2, NOVEMBER 2009


Fully Depleted SOI MOSFET Fabrication and Characterization
Abheek Bardhan, Arjun Shetty, Arun Mahodaya, Pradeep Dixena, Pramod M, Ramachandran R

VGf VGb VF B VT hf VT hb NA COXf COXb Cdep

tOXf tOXb tSi ψsf ψsb ni φt qφB Wdep q

Voltage applied at the front gate Voltage applied at the back gate Flat band voltage Threshold voltage of front gate Threshold voltage of back gate Acceptor doping concentration Oxide capacitance due to front oxide Oxide capacitance due to back oxide Depletion capacitance of Silicon Permittivity of silicon Permittivity of dielectric thickness of front oxide thickness of back oxide thickness of silicon Surface potential of front channel Surface potential of back channel Intrinsic carrier concentration of silicon Voltage equivalent of temperature Fermi level offset from the intrinsic level Depletion width in silicon Electron charge

Parameter SOI Thickness Doping Type Doping Concentration Doping Material Crystal Orientation Buried oxide thickness Handle wafer orientation

Thin SOI 200 P 5×1014 Boron <100> 1000 <100>

Thick SOI 1000 P 5×1014 Boron <100> 1000 <100>

Units nm cm−3 nm -

TABLE I: SOI wafer parameters

I. I NTRODUCTION EVICE scaling in bulk-CMOS for long time has enabled the miniaturization as predicted by the Moores law. We have now come up to a stage where further device scaling down below 100 nm is becoming difficult to achieve and the advantages of scaling are becoming overshadowed by the disadvantages. CMOS scaling to nanometer scales has resulted in increased leakage currents, higher parasitic effects, increased process variabilities, degraded sub-threshold slopes, higher electric fields and hence its repercussions and various other issues. SOI technology is seen as a solution to most of the issues in bulk-CMOS. Silicon on insulator as the name suggests has a thin Si-layer over a substrate with an insulating layer separating the two. This feature gives SOI its various advantages like high speed, low power operation, lower threshold slopes lower electric fields, immunity to latch-up, lower parasitic to ground etc.


1) Partially Depleted : In this type of SOI MOSFET, the maximum depletion width is lesser than the thickness of SOI when the channel is inverted. The analysis of this MOSFET is similar to bulk MOSFET. It has an advantage over bulk MOSFET, that there is no leakage and latch up problems. It is shown in Fig. 1(a). 2) Fully Depleted : In this type, the doping and the thickness of the SOI is varied such that the SOI is fully depleted when the channel is inverted. The maximum depletion width is greater than the thickness of the SOI. The threshold voltage depends on the potential of the back channel. If the potential of the back channel is varied such that it follows the potential of the front channel, then the threshold voltage will be smaller than the bulk MOSFET and the sub-threshold slope will be close to ideal value as shown in Fig. 1(b). The variation of surface potential for a fully depleted MOSFET for different back gate bias is shown in Fig. 1(c)-(e). The aim of this lab experiment was to fabricate and characterize fully depleted SOI MOSFETs with different SOI thickness. This report is organised as follows. Sec. II details the fabrication steps of SOI MOSFET. Sec. III describes the different measurement techniques for characterization. I-V transfer and output characteristics of transistors are obtained for different bias conditions and are shown in Sec. IV. The results are discussed in Sec. V and Sec. VI concludes this report. II. FABRICATION S TEPS SOI MOSFETs are fabricated with SOI wafers. The parameters of starting SOI wafers are listed in Tab. I. The initial material taken are the 2 inch pieces of <100> prime quality SOI wafers. The fabrication steps for the two wafers are shown in Fig. 2. After the growth of thin oxide, (SiO2 ) are annealed as described in Sec. II-C. The final step of fabrication involves forming gas annealing described in Sec. II-H.

A. Types of SOI MOSFETs The operation of SOI can be classified into two categories,
Abheek and Arjun are with the Department of NIS, IISc, Bangalore Arun Mahodaya, Pradeep Dixena, Pramod M, Ramachandran R are with Department of Electrical and Communication Engineering, IISc, Bangalore. e-mail:

