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# Chapter 1: Water at Rest and In Motion

## Six Principles of Fluid Pressure

1) Fluid pressure is perpendicular to any surface on which it acts. 2) Beneath the surface of a liquid at rest, the pressure is the same in all directions (upward, sideward, downward). 3) Pressure applied to a confined fluid from without is transmitted equally in all directions. 4) The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to its depth. 5) The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to the density of the liquid. 6) Liquid pressure at the bottom of a vessel is unaffected by the size and shape of the vessel as long as the height of water remains the same.

## Pressure Height Density Relationship

Formulas
a. Pressure (P) = .434 X Height or P = .434H H = 2.31P

## Work Problems: Using the formulas above, solve the following:

a. Find the pressure at the bottom of a standpipe filled with water 100 feet high.

P = .434H P = .434 (100) P = 43.4 psi * The pressure in this formula is often referred to as back pressure (BP) in pumping operations. This back-pressure

may be encountered during high-rise operations, while using dry standpipes, or pumping up or down hills. BP = .434H b. The static pressure in a fire hose connected to a standpipe is 150 psi. How high will that static pressure raise the water in the standpipe? H = 2.31P H = 2.31 (150) H = 346.5 ft

Back Pressure
1) Multi-Story Buildings
The average height per story is 10-12 feet BP = .434H Therefore, BP per story is .434 (12) or 5.2 psi per story As a rule of thumb, 5 psi per story above the first floor is used for calculating BP in high-rise buildings. Work Problems: Using the rule of thumb, find the BP for the following: a. Fire on the 10th floor level of a 20-story office building BP = 5 X 9 BP = 45 psi note: the fire is only 9 floors above ground level (this can be tricky) b. Fire on the roof top of a 20-story office building BP = 5 X 20 BP = 100 psi Note: in this case, the fire is actually 20 floors above the ground floor Because it is on the roof and not the floor level. (Tricky too)

2)

## Uphill vs. Downhill

A. Uphill: When pumping on a grade, either uphill or downhill, pump operators must take into consideration the pressure loss or gain caused by BP. When pumping uphill, the pump has to work harder to get the water to the desired location because gravity is acting on the water and holding it back. The pump pressure must be increased to overcome the back pressure. Example: A fire engine is pumping water uphill through a hoseline that is 80ft above the firetruck. BP = .434H .434 (80) 34.7 psi The pump operator will have to increase the pump pressure by 34.7 psi to make up the difference in back pressure.

B. Downhill When pumping downhill, the pump does not have to work as hard because gravity is acting on the water, helping to move it through the fire hose. This means that the BP gained will be in addition to the pump pressure reading. You wont see the pressure increase on your pump gauge, but the hoseman will feel it on the hoseline. Example: A fire engine is pumping water downhill through a hoseline that is 60ft below the firetruck. BP = .434H .434 (60) 26.04 psi The pump operator will have to decrease the pump pressure by 26.04 psi To negate the pressure increase caused by back pressure.

3)

Types of Pressure
a. Static Pressure - Pressure of water at rest

b. Flow Pressure - Pressure of water flowing from nozzle c. Residual Pressure Pressure remaining in water main or inlet side of Fire pump after water is flowing

## Chapter 2: Velocity and Discharge

Drafting Operations
1) Theory
Drafting is a way in which a fire pump uses atmospheric pressure to draw water into the fire pump from a static water source (see figure 2.1). Atmospheric pressure, at sea level, is 14.7 psi. Fire pumps are capable of expelling its air through use of a priming pump. If all the air within a pump is displaced and a good seal is maintained (no leaks or loose fittings), the fire pump can create a vacuum-like atmosphere within the fire pump. Once this vacuum-like atmosphere is obtained, the atmospheric pressure outside the pump will be greater than the pressure within the fire pump, and water will be forced into the pump through the drafting hose. This means that using the formula H = 2.31P, we can see how atmospheric pressure will force water into the fire pump up to 33.9 feet high (H = 2.31 X 14.7 psi).

Figure 2.1 Drafting Operations The theoretical lift of 33.9 feet is nearly impossible to obtain. Since the fire pump cannot produce an absolute vacuum (0 psi), and there is friction loss in the drafting hose, a practical lift of 22-25 feet is more realistic.

## 2) Factors Affecting Priming Operations (trying to obtain a vacuum)

a. Loose hose connections, loose covers, open gates, open valves, too long or too small suction hose

## b. Defective priming pump c. Depth of water source

note: 1250 gpm pumpers should only take 30 seconds to prime 1500 gpm pumpers should only take 45 seconds to prime

3)

a. Altitude

## d. Too long or too small suction hose

Velocity
1) Formulas
For velocity, you will be given either the height of the water or the pressure. Therefore, two formulas for velocity will be discussed. a. Velocity = 8 X Height of water or V = 8 H

## b. Velocity = 12.1 X Pressure of nozzle or V = 12.1 P

Work Problems:
What is the velocity of water flow is the nozzle pressure is 60 psi? V = 12.1 P V = 12.1 60 V = 12.1 (7.75) V = 93.78 fps What is the velocity of water flow from a water tank 50 ft high? V = 8 H V = 8 50 V = 8 (7.07) V = 56.56 fps

Flow Velocities
The velocity of water varies inversely with the cross section of the hoseline and nozzle tip. What does this mean?? With the same nozzle pressure: Changing to a smaller nozzle tip will increase nozzle velocity / pressure

Changing to a larger nozzle tip will decrease nozzle velocity / pressure The inverse relationship between velocity and nozzle size simply means that when one increases, the other decreases and vice versa.

## Nozzle Discharge Gallons per Minute (GPM)

1) Discharge Formulas
a. With Nozzle Discharge (GPM) = 30 X Diameter of Nozzle2 X Nozzle Pressure GPM = 30d2 P Work Problem: How many GPMs are flowing through a 2 hoseline with a 1 1/8 nozzle tip with a nozzle pressure of 50 psi? GPM = 30d2P GPM = 30 (1.125)2 50 (nozzle size converted into a decimal) GPM = 30 (1.27) (7.07) GPM = 269.37

b. Without Nozzle (open butt) To find the discharge pressure of a hoseline without a nozzle, simply use 90% of the original discharge formula. The hose diameter will substitute as the nozzle size in this case. GPM (open butt) = 90% X 30 X Hose Diameter2 X Pressure GPM (open butt) = 27d2 P Work Problem: How many GPMs are flowing through a 2 hoseline without a nozzle attached to it at 50 psi? GPM (open butt) = 27d2 P GPM = 27 (2.5)2 50

## GPM = 27 (6.25) (7.07) GPM = 1193.06

Nozzle Reaction
1) Formula
Nozzle Reaction (NR) = 1.57 X Nozzle Diameter2 X Nozzle Pressure NR = 1.57d2 P note: In theory, the nozzle reaction will always be greater than the actual nozzle reaction felt by the firefighter because: a. The hoseline is in contact with the ground, and this absorbs some of the nozzle reaction. b. Bends in the hoseline as it is laid out will help to absorb some of the nozzle reaction. Work Problem: What is the nozzle reaction of a 2 hoseline with a 1 1/8 nozzle tip flowing 50 psi? NR = 1.57 d2 P NR = 1.57 (1.125)2 (50) (nozzle size converted to a decimal) NR = 1.57 (1.27) (50) NR = 99.70 lbs

