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SERVICE MANUAL Calibration

6.
6 .1 .

CA L I B RAT I ON
Ge n e r a l
This chapter supplies all the necessary information for setting the parameters for the X-ray tubes function. The regulation of these parameters: focusing and correction of the high voltage kV values are discussed here below.

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6 .2 .

High volt age k V c oeffic ient value


If the kV value detected by an instrument outside the generator is different to the set value, it can be corrected using this coefficient. Calibration of the kV is made at the manufacturer's upon the final testing and verified via a standard instrument. The base correction value (100) can be changed using a lower datum to reduce the value of the high voltage kV. A higher kV will increase the value. Every unit above or below 100 will effect a percentage variation to the high voltage kV value. 1. Via the ON key, switch on the equipment. After 5 seconds the console will display the data program. 2. Open the front panel of the power rack, turn the switch located on the front of PCB 9999102700 Master Processing Unit (paragraph 12.1) to the right. 3. Press a vertical anatomical selection key. 4. Press the Child key to access the configuration. 5. The following message appears on the FIP:

CONfIG ENGLISH

ALArMDB

CALiBRATE

EePROM

TIME

MODIF PROG 0

PrOGRAMS ERASE

Press the key ORG 3. The FIP displays the following message:

CALIBRATE k*kV

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6. Press the Reset key. The message Calibration k*kV will appear on the FIP. The value of the kV correction parameter will appear on the fluoroscopy kV display. To increase or decrease this value, press the keys >5R and Reset min. fluoroscopy. The default value is 100. This means that the multiplying factor of the theoretical value of the kV is 1. With this condition, the real value of the high voltage kV is equal to the calibration value obtained during the testing of the equipment. To verify the correspondence between the set kV values and the detected values, connect an oscilloscope between ground and the signal [ikv] on test point TP5 of PCB 9999192500 Converter Control Board (paragraph 12.1). The ratio for the reading of the reference value is 10 V = 200 kV. Perform radiography with a current value of 100 mA. If the value of the kV reading is less than 2% that of the set value, the number to input is 102. The same concept is used if the voltage value is higher. The percentage error in excess must be calculated and this percentage detracted from 100. EXAMPLE: Radiography data Value read on oscilloscope Real kV value Error Datum to input

90 kV - 100 mA - 0.8 sec 4.65 V (ratio 10 V = 200 kV) 93 3.3 % 103.

7. To confirm the changes made, press the key M1. The changed data input will be saved on EEPROM. Confirmation of the save will be testified by a beep. By pressing the Aux key the changes will be cancelled. 8. Press Sturdy Build to quit the configuration program. The generator will return to operating mode and new verifications can be made.

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6 .3 .

Fi l a m e n t h e a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a l u e s
These are the current values for the filament heating expressed in amps and obtained from the filament characteristics supplied by the manufacturer of the radiogenic tube. These values must be input into the computer and are used to inform the relevant circuit to regulate the value of the filament heating current.

6 .3 .1 .

St a n d -b y c u r r e n t
This current value must be given for both focuses and for all the tubes installed. The typical stand-by current value for tubes with filament of a maximum current of 5.5 A and 2.5 A. In all cases, this is the value that must be set so as not to cause an issue of high voltage current.

6 .3 .2 .

Minim um radiography c urrent


This value corresponds to the value of the filament current that enables us to obtain approximate 6 mA in radiography on the small focus and 25 mA in radiography for the large focus. This value is obtained from the filament heating curves given by the manufacturer of the radiogenic tube and may be adjusted during the calibration procedure of the radiography current.

6 .3 .3 .

Max im um radiography c urrent


The maximum filament current in radiography is a value given by the manufacturer of the radiogenic tube. The typical value is 5.5 A. The minimum and maximum filament current value for a particular focus is used by the computer for the calculation of the heating current during the radiography preparation. If one of the two values is changed after calibration is made, all the values obtained during said calibration are cancelled. The calibration of that particular focus and that particular tube must therefore be repeated. Caution must be taken to ensure that the maximum filament current value does not exceed 8.5 A.

