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Instructor: Cheung

Both asymptotically stability and BIBO stability require checing whether H(s) = N(s)/D(s) has all its poles on the open left half plane. How to check? Solution 1: Factorize D(s): D ( s ) = s n + an 1s n 1 + ... + a1s + a0

= ( s 1 )( s 2 )...( s n ) stable all Re( j ) < 0 This is difficult because there are NO CLOSED FORM for polynomials of degree higher than four. Numerical methods are: 1. Computatinally intensive 2. Solution are not exact.

Solution 2: Routh Array (Routh-Hurwitz criterion). This is EASY! Find how many poles in the right half of the s-plane? (1) Basic Method

D( s ) = an s n + an 1s n 1 + ... + a0

Degree of the leading term

The Routh-Hurwitz Criterion: Number of sign changes in the first column of the array = number of poles in the (OPEN) r. h. p.

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Instructor: Cheung

Example 6-8

D( s ) = s 3 + 14 s 2 + 41s 56

Example 6-9

D( s ) = s 4 + 5s 3 + s 2 + 10s + 1

5 1 1 10 = 1 5 5 1 1 0 b2 = =1 5 1 10 5 1 c1 = = 15 1 1 0 5 0 c2 = =0 1 15 1 ( 1) 0 d1 = =1 15 b1 =

s4 s3 s2 s1 s0

1 5

1 10

b1 = 1 b2 = 1 c1 = 15 c2 = 0 d1 = 1

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Instructor: Cheung

FAQ about Routh Array 1. Why do number of sign changes in Routh array has anything to do with the number of r.h.p. poles? Let say D ( s ) = ( s p1 )( s p2 )( s p3 ) Expand it out you get, D ( s ) = s 3 ( p1 + p2 + p3 ) s 2 + ... In this case, the Routh array looks like this:

s3 s 1 ... ... s 2 ( p1 + p 2 + p3 ) ...

If all the poles are on the left half plane, ( p1 + p2 + p3 ) must be positive and there will not be a sign change between the first and second row. If there is a sign change, we must have at least ONE pole on the open right half plane. 2. What about the rest of the rows? A detail explanation of the Routh-Hurwitz criterion is beyond the scope of this course. An elementary proof of this criterion can be found in the paper titled Elementary proof of the Routh-Hurwitz test by G. Meinsma in Systems & control Letters 25 (1995) p. 237-242. 3. What about poles on the imaginary axis? It is in fact possible to also keep track of the number of pure-imaginary poles from the Routh array as well. However, we will not consider such procedure here. 4. What happen when there are zeros in the first column? Excellent question! There are two cases Case 1: Only the first element of the row is 0 but the rest of the row is neither entirely zero nor empty. Procedure: 1. replace 0 by a small 2. Find # sign changes in the first column for either >0 and <0. Both cases should give you the same result.

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Instructor: Cheung

Example 6-10

D( s ) = s 4 + s 3 + s 2 + s + 3

Case 2: the whole row is zero or zero occurs in the very last row. This happens, for example, when all the odd (even) powers of the polynomial are missing:

D ( s ) = ( s + 2 j )( s 2 j )( s + 3 j )( s 3 j ) = s + 13s + 36

4 2

s 4 1 13 36 s3 0 0 0

Solution: 1. Construct an auxiliary polynomial based on the row before the all-zero row 2. Replace the all-zero row by the DERIVATIVE of the auxiliary polynomial. Why? As motivated by the previous example, a zero row implies that a polynomial D(s) has only even or odd power. It turns out in this case, D(s) and D(s)+D(s) have exactly the same numbers of r.h.p. poles (proof beyond scope). As the goal is just to find the # of r.h.p. poles, we can use D(s) as a surrogate to continue the procedure.

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Instructor: Cheung

Example 6-11

D( s) = s 7 + 3s 6 + 3s 5 + s 4 + s 3 + 3s 2 + 3s + 1

Two sign change two poles on the open right half plane

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Instructor: Cheung

D( s) = s 3 + 3s 2 + 3s + (1 + k )

1 3

b1 = 3 3 1 (1 + k ) 8 k = 3 3 (8 k ) / 3 (1 + k ) 3 0 c1 = = 1+ k (8 K ) / 3

s3 s2 s1 s0

3 1+ k b1 = (8 k ) / 3 c1 = 1 + k

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