2)

## Safety Factors to Consider

a. Handling Hose Lines i. Bends near the nozzle tend to straighten out. The hoseline should be straight at least 10 feet back of the nozzle ii. Nozzle reaction from fog streams is less than straight streams

iii. Open and close nozzle slowly because: 1. Initial nozzle reaction is greater than the nozzle reaction when water is flowing 2. Sudden closing of nozzle sends pressure surges backwards. This is called a water hammer. A water hammer can break the hoseline, fire pump, and/or water main. iv. When using handlines on ladders, the nozzle reaction could cause the ladder to lift-off and fall away from the building. To help avoid this dangerous situation from occurring firefighters should: 1. Fasten the ladder to the window sill 2. Set the base of the ladder further away from the building b. Ladder Truck Operations i. If the hose should burst, the ladder / boom will whip violently ii. Always try and shoot the fire stream in-line with the ladder. Never turn the nozzle more than 15 degrees from the center of the ladder. Work Problem: What is the nozzle reaction of a ladder pipe operation flowing 80 psi from a 2 nozzle tip? NR = 1.57 d2 P NR = 1.57 (2)2 (80) NR = 1.57 (4) (80) NR = 502.4 lbs (force)

Friction Loss
1) Effect of Flow Pattern
a. Laminar Flow Low Flow Velocities

## b. Turbulent Flow High Flow Velocities

i. Friction loss in hose affected by: 1. Inner lining of hose 2. Age of hose 3. Thickness of hose lining 4. Type of hose jacked weave (will it expand or not)

2)

## Friction Loss in Hoses

a. Friction loss varies with quality of hose

b. Friction loss varies directly with length of hose line (the longer the hoseline, the greater the friction loss). c. Friction loss varies approximately as the square of the velocity of flow (the faster the flow velocity, the greater the friction loss) Example: If the flow velocity is doubled Friction loss is 4 times greater (2)2 = 4 If the flow velocity is tripled Friction loss is 9 times greater (3)2 = 9 d. For a given velocity, friction loss varies inversely as the fifth power of the hose diameter (the bigger the hose diameter, the less the friction loss) Example: If the hose size was doubled from 1 to 3 We see how 1 X 2 = 3 Inverting the 2 we get Now we take the and multiply it to the fifth power 5 = X X X X = 1/32 We can now conclude that if the hose size is doubled, the

New friction loss is only 1/32 as much as the original figure. e. For a given velocity of flow, friction loss is nearly independent of pressure. In other words, he velocity of flow, and not the pressure, is the determining factor in friction loss.

## 3) Formulas (more details in Chapter 5) a. Friction Loss = 2 X Q2 + Q FL = 2Q2 + Q Q = GPM 100

note: This formula is only for 2 diameter hoselines. The friction loss figure represents friction loss per 100 ft of 2 hose. i.e. If the hoseline is 600 ft, the friction loss figure must be Multiplied by 6 to get the total friction loss in that hoseline. Work Problem: Find the friction loss in a 2 hoseline 100 ft in length Flowing 300 gpm. FL = 2Q2 + Q FL = 2 (3)2 + 3 FL = 2 (9) + 3 FL = 21 # per 100 ft length FL = 21# (since there is only 100 ft of hoseline) c. Engine Pressure = Friction Loss + Nozzle Pressure EP = FL + NP Work Problem: An engine is pumping through 600 ft of 2 hoseline to a nozzle that is flowing 200 gpm at 100 psi nozzle pressure. Find the engine pressure. EP = FL + NP EP = FL + 100 EP = 60 + 100 FL = 2Q2 + Q FL = 2(2)2 + 2 FL = 2(4) +2 Q = GPM 100 Q = 200 100 Q=2 Q = GPM 100 Q = 300 100 Q=3

## d. Engine Pressure = Friction Loss + Nozzle Pressure + Back Pressure

EP = FL + NP + BP

Work Problem: An engine is pumping through 300 ft of 2 hoseline to a nozzle that is flowing 200 gpm at 100 psi nozzle Pressure. The nozzle is on a hill that is 60 ft higher Than the fire pump. Find the engine pressure.

EP = FL + NP + BP FL = 2Q2 + Q 434H FL = 2 (2)2 + 2 (60) FL = 2 (4) + 2 26.04 FL = 10 per 100 ft hoseline FL = 10 X 3 ( # of hundreds of feet of hose) FL = 30 EP = FL + NP + BP EP = 30 + 100 + 26 Q = GPM 100 Q = 200 100 Q=2 BP = . BP = .434 BP =

EP = 156 psi

Note: If the nozzle was below the fire pump (downhill or in a Basement), the BP would have to be subtracted from the EP. Remember that the gravity would cause the pressure to increase, thus giving the firefighter on the hoseline too much pressure.

## Chapter 3: Water Distribution System

General Remarks
1) Public Water Systems are designed to perform two functions.
a. Provide water for domestic, commercial and industrial use

b. Provide water for fire protection i. Combination systems use same water source for both functions ii. Separate systems use potable water for domestic use and use brackish, salt or treated sewage water for firefighting.

2) Fire hydrants must be installed and maintained in accordance to standards set forth by the American Water Works Association. 3) The term Fire Plug originated from the old days when pipes were made from hollowed out wood and buried underground. These pipes were gravity fed from water sources located in the area. If there were a need for water, the fire department would expose the pipe by digging up the ground. Once exposed, a hole was drilled into the wooden pipe. Water would then flow out of the hole by means of gravity. When the fire was out, a tapered wooden plug was inserted into the hole and the pipe would be re-buried.

Fire Hydrants
1) Dry Barrel Hydrants (see figure 3.1)
a. Dry barrel hydrants do not have water stored in the fire hydrant itself. Instead, the water is stored in the piping below the hydrant. When the operating stem is opened, water will begin to fill the hydrant. This type of hydrant is used in areas where freezing can occur. If the water is stored in the hydrant, it could freeze and that hydrant would be useless in a fire situation. Because the water in the piping below the hydrant is constantly moving, it usually does not freeze.

b. Main Parts: i. Dry Barrel ii. Footpiece iii. Bonnet iv. Operating Stem v. Main Valve vi. Drain

## 2) Wet Barrel Hydrants (see figure 3.2)

a. Unlike the dry barrel hydrant, the wet barrel hydrant has water in the hydrant right up to the discharge outlet. These hydrants should not be used in areas where freezing could occur. These are the types of hydrants commonly used in Hawai`i. However, there are some dry barrel hydrants in use today in Hawai`i.

b. Wet barrel hydrants have fewer parts than dry barrel hydrants. c. Each outlet has an independent valve on a threaded stem with operating nut on opposite side of barrel.

## Figure 3.2 Wet Barrel Hydrant

3) Other Information
d. Hydrant Outlets i. Every hydrant must have at least two outlets.

