Lord Rama like Harischandra and Bhagirathi etc.
In Chandra (Moon) Vansha (family) important personalities are
Maharishi Bharadwaja, King Hasti (who established Hastinapura
– Kuru Kingdom) and King Dushyanta (of Mahabharata) etc.
Other than Bharata Varsha (ancient India), no other country (or
even any other place) on the earth planet has such an ancient
history and such an eternal religion as Sanatana Dharma
Appendix “B” (Refers to Page No.10)
( Page No. 172
Smritis Darshanas Tantras
which is heard)
(To be remembered)
Dharma Sutras (18)
Devi – Mahatyam),
Narada, Padma, Skanda,
Vayu, Vishnu, etc.)
Upa Puranas (18)
(Adi Purana, Bhaskara,
Parasara, Shiva - Dharma,
Vamana, Varuna, etc.)
Ousha Puranas (18)
Tantra Raja, etc.
Upanishads (108) (Vedanta)
(Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka,
Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya,
(Refers to Page No. 35)
Kala (Imperishable Time)
Avidya (due to ignorance Soul identifies itself with Maya) Page No. 173
Cit - Shakti (Power of intelligence)
Mahat (Principle of Cosmic Intelligence)
Proc Process of Creation
Ahamkara (Cosmic Ego)
(Self – sense)
Sattvika Ego Rajasika Ego Tamasika Ego
Subtle Elements Gross Elements
Sense Perceptions Organs of Actions
Auditory Vocal Apparatus
(Refers to Sankhya Philosophy, Page No. 36)
Process of Pancikarana
(Refers to Maha Yuga, Page No.37)
(Page No. 176)
Cosmic Day and Cosmic Night
(Period of one Kalpa - 432 Crore Human years)
(Life span - 100 Cosmic Years)
(31,104 Crore Human Years)
day of 51
Creation Laya Creation
(Period of one Kalpa – 432 Crore Human Years)
(Present Kalpa – Sveta Varaha Kalpa)
(Period of one Kalpa – 432 Crore Human Years)
(Present Kalpa – Sveta Varaha Kalpa)
SANDHYA KALA (15
INDRA SAVARNI (14
SANDHYA KALA (8
SANDHYA KALA (2
30.672 Crore Human Years
SANDHYA KALA (1
Maha Yugas (71)
(Present Maha Yuga is
Present Yuga is Kali Yuga
(Started on 17 Feb 3102
Krta or Satya Yuga
(17,28,000 Human years)
(12,96,000 Human years)
(Refers to Dharma, Page No. 50)
Levels of Dharma
(Refer Gruhasta Ashram Page No. 57)
Everything in the Universe is in its place because of
balance. A harmonious balance between the two complementary
forces is an integral part of Creation and Nature. As the half –
female and half – male symbol of Ardhanarisvara of Goddess
Parvati and Lord Shiva (known as Adi Dampatulu means the
foremost couple for the Creation of this Universe) represents the
union of Goddess Parvati as Prakrti, the potential energy or
power of God, and Lord Shiva as Purusa (Atma or Self) - the two
manifested aspects of Cosmic Consciousness i.e., Brahman (God).
Both Prakrti (represents female) and Purusa (represents
male) are two different entities of Creation and they come
together (means marriage) to form a perfect and harmonious
balance between the two complimentary forces for Creation.
There is no Creation in the absence of any one of these two
forces. The institution of marriage between a female and a male
is a sacred and divine relationship between these two
complimentary forces for the fulfillment of three (Dharma, Artha
and Kama) of the four Purusardhas (ends of human pursuit)
(refer Page No. 74) except the fourth one i.e., Moksa, which is the
individual Atma’s or Self’s (either female’s or male’s) ultimate
goal, has to be pursued individually. This is the reason that
during the marriage, the couple takes a vow in witness of all
relatives, friends and also Agni (God of fire – who is present at
everywhere and at all times) by reciting a Mantra which reads as
“Dharmecha, Arthecha, Kamecha Na-aticharitavya -----
Na-aticharami” (means we both together will purse Dharma
Divine Aspect of Marriage
(means Religious merit as laid down in Scriptures), Artha
(means acquire wealth through honest means and share or enjoy
the same equally) and Kama (means satisfy our desires of senses
through right means)) i.e., only the first three Purusardhas
(Dharma, Artha and Kama) are recited by the couple and the
fourth Purusardha (i.e., Moksa) is not included in the Mantra. At
Muhurta Kala (exact time of the marriage) while the priest is
reciting Mantra, the Bride and the Bridegroom are supposed to
sit face to face, both place mixture of Jagri (gud) and Jeera on
each other’s head (at the place of Brahma Randhra i.e., opening
at the top of the skull). They are supposed to see at each other’s
Ajna Chakra (between the eye brows). Then each one’s Kundalini
Shakti (highest level of energy) goes through their eyes to
other’s Ajna Chakra, then to their Sahasrara, then through their
Brahma Randhra goes to other’s Brahma Randhra, then to their
Sahasrara and finally to their Ajna Chakra, thus complete the
circuit. This circuit (due to the power of Muhurta Kala and
Mantra) keeps their marriage bond at Ajna Chakra for the rest of
their life time and become inseparable like mixture of Jagri and
Jeera (like Ardhanarisvara) This is the concept of marriage in
Vivah (marriage) means a special vehicle for the journey
of life. The marriage of female and the male is intended to create
a harmonious balance, very similar to that of the Ardhanarisvara.