This process decreases the lattice defects present in the sample and hence reduces the fixed oxide charges. II [6]. The details of photolithography are given in Tab. while SiO2 is hydrophilic. The completion of the etching of the native oxide layer is confirmed by the hydrophobic nature of the wafer on Si surface. Duration : 50 s To remove developer N2 gas Hardening of photoresist TABLE III: Photolithography steps D. For thick SOI. 150 ml of DI water = V with (V/3) of HF). Thermal Oxidation Thermal oxidation is carried out for the wafers for the growth of thick oxide (SiO2 ) layer on the cleaned Si surfaces. 4) Si is hydrophobic. 290 nm of oxide is grown (this consumes 131 nm of silicon leaving behind 70 nm of SOI). Wafer is dipped in acetone and agitated . 3) During HF dip. This gives etch rate of about 300 nm/min for a duration of 4 min. Complete removal of the oxide can be noticed when the hydrophilic oxide turn to hydrophobic nature of the underlying silicon. The oxidation is carried in 3 steps with 10 min of dry oxidation followed by wet oxidation (2 hours for thick SOI and 18 min for thin SOI) followed by 10 min of dry oxidation. 1: (a) Partially depleted SOI MOSFET (b) Fully depleted SOI MOSFET (c) Variation of surface potential with back channel inverted (d) Variation of surface potential with back channel depleted (e) Variation of surface potential with back channel accumulated Process Photoresist Coating Method Intial speed Ramp speed Spin speed Softbake at 110◦ C UV exposure (Carl Suss MJB3 Mask Aligner) UV Intensity Developer Cleaning Drying Heating at 125◦ C Method/Material AZ5214E Spin coating 500 rpm 500 rpm/sec 3000 rpm 50-60 s Wavelength=350 nm 75 mJ/cm− 2 MF26A DI Waer Blow drying 2 min Comment Positive photoresist For uniform thickness 1s Duration 5 s Duration 35 s Evaporate solvents in photoresist Duration : 13 s A.COURSE E3-327. NOVEMBER 2009 2 Fig. 2. Oxide Etching After photolithography.GROUP 2 REPORT NO. 1) All the chemicals are CMOS grade and they are taken only in Quartz beaker. the oxide is removed with Buffered HF (100 gm of N H4 OH. I are cleaned as described by the steps shown in Tab. 2) Above 80◦ C H2 O2 can dissociate and Si Wafer can get oxidized in an uncontrolled way. The following precautions are observed during wafer cleaning. Wafer Cleaning The two wafers described in Tab. Annealing The wafers are annealed at 1000◦ C in the inert atmosphere of N2 with flow rate of 3 Lts/min for about 20 min. Thin oxide of 30 nm is grown using at 1000 ◦ C for 30 min. B. the solution is always taken in teflon beaker. 1000nm of oxide is grown (this consumes 454 nm of Si leaving behind 545 nm of SOI) while for the thin SOI wafer. III E. Photolithography Photolithography is carried out four times on the wafers with different masks to obtain SOI MOSFETs of different widths and lengths. C.

TABLE II: Wafer cleaning steps with ultrasonic vibrator for 2 min to remove the photoresist. Ionic impurities with insoluble hydroxides are removed Chemicals are flushed out. 2.COURSE E3-327. Water droplets adhered to the wafer surface are removed. Room Temp. Wafer is then dipped in DI water followed by cleaning with IPA to remove for acetone. NOVEMBER 2009 3 Fig.GROUP 2 REPORT NO. Native oxide layer is removed Chemicals are flushed out. Duration 10 min 30 sec 10 min Remark Organic impurities and alkali ions like F e3+ . M g 2+ are removed Chemicals are flushed out. The wafer is dried (blow drying) with N2 . IV. Room Temp. . Diffusion The steps carried out for n+ diffusion is shown in Tab. 2: Fabrication steps of SOI MOSFETs Step No. 80◦ C Room Temp. F. Al3+ . Room Temp. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Process Name SC1 Cleaning DI rinse HF dip DI rinse SC2 Cleaning DI rinse Blow drying Chemical Composition N H4 OH:H2 O2 :DI Water=1:1:5 DI Water HF:DI Water=1:50 DI Water HCl:H2 O2 :DI Water=1:1:6 DI Water Nitrogen Condition 80◦ C Room Temp.