1. One pumper suction hose outlet (usually 4) 2. One regular hose outlet (usually 2 ) ii. Outlets must not be less than 18 inches from the ground level. iii. Outlets must have a cap and chain. e. Hydrant Spacing i. Hydrants should not be spaced more than 250 ft apart in commercial / industrial areas and should have a minimum flow of 1000 gpm. ii. Hydrants should not be spaced more than 350 ft apart in residential areas and should have a minimum flow of 1000 gpm. iii. Hydrants should not be spaced more than 700 ft apart in rural areas and should have a minimum flow of 1000 gpm. f. Branch Connection i. The minimum size water main supplying fire hydrants in Honolulu is 8 inches. Main sizes smaller than 6 inches are not suitable for providing fire protection. ii. Each wet barrel hydrant has its own gate valve. This gate valve is located somewhere near the hydrant, and its location is indicated on the fire hydrant. In case the hydrant should be damaged (if a car knocks one over) the gate valve can be used to stop the flow of water to that one hydrant without interrupting the flow to other hydrants on that same water main.

4)

## Estimating Available Flow From Fire Hydrants

a. In order to estimate the amount of flow we have available in a hydrant, we must first find the percentage of drop in pressure between static and residual pressure. i. Open hydrant with suction hose connected to fire truck. At this time take note as to what your intake (suction) pressure gauge is reading. This is the hydrants static pressure. ii. Open a discharge gate for one hoseline. Again look at your suction gauge. The pressure will be lower because

some of the static pressure will have been used for the first firefighting line. This is the hydrants residual pressure. iii. Subtract the residual pressure from the static pressure and convert that number into a percentage. This is the percentage of drop in pressure between static and residual. Work Problem: A hydrant is connected to your fire truck with no Firefighting lines flowing. Your suction gauge reads 60 psi. After opening one firefighting line, your suction Gauge now reads 55 psi. What is the percentage of drop in pressure? Static Pressure = 60 psi

Residual Pressure = 55 psi Pressure Difference = 5 psi To find the drop in a %, simply divide the difference in pressure by the static pressure. 5 psi 60 psi = .083 or 8.3% b. Applying percentage of drop in pressure to practical situations. i. Once the percentage of drop between static and residual pressure is found, that number can be used to help estimate the number of additional hoselines the hydrant can supply. The estimates are based on hoselines of the same diameter utilizing nozzles of the same diameter also. The following chart shows the general rule of thumb regarding additional hoselines: 10% or less 11-15% 16-25% more than 25% 3 more hoselines 2 more hoselines 1 more hoseline no more hoselines

## Chapter 4: Fire Service Pumps

Introduction
1) Three Basic Types of Fire Pumps
a. Piston Type Fire Pump

2)

## Pump Mounting on Apparatus

a. Mid-ship (middle) 2 ways i. Between road transmission and rear axle in line with drive shaft (most common) ii. Ahead of clutch and transmission with flywheel and power take off. This type allows for direct engine power to pump transmission connection. It allows for driving and pumping simultaneously. b. Front Mounting i. From front of engine crankshaft connected to pump transmission. This type also allows for driving and pumping simultaneously.

3)

Pump Ratings
a. Standard pumper capacity ratings start from 500 gpm and increase in 250 gpm increments (NFPA 19 Specification) up to 2000 gpm. i. 500 gpm, 750 gpm, 1000 gpm, 1250 gpm, 1500 gpm, 1750 gpm, 2000 gpm ii. Pumpers must have one 2 gated outlet per 250 gpm rated capacity. b. Fire pumps are designed to perform as follows: 100% of rated capacity at 150 psi net pumps pressure 70% of rated capacity at 200 psi net pumps pressure 50% of rated capacity at 250 psi net pumps pressure

Net pump pressure is found by subtracting suction or inlet pressure from the discharge pressure.

Work Problem: A fire pump is discharging 200 psi through a 2 Hoseline and is receiving 50 psi from a fire Hydrant. What is the net pump pressure? Net Pump Pressure = Discharge Pressure Intake Pressure Net Pump Pressure = 200 psi 50 psi Net Pump Pressure = 150 psi Work Problem: A pumper has a capacity rating of 1000 gpm. Using net pump pressure finds the efficiency of the pump: At 150 psi net pump pressure At 200 psi net pump pressure At 250 psi net pump pressure gpm (1000 gpm X 70%) and 500 gpm (1000 gpm X 50%). note: Fire pumps are most efficient at 150 psi or less. _______gpm _______gpm _______gpm

## The answers are 1000 gpm (1000 gpm X 100%), 700

4)

Cavitation
a. Causes of cavitation i. Lift too high for volume and pressure discharged ii. Suction hose too small for volume and pressure discharged iii. Suction strainer or hose clogged iv. Partial collapse of hose lining

v. Temperature of water too high b. Signs of cavitation i. Pump vibrations with loud pinging noises. This is caused by air bubbles that form in the pump that collapse violently when they enter the impeller. ii. Pump running away This happens when the pump is pumping air or steam instead of water. The pump speed will increase with no increase in discharge pressure or volume. The pump operator will hear the engine revving and running away. If this should occur, shut down pumping operations immediately.

## Centrifugal Fire Pumps

1) General Information
a. Water enters the centrifugal pump through the eye and is delivered to the impeller through the vanes. The impeller increases the speed of the water and discharges it through the volute. (see figure 4.1)

figure 4.1 Centrifugal Fire Pump c. Centrifugal pumps may be connected in stages to each other. Centrifugal pumps can have 1 4 stages. Each impeller and volute is one stage in a multi-stage centrifugal pump.

2)

## Capabilities and Limitations

a. Volume (gpm) varies directly as the pump speed. The faster the pump speed, the greater the volume.

b. Pressure (psi) varies as the square of the pump speed. If you double the pump speed, the pressure increases 4 times (22 = 4) c. Centrifugal pumps are not self-priming. A separate rotary vane priming pump unit is used to prime centrifugal pumps.

3)

## Single-Stage Centrifugal Fire Pumps

a. Basic Designs i. Single suction impeller 1. Limited up to 750 gpm pumpers ii. Double suction impeller 1. 1000 1500 gpm pumpers iii. Double Volute design 1. Limited to single stage pumps 2. High efficiency at rated capacity

b. In general, single stage pumps have a high efficiency rating (about 70%), which is generally slightly higher than multi-stage pumps.

4)

## Two-Stage Centrifugal Fire Pumps

a. Basic design i. Two impellers with separate volute chambers for each impeller b. Limited use in fire service i. Pumps may be front mounted for smaller trucks 1. Provides vehicle movement while pumping 2. Able to provide high-pressure for operations (300400 psi).