They come together to form a union, becoming an inseparable
part in each other’s lives, subsuming their individual identities
(Ego – falsely indentifying the Soul with the physical body) for a
holistic and divine relationship that is based on mutual give and
take. Both the partners take care of each other’s needs for the
rest of their lives with mutual love, devotion, dignity and respect.
The relationship (attachment) might extend further to include –
children, the rest of the family (parents, brothers and sisters
etc.) and other relations.
Wife is considered as the Shakti (power or force) in a
husband’s life. How better a marital relationship between a wife
and husband would depend upon the evolution of that
relationship – higher the purpose – the more meaningful would
be the relationship or union of a wife and husband. The bonds
are established between a wife and husband at the level of
Chakras (energy centers) (Refer Kundalini Yoga Page Nos. 134 to
137 and 190). There are certain characteristics pertaining to
each Cakra, and the relationship or union between the couple
would happen at that level of that particular Cakra with those
characteristics. They are as follows:
Muladhara Cakra: This is the lowest level of the
relationship which is based on satisfying the grosser needs
of life like sharing of wealth and belongings which are the
basic worldly or earthly desires. (Purusardhas – Artha and
Svadhishthana Cakra: This is the next higher level of
relationship which is based on satisfying sexual desires at
the level of physical creation (procreation). (Purusardha –
Manipuraka Cakra: This is the next higher level of
relationship which is based on sharing of power – Social.
Economic or Political etc. (Purusardhas – Artha and Kama).
Anahata Cakra: Rare is the next higher level of
relationship which is based on unconditional Pure Love
which has no ties. This Chakra is the seat of selfless pure
love which does not have any attachments like emotions,
conditions, situations and stages of life etc. The love that
sets one free because one is happy in the happiness of the
other person (Purusardha – Dharma).
Visuddhi Cakra: Even rarer is the next higher level of
relationship which is based on higher level of creativity
when the couple (means both) have risen above their own
individual selfish needs and can think of beyond
themselves. (Purusardha – Dharma).
Ajna Cakra: This is the highest energy centre in a human
body, the seat of Ardhanarisvara. If a couple (means both)
can reach to this level the relation between them at this
level would be so subtle, divine and similar to that of
Goddess Parvati (Prakrti or Shakti – energy or power of
God) and Lord Shiva (Purusa) and complete in every aspect
and become one (means one cannot be separated from the
other and also cannot live without the other). This is the
reason in Hindu society a respectable old couple is
compared to Parvati – Paramesvara (i.e., Goddess Parvati
and Lord Shiva) (Note: In the current flow of circumstances
it might be very difficult to find such a relationship).
(Purusardha – Dharma).
Sahasrara: The journey from Ajna Cakra upwards up to
Sahasrara (on reaching where a Soul attains Moksa means
becomes part of Cosmic Consciousness – Brahman or God)
has to be pursued individually. Hence the fourth
Purusardha - Moksa is not included in the Mantra (vow
taken by the couple) during their marriage ceremony.
(Refers to Jnana Yoga Page No. 127)
There are three types of bodies. They are as under:
1. Sthula Sareera (Physical or Gross Body):
Represents: A (in AUM), Lord Brahma (God of
Guna: Rajo Guna (Represents activity).
Atma: Jeevatma (Soul).
Place: In Eyes.
State: Jagruti (Awaken State).
