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Spatial modelling tools in mining areas for improving mining process
Mr Veiko KARU, Department of Mining, Tallinn Department of Mining, Tallinn University of Technology, Teaching Assistant, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086, Tallinn, Estonia firstname.lastname@example.org
Mine planning will start with creating the digital model. The purpose of the model is to show how the landscape will change after mining. Model contains different parts like: water regime, deposit layout, near by objects and other elements which is considered to be important to show in the model to reflect the real situation. Model may be created with one or with several software programs. In the last case the different parts are divided between software and in the end the outcome is one whole model. The modelling work can be done with different parts by using one software for mine planning and another software for the reuse of the landscape, water regime, quality flow path etc. Digital planning of mining fields allows to take into consideration significantly more options and to prognosticate usage of mineral resource more effectively than with current simple decision making process. Regulating criteria and methodology allows decreasing costs (time, money, human resource, mineral resource) as well in decision making process as in mining process. Utilizing the modelling process allows explaining all stages of designing to the specialists and to the public.
Mining alters the environment, underground conditions and landscape. Mining-related perturbing factors and changes of property cause public resistance. Various restrictions for mining (environmental restrictions) are created in reaction to this. In the majority of the cases, their argumentation is one-sided, often subjective. As a result, it is not possible to utilize a large proportion of deposits because of environmental restrictions, but also because of expiration of evaluation criteria of the supplies of resources. On the other hand, Estonia needs its resources – mineral and organic deposits, groundwater and ground support for building. Mining and building are tightly related, particularly in the case of building material resources. Despite this fact, it happens that the domains of mining, building and agriculture often operate without coordination. For instance, buildings for mining or mines1 are planned in regions that have high potential for agriculture or building. In many cases, the reason is ignorance of spatial and temporal scales of effects of technogenic factors (mobility of soil, water or pollutants). This is magnified by the fact that the spatial-temporal mobility of such factors is non-linear. Part of the problems is caused by miners that do not apply environmentally friendly mining technologies.
Oil Shale, modelling, geotechnology, environmental impact of mining, visualisation.
1. Mining regions in Estonia
The principal mining regions of Estonia are: LääneHarju (Vasalemma, Padise, Harku etc. deposits), IdaHarju (Lasnamäe, Väo, Maardu etc. deposits), KundaRakvere (Toolse, Ubja, Aru etc. deposits) and IdaViru (Estonian oil shale deposit, peat deposit of Puhatu and many locations for mining building material). Smallest number of problems is faced in old mining regions, mainly because there exists the “State plan for utilization of oil shale, 2008-2015”. On the other hand, acceptable mining environment have been developed in old mining regions.
Mineral resources are exploited everywhere in Estonia, also in the sea bottom. Largest in volume are the building materials: sand, gravel, clay and building stone – 57 % of total mass in 2008. The second half consists of fuel and technological raw material: oil shale, peat and technological lime- and dolostone. Over 400 (444 in 2008) licenses for mining resources have been given for enterprises. Mineral deposits (821 in number in 2008) cover 13 % of the area of Estonia, including 8 % covered with peat and 4 % with oil shale.
2. Purpose of the study
The parties that compose mining plans, development plans and estimations of environmental effects (TUT Department of Mining, mining engineering offices, geological institutions) have acquired planning and modelling software for various purposes, which causes some problems: 1. The geological database, the first parts of which date back from over 50 years, requires skilful treatment: data exist in several geodetic coordinate systems and includes partly obsolete stratigraphic terminology. Unfitting coordinate systems disturb the usage of cross-use of spatial data in various state geoinformation databases (digital maps, border files, land registers, building registers, databases of technological networks of enterprises, etc.). This creates further problems related to mined areas. The main proportion of environmental restrictions, which have to be taken into account in mining and building, are speculative and not based on real measurements. Usually the restrictions are two-dimensional and do not take into account the structures of the geological environment. Such vagueness does not support precise engineering calculations or modelling. Ground modelling systems that are designed in developed mining countries are principally meant for deep deposits. However, in Estonia there are blanket deposits, which cause wider environmental effect of mining. Because of that reason, imported systems have to be adapted. Modelling and planning software adapted for Estonian blanket deposits can be recommended for use in other analogical mining conditions elsewhere, e.g. in Ukraine or Jordan.