5)

## Parallel Series Two-Stage Centrifugal Pumps

a. Basic design i. Two impellers with separate volutes ii. Addition of transfer or changeover valve for parallel or series pumping operations iii. The efficiency of parallel series two-stage pumps is around 65-70%. This is slightly less than a single stage pump.

b. Parallel (Volume) Operations (see figure 4.2) i. When a pump is placed in the parallel position, water enters both stages of the pump simultaneously from the suction side. This means that the pump will be able to deliver twice the volume at half of the pressure. ii. An example of this is: A 1000 gpm rated capacity pumper operating at 150 psi net pump pressure. In the parallel position, each impeller will deliver 500 gpm at 150 psi. Note that the pump will double the volume of water, but at half the speed.

figure 4.2 Parallel Series pump in parallel position c. Series (Pressure) Operations (see figure 4.3) i. When a pump is placed in the series position, water enters one stage of the pump from the suction side. The water is then delivered to the second stage via the first stage of the pump. This means that the pump will be able to deliver half the volume at twice the pressure. ii. An example of this is: A 1000 gpm rated capacity pumper operating at 150 psi net pump pressure. In the series position, the first impeller will deliver 500 gpm at 150 psi to the second stage. The second impeller will discharge the 500 gpm, but it will double the pressure. In the series position, this pump will deliver 500 gpm at 300 psi. Note that the pump will double the pressure, but at half the volume.

figure 4.3 Parallel Series pump in series position d. Transfer Valve i. A transfer valve is the device that is used to change a pump from series to parallel or vice versa. The pump operator must decide which position would best meet the needs of a given situation. ii. Transfer valves may be either powered or manual iii. Transfer valves may be disk type or cylinder type iv. Transfer valves are normally left in the series position for normal day-to-day operations. v. As a general rule, the transfer valve should be kept in the series position when pumping up to 70% of the pumps capacity. The transfer valve should be switched to the parallel position when evolutions or circumstances require a pump to deliver more than 70% of its rated capacity. vi. When switching the transfer valve from one position to another, the pump pressure should be lowered to below 60 psi. This is especially crucial when switching from parallel to series because the pressure will immediately double. This sudden increase in pressure could damage the pump, hoses, or seriously injure the firefighters on the hoselines.

6)

Piston Pumps
a. General Remarks i. Piston pumps were the first pumps developed for firefighting.

ii. Piston pumps are preferred by fire departments that get their water supply mostly by drafting operations. iii. Piston pumps have a high efficiency (around 75-80%) b. Basic Design i. Use of piston to displace water 1. Single action (water gets moved on pistons up stroke) 2. Double action (water gets moved on up stroke and down stroke) ii. Piston pumps are positive displacement pumps. This means that they are self-priming iii. Different gear ratios between engine and pump are needed to obtain higher pressure.

7)

## Rotary Fire Pumps

a. General Remarks i. Rotary fire pumps were first used by the fire service around the 1600s. In the 1900s they were adapted to work with the steam engines. ii. Rotary pumps are preferred where all pumping operations involve drafting, high lift conditions, or long suction hoses.

## Chapter 5: Friction Loss Calculations

Basic 2 Hoselines
As discussed earlier, the formula for finding friction loss in a 2 fire hose is: FL= 2Q2 + Q; where Q= GPM 100. This formula only applies to: a. 2 diameter fire hose per 100 ft length

b. 2 diameter fire hose flowing 100 gpm or greater The formula for finding friction loss in a 2 fire hose flowing less than 100 gpm is: FL = 2Q2 + Q; where Q = GPM 100

Work Problems:
Find the friction loss in a 500 ft length of 2 fire hose flowing 200 gpm. FL = 2Q2 + Q FL = 2 (2)2 + 2 FL = 2 (4) + 2 FL = 10 per 100 length FL = 10 x 5 (500 ft 100) FL = 50 psi Find the friction loss in a 800 ft length of 2 fire hose flowing 250 gpm. FL = 2Q2 + Q FL = 2 (2.5)2 + 2.5 FL = 2 (6.25) + 2.5 FL = 15 per 100 length FL = 15 x 8 (800 ft 100) FL = 120 psi Find the friction loss in 400 ft of 2 fire hose flowing 80 gpm. FL = 2Q2 + 1/2 Q FL = 2 (.8)2 + (.8) FL = 2 (.64) + .32 Q = GPM 100 Q = 80 100 Q = .8 Q = GPM 100 Q = 250 100 Q = 2.5 Q = GPM 100 Q = 200 100 Q=2

FL = 1.6 per 100 length FL = 1.6 x 4 (400 ft 100) FL = 6.4 psi Finding friction loss for hoses other than 2 diameters.

1)

## Finding Equivalent Lengths

Before we can use the friction loss formula on hoses other than 2 in diameter, we must first find the equivalent length. In other words, we will be converting the hose to reflect the length in a 2 diameter. This is like converting feet to inches. Suppose we wanted to convert 5 feet into inches; it is understood that we must multiply the number of feet by 12 (the number of inches in a foot). 5 feet converted to inches would be: 5 x 12 = 60 inches. Keeping that principle in mind, we only have a friction loss formula for 2 hoselines. We will need to convert hoses of all other diameters to a 2 length. This is called finding the equivalent length. It is easier to find the equivalent length, than it is to learn a new friction loss formula for each possible hose diameter. There are two methods in which we can find an equivalent length. a. Using Rule of Thumb To find the equivalent length of a fire hose using the rule of thumb, simply multiply the total length of hose by the rule of thumb factor. These factors are listed below and will be provided for you on the exam. You are not required to memorize the factors.

Diameter of Hose
1 1 1 3

## Rule of Thumb Factor

91 13 7.76 .4

3 4

.17 .09

Work Problem: Using the rule of thumb factor, convert the following to an equivalent 2 length: 100 ft of 1 hose 100 ft of 1 hose 100 ft of 4 hose b. Using Conversion Factor To find the equivalent length of a fire hose using conversion factor, divide the total length of hose by the conversion factor. These factors are listed below and will be provided for you on the exam. You are not required to memorize the factors. = 100 x 91 or 9100 ft of 2 = 100 x 13 or 1300 ft of 2 = 100 x .09 or 9 ft of 2

Diameter of Hose
1 1 1 3 3 4

Conversion Factor
.011 .074 .129 2.5 5.8 11.0

Work Problem: Using the conversion factor, convert the following to an equivalent 2 length: 100 ft of 1 hose 100 ft of 1 hose 100 ft of 4 hose = 100 .011 or 9090 ft of 2 = 100 .074 or 1351 ft of 2 = 100 11 or 9 ft of 2

2)

## Finding friction loss using equivalent length

Using either equivalent length method (rule of thumb or conversion factor), we can now find the friction loss for hoses other than 2 . Work Problem: Find the friction loss in a 1 diameter hoseline 200 ft in Length flowing 100 gpm. Step 1: Find equivalent length 200 x 13 = 2600 ft or 200 .074 = 2700 ft

(for this example we will use 2600 ft) Step 2: Find friction loss FL = 2Q2 + Q FL = 2 (1)2 + 1 FL = 2 (1) + 1 Q = GPM 100 Q = 100 100 Q=1

FL = 3 (per 100 ft of hose) FL = 3 x 26 (2600 ft 100) FL = 78 Work Problem: Find the total friction loss in a 1 diameter hoseline 200 ft in length, connected to a 1 diameter hoseline 200 ft. in length flowing 40 gpm. Step 1: Find equivalent length of 1 hose 200 x 13 = 2600 ft this example we will use 2600 ft) or 200 .074 = 2700 ft (for

Step 2: Find equivalent length of 1 hose 200 x 91 = 18,200 ft or 200 .011 = 18,182 ft

(for this example we will use 18,200 ft.) Step 3: Find total equivalent length of evolution (1 + 1) 2600 ft + 18,200 ft = 20, 800 ft

Step 4: Find Friction loss FL = 2Q2 + Q FL = 2 (.4)2 + (.4) FL = 2 (.16) + .2 FL = .52 (per 100 ft of hose) FL = .52 x 208 (20800 ft 100) FL = 108.16 Q = GPM 100 Q = 40 100 Q = .4

3)

## Finding Friction Loss in Siamese Hose Lays

Some hose evolutions involve the use of siamesed hoselines. This means that two or more hoses are running parallel to each other and are supplying water to the same discharge. This discharge can be either a deluge or another hoseline. In order to find friction loss in this type of evolution, we must first convert all siamesed lines into an equivalent length of 2 hose. a. Converting Siamesed Hoselines to Equivalent 2 Lengths To convert siamesed lines to an equivalent 2 length, we must first find the average length of the siamesed hoses. This is done by taking the total length of all siamesed hoses and dividing this figure by the number of hoses being siamesed.