Kosa (Sheath): Annamaya Kosa (Sheath of food or
Development: Development in the womb during
pregnancy is as under (Gharbho Upanishad 13 to 20,
26, 30, 43 and 44; and Garuda Purana Chapter – 6):
Month: Fertilized egg in the womb hardens and
Head is formed.
Month: Shoulders, Hands, Legs, Feet and other
limbs take shape.
Month: Nails, Hair, Skin, Genitals and Anus
Month: Development is as under:
• Stomach and back.
• Sapta Dhatus (Seven essential ingredients for the
body) – Asti (bones), Maams (flesh), Medha (fat),
Rudhira (blood), Sanyu (nerves), Charma (inner
skin) and Tvak (outer skin) develop.
Cycle of Birth – Death - Rebirth
• Subtle Elements: Sense of Sound for Ears; Sense of
Colour for Eyes; Sense of Touch for Skin; Sense of
Taste for Mouth and Sense of Smell for Nose –
Month: Backbone develops and Hunger and
Thirst are felt.
Month: Nose, Eyes, Ears and mouth develop.
Embryo is covered by Mavi (amnion).
Month: Jeevatma (Soul) enters the body. Gains
Consciousness, Wisdom and Knowledge of previous
lives. Starts movements in the faeces and urine in
the womb. (Note: Immediately after delivery loses
Knowledge and Kaarana Sareera (Causal Body -
onwards: All body parts and all qualities develop
fully and baby moves.
2. Sukshma (Linga) Sareera (Subtle Body):
Represents: U (in AUM), Lord Vishnu (God of Sustenance).
Guna: Sattva Guna (Represents Knowledge).
Atma: Antaratma (Inner Consciousness).
Place: In Throat.
State: Swapna (Dream State).
Kosa (Sheath): (a) Pranamaya Kosa (Vital Sheath), (b)
Manomaya Kosa (Mental Sheath) and Vijnanamaya Kosa
Development: Sukshma Sareera (Subtle Body) enters the
body of the baby (in the womb) during 7
pregnancy. Sukshma Sareera enables a link between the
Jeevatma (Soul) and the matter (Body). The following
development takes place:
Antahkarana (Subtle Senses): Ahamkara (Ego) (at
Heart), Citta (Reasoning) (at Navel), Buddhi
(Intellect) (in the Eyes) and Manas (Mind) (in the
Throat) subtle senses develop.
Prana Indriyas (Vital Airs perceptions): Prana
(Air for inhale and exhale through nostrils. Place: In
the Lungs), Apana (Air which has its downward course.
Place: At Anus), Samana (Air which is essential for
digestion. Place: Navel), Udana (Air which has an
upward course. Place: Throat) and Vyana (Air which
circulates in every direction and diffuses through the
body. Place: Complete Body) perceptions develop.
Jnana Indriyas (Sense Perceptions): Auditory (in
Ears), Tactile (in Skin), Sight (in Eyes), Taste (in
Tongue) and Olfactory (in Nose) perceptions develop.
Karma Indriyas (Action Perceptions): Vaak (Vocal
Apparatus), Paani (Hands), Paada (Legs), Upasta
(Genitals) and Paayu (Anus) perceptions develop.
3. Kaarana Sareera (Causal Body):
Represents: M (in AUM), Lord Shiva (God of Destruction).
Guna: Tamo Guna (Avidya or Ignorance).
Atma: Paramatma (God).
Place: In Heart.
State: Shushupti (Deep sleep).
Kosa (Sheath): Anandamaya Kosa (Sheath of bliss or
Development: Enters the body during the first inhale of
air immediately after delivery (Birth). Maya (Illusion),
like a magician, covers the Satya (Truth or Reality or True
Knowledge) and makes us to believe Asatya (False or
Unreality or illusion) as Satya (Truth or Reality). Under
its (Maya’s) spell, due to Avidya (ignorance), false notion
of “I” – ness or Mine - ness develops. Due to the attraction
of Maya (Illusion), Jeevatma (Soul) loses its wisdom and
knowledge and reduces to a state of falsely or incorrectly
identifying itself with Maya and its bye products (i.e., this
body and the world) and feels “This is my body. This is
my house/money. He/she is my relative” etc. and thus
Jeevatma (Soul) voluntarily accepts for the embodiment
of Maya. It is called Vasana (desire to satisfy Antahkarana
by possessing and Jnana Indriyas by seeing, hearing,
tasting, touching and smelling). It causes both gross and
subtle bodies to co-exist.