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6 .4 .

Fl u o r o s c o p y h e a t i n g c a l i b r a t i o n
Before commencing calibration exposure, the maximum heating current value must be input. This current value ranges between 2800 mA and 3400 mA for filaments with a maximum heating current of 5.5 Amps. As explained in paragraph 6.3.1, the preheating value of the large focus must not cause an issue of current. If this occurs, calibration must be performed otherwise it would be impossible to bring the fluoroscopy current to the minimum value of 0.5 mA. In this case, the relative alarm messages will be generated during fluoroscopy calibration (see paragraph 10.1). The maximum kV value must also be selected from the range 90 - 120 kV. 1. Via the ON key, switch on the equipment. After 5 seconds the console will display the data program. 2. After opening the front panel of the power rack, turn the switch located on the front of 9999102700 Master Processing Unit (paragraph 12.1) to the right. 3. Press a vertical anatomical selection key. 4. Press the Child key to access the configuration. 5. The following message appears on the FIP:

CONfIG ENGLISH

ALArMDB

CALiBRATE

EePROM

TIME

MODIF PROG 0

PrOGRAMS ERASE

Press the key ORG 3. The FIP displays the following message:

CALIBRATE FLUORO

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6. Press the key +kV to access the fluoroscopy calibration program. The FIP provides the selection of the tube on which to calibrate the fluoroscopy:

FLUORO CALIBRATION TuBE 1

Use key +mA to select the tube to calibrate. Keys M1 and Sturdy Build are also active and have the function to confirm or cancel the selection. 7. When key M1 is pressed, the following message appears on the fluoroscopy display: display kV: the maximum kV value that the microprocessor reaches during fluoroscopy calibration. It is possible to change this value (from 90 to 120) using the keys >5R (decrease) and Reset min. fluoroscopy (increase) display mA: the maximum heating value that the microprocessor reaches during fluoroscopy calibration. Transfer from one kV step to the next is generated by reaching the set heating value. This value may be changed using the DSI 2 key to increase, or the DS1 key to decrease. 8. When the key M1 is pressed, the word READY appears on the FIP. At this point the fluoroscopy procedure is ready to begin. By shortcircuiting via pushbuttons or the accessory connected to points GTB 427 and GTB 429 exposure commences. The automatically set values are: kV = 50 kV (value indicated by the fluoroscopy kV display) mA = stand-by value of the small focus. When fluoroscopy starts, the mA fluoroscopy reading must be between 0.10 and 0.25 mA. This shows that the two focuses are at a non-emission value. The small focus heating is automatically increased and at the same time the heating and radiogenic tube emission values are read and memorized. The emission value is given on the fluoroscopy mA display. Once the maximum heating current value fluoroscopy is reached, the heating value is automatically brought to stand-by value and the kV value to 80 kV.

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The above sequence is repeated and once the maximum mA values are reached, the kV are set to the maximum value. Fluoroscopy is automatically stopped at the end of the last cycle and the FIP displays the message "FLUOROSCOPY CALIBRATION OK". Release the rays command and press the Sturdy Build button to quit the calibration routine. NOTE: The release of the fluoroscopy command blocks emission and consequently blocks the heating detection procedure. The procedure is resumed at the point of interruption via the fluoroscopy command.

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6 .5 .

Ra d i o g r a p h y s m a l l f o c u s c a l i b r a t i o n
The small focus calibration consists in the memorization of the data relative to the filament heating values in function of the kV values. These data are used during the radiography preparation phase to set the filament heating value in function of the selected kV and mA. A table containing the emission current values for the different heating values and voltages is therefore necessary. To generate this table inside the memory, the interval between the minimum and maximum radiography current has been divided into 9 equal parts. Radiographs with different kV values must be performed for each one of the ten current values derived therefrom. The kV - mA couples values detected at each emission are memorized as described here below. A minimum of 3 value couples must be recognized for each filament current value. This makes it possible to calculate 3 coefficients for each one of the ten filament current values which shall be called STEPS.