The example above shows a typical siamese operation. To find the average length of siamesed hose: Step 1: Find total length of siamesed hose 600 ft + 600 ft = 1200 ft Step 2: Divide the total length of siamesed hose by the number of siamesed hoses.

1200 ft 2 = 600 ft b. Using rule of thumb factors to find equivalent length To find the equivalent length of siamesed hoses, we will need to multiply the average length of the siamesed hoses by the rule of thumb factor. These factors are listed below and will be provided for you on the exam. You are not required to memorize the factors.

3.75 .28 .13 .08

## 2 1 hoses 2 2 hoses 3 2 hoses 4 2 hoses

Work Problem: Find the friction loss for the evolution shown below.

Step 1: Find the average length of siamesed hoses 600 ft + 600 ft = 1200 ft 1200 ft 2 = 600 ft Step 2: Find equivalent length of siamesed hoses (this is the average length multiplied by the factor) 600 ft x .28 = 168 ft Step 3: Find friction loss FL = 2Q2 + Q FL = 2 (5)2 + 5 FL = 2 (25) + 5 FL = 55 (per 100 ft of hose) Q = GPM 100 Q = 500 100 Q=5

FL = 55 x 1.68 (168 ft 100) FL = 92.4 psi Work Problem: Find the friction loss for the evolution shown below.

Step 1: Find the average length of siamesed hoses 600 ft + 600 ft = 1200 ft 1200 ft 2 = 600 ft Step 2: Find equivalent length of siamesed hoses (this is the average length multiplied by the factor) 600 ft x .28 = 168 ft Step 3: Find total equivalent length of evolution (equivalent length of siamesed hose + single 2 hose) 168 ft + 300 ft = 468 ft Step 4: Find Friction loss FL = 2Q2 + Q FL = 2 (2.5)2 + 2.5 FL = 2 (6.25) + 2.5 FL = 15 (per 100 ft of hose) FL = 15 x 4.68 (468 ft 100) FL = 70.2 psi Work Problem: The fire engine below is supplying three 2 hoselines to a portable deluge flowing 600 gpm. Find the friction loss of the hoses. Q = GPM 100 Q = 250 100 Q = 2.5

Step 1: Find the average length of siamesed hoses 400 ft + 350 ft + 450 ft = 1200 ft 1200 ft 3 = 400 ft Step 2: Find equivalent length of siamesed hoses (this is the average length multiplied by the factor) 400 ft x .13 = 52 ft Step 3: Find friction loss FL = 2Q2 + Q FL = 2 (6)2 + 6 FL = 2 (36) + 6 FL = 78 (per 100 ft of hose) FL = 78 x .52 (52 ft 100) FL = 40.56 psi Q = GPM 100 Q = 600 100 Q=6

4)

## Finding Friction Loss in Wyed Hose Lays

Some hose evolutions involve the use of wyed hose lays. This means that one hose is split into two or more hoselines by use of a wye or water thief appliance. In order to find friction loss in this type of evolution, we must first convert all wyed hoselines into an equivalent length of 2 . a. Converting Wyed Hoselines to Equivalent 2 Lengths To convert wyed hoselines to an equivalent 2 length, we must first find the average length of the wyed hoses. This is done by taking the total length of all wyed hoselines and dividing this figure by the number of hoses being wyed.

The example above shows a typical wyed operation. To find the average length of wyed hose: Step 1: Find total length of wyed hose 200 ft + 200 ft = 400 ft Step 2: Divide the total length of siamesed hose by the number of siamesed hoses. 400 ft 2 = 200 ft b. Using rule of thumb factors to find equivalent length To find the equivalent length of wyed hoses, we will need to multiply the average length of the wyed hoses by the rule of thumb factor. These factors are listed below and will be provided for you on the exam. You are not required to memorize the factors.

## Rule of Thumb Factor

2 1 hoses 2 2 hoses 3 2 hoses 4 2 hoses 3.75 .28 .13 .08

Work Problem: Find the friction loss for the evolution shown below.

Step 1: Find the average length of the wyed hoses 200 ft + 200 ft = 400 ft 400 ft 2 = 200 ft Step 2: Find equivalent length of wyed hoses (this is the average length multiplied by the factor) 200 ft x 3.75 = 750 ft

Step 3: Find total equivalent length of evolution (equivalent length of siamesed hose + single 2 hose) 750 ft + 400 ft = 1150 ft Step 4: Find total GPM flowing from all hoses Total GPM is calculated by adding the GPMs flowing from each hoseline or discharge. 1 hose #1 = 100 GPM 1 hose #2 = 100 GPM 100 GPM + 100 GPM = 200 GPM GPM = 200 (this figure will be used to find Q) Step 5: Find Friction loss FL = 2Q2 + Q FL = 2 (2)2 + 2 FL = 2 (4) + 2 FL = 10 (per 100 ft of hose) FL = 10 x 11.5 (1150 ft 100) FL = 115 psi Note: Finding friction loss for siamesed and wyed lines are very similar. The rule of thumb figures are the same when finding equivalent length The only difference is when finding friction loss in wyed lines, the total gpm must be found by adding the gpm of each individual line that is discharging water. Work Problem: Find the friction loss for the evolution shown below. A fire truck is pumping through 400 ft of 2 hose that is wyed to two 2 hoselines each flowing 200 gpm. Q = GPM 100 Q = 200 100 Q=2

Step 1: Find the average length of the wyed hoses 200 ft + 300 ft = 500 ft

500 ft 2 = 250 ft Step 2: Find equivalent length of wyed hoses (this is the average length multiplied by the factor) 250 ft x .28 = 70 ft Step 3: Find total equivalent length of evolution (equivalent length of siamesed hose + single 2 hose) 70 ft + 200 ft = 270 ft Step 4: Find total GPM flowing from all hoses Total GPM is calculated by adding the GPMs flowing from each hoseline or discharge. 2 hose #1 = 200 GPM 2 hose #2 = 200 GPM 200 GPM + 200 GPM = 400 GPM GPM = 400 (this figure will be used to find Q) Step 5: Find Friction loss FL = 2Q2 + Q FL = 2 (4)2 + 4 FL = 2 (16) + 4 FL = 36 (per 100 ft of hose) FL = 36 x 2.7 (270 ft 100) FL = 97.2 psi Q = GPM 100 Q = 400 100 Q=4

## Chapter 6: Fire Ground (Field) Calculations

General Information

In the previous chapter we discussed how engine pressure was found using various formulas and conversion factors. If youre sitting in a classroom taking an exam, these methods for finding the proper engine pressure is adequate. But, as you all know, finding the proper engine pressure is most critical and valuable at the fire scene. Pump operators do not have the luxury of booting up their laptop computers or pulling out a calculator during an incident. Operators need to have some sort of pre-determined method to quickly deliver water to the hoselines with the proper pressure. This method is termed Fire Ground Calculations or Field Calculations. These calculations are not designed to be exact, but rather to be quick and close. Field Calculations also require the operator to memorize certain constants such as nozzle pressures, appliance losses, and even memorizing the friction loss in commonly used hoselines. Below is an outline of Field Calculation constants that will need to be memorized.