GROUP 2 REPORT NO. The capacitance is determine for different regions of operation. aluminium is deposited on the back surface of all the wafer using thermal evaporation described is Sec. J. H.COURSE E3-327. 10. thereby reducing the interface trap states. Fig. IV. 3 to Fig. these vapours move straight up (low pressure chamber) and deposit on the substrate. CV Measurements The C-V measurement is done using Agilent 4284 Precision LCR Meter. NOVEMBER 2009 4 Process Phosphorous diffusion Carrier gas Method/Material P OCl3 N2 (3 L/min) and O2 (0. The DC voltage is swept from inversion to accumulation to avoid deep depletion. The process of etching is described in Tab. Forming Gas Annealing At Si-dielectric interface the periodicity of Si crystal terminates. Hence for a DC voltage of 20 V.6 L/min) (N2 flows through P OCl3 is 0. Thermal Evaporation Aluminium is deposited on the wafers for formation of one of the terminals of the MOSFET. Hindvac thermal evaporation unit is used to deposit thin films of metals on the substrates. II-I. The target material is resistively heated with a tungsten filament by applying low voltage of 30 V. The pressure of chamber is maintained at 2×10−5 mbar. 2. . IV. the Al metallization from the unexposed area should be etched out. The signal is given at the back terminal to mitigate the effect of parasitic impedances. I-V Measurements The I-V measurement is done using 4155C Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer . The H atoms being light. The LCR meter settings for CV measurement is given in Tab. The meter measures the small signal current due to a small signal voltage sitting on a DC level. Back Contact Formation After back oxide etching as described in Sec. I. The IV measurements are taken for SOI MOSFET with width of 200 µm and length of 100 µm. diffuses through the dielectric and dangling bonds get passivated. the current is limited to 50 mA. Open correction is done for the LCR meter to compensate for cable impedance. The metal melts and evaporates. The maximum power dissipation for IV measurement instrument is limited to 2 W. 3: Output characteristics for VGb = 0 and SOI is floating. The back contact will reduce the effect of contact resistance of the substrate. The input voltage is swept from 0 V to +15 V and the gate leakage current is determined. Passivation is done using forming gas (a mixture of N2 :H2 ::9:1) at 450◦ C for 30 min. M EASUREMENTS A. V III. these bonds have to be passivated. The results of IV measurements is shown in Sec. The voltage is applied on the top terminal unlike in the case of CV measurements.4 liters/min 900◦ C and 950◦ C and Comment Source of phosphorous - Process Etchant Method/Material H3 P O4 HN O3 DI W ater ≈ 2 nm/s DI Water Acetone and IPA : : Comment Composition 19:1:4 by volume Depends of etchant composition To remove etchant - Etch rate Cleaning Photoresist removal Temperature and duration for SOI Small Temperature and duration for SOI Big Quick dip in HNO3:HF:DI water 10 min TABLE V: Steps for Aluminium etching 30 min Parameter Small signal AC Hold time DC step Value 10 100 100 Units mVRM S ms mV DI rinse and blow dry with N2 HN O3 : HF : DI water in the ratio of 2:3:60 by volume - This is done to etch PSG (phosphosilicate glass) Remove all remaining contaminants TABLE VI: LCR meter settings for capacitance measurements TABLE IV: Diffusion steps G. 12. IV M EASUREMENT R ESULTS The IV curves for different bias conditions is shown in Fig. II-E. The dangling bonds of Si will lead to interface states. Aluminium Etching After the wafers have been patterned using photolithography. B.

thus increasing the threshold voltage of the device. Wdep. Hence.GROUP 2 REPORT NO. 5. 6: Output characteristics for VGb = 5 and SOI is grounded. Fig. 1) Due to low doping concentration (5×1014 cm−3 ). From Fig. Here ψsb is low.2 mA) than the saturation current (2.COURSE E3-327. Here the saturation current is smaller (2.17 µm which is greater than tSi . 8: Output characteristics for VGb = −15 and SOI is grounded. The current IDS is lower than the case when SOI is floating (Fig. D ISCUSSION The following inferences can be drawn from the measurements.7 mA) when the back channel is inverted as shown in Fig. 2. it can be observed that the current saturates beyond VGS − VT H = 5 V. This reduces the current IDS relative to when VGb =5V as shown in Fig. IDS for a given VDS and VGS is lower here compared to when SOI is floating (Fig. 5: Output characteristics for VGb = 5 V and SOI is floating. 2) IDS is higher when the SOI is floating compared to when SOI is grounded. Fig. 9: Output characteristics for VGb floating and SOI is floating. 5). 11 the threshold voltage for the above biasing condition is -1 V. 7: Output characteristics for VGb = −15 and SOI is floating. .max will be ≈1. channel is inverted. 4: Output characteristics for VGb = 0 and SOI is grounded. NOVEMBER 2009 5 Fig. For VDS = 4 V. 6. Fig. the devices is fully depleted when the front Fig. V. Fig. 3).