WARNING: Because this is a manual calibration, data for the performance of calibration radiographs will be provided throughout this entire phase. It is the operator's responsibility to ensure that the limit values of the radiogenic tube's maximum load are not exceeded. Forecast of the kV and mA values obtained in the next exposure shall be made as per the following description. Consequently, once he has obtained the forecasted values, the operator shall decide whether it is possible to proceed, or, if the data risk reaching or exceeding the maximum load values, to finish the STEP. With regard to the kV value, the equipment will propose the value to be used, while the forecast of the mA emission value linked to the STEP depends upon the value of the STEP itself. At STEP 0, the filament is heated to the minimum radiography current value and the forecast value is in function of this data. Once the first exposure with STEP 0 at 40 kV has been made, the forecast of the current value for the second exposure at the same STEP at 60 kV will be an increase of 20% of the value read during the first radiography. The increase of 20% will also be valid for the successive increases of high voltage. The forecast of current increase for the successive STEPS shall be of 50% of the current value detected at 40 kV in the previous STEP. The calibration method described is the method for a tube whose characteristics are not contained in the EEprom tube library. This method is called the "manual method". If the tube to be calibrated is contained in the library, the tube's data can be loaded and, if necessary, the basic calibration data can be changed.

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6 .5 .1 .

A u t o m a t i c c a l i b r a t io n
As described above, if the tube to be calibrated has been memorized, it is possible to effect a semi-automatic calibration of the tube. This calibration consists in adapting the basic calibration to the installed tube. Proceed with the loading of the installed tube's data as described in paragraph 5.5.3. Once this procedure has been completed, perform the following procedure: 1. Via the ON key, switch on the equipment. After 5 seconds the console will display the data program. 2. After opening the front panel of the power rack, turn the switch located on the front of the PCB 9999102700 Master Processing Unit (paragraph 12.1) to the right. 3. Press a vertical selection key. 4. Press the Child key to enter configuration. 5. The following message appears on the FIP:

CONfIG ENGLISH

ALArMDB

CALiBRATE

EePROM

TIME

MODIF PROG 0

PrOGRAMS ERASE

Press key ORG 3. The FIP displays the following:

CALIBRATE X-RaY

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6. Press the key +mA to access the radiography calibration program. The FIP changes as follows:

X-RAY CALIBRATION TuBE 1 SMaLL FOCUS

The tube to be calibrated can be selected using the +mA key. The focus to be calibrated can be selected using the Reset key. Press key M1 after having set the desired values. To quit this program at any time, press key Sturdy Build. 7. When key M1 is pressed, the following is displayed on the FIP: in correspondence to the radiography kV keys is displayed the maximum heating value used during a given focus calibration procedure (STEP 9). This value can be changed via the radiography kV keys (see paragraph 6.3.3) in correspondence to the radiography mA keys is displayed the minimum heating value used as starting point for the focus calibration (STEP 0). This value can be changed via the radiography mA keys (see paragraph 6.3.2) in correspondence to the radiography sec. keys is displayed the stand-by value for the selected focus. This value can be changed via the radiography sec. keys (see paragraph 6.3.1) fluoroscopy kV display. Here is displayed the variation coefficient of the basic calibration. This coefficient has a variation interval within the range of 0.900 and 1.100. This data is used as variation factor for the filament heating value. If 1.000 is the basic calibration, a lower number would reduce the mA emission value, while a greater number would increase this value fluoroscopy mA display. Here is displayed the parameter that automatically corrects the basic calibration. This data assumes two values: 0 = inactive correction 1 = active correction. If this condition is activated, the difference between the set mA value and the real mA value is calculated at the end of each exposure. If the difference is greater than 2.5%, the calibration variation coefficient is automatically adjusted.