1)

Basic Formula
The basic formula for Engine Pressure (EP) is: EP= Nozzle Pressure + Friction Loss (hose) + Back Pressure + Appliance Loss

EP = NP + FL + BP + APP

The components (NP, FL, BP, and APP) of this formula will be explained below.

2)
Appliance

## Appliance Loss Figures (APP)

Friction Loss Figure 25 psi 25 psi + BP 5 psi

3)

## Nozzle Pressures (NP)

Handlines Barrel Tip (solid stream) 50 psi Master Streams 80 psi

## Fog Nozzle (fog or straight stream)

80 psi

100 psi

These nozzle pressure figures are to be used for work problems where nozzle type, and not pressure, is given.

4)

Back Pressure
The field calculation for back pressure is 5 psi per 10 of grade or 5 psi per story above the first floor.

5)

## Friction Loss in Hoselines

You will be required to memorize the boldface friction loss figures in the chart below. The calculated figure is next to the field calculation figure to show how the field calculation figure is obtained. Nozzle Size feet Hose Size GPM Friction Loss per 100 Desktop Calculation Calculation 1/2 - 5/8 1 30 40 50 3/4" 3/4" 1 1/2 1 3/4 100 125 150 200 1 1 1/8 1 1/4" 1 3/8 1 1/2" 1 3/4" 2 1/2" 2 1/2" 2 1/2" 4 200 250 300 500 600 800 30 47.3 68.2 39 34 46.6 77 10 15 21 4.95 7 12.2 30 45 70 35 35 45 75 10 15 21 5 7 10 Field

1000

18.9

20

Notes: 4 hoseline used as a supply line for master streams (ladder pipe, deluge, and snorkel) and relays. Friction loss figures are for each 100 length of hose Items in bold to be memorized for final

Work Problems:
Using Fire Ground calculations, find the proper EP for the following: a) 200 of 1 hose flowing 30 gpm at 60 psi EP= NP + FL + BP + APP 0

## EP = 60 + (30 X 2) + 0 + EP = 60 + EP = 120 psi 60

Note: FL figures must be multiplied by the number of 100 of hose When there are no figures for BP or APP, use 0

b) 200 of 1 handline with a fog tip nozzle flowing 100 gpm EP = NP + FL + BP + APP

## EP = 80 + (35 X 2) + 0 + EP = 80 + 70 EP = 150 psi

b) 400 of 2 handline with a barrel tip nozzle flowing 250 gpm on a hill 50 above the fire truck EP = NP + FL + BP + APP

EP = 50 + (15 X 4) + (5 X 5) + 0 EP = 50 + 60 + 25 + 0

EP = 135 psi

6)

Siamesed Hoselines
When two or more hoselines are used to supply water to a desired point or appliance, calculations are simplified by calculating the friction loss in the average length of the siamesed hoselines. Each hoseline will deliver its equal share of water because the pressure applied by the fire pump will equalize in the hoselines. The discharge rate (GPM) will be divided by the number of siamesed hoselines when determining gpm for each hoseline.

The average length of the siamesed hoses is 600 total length number of hoses (600 + 600) 2 = 600 The average flow of the hoses is 250 gpm Total gpm number of hoses 500 gpm 2 = 250 Using fire ground calculations, we know that each 100 length of 2 hose flowing 250 gpm has a friction loss of 15 psi. 600 100 = 6 6 X 15 = 90psi The total friction loss in the siamesed hoses is 90 psi. Work Problem: Using Fire Ground Calculations, find the EP of the
following evolution.

EP = NP + FL + BP + APP

Step 1: Find NP The NP for a master stream using a fog nozzle is 100 NP = 100 psi Step 2: Find FL The average length of siamesed hoses is 400: (400 + 350 + 450) 3 1200 3 = 400 The average flow of the siamesed hoses is 200 GPM 600 GPM 3 = 200 FL = 10 psi for every 100 of 2 hose flowing 200 GPM FL = 10 X 4 FL = 40 psi Step 3: Find BP There is no BP for this problem BP = 0 Step 4: Find APP The appliance loss figure for a Deluge is 25 psi APP = 25 psi Step 5: Plug all the figures into the formula EP = NP + FL + BP + APP EP = 100 + 40 + 0 + 25 EP = 165 psi

7)

Wyed Hoselines

For wyed lines of equal diameter with nozzles of the same size, the friction loss for the average length of wyed lines will be considered. Find the average length and treat as one line. This means that the nozzle pressure of only one hose will be added to the NP portion of the EP formula. The hoseline supplying the wyed lines (before the wye) must provide the total amount of GPM to all the wyed lines. The total GPM will be used for all friction loss calculations behind (pump side) the wye. For all calculations in front of the wye (nozzle side of wye), use the discharge of only one hoseline. The following example should make this a little clearer. Work Problem: Using Fire Ground Calculations, find the EP of the
following evolution.

EP = NP + FL + BP + APP

Step 1: Find NP Find the nozzle pressure of only one nozzle The NP for a handline using a fog nozzle is 80 psi NP = 80 psi Step 2: Find FL in the wyed hoselines The average length of wyed hoses is 200: (150 + 250) 2 400 2 = 200 The flow of one of the wyed hoses is 100 GPM

## FL = 35 psi for every 100 of 1 hose flowing 100 GPM FL = 10 X 2 FL = 70 psi

Step 3: Find FL in the 2 hoseline before the wye Find the total GPM in the 2 hoseline (total of all discharge) The total flow of all the wyed hoses is 200 GPM 100 GPM + 100 GPM = 200 GPM The length of the 2 hose is 200 FL = 10 psi for every 100 of 2 hose flowing 200 GPM FL = 10 X 2 FL = 20 psi Step 4: Find the total Friction loss by all hoses Total the friction loss in the wyed lines and the 2 line Add the results from steps 2 and 3 70 + 20 = 90 FL = 90 psi

Step 5: Find BP There is no BP for this problem BP = 0 Step 4: Find APP The appliance loss figure for a Wye is 5 psi APP = 5 psi Step 5: Plug all the figures into the formula EP = NP + FL + BP + APP EP = 80 + 90 + 0 + 5 EP = 175 psi

Do problems on worksheet provided for extra practice. Contact the instructor if you need a worksheet or have any questions. Remember: If you encounter a work problem that has a GPM value not covered in the Field Calculation Chart, or if you forget a FL of a hose, you can always find it by using 2Q2 + Q. But remember, this formula is only for every 100 of 2 hose. Hoses of all other diameters need to be converted to an equivalent length.