Note: Sthula Sareera (Gross Body) and Sukshma Sareera (Subtle
Body), both products of Maya, make the psycho-physical
organisation. When this organism function as a whole it is
known as birth and when this organism ceases to function as a
whole it is known as death (Bhagavad Gita 15: 7 and 8;
Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 4 or 6: 4: 1 and 2). At death Sukshma
Sareera (Subtle Body) and Karana Sareera (Causal Body) both
leave the Sthula Sareera (Physical Body), together during the last
exhale of air through Nose or through Eyes, Ears, Mouth or Anus
and goes to Pitru Loka and awaits there as Manes for the right
time, right place and the right circumstances (for an unknown
period) for the fructification of its (i.e., Jeevatma or Soul) next
batch of Prarabdha Karma Phalas (Kaushitaki Brahmana
Upanishad 3: 4). Then only Sthula Sareera (Physical Body), which
is also a product of Maya, remains here which we call it as dead
body and it is disposed off. When it is right time, right place and
right circumstances for the fructification of its next batch of
Prarabdha Karma Phalas, God (Karma Phala – Pradata i.e., giver
of the fruits of actions) places Jeevatma (Soul) in the next Sthula
Sareera (Physical Body), to enjoy its next batch of Prarabdha
Karma Phalas as per Eternal Cosmic Law, which we call it as next
birth (i.e., rebirth) (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 4 or 6: 4: 6;
Bhagavad Gita 9: 8) and the above cycle continues. Atma (Self),
i.e., Jeevatma (Soul) less Sukshma Sareera and less Kaarana
Sareera, is I or Me (i.e., Atma or Self) who is beyond the above
three bodies or five-fold sheath, witnesses our experiences
neither as thinker nor as a doer. By virtue of Jeevatma’s (Soul’s)
Swayam Prakash i.e., Jeevatma’s independent power to glow or
act by itself, activates the body in which it enters) on Buddhi
(Intellectual Sheath) and with that activation Buddhi acts by
itself as knower or doer. But this reflection on Buddhi cannot
function independently without its source i.e., Jeevatma (Soul).
Paramatma (God) is mine (source) of Jeevatma (Soul) which is
Satya (Truth or Reality). When Jeevatma (Soul) dispels its Avidya
(ignorance) of its false or incorrect identification with body
(Mayic) then automatically Satya (Truth or Reality or True
Knowledge) reveals to Jeevatma (Soul) like Sun – rays reach
Earth when clouds are cleared. Then Jeevatma (Soul)
disconnects with Kaarana Sareera (Causal Body) and Sukshma
Sareera (Subtle Body) and then Atma (Self), which is “Same as”
or “Reflection of” or “Ansh (part of)” of Paramatma truly and
correctly identifies itself with Paramatma (God), which is its
source, and merges in Paramatma (God) and thus Atma (Self),
with God’s Grace, gets Moksa (Liberation) from Samsaara i.e.,
repeated cycle of Birth – Death - Rebirth. (References: Bhagavata
3: 31: 1 to 24 and Garuda Purana Chapter – 6)
(Page No. 187)
(Refers to Yoga, Page No. 133)
Siddhis – Super Human Powers
1. Anima: Ability to become as minute as an Anu (atom) (can
penetrate into any solid object).
2. Mahima: Huge or bulky (can become huge material objects
and appears as real).
3. Garima: Exceptionally heavy (weight).
4. Laghima: Extreme lightness of the body or ability to levitate.
5. Prapti: Attaining anything (ex. Moon).
6. Prakamya: Acquisition of free and irresistible will.
7. Isita: Supreme domination.
8. Vasita: Subjugating others by occult power.
(Bhagavata 2: 2: 22)
Additional Super Human Powers are as under:
1. Kamavasayita: Suppressing (Controlling) all desires.
2. Kecari Vidya: Knowledge of ability to fly.
3. Mrtyumjaya Vidya: Knowledge of ability to conquer death
4. Patala Siddhi: Ability to acquire hidden treasures.
5. Kaya Siddhi: Ability to enter into another body.
6. Trikala Jnana: Knowledge of past, present and future.
7. Ichha Mrtyu: Power to die at will.
8. Antardhana: To become invisible.
9. Kshuptipasa Nivrtti: Going beyond hunger and thirst
10. Sarva Bhutanuta Jnana: Power to understand all animal
190 Appendix “K”
(Refers to Yoga, Page No. 135)
The Cakras (Cosmic Centres)
(At the top
most point of
(At the medulla oblongata
in the throat)
16 petals, controls
(At the lower end of
the spinal cord)
4 petals, controls
(Between the heart and
Activates the body
(At the level of the heart)
12 petals, controls touch
(Between the eye brows)
2 petals, controls mind
(At the base of the genital)
6 petals, controls taste
(At the level of the navel)
10 petals, controls sight
Sanatana Dharma (Hindu Religion)
1. Sanatana Dharma (Hinduism) eternally exists in God and
revealed by Him.