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8. To perform this procedure it is necessary to measure the radiography mA value. Use an mA meter connected to the "LINK" connector (after having removed the jumper) located above the high voltage transformer on the PCB 8502 (paragraph 12.3). WARNING: Under no circumstances must exposure be made without the closure of the "LINK" jumper. This could damage the power inverter. Once the tube's data has been loaded in memory, perform a radiography with the following data. 60 kV - 100 mA - 40 ms. The following three conditions may occur after this operation: 1. The generator is switched off by the circuit breaker. Switch on again and reduce the coefficient significantly (e.g. from 1.000 to 0.900). 2. The generator is blocked by "mA Safety". The mA readings are too low, i.e. lower than those set. In this case increase the coefficient. The mA readings are high, i.e. higher than those set. In this case decrease the coefficient. 3. The generator Performs the radiography. Correct the calibration coefficient if the mA value does not lie within the limits required (10%) performing a radiography releasing the prep. at each exposure and waiting for the generator to return automatically to the limits. Repeat this point until the desired mA value is reached. Perform the radiographs with all the mA and kV values to verify that all are within the desired tolerance limits. 9. To perform calibration of the large focus, perform the same procedure as described for the calibration of the small focus. At Point 6, select large focus.

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6 .5 .2 .

Sm a l l f o c u s m a n u a l c a l i b r a t i o n
The calibration procedure is as follows: 1. Via the ON key, switch on the equipment. After 5 seconds the console will display the data program. 2. Open the front panel of the power rack, turn the switch located on the front of PCB 9999102700 Master Processing Unit (paragraph 12.1) to the right. 3. Press a vertical anatomical selection key. 4. Press the Child key to access the configuration. 5. The following message will appear on the FIP:

CONfIG ENGLISH

ALArMDB

CALiBRATE

EePROM

TIME

MODIF PROG 0

PrOGRAMS ERASE

Press key ORG. 3. The FIP displays the following:

CALiBRATE X-RaY

6. Press the key +mA to access the radiography calibration program. The FIP changes as follows:

X-RAY CALIBRATION TuBE 1 SmaLL FOCUS

The tube to be calibrated can be selected using the +mA key. The focus to be calibrated can be selected using the Reset key. Press key M1 after having set the desired values. To quit this program at any time, press key Sturdy Build.

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7. When key M1 is pressed, the following is displayed on the FIP: in correspondence to the radiography kV keys is displayed the maximum heating value used during a given focus calibration procedure (STEP 9). This value can be changed via the radiography kV keys (see paragraph 6.3.3). in correspondence to the radiography mA keys is displayed the minimum heating value used as starting point for the focus calibration (STEP 0). This value can be changed via the radiography mA keys (see paragraph 6.3.2). in correspondence to the radiography sec. keys is displayed the stand-by value for the selected focus. This value can be changed via the radiography sec. keys (see paragraph 6.3.1). As mentioned above, to change one of the above parameters the relative key must be pressed, bearing in consideration how much variation is required as follows: left AEC led chamber ON = variation: 1 unit center AEC led chamber ON = variation: 10 units right AEC led chamber ON = variation: 100 units. The variation of the radiography maximum or radiography minimum value, causes the cancellation of the previous calibration made. After having set the desired values, press the M1 key. 8. Press the key ORG 2 to memorize the new settings made or ORG 4 to cancel. 9. The STEPS will now be displayed on the FIP:

STEP 0 = 3600 +000.00000 +000.00000 +000.00000

The first line of the FIP indicates the STEP number and the value of the minimum filament current expressed in mA (3600). When the second line of the FIP has the three values equal to zero, this means that the STEP is not calibrated and calibration must be made. The selection of the step is made via the ORG 1 (increase) and +mA (decrease) keys.

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10. Once selection of the desired STEP has been made, press key M1 to confirm. The first line of the FIP displays the following information:

STEP 0 = 3600 10 mA

kV = 040

kV = 000 100 ms

mA = 0000

40 kV

STEP 0 = 3600: indicates the number of the selected step and the filament current heating value (3.6 A) used in this STEP kV = 040: indicates the kV value that will be used in the next radiography kV=000 mA=0000: are couples of values that will be read by the computer during radiography calibration and displayed in the appropriate spaces. These values are given without decimals. It is possible to change the kV value with which to perform the next radiography using the + and - kV keys. This change may be necessary to reduce the kW value and keep away from the maximum load value. The second line of the FIP gives the following information: mA RADIOGRAPHY: this means that the circuit breaker that controls the flow of current during radiography is set at a threshold of 100 mA increased by 40%. This value may be changed up to 300 mA via radiography mA selection keys. The manual setting of the current value must be made by selecting a value close to the forecast current value.

