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PERFORMANCE TUNING

For all entries Nested selects Select using JOINS Use the selection criteria Use the aggregated functions Select with view Select with index support Select Into table Select with selection list Key access to multiple lines Copying internal tables Modifying a set of lines Deleting a sequence of lines Linear search vs. binary Comparison of internal tables Modify selected components Appending two internal tables Deleting a set of lines Tools available in SAP to pin-point a performance problem Optimizing the load of the database Other General Tips & Tricks for Optimization For all entries The for all entries creates a where clause, where all the entries in the driver table are combined with OR. If the number of entries in the drivertable is larger than rsdb/max_blocking_factor, several similar SQL statements are executed to limit the length of the WHERE clause. The plus y y y y Large amount of data Mixing processing and reading of data Fast internal reprocessing of data Fast

The Minus y y Difficult to program/understand Memory could be critical (use FREE or PACKAGE size)

Some steps that might make FOR ALL ENTRIES more efficient: y y y y y y Removing duplicates from the the driver table Sorting the driver table If possible, convert the data in the driver table to ranges so a BETWEEN statement is used instead of and OR statement: FOR ALL ENTRIES IN i_tab WHERE mykey >= i_tab-low and mykey <= i_tab-high.

Nested selects The plus:

y y y

Small amount of data Mixing processing and reading of data Easy to code - and understand

The minus: y y y Large amount of data when mixed processing isnt needed Performance killer no. 1

Select using JOINS The plus y y y y Very large amount of data Similar to Nested selects - when the accesses are planned by the programmer In some cases the fastest Not so memory critical

The minus y y Very difficult to program/understand Mixing processing and reading of data not possible

Use the selection criteria SELECT * FROM SBOOK. CHECK: SBOOK-CARRID = 'LH' AND SBOOK-CONNID = '0400'. ENDSELECT. SELECT * FROM SBOOK WHERE CARRID = 'LH' AND CONNID = '0400'. ENDSELECT. Use the aggregated functions C4A = '000'. SELECT * FROM T100 WHERE SPRSL = 'D' AND ARBGB = '00'. CHECK: T100-MSGNR > C4A. C4A = T100-MSGNR. ENDSELECT. SELECT MAX( MSGNR ) FROM T100 INTO C4A WHERE SPRSL = 'D' AND ARBGB = '00'. Select with view SELECT * FROM DD01L WHERE DOMNAME LIKE 'CHAR%' AND AS4LOCAL = 'A'. SELECT SINGLE * FROM DD01T WHERE DOMNAME = DD01L-DOMNAME AND AS4LOCAL = 'A'

AND AS4VERS = DD01L-AS4VERS AND DDLANGUAGE = SY-LANGU. ENDSELECT. SELECT * FROM DD01V WHERE DOMNAME LIKE 'CHAR%' AND DDLANGUAGE = SY-LANGU. ENDSELECT. Select with index support SELECT * FROM T100 WHERE ARBGB = '00' AND MSGNR = '999'. ENDSELECT. SELECT * FROM T002. SELECT * FROM T100 WHERE SPRSL = T002-SPRAS AND ARBGB = '00' AND MSGNR = '999'. ENDSELECT. ENDSELECT.

Select Into table REFRESH X006. SELECT * FROM T006 INTO X006. APPEND X006. ENDSELECT SELECT * FROM T006 INTO TABLE X006.

Select with selection list SELECT * FROM DD01L WHERE DOMNAME LIKE 'CHAR%' AND AS4LOCAL = 'A'. ENDSELECT SELECT DOMNAME FROM DD01L INTO DD01L-DOMNAME WHERE DOMNAME LIKE 'CHAR%' AND AS4LOCAL = 'A'. ENDSELECT Key access to multiple lines LOOP AT TAB. CHECK TAB-K = KVAL. " ... ENDLOOP. LOOP AT TAB WHERE K = KVAL. " ... ENDLOOP.

Copying internal tables REFRESH TAB_DEST. LOOP AT TAB_SRC INTO TAB_DEST. APPEND TAB_DEST. ENDLOOP. TAB_DEST[] = TAB_SRC[]. Modifying a set of lines LOOP AT TAB. IF TAB-FLAG IS INITIAL. TAB-FLAG = 'X'. ENDIF. MODIFY TAB. ENDLOOP. TAB-FLAG = 'X'. MODIFY TAB TRANSPORTING FLAG WHERE FLAG IS INITIAL.

Deleting a sequence of lines DO 101 TIMES. DELETE TAB_DEST INDEX 450. ENDDO. DELETE TAB_DEST FROM 450 TO 550.