2. Vedas are Revealed Eternal Divine Truths (True Knowledge).
3. Hinduism and Hindu culture have eternal values and ancient
heritage for humanity is Universal Religion.
4. Love, peace, prosperity, dignity, happiness and humanity are
5. The world of Spiritual Knowledge begins where the Material
Knowledge (which is limited by the boundaries of intellect
and reason) ends.
6. Hindu Scriptures contain Divine Science.
7. Follow Scriptures. They are Revealed Eternal Divine Truths
and lead to True (Divine) Knowledge.
8. Sanskrit is a Divine language.
9. Aum (OM) is the mother of the Vedas and start of Creation.
10. History of Bharata Varsha (ancient India) dates back to about
197 Crore human years (start of present Kalpa i.e., Sveta
11. About 5,000 years ago Bhagavan Veda Vyasa reproduced
Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharata and
Srimad Bhagavad Gita.
12. There are three eternal entities – God, Souls and Maya
13. God is governor of both Souls and Maya.
14. Brahman (God) is Sat – Chit - Ananda (embodiment of Truth –
Knowledge – Bliss).
Essentials of Hinduism
15. Brahman (God) is Divine with infinite absolute Divine
16. God lives within the Soul.
17. God dislikes the proud and is pleased with the humble.
18. God is omnipresent. See God in everyone, everything and
19. Regard all living beings as God’s own manifestation. God is
nearer than the nearest (for those who realize) and farther
than the farthest (for those who are attached to Maya
20. One need not ask anything from God. He knows what to give,
how much to give and when to give.
Ananda (Divine Bliss)
21. There are two types of happiness Ananda (Bliss) – (a)
Brahmananda (Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss through God
realization) when one is detached from worldly happiness
and (b) Mayananda (Worldly happiness (Mayic) - limited and
temporary happiness by attachment to this world.
22. Everyone at every moment does action either to get
happiness or to end unhappiness.
23. If one does not feel unhappy it does not mean that he/she is
happy. But if one is happy it definitely means that he/she is
24. All beings are different, but everyone and at every moment
wants only the same thing i.e., Happiness.
25. Happiness (God) is inside every being, but everyone seeks
happiness from outside i.e., Maya (material world).
26. To get happiness (Ananda – Divine Bliss) we had spent
innumerable lives, but did not get eternal, true and infinite
happiness, because we looked towards material world for
temporary and limited happiness all along.
27. To attain Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss detach from material
world (Mayic) and attach to God.
28. We live in God’s Ananda (this world). But still we do not
have Ananda (Bliss) due to our Avidya (ignorance).
Atma (Self) or Jeevatma (Soul)
29. Soul or Jeevatma (Atma or Self) is same as or reflection or
part (ansh) of God.
30. Soul is the central point of the Universe.
31. The consciousness that animates this mind – body complex is
32. Everyone knows their body, a product of Maya. But many
don’t know about “I” or “Me” (i.e., Atma) or “Mine” (i.e., God).
33. Soul is part of God (Bliss) and everyone knowingly or
unknowingly always seeks Bliss (God) as it is natural for a
part to seek its source.
34. Every Soul at every moment is Spiritual and seeks
happiness, love and peace (these are virtues and attributes of
God as per Vedas).
35. Souls, due to Avidya (ignorance), lose sight of their identity
(as a reflection or part of God or same as God) and associate
themselves on their own (accept bondage) with Maya (body,
material world) attracted by its charm.
36. Souls, attracted by and associated with Maya, have turned
outward from God. Turn about towards God.
37. When one realizes God, Maya (material world) disappears
like Sun light dispels darkness.
38. If you avoid God you get worldly attachment, which gives you
temporary happiness only but ultimately ends in sorrows.
Detach from worldly attachment and attach to God to get
Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss.
