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PROBLEM BASED SCENARIO
HUMANISTIC OR EXISTENTIAL THERAPY
ALICIA JAMES REBEKAH ROBERTS YOLANDA RODNEY 6/30/2011
"Birds sing after a storm. Why shouldn't people feel as free to delight in whatever sunlight remains to them?" Rose Kennedy
Abuse: to hurt or injure by maltreatment, or to misuse the power accompanying an office or position. Abuse does not necessarily involve mistreatment of others. Drug dependence, alcoholism, and misuse of anabolic steroids are examples of self-abuse. Prostitute: Prostitution, the performance of sexual acts solely for the purpose of material gain. Persons prostitute themselves when they grant sexual favors to others in exchange for money, gifts, or other payment and in so doing use their bodies as commodities. An individual paid to provide sexual acts/sexual intercourse Relapse: to fall back into a former mood, state, or way of life, especially a bad or undesirable one, after coming out of it for a while. Symptomatic: indicating or typical of a particular illness. Relating to, affecting or based on a symptom or symptoms of bodily disorder. Shoot up: inject drug, to inject an illegal drug. Slang Devastated: to become extremely shocked or upset Alcoholism: or Alcohol Dependence, chronic disease marked by a craving for alcohol. People who suffer from this are called alcoholics.
THE PROBLEM ANALYSIS: ALL THE MAIN ISSUES
y y y y y y y y y y her past substance abuse prostitution history HIV status updated to AIDS Estrangement from her children Fear of death Inadequate Coping mechanisms Concern about support systems Job insecurity Relapsing into drug abuse Fear of rejection by children and husband
Her prostitution, though at an early age was not the cause of her HIV status due to the time line. Her history of prostitution exposed her to a variety of diseases of the reproductive system including cervical, pelvic and ovarian cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease as well as STI¶s. She also predisposed her children to congenital defects such as fetal alcohol syndrome and decreased bone density. However her substance abuse contributed to her estrangement from her children, and is a more probable cause for her contracting the HIV virus. At the same time due to her prolonged abuse of cocaine, heroin*, alcohol and marijuana, she was predisposed to a variety of systemic dysfunctions, which further compromised her immune system making her more susceptible to the virus, influencing its rapid progression and proliferation. The
respiratory system was affected by the use of marijuana and cocaine, as they destroyed the mucosal lining of the respiratory tract and the alveoli of the bronchi which plays a vital function in gaseous exchange. Since the structures were compromised, gaseous exchange will not be as effective, this in turn affects the cardiovascular system, as it is forced, by the greater demand on it to compensate for the oxygen deficiency. This over exertion of the heart will further predispose her to cardiovascular disorders such as stroke, myocardial infarction and hypertension. Her smoking also predisposed her to diabetes mellitus, chronic asthma, emphysema and COPD and bone brittleness. She was also exposed to liver cirrhosis by her consumption of alcohol and intake of heroin. Neurological system is affected by her heroin and alcohol use and is evidenced by alter gait and consciousness, impaired judgment and reflexes, slowed reaction and speech and convolutions (uncontrollable movement of limbs). The integument system is affected causing diminished turgor and moisture. Her depression from her AIDS diagnosis caused her to relapse into drug use. Because of coping problems she turned to drugs to mask emotions.
y If HIV can be contracted from needles by heroin addicts then it is most probable that Sandra contracted the disease from this method. Due to the time line of the scenario it is not possible that she contracted the disease neither from her prostitution nor from the father of her children. It is most probable that it was contracted from a sexual partner before her husband but that
was not stated. Drug abusers usually share needles as they are more concerned about the high and are least concerned about transmission of pathogens and viruses.
Sandra is fearful of rejection from her husband and children because of her condition. If devastating news affects cognitive abilities then Sandra¶s fear of rejection by her family is irrational. Sandra fear is irrational as her husband has stood by her side and has been her support for the years that she has had HIV. It is highly probable that now that she has AIDS he will stick with her and be even more sympathetic and supportive. The fact that he married her and accepted her HIV status is testament to his love for her which has brought them thus far, it is highly unlikely that he would leave or stop loving her now. Her children may harbor negative or cold feelings toward her because they may feel that she was not the mother that she should have been. Their knowledge of her condition may trigger their base and innate desire to have a connection with their mother. They will therefore strive to have a relationship with her, or at least communicate with her.
Her drug use may have been a direct result of her prostitution lifestyle. Because of her inability to cope with her lifestyle she may have turned to drugs as a way of temporarily forgetting her problems and became addicted. Drug use and prostitution usually go hand in hand as they form part of the illicit, immoral and taboo lifestyle.
If Sandra was a prostitute then it is most probable that her first child was conceived with one of her clients. Based on the time frame of her years doing prostitution it coincides with the year that she had her first child, noting that there was no predominant man in her life, and the variety and number of sexual partners and encounters, the probability of one her clients fathering her first child was increased.