Linear search vs. binary READ TABLE TAB WITH KEY K = 'X'. READ TABLE TAB WITH KEY K = 'X' BINARY SEARCH. Comparison of internal tables DESCRIBE TABLE: TAB1 LINES L1, TAB2 LINES L2. IF L1 <> L2. TAB_DIFFERENT = 'X'. ELSE. TAB_DIFFERENT = SPACE. LOOP AT TAB1. READ TABLE TAB2 INDEX SY-TABIX. IF TAB1 <> TAB2. TAB_DIFFERENT = 'X'. EXIT. ENDIF. ENDLOOP. ENDIF. IF TAB_DIFFERENT = SPACE.

" ... ENDIF. IF TAB1[] = TAB2[]. " ... ENDIF. Modify selected components LOOP AT TAB. TAB-DATE = SY-DATUM. MODIFY TAB. ENDLOOP. WA-DATE = SY-DATUM. LOOP AT TAB. MODIFY TAB FROM WA TRANSPORTING DATE. ENDLOOP. Appending two internal tables LOOP AT TAB_SRC. APPEND TAB_SRC TO TAB_DEST. ENDLOOP APPEND LINES OF TAB_SRC TO TAB_DEST. Deleting a set of lines LOOP AT TAB_DEST WHERE K = KVAL. DELETE TAB_DEST. ENDLOOP DELETE TAB_DEST WHERE K = KVAL.

Tools available in SAP to pin-point a performance problem y y y y The runtime analysis (SE30) SQL Trace (ST05) Tips and Tricks tool The performance database

Optimizing the load of the database Using table buffering Using buffered tables improves the performance considerably. Note that in some cases a stament can not be used with a buffered table, so when using these staments the buffer will be bypassed. These staments are: y y y y Select DISTINCT ORDER BY / GROUP BY / HAVING clause Any WHERE clasuse that contains a subquery or IS NULL expression JOIN s

A SELECT... FOR UPDATE

If you wnat to explicitly bypass the bufer, use the BYPASS BUFFER addition to the SELECR clause. Use the ABAP SORT Clause Instead of ORDER BY The ORDER BY clause is executed on the database server while the ABAP SORT statement is executed on the application server. The datbase server will usually be the bottleneck, so sometimes it is better to move thje sort from the datsbase server to the application server. If you are not sorting by the primary key ( E.g. using the ORDER BY PRIMARY key statement) but are sorting by another key, it could be better to use the ABAP SORT stament to sort the data in an internal table. Note however that for very large result sets it might not be a feasible solution and you would want to let the datbase server sort it. Avoid ther SELECT DISTINCT Statement As with the ORDER BY clause it could be better to avoid using SELECT DISTINCT, if some of the fields are not part of an index. Instead use ABAP SORT + DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATES on an internal table, to delete duplciate rows.

TIPS & TRICKS FOR OPTIMIZATION


y Use the GET RUN TIME command to help evaluate performance. It's hard to know whether that optimization technique REALLY helps unless you test it out. Using this tool can help you know what is effective, under what kinds of conditions. The GET RUN TIME has problems under multiple CPUs, so you should use it to test small pieces of your program, rather than the whole program. Generally, try to reduce I/O first, then memory, then CPU activity. I/O operations that read/write to hard disk are always the most expensive operations. Memory, if not controlled, may have to be written to swap space on the hard disk, which therefore increases your I/O read/writes to disk. CPU activity can be reduced by careful program design, and by using commands such as SUM (SQL) and COLLECT (ABAP/4). Avoid 'SELECT *', especially in tables that have a lot of fields. Use SELECT A B C INTO instead, so that fields are only read if they are used. This can make a very big difference. Field-groups can be useful for multi-level sorting and displaying. However, they write their data to the system's paging space, rather than to memory (internal tables use memory). For this reason, field-groups are only appropriate for processing large lists (e.g. over 50,000 records). If you have large lists, you should work with the systems administrator to decide the maximum amount of RAM your program should use, and from that,calculate how much space your lists will use. Then you can decide whether to write the data to memory or swap space. Use as many table keys as possible in the WHERE part of your select statements. Whenever possible, design the program to access a relatively constant number of records (for instance, if you only access the transactions for one month, then there probably will be a reasonable range, like 1200-1800, for the number of transactions inputted within that month). Then use a SELECT A B C INTO TABLE ITAB statement. Get a good idea of how many records you will be accessing. Log into your productive system, and use SE80 -> Dictionary Objects (press Edit), enter the table name you want to see, and press Display. Go To Utilities -> Table Contents to query the table contents and see the number of records. This is extremely useful in optimizing a program's memory allocation. Try to make the user interface such that the program gradually unfolds more information to the user, rather than giving a huge list of information all at once to the user. Declare your internal tables using OCCURS NUM_RECS, where NUM_RECS is the number of records you expect to be accessing. If the number of records exceeds NUM_RECS, the data will be kept in swap space (not memory). Use SELECT A B C INTO TABLE ITAB whenever possible. This will read all of the records into the itab in one operation, rather than repeated operations that result from a