WARNING: The selection of a high current value with respect to the real value may be due to a kV waveform with a strong oscillation at the start. The selection of a low current value with respect to the real value may be due to a kV waveform with a high ripple (greater than 10%) or to the automatic switch-off of the equipment due to the circuit breaker (Led DL21, PCB 9999103000 Safety Supervisor, paragraph 12.1). It is useful to remember that the protection of the radiography current is set as follows: 10 / 100 nominal mA: protected with a current of 100 mA increased by 40%. Breaker intervention = 140 mA 150-200 nominal mA: protected with a current of 200 mA increased by 40. Breaker intervention = 280 mA 320 nominal mA: protected with a current of 320 mA increased by 40%. Breaker intervention = 440 mA 0.100 s radiography time: this time may be changed using the radiography time selection keys.

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The selection of the radiography time during calibration depends upon the speed of the instruments used to detect the kV and mA couple values. Using the automatic reading system of the generator the time of 0.1 seconds (1 tenth of a second) is optimum. For the calibration of the large focus with high voltage current values that exceed 300 mA, it is preferable to reduce the exposure time to 0.05 seconds because for greater times the instant current value decreases. As described here below, the calibration radiographs must be performed using current values lower than 10 mA for the small focus and lower than 32 mA for the large focus. When deciding the value of the calibration radiography time, it is appropriate not to change the times of the exposures within the same STEP. If the high speed selection key LED is lit, this means that the 9000 revs. speed has been selected. During this phase the operator decides which mode to accept (high or low speed) according to the forecasted radiography values. At the end of radiography the state or alarm state is displayed in numeric codes on the fluoroscopy minutes numerical display. At the end of radiography, the kV and mA values detected are associated to the step of the kV used. A new kV value must then be selected. 11. When the kV is changed (by pressing the key ORG 3), the FIP changes as follows:

STEP 0 = 3600 10 mA

kV = 060

kV = 000 100 ms

mA = 0000

60 kV

Perform radiography with a voltage value of 60 kV. The above procedure must also be applied to this phase. 12. Press key ORG 3 to increase the kV value. The FIP changes as follows:

STEP 0 = 3600 10 mA

kV = 080

kV = 000 100 ms

mA = 0000

80 kV

Perform radiography with a voltage value of 80 kV. The above procedure must also be applied to this phase. 3 couples of values are memorized at this point and it is possible to proceed to the next STEP.

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We recommend however, to proceed with the calibration of the STEP with the kV values of 100, 120 and 140, as proposed automatically by the appliance in order to memorize a greater quantity of data and guarantee a higher precision. Confirm the data by pressing key M1. 13. The following will be displayed on the FIP:

STEP 0 = 3600 +AAA.AAAAA

kV = 140

kV = 000

mA = 0000 +CCC.CCCCC

+BBB.BBBBB

The real kV and mA fields (indicated as zero in the figure) will, in fact indicate the values measured with the last exposure before pressing the M1 key. The second line of the FIP displays the three coefficients A, B and C that were calculated during the last exposure. By pressing the M1 key, the three calculated coefficients, including their positive or negative sign, are memorized. A beep confirms that we are ready to proceed with the calibrations and with another STEP. 14. The following STEP is then proposed. The procedure considered until now is valid for all STEPS through to STEP 9. Each time we confirm the values of the coefficients calculated by the computer, the successive STEP will be proposed up the last which is STEP 9. If the maximum load of the radiogenic tube does not allow all the STEPS to be completed, this is because the maximum radiography current for the filament is too high. Changing this value means the resetting of all the coefficients calculated and the consequent total repetition of the calibration exposures. It is not necessary to complete the calibration of all ten STEPS but, as mentioned above, the greater the volume of data memorized the higher the precision of the emission during normal operations. As well as being influenced by the thermal state of the anode and the cathode of the radiogenic tube, the precision of the radiography current value depends upon the precision of the calculations that the appliance will perform during the radiography preparation phase NOTE: To reduce the effect due to the variation of the emission current, we recommend performing the first radiographs approximately 30 minutes after the focus has been switched on from stand-by. To quit the program at the end of the calibration, press the Sturdy Build key and set the service switch on the MPU to OFF.
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6 .6 .

