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Chapter 6 Change, Conflict and Resistance What is Change?

It is a variable from the routine done in the organization. What is Conflict?

An overt behavior that results when a person or a group of persons thinks a perceived need of the person or group of persons has been frustrated. Ways to analyze a conflict

1. Intrapersonal Conflict- is internal to the individual and is perhaps the most difficult type of conflict to analyze, because it relates to the need-drive-goal motivational sequence. 2. Interpersonal Conflict- results from many factors. It may seem from opposing personalities or simply by rubbing each other the wrong way. 3. Intergroup of Structured Conflict- results from organizational structure and may be relatively independent of the individuals occupying the roles in the organizational structure. How to manage a conflict


Withdraw one or more participants Smooth over the conflict and pretend that it does not exist Compromise for the sake of ending the conflict Force the conflict to a conclusion by third party intervention Have a confrontation between the participants in an effort to solve the underlying conflict Review past actions and clarify issues before the confrontation begins Communicate freely and do not hold back grievances Do not surprise opponent with a confrontational attitude for which one indiviadual is not prepared Do not attack the opponents sensitive spots that have nothing to do with the issues of the conflict. Do not touch on personal issues; stick to specific issues


Do not argue aimlessly Maintain the intensity of the confrontation and ensure that all the participants say all they want to say. If the basic issues have been resolved at this point. Agree on what steps are to be taken toward resolving conflict. What is Resistance?

A behavior which is intended to protect an individual from the effects of real or imagined change Four main Resistance Factors


Parochial Self-interest- some people with implication of the change for themselves and how it may affect their own interest, rather than considering the effect for the success of the business. Misunderstanding- communication problems; inadequate information Low tolerance of change- certain people are very keen on feeling secure and having stability in their work Different assessment of the situation- some employees may disagree with reasons for the change and win the advantages and disadvantages of the change process.

10 Reasons why People Resist change: 1. Fear of Failure 2. Creatures of Habit 3. No Obvious Needs 4. Loss of Control 5. Concerned About Support System 6. Closed Mind 7. Unwillingness to learn 8. Fear That The New Way May Not Be Better 9. Fear Of The Unknown 10. Fear of Personal Impact

How to Identify Resistance? 1. Activity of resistance


Testing Gossip 2. Collectivism of resistance


Individual action Collective action 3. Visibility of resistance


Covert resistance Overt resistance 4. Activity of resistance


Passive resistance Active resistance

How to Overcome Resistance to Change


Join with the resistance Stay calm and relaxed and centered on the issue at hand Listen with an open mind Embrace resistance Build a strong working relationship Maintain a clear focus Six approaches to deal with Resistance to change

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Explicit and Coercion Participation and involvement Facilitation and Support Negotiation and Agreement Manipulation and Co-option Education and Communication

Chapter 7 Power and Politics

Power A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with As wishes. Interpersonal (or intergroup) relationship in which one individual (or group) can cause another individual (or group) to take an action that it would not otherwise take.

Dependency Bs relationship to A when A possesses something that B needs.

Contrasting Leadership and Power Leadership Focuses on goal achievement. Requires goal compatibility with followers. Focuses influence downward.

Research Focus Leadership styles and relationships with followers

Power Used as a means for achieving goals. Requires follower dependency. Used to gain lateral and upward influence.

Research Focus Power tactics for gaining compliance

Measuring Bases of Power

1. Coercive Power  The person can make things difficult for people, and you want to avoid getting him or her angry.  Power that is based on fear. 2. Reward Power  The person is able to give special benefits or rewards to people, and you find it advantageous to trade favors with him or her. 3. Legitimate Power  The person has the right, considering his or her position and your job responsibilities, to expect you to comply with legitimate requests. 1. Expert Power  The person has the experience and knowledge to earn your respect and you defer to his or her judgment in some matters. 2. Referent Power  You like the person and enjoy doing things for him or her. 3. Information Power  The person has data or knowledge that you need. Dependency: Key to Power Importance

The things you control must be important. Scarcity


A resource must be perceived as scarce. No substitutability The resource cannot be substituted with something else.

Influence Tactics


Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Ingratiation Personal appeals Exchange Coalition tactics Pressure Legitimating tactics

Empowerment: Giving Power to Employees


The freedom and the ability of employees to make decisions and commitments. Managers disagree over definition of empowerment. Empowerment as delegating decision making within a set of clear boundaries Versus Empowerment as a process of risk taking and personal growth

Conditions for True Empowerment


There must be a clear definition of the values and mission of the company. Company must help employees acquire the relevant skills. Employees need to be supported in their decision making, and not criticized when they try to do something extraordinary. Employees need to be recognized for their efforts.

Characteristics of Empowered People Sense of self-determination Employees are free to choose how to do their work; they are not micromanaged.

Sense of meaning Employees feel that their work is important to them; they care about what they are doing.

Sense of competence Employees are confident about their ability to do their work well; they know they can perform. Sense of impact Employees believe they can have influence on their work unit; others listen to their ideas.

The Abuse of Power: Workplace Bullying Bullying can happen across levels of the organization, or among co-workers. Recent research found that

40 percent of the respondents noted that they had experienced one or more forms of bullying weekly in the past six months. 10 percent experienced bullying at a much greater level: five or more incidents a week.

The Abuse of Power: Sexual Harassment The Supreme Court defines sexual harassment as Unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature in the workplace that negatively affects the work environment or leads to adverse job-related consequences for the employee. Examples of Sexual Harassment There is disagreement as to what specifically constitutes sexual harassment. Includes

Unwanted physical touching.



Recurring requests for dates when it is made clear the person isnt interested. Coercive threats that a person will lose her or his job if she or he refuses a sexual proposition. More subtle forms (harder to interpret): Unwanted looks or comments Off-colour jokes Sexual artifacts such as nude calendars in the workplace Misinterpretations of where the line between being friendly ends and harassment begins

Politics: Power in Action Political behavior is those activities that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. Legitimate: Normal, everyday behaviors Illegitimate: Extreme political behaviors that violate the implied rules of the game

Why Do We Get into Politics?


Organizations are made up of groups and individuals who have differing values, goals, and interests. Resources in organizations are limited. Performance outcomes are not completely clear and objective.

Types of Political Activity Attacking or blaming others, Using information, Managing impressions, Building support for ideas, Praising others, Building coalitions, Associating with influential people, Creating obligations Impression Management


The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them. More likely used by high self-monitors than low self-monitors. High self-monitors try to read the situation.

Making Office Politics Work


Nobody wins unless everybody wins. Dont just ask for opinionschange them. Everyone expects to be paid back. Success can create opposition.