Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP

Hygiene and sanitation have become a great concern of society today. Thousands of people die or get sick annually because of food poisoning or contaminated waters or because of facilities infested by rodents and insects. As a professional in the food industry it is important that we are concerned about the fact that unsafe food handling and food service can have great consequences as it truly can lead to death. It is important to have a clear understanding of the cause of food borne illnesses and how to prevent them in each step of food service process, such as the handling of food and the importance of maintaining the workplace, equipment and facility absolutely clean at all times. It is an absolute must to understand that usually it is the individual who is more often the cause of food borne illnesses and therefore proper personal hygiene should be the order of the day. People, especially children and elderly, have died due to improper hygiene and sanitation practices. However, the fact of the matter is that such cases of food poisoning can be an economic disaster for an establishment as law suits may arise and bad press may result in the closure of the company.

Food Borne Illnesses
Diseases that are carried by or transmitted to people by food.

Causes of Food Borne Illnesses:
Failure to properly cool food Failure to properly cook food to the right core temperature Failure to properly hold food at the right temperature Cross contamination in the work place or even when storing food Poor facility, equipment and utensil maintenance and sanitation Poor personal hygiene

Three Main causes of Food Contamination
Biological Hazard
Includes bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, as well as certain plants, mushrooms and fish that carry harmful toxins.

Any of the numerous microscopic single-celled living organisms which are concerned for the production of diseases.

Growth Phases of Bacteria: (How they multiply)

Time # of Cells

0 mins 1

20 mins 2

40 mins 4

1 hour 8

1hr 20 mins 10 hrs 16 more than 1 billion

Growth Stages of Bacteria
Lag: Bacteria are introduced to the food and they undergo adjustment period. Log: Bacteria start to multiply and when in good conditions, they multiply every 20 minutes. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) 5

Stationary: Phase where equal numbers of bacteria are growing and dying. Death: The number of bacteria dying exceeds the number that are growing.

Best Environment for Bacteria to grow 1. Food
Microorganisms such as bacteria need food to grow, ideally an environment where proteins and carbohydrates are present. Therefore we have to be very careful with: Meat Poultry Fish and seafoods Dairy products and eggs Legumes Garlic in oil

2. Acidity
Microorganisms do not grow well when food is high in acidity. The pH of a substance tells how acid or alkaline it is. The pH ranges from 0 to 14. The pH 0-7 is acidic; while 7 it is neutral and from 7-14 food is alkaline. Microorganisms cannot grow the closer the pH is to 0, it is important to know that microorganisms grows beast in a pH between 4.6- 7.7, whereas foods which are higher than 8 generally also does not support the growth of microorganisms.

3. Time
The time food is exposed to the danger zone 5°C to 60°C, works in the favor of microorganisms. Therefore a responsible receiver, storekeeper, chef and service attendant will always remember the length of time the food has been exposed to the danger zone. Microorganisms can multiply every 20 minutes in favorable conditions. Food that has been exposed for 4 hours or longer to the danger zone 5°C to 60°C has to been discarded.

4. Temperature
Remember the DANGER ZONE!! We consider the danger zone from 5°C to 60°C, whereas microorganisms reproduce the fastest between the temperatures of 20°C to 47°C.

5. Oxygen
Different microorganisms can have different oxygen requirements for growth. They can be categorized into: Aerobic: they need oxygen to grow. Anaerobic: they grow only when oxygen is absent. Facultative: they grow with or without the presence of oxygen.

6. Moisture
Most microorganisms which can cause food borne illnesses grow best in food with high moisture. Water activity is measured in food in a scale from 0 to 1. The closer the water activity is to 1, the higher the moisture content in the food. Microorganisms grow best when the water activity is around 0.85 to 0.97.

Barriers to Control Microorganisms from Growing
Personal hygiene is very important, especially hand washing after breaks, cigarette smoking and in between tasks. Ensure that potentially hazardous food is always stored at proper storing temperature. Ensure to respect the shelf life of food and the FIFO rule. Ensure food is properly packed and arranged in the refrigerator or freezer to prevent cross contamination. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) 6

Ensure working areas are always cleaned and sanitized between tasks.

Viruses are the smallest of the microbial contaminants. They consist of a genetic material wrapped with an outer layer of protein. A virus cannot reproduce outside a living cell. Once inside, the virus will reproduce more viruses.