The actual (measurable) effect of mining is up to a magnitude level smaller than is claimed. Because of this fact, the real (based on measurements) environmental restrictions should be less strict in the respective amount. In hydrogeological circumstances of plentiful water, such as the Toolse-Lääne study are of the mining region of Rakvere-Kunda, it is possible to find a usage for the water that is pumped out.
There are several mining software programs. They are either freeware (different viewers), independent (GEMCOM Surpac and Minex, MapInfo, AutoCAD, ESRI, etc.) or additional (Discover, Map X, etc.) programs. Besides, it is possible to use online software programs (EduMine etc.). There are problems with the compatibility of the projects, because there are so many different software programs, and institutions use different software systems. Development of cooperation brings about difficulties in connection and transition of data. A problem like this poses an economical problem – the designers have to have as much different software as possible for the cooperationto work [Application of Modelling Tools in Estonian Oil Shale Mining Area.Oil Shale]. With the modelling, including digital planning, the aim is to gain and create the following: 1. 2. Producing needed mining indicators for decisionmaking Future scenarios of mining oil shale and building material, support for state and regional development planning, technological solutions that take into account all possible environmental effects and social reactions New output: project solutions, theme maps, inquiries, zoning, evaluations of crises or risks Optimal methodology for gaining, storing and using information, having in mine requirements for various purposes and levels More effective usage of geological, technological and spatial information, added functionality of the database 4.1. Optimal mining software package for oil shale The staff of the laboratory of mining design and planning applies mining software systems, tests and develops them in both research and teaching processes. The laboratory possesses software, databases, methods, hardware with necessary equipment (scanners, printers, plotters, savers, presenters, servers) all listed in Website http://mi.ttu.ee/mgislabor [Karu et al. 2008]. The following software used worldwide to model mining operations has been set up in the laboratory:
• Mining is possible in any circumstances, provided that sustainable mining environment has been created. In other words, with the proper choice of mining technology, the effect of mining has been damped below the level that the nature and man can tolerate. The methodology and criteria for planning, designing, modelling and accepting of sustainable mining environment will provide the base for mineral raw material that the economy requires, both in near and far future. The conditions for optimal mining can be applied for all Estonian resources, including so far not utilized sites of granite, graptolite argillite (raw material for uranium) and phosphorite. They can also be applied in analogical mining conditions (blanket deposits) outside Estonia, particularly in the case of oil shale (Russia, Ukraine) but also for coal, brown coal, salts, etc.
1. Gemcom Minex – modelling of stratified deposits; 2. Gemcom Surpac – modelling of mining processing and workings; 3. Visual ModFlow; AquaChem – modelling of groundwater flow andquality; 4. MapInfo Professional, Discovery, MapBasic – GIS; 5. Vertical Mapper – spatial modelling; 6. Encom Discover – spatial modelling for mining environment; 7. AutoCAD Civil 3D – planning; 8. FLAC – rock massive modelling; 9. PLAXIS – geotechnical spatial modelling;
10. Specific mining software (parameters of pillars, productivity, mining equipment cooperation and fleet calculations, Caterpillar and Mining Department of TUT).
5. Case studies
5.1. Case 1. Use of mined areas Mineral Resources must be planned well in planning the direction of the extracted area of maintenance trimming project. By way of illustration in trimming Learning pathways (Fig 1). Solutions have been obtained using the database of research No. BF 97 „Applied solutions for modelling system with mining software“ and No. Lep8114 „Preliminary Design of Geological Study Track in Maardu Mining Area“ carried out by Tallinn University of Technology Mining Department.
Fig 1 Learning pathwys in Maardu mining area
5.2. Case 2. Technology for quarry Technology planning is a very good quarries used visualization options, because engineer know exactly
how much space a particular process needs to work. And then engineer can but correct process to the
correct area in quarry. By way of illustration in the Mineral Resources loading tippers (Fig 2). Solutions have been obtained using the database of research No. BF 97 „Applied solutions for modelling
system with mining software“ and No. Lep8110 „Design and planning for limestone quarry“ carried out by Tallinn University of Technology Mining Department.