Ra d i o g r a p h y l a r g e f o c u s c a l i b r a t i o n
The procedure for the calibration of the large focus is more or less the same as for the small focus. Follow the procedure as per the preceding paragraph, with the following variations: 1. Select the large focus when the FIP displays the selection of the focus to be calibrated. 2. The minimum emission current value at STEP 0 is not between 6 and 7 mA as for the small focus but between 20 and 25 mA. This is because the heating values for a minimum value of 32 mA in radiography are calculated. 3. The default value of the radiography calibration mA is not 100 mA as for the small focus but 300 mA. This value may be changed from 32 to 800 (1000 mA in the case of the Genius HF 80 kW). The circuit breaker value is the value selected on the display increased by 40%. 4. Special attention must be given to the forecast value so that the selection of the radiography times is such as not to cause exposures with an overload of anodic power. This could occur for high filament current values (high STEPS). Short time exposure values are preferable for these STEPS. Preferable times are lower or equal to 0.1 s with an optimum time being 0.05 s. 5. If it is impossible to memorize three valid kV-mA couples with high heating values and consistent emission current variation with voltage values between 40 - 60 - 80 kV, the voltage value automatically proposed by the program can be changed using the +/- kV keys. With this possibility, the first exposure of the STEP can be performed at 40 kV (a value automatically proposed by the program), the second at 50 kV (set manually instead of 60 kV) and the third at 60 kV. In this way the emission current variations due to increases in the kV values will be limited and will not exceed the 1000 mA or 1200 mA emission values that automatically block radiography. The 800 mA current is the blocking limit for the Genius 65 kW generator. The 1000 mA current is the blocking limit for the Genius 80 kW generator.

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6 .7 .

Ca l i b r a t i o n c o p y
If there are two tubes of the same characteristics connected in one generator, the calibration can be copied (not the parameters that are characteristic to the tube) from one tube to another. Proceed as follows: 1. Via the ON key, switch on the equipment. After 5 seconds the console will display the data program. 2. Open the front panel of the power rack, turn the switch located on the front of PCB 9999102700 Master Processing Unit (paragraph 12.1) to the right. 3. Press a vertical anatomical selection key. 4. Press the Child key to access the configuration. 5. The following message will appear on the FIP:

CONfIG ITALIANO

ALArMDB

CALiBRATE

EePROM

TIME

MODIF PROG 0

PrOGRAMS ERASE

Press key ORG. 3. The FIP displays the following:

CALiBRATE COpY

6. Press the key Reset to access the data copy program. The FIP now proposes the selection of the tube from which to copy the calibration (source) and the selection of the tube on which to copy the calibration (destination):

COPY

SOUrCE 1

DESTiNATION 1

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7. Press the key +kV to change the number of the tube from which to copy the calibration. Press the key Reset to change the number of the tube on which to copy the calibration. Once the selection has been made confirm by pressing the key M1. 8. While the data is being copied, the FIP displays the message "PLEASE WAIT", after which the FIP displays the following:

CONfIG ITALIANO

ALArMDB

CALiBRATE

EePROM

TIME

MODIF PROG 0

PrOGRAMS ERASE

9. Press Sturdy Build to quit the calibration program.

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6 .8 .