39. Everyone (Souls) love their body (which has evolved from
Maya and the Souls are embodied to it) which ultimate gives
only sorrows. Everyone neglect to love God, who lives within
the Souls and ever ready and gracious to liberate the Soul,
from the bondage of Maya (which ultimately leads to
sorrows), and blesses with Infinite Eternal Divine Bliss.
40. When Soul breaks the barrier of Maya, becomes free from the
bondage of Maya and attains God realization.
41. Soul, being same as or reflection or part of God and Divine by
nature, can never be satisfied with material happiness.
42. God gave Shakti (power) to Soul to perform actions. Decision
as to what to do is left to the Soul. So Soul gets the fruits
(results) for its decisions and actions.
43. Soul is bound (gets results) by its own actions except when
they are performed for the sake of God (sacrifice).
Maya (Cosmic Power)
44. Maya (Prakrti, Cosmic power, Material world) is eternal
power of God.
45. Maya is the barrier between God and the Souls.
46. Maya (material world) turns the Soul away from God.
47. Universe has evolved from of Maya.
48. Sattva Guna (pious), Rajo Guna (passion), Tamo Guna
(ignorance, violence) are the modes (evolutes) of Maya.
49. Every individual has a mixture of Sattva Guna, Rajo Guna and
Tamo Guna qualities.
50. Indriyas (5 sense perceptions and 5 organs of actions); mind
and intellect are evolutes of Maya. It is easy to get attracted
and attached to Maya (worldly/material happiness) to satisfy
senses and the mind (desires).
51. Desire is the root cause for attachment to Maya (material
52. Desire is the root cause of this world of sorrows.
53. Desire originates in mind to satisfy sense organs.
54. Anger erupts when desire is not fulfilled.
55. Ego, greed and attachment grow when desire is fulfilled.
56. One loses discrimination when anger, ego, greed and
57. Sorrow is because of desire and ignorance.
58. Dana (sacrifice or donation), not for fame or name, is the
method to subdue desire, anger, ego, greed and attachment.
59. Any amount of material offering to God has no meaning. All
material world (Maya) or matter is God’s own creation and
given by Him to you. Offer your own Self (Atma), which is the
only thing you possess, by absolutely surrendering to Him.
60. Material association is the cause of desire, lust, anger,
confusion, forgetfulness, loss of intelligence and total
61. There are five forms of Avidya (ignorance) caused by Maya –
(a) Tamas (ignorance about one’s own Self), (b) Moha (Self
identification with the body etc.), (c) Mahamoha (the craving
for bodily enjoyment), (d) Tamisra (anger) and (e)
Andhatamisra (looking upon death as one’s own end).
62. To overcome Avidya (ignorance), which is the cause of birth-
death-rebirth, one should gain true knowledge (about God)
(Brahma Jnana) who is Ananda (Bliss).
63. Ego (Identification of Soul with body) is bye product of Maya.
64. Falsification or annihilation of ego opens the inner Spiritual
65. Once we get rid of our ego, our true nature emerges.
66. Maya creates consistent mirage and coerce the senses into
believing the appearance (material world which is unreal).
67. Manas (Mind), which is a bye product of Maya, is the root and
desire, anger and greed are the causes for all evils.
68. Mind always wavers, unsteady, uncontrollable, unbelievable
and undependable. Mind is a good servant, but a bad master.
69. Jnana Yoga (self control and meditation through Knowledge)
and Bhakti Yoga (devotion) are the means to control mind.
70. He, who controls mind, becomes Saint.
71. One, who wins over (controls forever) the Ego, Mind and
Senses, attains God realization.
72. Attach mind to God and do your duties without expecting any
73. Empty the mind of ego, thoughts and desires that makes the
space for God to establish.
74. One should put aside false pride, hypocrisy, and other vices
and cultivate good qualities such as truthfulness,
nonviolence, compassion, faith and cleanliness.
75. Pillars of Virtues – (a) Vidya (purity acquired through
knowledge of God), (b) Dana (charity prompted by
compassion), (c) Tapas (austerity), (d) Satya (truthfulness).
76. Love, compassion, humility, truthfulness, self-control,
sacrifice and forgiveness are highest virtues.
77. By Yoga (meditation – connecting link to God) mind gets
purified and takes to the path of God.
78. Manifest your Divine power, hidden in your Soul, through
Karma, Jnana and Bhakti Yogas.
79. Karma Yoga (Yoga of right action) means perform worldly
duties with senses and body, while mind is attached and
devoted to God.