174 µm. 4) The devices were fabricated on a common substrate without isolation. 5) The back gate leakage current was considerably high. √ 4 Si ln(NA. It can be observed that the threshold voltage is close to -1 V Fig. Here. the back channel is taken from accumulation to inversion.max . 11: Transfer characteristics for VGb floating and SOI is floating. the silicon gets consumed during diffusion to form phosphosilicate glass (PSG). NOVEMBER 2009 6 Fig. the damage of oxide reflects as degraded performance on all the devices. (here tSi < Wdep. This is also reflected in the output characteristics as the drain current does not change considerably as the back gate voltage is changed from -15 V to +5 V (Fig. For the thin silicon is completely consumed. the breakdown of buried oxide in any of the devices will reflect as degraded performance of all the devices.D and φB = KT NA ln( ) q ni (2) Fig. 2. C ONCLUSION Fully depleted MOSFETs were fabricated with p-type silicon wafers. VI. In fully depleted SOI-MOSFET fabrication. Consequently this PSG is etched away. 10: Output characteristics for VGb floating and SOI is grounded. hence the ratio of oncurrent to off-current in the output characteristics is low. Therefore the C-V and I-V characteristics were not observed. both thin SOI and thick SOI are fully depleted). Since the thickness of silicon is small. 12: Transfer characteristics for VGf floating and SOI is grounded. A VT h = ψsf + qNA tSi CSi ψsf + COXf 2COXf (3) 3) ION /IOF F is small because the back channel is always in inversion due to fixed oxide charges in buried oxide. With NA =5×101 4. Since the MOS devices are not isolated. This leads to a loss of contact between metal and SOI. 3 with ψsf = 2φB . due to which the control of VGb is poor. silicon gets consumed to form PSG. it is completely consumed to form PSG. The threshold voltage with back-channel accumulated is given by Equ. φB =260 mV.GROUP 2 REPORT NO.The threshold voltage with back-channel depleted is given by Equ. After which the PSG is etched away.COURSE E3-327. Here it is observed that when VGf is 4V and Vds is small.max = (1) qNA.626 V . 6) When the SOI wafer undergoes phosphorous diffusion. The measurement results indicate that the leakage current through back oxide is high. A This gives ideal VT h =0. For thick SOI tSi =532 nm. this leads to increase in IDS for increasing back gate bias. the front oxide breaks down causing steep current increase from gate to drain. This leads to lack of contact between the metal and the substrate. 4 with ψsf = 2φB .D /ni )φt Wdep. 1. Transfer characteristics indicate large dependence of subthreshold current on the drain to source voltage.max =1. The current increases for increase in gate voltage for a given drain voltage similar to a bulk MOSFET. A PPENDIX A A NALYSIS OF IV M EASUREMENTS The threshold voltage and the sub-threshold slope of the SOI MOSFET depends on the back gate bias condition. Wdep. It can be seen that the threshold voltage is higher than the bulk SOI MOSFET. 12). The maximum depletion width is given by Equ.

pdf. [3] S. Takahashi. Murase. Threshold voltage of thin-film silicon-oninsulator (SOI) MOSFET’s.538 V. 1969. A quick review of mos capacitor.A. John-Wiley & Sons. Tata McGraw-Hill. 40(1):278–283. Taur and T. Y. NY. Brews E. . Springer. The evolution of silicon wafer cleaning technology. It can be seen that D A VT h is lower than VT h . 50(3):830–838. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. Journal of the Electrochemical Society. which gives ideal VT h as 0. Electrical characterization of silicon-oninsulator materials and devices.556 V. Streetman. 2006. S. 2003. Journal of Applied Physics. Horiguchi. 30(10):1244–1251.COURSE E3-327. R. Fowler-Nordheim tunneling into thermally grown Si02. [6] W.G. Colinge. Fundamentals of modern VLSI devices.N. Ouisse. Solid state electronic devices. 137:1887. Nicollian.S. NOVEMBER 2009 7 D which gives ideal value of VT h as 0. Kern. 2004. [11] Y. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. USA. and K. 1983. Y. T. G. S. Ernst. [2] viveks/ee231/lectures/section1p4. H. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Physics and Technology.K. Bhat. [5] T. Li. organics. 2. Lenzlinger and EH Snow.berkeley. D VT h = ψsf (1 + CSi qNA tSi )+ + (4) COXf 2COXf ( ) CS COXb CSi ψsf qNA tSi − COXf (COXb + CSi ) COXb 2 Si The threshold voltage with back-channel inverted is given by I Equ. Ono. Cristoloveanu.P. [4] J. Lim and JG Fossum. 2007. Ultimately thin double-gate SOI MOSFETs. Cristoloveanu and S. Kluwer Academic Pub.K. [7] M. Ghibaudo.K.H. 1998. [10] Vivek Subramanian. I VT h = ψsf + qNA tSi 2COXf (5) R EFERENCES [1] MK Achuthan and M. 1982. [8] H. Fundamentals of Semiconductor Devices.eecs. 1995. [9] B.GROUP 2 REPORT NO. Ning. Cambridge University Press New York. 5 with ψsf = 2φB . 1990. 1995. Silicon-on-insulator technology: materials to VLSI.

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