Define the stated drugs and discuss the effects of drug use on the body and the correlation between these systems
y y y
State the main concepts of existential and humanistic theory Identify symptoms of HIV Identify the stages of dying
DEFINE THE STATED DRUGS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE BODY Cocaine: a white, crystalline powder with a bitter taste is extracted from the leaves of the South American coca bush. It is used medically to produce anesthesia for surgery of the nose and throat and to constrict blood vessels and reduce bleeding during surgery.
Heroin:, a preparation synthesized from morphine, was introduced in 1898 as a cough suppressant and nonaddictive substitute for morphine. Users report that heroin produces a ³rush´ or ³high´ immediately after being taken. It also produces a state of profound indifference and may increase energy. Marijuana:, common name for a drug made from the dried leaves and flowering tops of the Indian hemp plant Cannabis sativa (see Cannabis). People smoke, chew, or eat marijuana for its hallucinogenic and intoxicating effects. It is known by a number of slang names, including ³pot,´ ³grass,´ ³reefer,´ ³weed,´ and ³Mary Jane.´ Alcohol: term applied to members of a group of chemical compounds and, in popular usage, to the specific compound ethyl alcohol, or ethanol. Intoxicating drink containing alcohol.
Cocaine, after prolonged daily use, can produce a psychosis similar to acute schizophrenia. Marijuana is probably injurious to the lungs in much the same way as tobacco. A cause for concern is the regular use by children and teenagers, because intoxication markedly alters thinking and interferes with learning. A consensus exists among physicians and others who work with children and adolescents that use of marijuana and hashish is undesirable and may interfere with psychological and possibly physical maturation (Microsoft Encarta, 2008). When a person consumes alcohol, the stomach and intestines rapidly absorb it. From there alcohol travels in the blood throughout the entire body, affecting nearly every tissue. Moderate and high doses of alcohol depress the functions of the central nervous
system, including the brain. The higher the alcohol level is in the blood, the greater the impairment.
As blood passes through the liver, enzymes break down alcohol into harmless byproducts, which are eliminated from the body six to eight hours later. But the rate at which alcohol accumulates in the body may be faster than the rate at which the body eliminates it, resulting in rising alcohol levels in the blood. Consequently, alcohol remains in the body, producing intoxicating effects hours after the last drink was swallowed. Small amounts of alcohol may relieve tension or fatigue, increase appetite, or produce an anesthetic affect that numbs pain. Larger quantities inhibit or depress higher thought processes, bolstering self-confidence and reducing inhibition, anxiety, and guilt. As a person becomes intoxicated, painful or embarrassing situations appear less threatening and, as drinking progresses, speech may become loud and slurred. Impaired judgment may lead to incautious behavior, and physical reflexes and muscular coordination may become noticeably affected. If drinking continues, complete loss of physical control follows, ending in stupor, and possibly death.
DISCUSS THE MAIN CONCEPTS OF EXISTENTIAL AND HUMANISTIC THEORY EXISTENTIALISM Philosophical movement or tendency, emphasizing individual existence, freedom, and choice, that influenced many diverse writers in the 19th and 20th centuries. Existential
theory suggests one major theme: the stress on concrete individual existence and, consequently, on subjectivity, individual freedom, and choice, also consciousness, freewill, nature of reality and individual ethical choice. HUMANISTIC Humanistic psychology was born out of a desire to understand the conscious mind, free will, human dignity, and the capacity for self-reflection and growth. An alternative to psychoanalysis and behaviorism, humanistic psychology became known as ³the third force.´ Humanistic theory states that all humans are born with a drive to achieve their full capacity and to behave in ways that are consistent with their true selves.
IDENTIFY SYMPTOMS OF HIV Over a period that may last from a few months to up to 15 years, HIV may destroy enough lymphocytes that the immune system becomes unable to function properly. An infected person develops multiple life-threatening illnesses from infections that normally do not cause illnesses in people with a healthy immune system. Some people who have HIV infection may not develop any of the clinical illnesses that define the full-blown disease of AIDS for ten years or more. Doctors prefer to use the term AIDS for cases where a person has reached the final, life-threatening stage of HIV infection.
IDENTIFY THE STAGES OF DYING These are the several stages through which dying persons go: denial and isolation (No, not me!); anger, rage, envy, and resentment (Why me?); bargaining (If I am good, then can I live?); depression (What's the use?); and acceptance. Most authorities believe that these stages do not occur in any predictable order and may be intermingled with feelings of hope, anguish, and terror.
The counselor should help Sandra to explore other job opportunities that are less stressful and hectic such as craft work, sewing and teaching family life education at a rehab centre. She can also explore her interests; engage in things that would give her joy and also a means of bringing in a pay check.
Sandra should be educated on her condition, medication use, proper nutrition and what she should expect now that the disease has progressed.
Assist her in developing effective coping mechanisms Group therapy with her family to build relationship with her children, and iron out insecurities, communication
Focus on the positive aspects of her life help her to accept her condition and death help her to find meaning in her life. "The most authentic thing about us is our capacity to create, to overcome, to endure, to transform, to love and to be greater than our suffering."(Ben Okri).
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