80. Karma Yoga (Yoga of right action) leads to Jnana Yoga (Yoga
of Knowledge), Jnana Yoga leads to Bhakti Yoga (Yoga of
Devotion) and Bhakti Yoga leads to Moksa (Liberation from
repeated cycle of birth, death and rebirth).
81. Bhakti is the fruit of all endeavors and Bhakti is its own fruit.
82. Bhakti is the embodiment of peace and supreme ecstasy.
83. Bhakti (devotion) eradicates the elements of Rajo Guna
(passion) and Tamo Guna (ignorance and violence).
84. Without Bhakti (devotion) there is no Mukti (Moksa).
85. Bhakti consists of offering one’s every act to the Supreme
Lord and feeling extreme distress in forgetting Him.
86. True devotion to God is the only means to attain God’s Grace.
87. God’s Grace can be obtained only by totally surrendering to
88. God is ever ready to Grace when one totally surrenders to
89. Our heart is restless until it finds rest in God.
90. If God is not understood in this human life, it is irrevocable
loss. Hence wise men see and seek God in all beings and
become immortal on departing this world.
91. Devotional service manifests as the most elevated, pure love
92. The true nature of pure love of God is beyond description.
93. Pure love of God manifests at the most subtle consciousness,
devoid of material qualities and material desires, increasing
at every moment.
94. Having obtained pure love of God, one looks only at God,
hears only about Him, speaks only of Him and thinks only of
95. Love God repeat only God, not repeat not the world, which
has evolved from Maya (illusion).
96. There are no distinctions among pure devotees in terms of
social class, education, bodily beauty, family status, wealth,
occupation, status, power and so on.
97. He truly knows God, who knows Him as beyond knowledge.
98. When the Spiritual eye opens, bodily eyes close, and it sees
nothing but God.
99. Spirituality is Soul’s evolution from the pleasure of the senses
to the realization of the Self (Atma Jnana).
100. At the stage of Brahma Jnana (God - realization) Avidya
(ignorance) disappears and Soul dwells in Bliss.
101. Moksa is not any elusive destination, but the sacred
journey of life itself.
102. Aum (OM), Im, Hreem, Sreem Sree Maatreya Namah.
103. Aum (OM) Namah Shivaya.
104. AUM (OM) Namo Narayanaya.
105. AUM (OM) Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya.
106. Aum (OM) Shivaya Vishnu Roopaya Vishnuve Shiva
Roopinhe; Shivasya Hrudayam Vishnu; Vishnoscha Hrudayam
Shivah (Padma Purana).
107. Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare, Hare
Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare.
108. Sree Rama Rama Rameti Rame Raame Mano Rame.
Sahasra Nama Tattulyam Rama Nama Varanane
1. Adviata: Philosophy of non – dualism (Page Nos. 118, 119).
2. Agami Karma Phalas: Actions for which fruits (results) are
being acquired in this life (Page No. 124).
3. Aim of Creation: (Page Nos. 25, 26).
4. Ardhangini: Wife is half of her husband’s body (Page No. 59).
5. Arishad Vargas: Enemies in subtle form in the body (50, 51).
6. Ashtakshari (Eight Syllables) Maha Mantra: (Page No. 148).
7. Atma: Self, Soul, Jeevatma. Same as or reflection of or ansh
(part) of God (Page Nos. 20 to 24).
8. Aum: OM is sacred syllable that which protects (Page Nos. 86
to 87, 90, and 141 to 142).
9. Avidya or Pancha Klesas: Nescience, ignorance, source of pain
or suffering (Page No. 52).
10. Beeja Mantra: Power in seed form (Page Nos. 145, 146).
11. Bhagavan Veda Vyasa: (Page Nos. 9, 10).
12. Bhakti (Devotion) Yoga: (Page Nos. 130 to 133).
13. Brahman (God): One and the only One (1 to 3, 11 to 15).
14. Dharma: Righteousness (Page Nos. Preface, 6, 45 to 50).
15. Doctrine of Karma: (Page Nos. 122 to 125).
16. Dvaita: Dualistic Philosophy (Page No. 120).
17. Gayatri Maha Mantra: Prayer from Rg Veda. Mother of the
Vedas (Page Nos. 142 to 144).