8)

## Supplying Multiple Hoselines

Some incidents require that hoselines of different lengths and diameters be used simultaneously from the same fire truck. The pump operator must be able to quickly determine the proper pump pressure for each of the different lines. Below is an example of a common hose evolution involving different hose diameters and lengths

## The EP for each of the 1 hoselines is 150 psi

The EP for the 2 hoseline is 95 psi What engine pressure should the operator pump? Modern fire trucks have multiple discharge outlets, each equipped with individual gates and pressure gauges. The pump operator would have to set the pump speed at the pressure of the highest discharge pressure. In the above example, the pump pressure would have to be set at 150 psi. This would give the 1 hoselines the proper pressure. As for the 2 hoseline, the operator would have to choke down or only partially open the gate valve to obtain the desired pressure of 95 psi. If the 2 gate valve was fully opened, the pressure would be too high for the hoseline, and if the pump speed was lowered to 95 psi, the pressure would be insufficient for the 1 hoselines. Some older fire trucks have multiple discharges, but only one pressure gauge. This makes it very difficult when pumping multiple hoselines requiring different pressures. One method of pumping these types of evolutions is to take the average pressure of all hoselines and set the pump pressure to that average. This only works if the different pressures are moderately close. The old timers used to set the pump to

the highest hose pressure and choke down on the other lines that require lower pressures. They would check the pressure by stepping on the hose and feeling for the perfect hardness.

9)

## Aerial Streams (Ladderpipe and Platform Operations)

Aerial streams are master stream nozzles that are elevated to heights up to 100 through use of an aerial ladder or an aerial platform. These ladders or platforms are mounted directly onto an apparatus called a Ladder Truck or Snorkel. Ladder trucks or Snorkel trucks are not required to have their own pumps, although some models do. Usually, in an aerial stream operation, the truck providing the aerial stream will set up operations in a way that best utilizes their aerial stream. Once the aerial is in place, a fire truck with a pump will provide water to the aerial truck. It is important for the pumper truck to deliver the proper pressure so that an effective fire stream is delivered. As noted earlier in this chapter, the APP loss for a ladderpipe operation is 80 psi. This figure is only for the friction loss of components after the supply lines and before the nozzle (siamese, hose, BP of elevation). This means that operators will have to find the friction loss in the supply lines (method for finding FL in siamesed lines) and find the appropriate FL for the nozzle used. These figures will be added to the constant APP loss of 80 psi to get the engine pressure.

Work Problem: Find the EP of the above ladderpipe operation. EP = NP + FL + BP + APP Step 1: Find NP The NP for a master stream using a fog nozzle is 100 psi (given) NP = 100 psi

Step 2: Find FL in the supply hoselines The average length of wyed hoses is 200: (200 + 200) 2 400 2 = 200 The average flow of the hoses is 300 gpm Total gpm number of hoses 600 gpm 2 = 300 Using fire ground calculations, we know that each 100 length of 2 hose flowing 300 gpm has a friction loss of 21 psi. 200 100 = 2 2 X 21 = 42 psi FL = 42 psi

Step 3: Find BP The BP for ladderpipe operations is included in the APP loss BP = 0 Step 4: Find APP The appliance loss figure for a ladderpipe operation is 80 psi APP = 80 psi Step 5: Plug all the figures into the formula EP = NP + FL + BP + APP EP = 100 + 42 + 0 + 80 EP = 222 psi

## 10) Relay Pumping

Relay pumping is used when the distance from the water supply (fire hydrant) to the incident is longer than the supply lines carried by a single

fire truck. A relay operation consists of two or more fire trucks, in concession, providing water to the next fire truck.

Each fire truck, except for the truck pumping the firefighting lines, should provide 20 psi residual pressure to the next fire truck. To accomplish this, pump operators must pump 20 psi above the friction loss of the relay hose. If the 20 psi is not added, the receiving truck will have 0 psi coming in and will not be able to deliver any water to the next fire truck. The gpm used for finding the friction loss is determined by the amount of water flowing through the firefighting lines. Engine #1: EP = FL + 20 psi Pumping 250 gpm through 1500 of 2 FL for 2 flowing 250 gpm = 15 per 100 1500 100 = 15 FL = 15 X 15 FL = 225 Add 20 psi residual pressure EP = 225 + 20 EP = 245 psi Engine #2: EP = FL + 20 psi Pumping 250 gpm through 1000 of 2 FL for 2 flowing 250 gpm = 15 per 100 1000 100 = 10 FL = 15 X 10 FL = 150 Add 20 psi residual pressure EP = 150 + 20

EP = 170 psi Engine #3: EP = NP + FL + BP + APP NP = 80 psi FL = 60 psi (400 2 flowing 250 = 4 X 15) BP = 0 APP = 0 EP = 80 + 60 + 0 + 0 EP = 140 psi The quickest method in setting up a relay operation is to pump all relaying fire trucks at the same pressure (except truck pumping firefighting lines). The pressure used should be that of the truck with the longest hose lay. This will ensure adequate pressure to all trucks in the relay operation. Once the relay operation is set up, adjustments can be made to the pressure. In a relay operation it is difficult to tell exactly how much hose is initially laid out, especially if the fire truck did not lay out its entire compliment of hose. After water is flowing, there will be time to fine- tune the operation.

## Chapter 7: Fire Streams

1) General Information
A good fire stream will extinguish a fire in the shortest period of time with a minimum amount of water. A good fire stream must have a sufficient amount of volume and reach to get to the seat of the fire and cool burning materials below their ignition temperature. Some characteristics of a good fire stream are as follows: a. Does not break up before reaching the fire b. Compact enough to reach the height or distance needed

c. Compact enough so that: I. 90% of its volume fits within a 15-inch circle OR ii. 75% of its volume fits within a 10-inch circle b. With no wind, a good fire stream should be able to enter a room through a window and strike the ceiling with enough force to splatter well enough to extinguish a fire (indirect attack) There are several factors that affect a fire stream: a. Air resistance (friction of fire stream traveling through air) b. Gravity c. Wind Conditions 1. Moderate tail winds will increase the horizontal reach but will decrease the vertical reach 2. Head winds will raise the vertical reach but will shorten horizontal reach d. Condition of nozzle

2)

## Nozzle Size and Pressure

Each nozzle tip has an optimal nozzle pressure. If the pressure is substantially lower or higher than the rated (recommended) nozzle pressure, the fire stream produced by that nozzle will be inefficient or ineffective. In other words, if a pump operator does not provide the proper nozzle pressure, the fire stream produced will break up before reaching the fire. As a general rule of thumb, nozzle pressure recommendations are as follows: Handlines Barrel Tip (solid stream) Fog Nozzle (fog or straight stream) 50 psi 80 psi Master Streams 80 psi 100 psi

note: For safety reasons handlines and master stream devices (deluge, turret, ladder pipe) should not be pumped from the same pumper at the same time. If a master stream device should suddenly shut

down, the pressure being used for the master stream device could be absorbed by the handlines causing them to burst or injuring the firefighters on those handlines. Separate fire trucks should be used for incidents requiring the simultaneous use of handlines and master stream devices The nozzle size must also be suited for the diameter of hoseline that is being used. As a general rule, the diameter of the nozzle should not exceed of the hose diameter. This means that a 1 hoseline should not use a nozzle with a diameter of greater than .