Characteristics of Viruses:
They rely on a living cell to reproduce. They do not require a potentially hazardous food to reproduce. Some may survive freezing and cooking. They usually contaminate food through a food handler’s improper hygiene. They can be transmitted from person to person, from people to food and from people to food contact surface.

Parasites are organisms that need to live in or on a host organism to survive. Parasites can live in many animals that human take food for, such as cattle, poultry, pig and fish. To prevent food borne illnesses caused by parasites, use proper freezing and cooking techniques. It is also important to avoid cross contamination, therefore it is necessary to use sanitary water supply, and follow proper hand washing procedures, especially after toilet.

Characteristics of Food Borne Parasites:
They are living organisms and need a host to survive They grow naturally in many animals and can be transmitted to human Most are very small, often microscopic but larger than bacteria They may be killed by proper cooking and freezing They pose hazard to both food and water

Fungi are found in air, soil, plants, animals, water and some food. Molds, yeasts and mushroom are examples of fungi. The fungi of concern in food processing are molds and yeasts.

Individual mold cells can usually only be seen under the microscope. However, fuzzy or slimy mold colonies consisting of large numbers of cell are often visible to the naked eye. Molds are responsible for the spoilage of many foods. They cause spoilage with discoloration, formation of odors and off flavors. Molds are able to grow on almost any food, at most any storage temperature. They can also grow in environment that are moist and dry, have a high or low pH and are salty or sweet. They typically prefer to grow in and on sweet and acidic foods that have a lower water activity. Molds often spoil fruits, vegetables, meats, cheeses, breads because of the water activity and pH of these types of foods. Some molds produce toxins, which can cause allergic reactions, nervous system disorder, kidney damage and liver damage. For example, aflatoxin, which is produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasticus, can cause liver diseases. Affected foods that are associated with aflatoxins are corn and corn products, peanuts and peanut products, cottonseed, milk, and tree nuts such as Brazil nuts, pecans, pistachios and walnuts.

Some yeasts are known for their ability to spoil rapidly. Carbon dioxide and alcohol are produced as yeasts slowly consume food. Yeast spoilage, therefore produces a smell or taste of alcohol. Yeast may appear as a pink discoloration or slime and may bubble. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) 7

Yeasts are similar to molds, in that they grow well in sweet, acidic foods with low water activity, such as jellies, jam, syrups, and honey and fruit juices. Food that have been spoiled by yeasts should be discarded.

Chemical Hazard
Includes pesticides, food additives, preservatives, cleaning supplies and toxic metals that leach from cookware and equipment.

Pesticides are often used in the kitchen, food preparation and storage areas to control pests, such as rodents and insects. If used, pesticides should only be applied by trained Pest Control Operators. All food should be wrapped or stored prior to the application of pesticide. Pesticide should be stored with the same care as other chemicals in the establishment.

Food Allergies
Preservatives are commonly used in convenience products and can cause food allergies. A food allergy is the body’s negative reaction to a particular food or foods. Depending on the person, allergic reaction may occur immediately after the food is eaten or several hours later. The reaction could include on or all of the following symptoms: Itching in and around the mouth, face or scalp Tightening in the throat Wheezing or shortness of breath Hives Swelling of the face and eyes Loss of consciousness Death

It is important for an employee to take customers’ request seriously, when they request special diets, as they may have food allergies. Employees should know the most common food allergens, which include: milk and dairy products, egg and egg products, fish, shellfish, wheat, soy and soy products, peanuts and other nuts.

Cleaning Supplies
Chemicals such as cleaning products, polishes, lubricants, sanitizers can contaminate food if they are improperly stored. The instructions given by the manufacturer have to be strictly followed, such as: chemical dilution and also the necessary safety gear to wear when handling them. When using chemicals during operating hours, we have to practice outmost caution, as any spilling or wrong application in food processing areas can cause food contamination. Further, chemicals have, at all times, to be stored away from food, utensils, equipment and food processing areas. They have to be kept in a locked storage area in their original containers. If chemicals must be transferred to smaller containers or spray bottles, label each container appropriately. Never use container, such as old oil bottles, as they may be mistaken and used in the kitchen.

Toxic Metals that leach from Cookware and Equipment
Utensils and equipment that contain toxic metals, such as lead, copper, brass, zinc, antimony and cadmium can cause food borne illnesses from chemical contamination. If acidic foods are stored in or prepared with this type of equipment, they can leach these metals from the item and contaminate the food.