18. Girls: (Page No. 57).
19. Gruhasta Ashram (Family Holder): (Page Nos. 57 to 59).
20. Gunas: Qualities evolved from Maya (Page Nos. 17 to 19).
21. Guru: Expeller of darkness i.e., ignorance (Page Nos. 56, 57).
22. Hindu Festivals: (Page Nos. 65 to 67).
23. Hindu Food: (Page Nos. 68 to 70).
24. Hindu Rituals: (Page No. 63).
25. Hindu Scriptures: (Page Nos. 10 and 172).
26. Ignorance: (Page No. 52).
27. Jeevan Mukti: Moksa or Liberation during this Life (159).
28. Jnana (Knowledge) Yoga: (Page Nos. 128 to 130).
29. Joint Family System: (Page No. 68).
30. Kaarana Sareera (Causal Body): (Page Nos. 185 and 186).
31. Kama (Desire): (Page No. 51).
32. Karma (Action) Yoga: (Page Nos. 125 to 127).
33. Kundalini Yoga: (Page Nos. 134 to 137 and 190).
34. Lalita Sahasra Nama Stotram: (Page Nos. 149, 150).
35. Maha Mrtyumjaya Mantra: Prayer for conquering death
(Page Nos. 144, 145).
36. Maha Vaakyas: Great sentences in the Vedas (77, 78)
37. Maha Yuga: A set of four Yugas consisting a period of
43,20,000 human years (Page Nos. 36 and 39).
38. Maya (Prakrti): Cosmic power of God (Page Nos. 16 to 19).
39. Niyama: Religious observance (Page No. 134).
40. Ousha Puranas: (Page No. 99).
41. Pancha-Dasi (fifteen syllables) Maha Mantra: (146, 147).
42. Pancha Kosas: Five sheaths of the body (Page No. 51).
43. Panchakshari (five syllables) Maha Mantra: (Page No. 147).
44. Pancha Runas: Five debts of human beings (Page Nos. 70, 71).
45. Pancikarana: Process of evolution of gross elements from
subtle elements (Page Nos. 36 and 175).
46. Parasara Smriti: Code of Conduct applicable during Kali Yuga
(Present Period) (Page Nos. 96, 97).
47. Pillars of Virtue: Pillars of Dharma (Page No. 52).
48. Prajapathies: Fathers of human race (Page No. 34).
49. Prana: Vital air (breathe) (Page Nos. 137, 138).
50. Pranayama: Control of breath (Page Nos. 137 to 139).
51. Prarabdha Karma Phalas: Actions for which fruits i.e., results
started yielding during this life (Page No. 125).
52. Prayers: Prayers in Upanishads (Page Nos. 148 to 149).
53. Purusardhas: Ends of human pursuit (Page No. 74).
54. Raja Yoga: (Page Nos. 133, 134, 188 and 189).
55. Rajo Guna: Passion (quality of Maya) (Page No. 18).
56. Saha-dharma-charini: Partner for Spiritual progress (59).
57. Samskaras: (Page No. 62).
58. Sanatana Dharma: Eternal Truth (Preface Page One).
59. Sancita Karma Phalas: Actions for which fruits (results) have
not yet yielded and stored in subtle form with the Soul (124).
60. Sapta Maharishis: Seven great Sages (Page No. 34).
61. Sattva Guna: Pious (quality of Maya) (Page Nos. 17 and 18).
62. Shiva Sahasra Nama Stotram: (Page No. 150).
63. Shodasa (means sixteen) Puja: (Page Nos. 63, 64).
64. Sraddha: Death anniversary (Page No. 63).
65. Sthuala Sareera: Physical Body (Page Nos. 183, 184).
66. Sukshma Sareera: Subtle Body (Page Nos. 184, 185).
67. Tamo Guna: Laziness, ignorance (quality of Maya) (18).
68. Upa Puranas: (Page No: 98).
69. Upa Vedas: Subsidiary knowledge (Vedas) (Page No. 79).
70. Varna: Order of the society (Caste system) (53 to 55).
71. Vasanas: Unmanifest form of desires (Page No. 123).
72. Vedangas: Technical subjects related to Vedas (78, 79).
73. Vishistadvaita: Philosophy that combines oneness of God
with attributes (Page Nos. 119, 120).
74. Vishnu Sahasra Nama Stotram: (Page No. 150).
75. Vyragya Mukha Sadhana Chatustayam (Four Inward Spiritual
Means): (Page Nos. 129, 130).
76. Ways to Moksa (Liberation): (Page Nos. 159 to 162).
77. Woman as per Hinduism: (Page Nos. 60, 61).
78. Yama: Self – control (Page No. 134).
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