Ge n e r a t o r r e g u l a t i o n l o o p
After having completed the calibrations described in the above paragraphs, it is important to know how the generator regulation loop is set by the computer. The procedure is described here below. The logic diagram of the 65 or 80 kW generator is given on Figure 6-1. The blocks represent the physical subdivision of the generator (see Figure 6-3). Block 1 This block constitutes the interface between the inverter with the mains. Here there are the three-phase jumper safety switches, the capacitors and inductors for the power supply to the DC-RAIL and to enable the transfer of power to the inverter. Block 2 This block constitutes the power inverter and the converter control board PCB 9999102500. Block 3 This block constitutes the H.V. transformer. Block 4 This block constitutes the electronic group. This group contains: the PCB 9999103000 supervisor card and the power supply card the normal speed starter anode card PCB 9999103200 the inverter filament driver PCB 9999102600 the optional normal and high speed starter PCB 9999103400 / PCB 9999103300. Block 5 This block constitutes the principal microprocessor (Master Processing Unit) PCB 9999102700 and the A.E.C. PCB 9999104300. Block 6 This block is positioned at the front of the generator and is called the general terminal board (GTB). It is the interfacing block with the outside accessories.

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6 .8 .1 .

k V regulat ion loop


Refer to the Figure 6-2 for a better understanding of the description here below. The kV regulation loop is completely analogic. This means that the microprocessor does not enter into this regulation directly. It recognizes the real value of the KV and the state of the generator thanks to the digital signals received from the inverter. When a preparation is required, the microprocessor prepares the signals [IRA], [IRC]. It then checks that the [IPW] and the [IUX] signals are active. The kV reference value is then set under the form of an analogic signal (OKV) with a scale of 1 V dc = 20 kV. All the signals are for the external devices and the generator supervisor. When the [OHV] signal is sent to the CCB radiography commences. From this moment until the end of the exposure, the kV control is made by the CCB. The microprocessor waits for the [IRM] signal. If this should fail during radiography, the state of alarm is activated and all the operating cycles are interrupted. The same check is made on the analogic signal [IKV]. When the [OHV] signal reaches the CCB, the kV ref. signal (OKV) is compared with the real kV value. The "regulated" signal reaches a voltage - frequency converter generating the [FRE] signal. The [FRE] signal is the real command signal of the power devices. Before reaching the IGBT, it passes through an activation logic and finally becomes either [GF1-4] (command of one side of the jumper) or [GF2-3] (command of the other side of the jumper). If 166kV is exceeded in output, an alarm signal blocks the inverter.

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6 .8 .2 .

m A regulat ion loop


Refer to the Figure 6-2 for a better understanding of the description here below. The mA regulation loop is completely controlled by the microprocessor. This means the microprocessor recognizes the mA emission value that at all times during exposure. The microprocessor can change the emission value by changing the filament heating value. The measurements involved in this regulation are: Current measurement circuit (ich) for high radiography current (icm) for medium radiography current (ifc) for fluoroscopy current. The current signal is taken from the H.V. transformer and taken to the CCB by the J4 connector. Here, it is measured by a circuit and amplified according to the following scales: (ich): 10 V dc = 1500 mA (icm): 10 V dc = 150 mA (icl): 10 V dc = 10 mA. MPU card A/D of the microprocessor, used to convert the analogic signal of the mA to a digital signal and, D/A, to generate the reference analogic signal of the filament heating. Inverter filament driver card This card provides for the heating of the filaments.

In order to recognize the characteristics of the tube emission, the microprocessor must recognize the tube calibration. In this way it can calculate the value at which it must heat the filament for the kV-mA couple selected by the operator. The microprocessor requires this value only for the start of the exposure and this value must be as near as possible to the value of the selected mA. After a few seconds from the start of exposure the microprocessor starts to monitor the emission mA values and consequently regulates the heating. If the heating mA value is too far from that selected (25% for low values, 12.5% for high values), the microprocessor halts radiography and enters into alarm mode. This it because it decides that regulation is no longer possible for reaching the correct emission value and therefore achieve a good result. The alarm state may occur for two reasons: uncalibrated tube incorrect reading of the emission mA values caused by a malfunction in the mA measurement loop or heating regulation loop.

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SERVICE MANUAL Calibration

Figure 6-1

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Figure 6-2
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Figure 6-3

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