Physical Hazard
Consists of foreign objects that accidentally get into food such as hair, dirt, staples, broken glass screw etc.

People who have the Highest Risk when exposed to Food Borne Illnesses:
Young children People with weakened immune system Pregnant women People taking medications Elderly people

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)


identifying the Critical Control Points or also called the CCP before something happens. Therefore, HACCP is considered a proactive program that is based on preventing food borne illnesses.

Why is HACCP Proactive and not Reactive?
We control the flow and quality of food from the supplier we select, then in receiving, in the storeroom, during processing and food production, up to the point the food is served to the customer. We identify all food items which are at high risk and we ensure that in each step we respect temperature, time exposed to the danger zone, proper handling techniques and personal hygiene and sanitation and proper facility, equipment and utensil maintenance.

Temperature Control
Temperature control is one of the most important HACCP practices as we want to prevent from being exposed to the Danger Zone; remember the danger zone 5°C to 60°C. Therefore, temperature has to be controlled ay each step of food handling, from the receiving of the goods, to the storage in the refrigerator below 5°C or freezers -18°C to -21°C, during processing and cooking up to the point of holding at minimum 65°C or better above. Temperature reading of refrigerators and freezers are of great importance and has to be recorded based on the HACCP rules and regulations of the company. Temperature reading has to be done daily in periodical intervals and the staff in charge should not fail to forget it.

Time Control
Remember that the whole HACCP cycle is important, from receiving to the food service. Food cannot be exposed for more than 4 hours to the danger zone. Therefore, time and temperature reading for critical food items is of greatest importance. Especially when processing food in the kitchen, remember the 20 minute rule. Critical food should not be exposed to the danger zone for more than 20 minutes, as this is the time in which bacteria starts to multiply.

Receiving Principles:
Receive only food that was ordered Check quality based on specification Check quality Check packaging Check the temperature

Storage Guidelines:
Store food items immediately in the proper storage facility Check the temperature of stored foods and the storage areas Use the First In First Out (FIFO) method Keep all storage areas dry and clean Do not store chemicals or pesticides with food

Food Processing
Basic Principles: Prepare raw food items in separate areas from produce or cooked and ready to eat food Assign specific equipment to each type of food product Clean and sanitize all work surfaces, equipment and utensils after each task Employees should wash their hands before, during and after tasks Towels used for wiping food spills or cleaning work surfaces must not be used for any other purposes

Minimum Internal Temperature
Poultry, stuffed dishes, stews------------------------------------------- 74°C for 15 seconds Pork, ham, bacon, injected meats---------------------------------63°C for 15 seconds Ground meats, sausages----------------------------------------------- 69°C for 15 seconds Beef, pork roasts----------------------------------------------------------- 63°C for 15 seconds Beef steaks, veal, lamb, farm game-------------------------------- 63°C for 15 seconds Fish and seafood----------------------------------------------------------- 63°C for 15 seconds Shell eggs for immediate service------------------------------------ 63°C for 15 seconds Potentially hazardous food cooked in the microwave------64°C for 15 seconds Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) 9

Cooling Food
Food can be chilled in a blast chiller or if the equipment is not available, the best alternative is to use ice and apply the 2 stage chilling method. It is always advisable to chill food in small quantities, to ensure that we reduce the time the food is exposed to the danger zone.

Chilling food:
Stage 1: Within 2 hrs from 60°C-21°C Stage 2: Within 2 hrs from 21°C-5°C or below Note: It has to be said: the faster the cooling is done, the better Leftovers and PHF (pre-heated food) are blast chilled in containers not exceeding 3 inches deep. Best are always shallow containers.

Food tasting
Food should never be tasted with the bare fingers. It is best to have one container for clean and sanitized spoon and another to dispose the used tasting spoon. Also never use the same spoon to taste twice.

Personal Hygiene:
• • Shower Daily Neat and clean appearance:  Hair  Fingers  Nails Free of infectious disease:  No open cuts, scratches or wounds  Report any medical problem (diarrhea, persistent cough and cold)  No jewelry  No personal item in work location  Clean clothes  No eating, drinking in the dining room or galley  Wash your hands frequently

Hand washing discipline:
After using the toilet When coming to work/ after the break After handling dirty items After smoking cigarette After touching any part of your body including hair When in doubt

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)


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