y y

y y

y y y

SELECT A B C INTO ITAB... ENDSELECT statement. Make sure that ITAB is declared with OCCURS NUM_RECS, where NUM_RECS is the number of records you expect to access. If the number of records you are reading is constantly growing, you may be able to break it into chunks of relatively constant size. For instance, if you have to read all records from 1991 to present, you can break it into quarters, and read all records one quarter at a time. This will reduce I/O operations. Test extensively with GET RUN TIME when using this method. Know how to use the 'collect' command. It can be very efficient. Use the SELECT SINGLE command whenever possible. Many tables contain totals fields (such as monthly expense totals). Use these avoid wasting resources by calculating a total that has already been calculated and stored.

ABAP/4 Development Code Efficiency Guidelines


ABAP/4 (Advanced Business Application Programming 4GL) language is an "event-driven", "top-down", wellstructured and powerful programming language. The ABAP/4 processor controls the execution of an event. Because the ABAP/4 language incorporates many "event" keywords and these keywords need not be in any specific order in the code, it is wise to implement in-house ABAP/4 coding standards. SAP-recommended customer-specific ABAP/4 development guidelines can be found in the SAP-documentation. This page contains some general guidelines for efficient ABAP/4 Program Development that should be considered to improve the systems performance on the following areas:Physical I/O - data must be read from and written into I/O devices. This can be a potential bottle neck. A well configured system always runs 'I/O-bound' - the performance of the I/O dictates the overall performance. Memory consumption of the database resources eg. buffers, etc. CPU consumption on the database and application servers Network communication - not critical for little data volumes, becomes a bottle neck when large volumes are transferred. Policies and procedures can also be put into place so that every SAP-customer development object is thoroughly reviewed (quality program correctness as well as code-efficiency) prior to promoting the object to the SAPproduction system. Information on the SAP R/3 ABAP/4 Development Workbench programming tools and its features can be found on the SAP Public Web-Server. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------CLASSIC GOOD 4GL PROGRAMMING CODE-PRACTICES GUIDELINES Avoid dead-code Remove unnecessary code and redundant processing Spend time documenting and adopt good change control practices Spend adequate time anayzing business requirements, process flows, data-structures and data-model

Quality assurance is key: plan and execute a good test plan and testing methodology Experience counts -------------------------------------------------------------------------------SELECT * FROM <TABLE> CHECK: <CONDITION> ENDSELECT vs. SELECT * FROM <TABLE> WHERE <CONDITION> ENDSELECT

In order to keep the amount of data which is relevant to the query the hit set small, avoid using SELECT+CHECK statements wherever possible. As a general rule of thumb, always specify all known conditions in the WHERE clause (if possible). If there is no WHERE clause the DBMS has no chance to make optimizations. Always specify your conditions in the Where-clause instead of checking them yourself with check-statements. The database system can also potentially make use a database index (if possible) for greater efficiency resulting in less load on the database server and considerably less load on the network traffic as well. Also, it is important to use EQ (=) in the WHERE clause wherever possible, and analyze the SQL-statement for the optimum path the database optimizer will utilize via SQL-trace when necessary. Also, ensure careful usage of "OR", "NOT" and value range tables (INTTAB) that are used inappropriately in Open SQL statements. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------SELECT * vs. SELECT SINGLE * If you are interested in exactly one row of a database table or view, use the SELECT SINGLE statement instead of a SELECT * statement. SELECT SINGLE requires one communication with the database system whereas SELECT * requires two. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------SELECT * FROM <TABLE> INTO <INT-TAB> APPEND <INT-TAB> ENDSELECT vs.