Fig 2 Mineral Resources loading in quarry 5.3. Case 3. Planning a large and deep mines would be impossible to implement, if not used visualization tools. These tools will help to better understand how much space drifts take and how they should be placed inside the mine. By way of illustration in the granite mine design example (Fig 3). Solutions have been obtained using the database of research No. BF 97 „Applied solutions for modelling system with mining software“ and No. Lep 9005 „Engineering evaluation of the design and planning of the granite mine“ carried out by Tallinn University of Technology Mining Department.
Fig 3 Granite mine model 5.4. Case 4. Closed mine areas Knowing the abandoned mine mining plans, we are well combined with the measured surface model. As a result of various problems can be solved by closed mines can cause. By way of illustration in Ubja abandoned oil shale mine model (Fig 4). Solutions have been obtained using the database of research No. BF 97 „Applied solutions for modelling system with mining software“ and No. Lep 8057 „Evaluation of Kunda mining region“ carried out by Tallinn University of Technology Mining Department.
Fig 4 Ubja abandoned oil shale mine design with surface model 5.5. Case 5. Hydrogeology Mineral extraction industry in Estonia is playing a major role in surface water and groundwater. It is necessary to know how much water flows into a qarry in this field and how much is pumped. Better understanding of the water flow is to set up a model. Then engineers can check the conditions under which the water is moving. By way of illustration in the water flow model of oil shale deposit (Fig 5). Solutions have been obtained using the database of research No. BF 97 „Applied solutions for modelling system with mining software“ and No. 574L „Compiling hydrogeological prognoses due to Eesti Polevkivi Ltd. enterprises working“ carried out by Tallinn University of Technology Mining Department.
An optimal solution is resolved with modelling. The most general but also dominant criteria are: 1. 2. 3. Minimal effect on man and nature Minimal amount of residual and waste Maximal economic profit, also in other fields, not only in mining industry
It is convenient to use 3D as well as opportunities for mining industry. There are a variety of disciplines, using many 3D modeling - for example civil engineering. Modelling options can be used for different cases. It is good to show how the extraction of 3D models of the processes taking place. Engineers use these options to calculate volumes, work planning, fieldwork planning, measurement analysis, etc.. Modelling is of great changes in the field - will be completed in a better 3D scanning devices, whose natural environment can bring your computer. TUT Mining Department will continue to offer solutions to both research and teaching.
The problem includes several criteria and its solving requires both theoretical and computational solutions. Methodology for solving multicriterial problems is shortly described in the book Mäemajandus (in Estonian), Enno Reinsalu,1998/2008, in the paragraph 3.2.2 and more in detail, with examples in the digital information by the same author, Eesti Mäendus II, (in Estonian) part 3., Mining analysis.
9. Acknowledgment 7. Measurements and Fig 5 Water flow model of oil shale deposit in Estonia experiments This paper was written within the framework of Grant
Principal methods are related to introducing sensors, measuring equipment and mining condition experiment, matching structures of various data and modelling based on them. The methods are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Mapping the modelling criteria, indicators and processes of the mined areas Experimenting the possibilities of application, compatibility and results of mining software Applying the laboratory fieldwork in modelling experiments and 7499 of the Estonian Science Foundation “Conditions of sustainable mining” and using the database of research No. 416L “Forecast of hydrogeological changes resulting from the activities of the Estonian Oil Shale Mining Company” carried out by Tallinn University of Technology.
1. Karu V., Västrik A., Valgma I. 2008. Application of Modelling Tools in Estonian Oil Shale Mining Area Oil Shale, 2008, Vol. 25, No. 2 Special, pp. 135–144
Creating models for blanket deposits (methodology in modelling, MGIS, i.e. mining geoinformation system, models of new mines, changes in ground conditions, environment (modelling and analysis of groundwater dynamics, effects of dust, noise, etc.), geotechnological models in mined areas) Seismological methods for developing theory for collapse risk Analysis methods for creating spatial models from geodetic spatial information Studies on material properties for developing theory for criteria for rock breakage Dendrochronologic studies for monitoring changes caused by collapses and changes in the water regime
5. 6. 7. 8.