SELECT * FROM <TABLE> INTO TABLE <INT-TAB>

It is usually faster to use the INTO TABLE version of a SELECT statement than to use APPEND statements -------------------------------------------------------------------------------SELECT ... WHERE + CHECK vs. SELECT using aggregate function If you want to find the maximum, minimum, sum and average value or the count of a database column, use a select list with aggregate functions instead of computing the aggregates within the program. The RDBMS is responsible for aggregated computations instead of transferring large amount of data to the application. Overall Network, Application-server and Database load is also considerably less. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------SELECT INTO TABLE <INT-TAB> + LOOP AT T SELECT * FROM <TABLE> INTO TABLE <INT-TAB>. LOOP AT <INT-TAB>. ENDLOOP. vs. SELECT * FROM <TABLE> . ENDSELECT If you process your data only once, use a SELECT-ENDSELECT loop instead of collecting data in an internal table with SELECT ... INTO TABLE. Internal table handling takes up much more space -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nested SELECT statements: SELECT * FROM <TABLE-A> SELECT * FROM <TABLE-B> .. ENDSELECT. ENDSELECT vs. Select with view SELECT * FROM <VIEW> ENDSELECT

To process a join, use a view wherever possible instead of nested SELECT statements. Using nested selects is a technique with low performance. The inner select statement is executed several times which might be an overhead. In addition, fewer data must be transferred if another technique would be used eg. join implemented as a view in ABAP/4 Repository. SELECT ... FORM ALL ENTRIES Explicit cursor handling (for more information, goto Transaction SE30 Tips & Tricks) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nested select: SELECT * FROM pers WHERE condition. SELECT * FROM persproj WHERE person = pers-persnr. ... process ... ENDSELECT. ENDSELECT. vs. SELECT persnr FROM pers INTO TABLE ipers WHERE cond. . SELECT * FROM persproj FOR ALL ENTRIES IN ipers WHERE person = ipers-persnr ... process . ENDSELECT. In the lower version the new Open SQL statement FOR ALL ENTRIES is used. Prior to the call, all interesting records from 'pers' are read into an internal table. The second SELECT statement results in a call looking like this (ipers containing: P01, P02, P03): (SELECT * FROM persproj WHERE person = 'P01') UNION (SELECT * FROM persproj WHERE person = 'P02') UNION (SELECT * FROM persproj WHERE person = 'P03') In case of large statements, the R/3's database interface divides the statement into several parts and recombines the resulting set to one. The advantage here is that the number of transfers is minimized and there is minimal restrictions due to the statement size (compare with range tables). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------SELECT * FROM <TABLE> vs. SELECT <column(s)> FROM <TABLE>

Use a select list or a view instead of SELECT *, if you are only interested in specific columns of the table. If only certain fields are needed then only those fields should be read from the database. Similarly, the number of columns can also be restricted by using a view defined in ABAP/4 Dictionary. Overall database and network load is

considerably less. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------SELECT without table buffering support vs. SELECT with table buffering support For all frequently used, read-only(few updates) tables, do attempt to use SAP-buffering for eimproved performance response times. This would reduce the overall Database activity and Network traffic. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Single-line inserts LOOP AT <INT-TAB> INSERT INTO <TABLE> VALUES <INT-TAB> ENDLOOP vs. Array inserts Whenever possible, use array operations instead of single-row operations to modify the database tables. Frequent communication between the application program and database system produces considerable overhead. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Single-line updates SELECT * FROM <TABLE> <COLUMN-UPDATE STATEMENT> UPDATE <TABLE> ENDSELECT vs.

Column updates UPDATE <TABLE> SET <COLUMN-UPDATE STATEMENT> Wherever possible, use column updates instead of single row updates to update your database tables -------------------------------------------------------------------------------DO....ENDDO loop with Field-Symbol vs.

Using CA operator Use the special operators CO, CA, CS instead of programming the operations yourself If ABAP/4 statements are executed per character on long strings, CPU consumprion can rise substantially -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Use of a CONCATENATE function module vs. Use of a CONCATENATE statement Some function modules for string manipulation have become obsolete, and should be replaced by ABAP statements or functions STRING_CONCATENATE... ---> CONCATENATE STRING_SPLIT... ---> SPLIT STRING_LENGTH... ---> strlen() STRING_CENTER... ---> WRITE..TO. ..CENTERED STRING_MOVE_RIGHT ---> WRITE...TO...RIGHT-JUSTIFIED -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Moving with offset vs. Use of the CONCATENATE statement Use the CONCATENATE statement instead of programming a string concatenation of your own -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Use of SEARCH and MOVE with offset vs.

Use of SPLIT statement

Use the SPLIT statement instead of programming a string split yourself -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Shifting by SY-FDPOS places vs

Using SHIFT...LEFT DELETING LEADING... If you want ot delete the leading spaces in a string use the ABAP/4 statements SHIFT...LEFT DELETING LEADING... Other constructions (with CN and SHIFT... BY SY-FDPOS PLACES, with CONDENSE if possible, with CN and ASSIGN CLA+SY-FDPOS(LEN) ...) are not as fast -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get a check-sum with field length vs Get a check-sum with strlen ()

Use the strlen () function to restrict the DO loop to the relevant part of the field, eg. when determinating a check-sum