3)

Horizontal Reach
Firefighters may encounter situations requiring the use of long-range fire streams. Some examples are: a. Fires producing extreme heat b. Unusual structural conditions c. Dangerous fires i. Flammable tanks ii. Gas tanks iii. Reactive materials d. Limited access i. Junk yards

## ii. Lumber yards iii. Brush fires

In theory, a fire stream angled at 45 will produce the greatest horizontal reach. However for firefighting purposes, the maximum effective horizontal range of a fire stream can be obtained from a fire stream angled between 30-34

The formula for finding the horizontal reach of a fire stream is: Horizontal Reach = x Nozzle Pressure + 26 feet HR = NP + 26 This formula is based on a nozzle size of . For every 1/8 over , 5 feet must be added to the 26. Work Problem: What is the horizontal reach of a fire stream flowing 50 psi through a 1 tip (nozzle)? HR = NP + 26 (+5 for every 1/8 over ) Step 1: Find difference in eighths between 1 and 1 (8/8) minus (6/8) = 2/8 1 is 2 eighths over Step 2: Multiply 5 by the total number of eighths over 5 x 2 = 10 Step 3: Add the figure in step two into the formula HR = NP + 26 + 10 Step 4: Solve problem (using adjusted formula in step 3) HR = NP + 26 + 10 HR = (50) + 26 + 10 HR = 25 + 26 + 10 HR = 61 feet

Work Problem: What is the horizontal reach of a fire stream flowing 60 psi through a 1 1/8 tip (nozzle)? HR = NP + 26 (+5 for every 1/8 over ) Step 1: Find difference in eighths between 1 1/8 and 1 1/8 (9/8) minus (6/8) = 3/8 1 1/8 is 3 eighths over Step 2: Multiply 5 by the total number of eighths over 5 x 3 = 15 Step 3: Add the figure in step two into the formula HR = NP + 26 + 15 Step 4: Solve problem (using adjusted formula in step 3) HR = NP + 26 + 15 HR = (60) + 26 + 15 HR = 30 + 26 + 15 HR = 71 feet

4)

Vertical Reach
Firefighters may encounter situations requiring the use of long vertical fire streams. Some examples are: a. Multi-storied buildings b. Hillside fires c. Use of fire streams to disperse contaminants or smoke In theory, a fire stream angled at 90 will produce the greatest vertical reach. However for firefighting purposes, the maximum effective vertical range of a fire stream can be obtained from a fire stream angled between 60-75

When using a vertical fire stream on a multi-story building, firefighters should consider the following factors: a. The third floor is considered the highest story that a fire stream may be applied effectively from the street level. a. The fire stream should not be angled greater than 50. This is because an angle is needed so that the stream may enter the building and deflect off the ceiling towards the fire. If the angle is too steep, the stream will not reach the fire within the structure, but rather hit the ceiling and fall straight down.

b. If using a deluge or deck gun (turret), park the apparatus on the opposite side of street from the fire to help achieve the effective angle of discharge (50).

The formula for finding the vertical reach of a fire stream is: Vertical Reach = 5/8 x Nozzle Pressure + 26 feet VR = 5/8 NP + 26 This formula is based on a nozzle size of . For every 1/8 over , 5 feet must be added to the 26. Work Problem: What is the vertical reach of a fire stream flowing 40

psi through a 1 tip (nozzle)? VR = 5/8 NP + 26 (+5 for every 1/8 over ) Step 1: Find difference in eighths between 1 and 1 (8/8) minus (6/8) = 2/8 1 is 2 eighths over Step 2: Multiply 5 by the total number of eighths over 5 x 2 = 10 Step 3: Add the figure in step two into the formula VR = 5/8 NP + 26 + 10 Step 4: Solve problem (using adjusted formula in step 3) VR = 5/8 NP + 26 + 10 HR = 5/8 (40) + 26 + 10 (convert 5/8 to decimal on calc.) HR = 25 + 26 + 10 HR = 61 feet Work Problem: What is the vertical reach of a fire stream flowing 80 psi through a 1 1/8 tip (nozzle)? VR = 5/8 NP + 26 (+5 for every 1/8 over ) Step 1: Find difference in eighths between 1 1/8 and 1 1/8 (9/8) minus (6/8) = 3/8 1 1/8 is 3 eighths over Step 2: Multiply 5 by the total number of eighths over 5 x 3 = 15 Step 3: Add the figure in step two into the formula VR = 5/8 NP + 26 + 15 Step 4: Solve problem (using adjusted formula in step 3)

VR = 5/8 NP + 26 + 15 HR = 5/8 (80) + 26 + 15 (convert 5/8 to decimal on calc.) HR = 50 + 26 + 15 HR = 91 feet Note: to increase horizontal or vertical range, increase pressure by 1 psi for every foot needed. (i.e. if 10 more feet of reach is needed, increasing the nozzle pressure by 10 psi would get the approximate distance needed)

## Chapter 8: Standpipe Systems

General Remarks
1) Where required
a. Tall Buildings

## b. Large Buildings c. Special Occupancies

2)

Enforcement in Hawai`i
a. Building Department Uniform Building Code

## Types of Standpipe Systems in Hawai`i

1) Dry Standpipe System (designed for Fire Department use)
Dry standpipe systems are required in certain types of occupancies and are installed to help provide a water supply throughout the occupancy. A dry standpipe system provides 2 hose outlets to each floor of a building. These outlets are connected to a pipe, called a riser, which is connected to a siamese connection located on the street level at the front of the building. When firefighters need water, a fire truck will have to connect to a fire hydrant (intake side of pump) and supply lines to the siamese

connection (discharge side of pump). Once the fire truck begins discharging water to the siamese connection, water will fill the risers and will be distributed to all the 2 outlets. Each outlet has an individual shut-off, and firefighters can connect their firefighting lines to the desired outlet. Once the hoselines are connected and in place, firefighters can then open the 2 outlets to allow water to flow through their hoselines.

The following are guidelines for dry standpipe systems: a. Required in buildings 4 or more stories

b. Riser Size (pipe) 4 6 inches (found within stairwells) c. Fire Department Siamese Connection i. Located on street front of building ii. 2 or 4 way connection for Fire Department use d. 2 hose outlets for each riser i. 1 per floor level (optional for 1st floor) ii. Roof outlet requires a two-way 2 connection

## 2) Wet Standpipe System (designed for occupant / tenant use)

Wet standpipe systems are similar to the dry standpipe system, but there are a few differences. Wet standpipes have hose cabinets on each floor. These hose cabinets contain 1 fire hose with a nozzle. In case of a fire, tenants can open the hose cabinet, pull out the hose and then open the valve allowing water to flow through the hose. With this having been said,

this type of system requires that water be provided and pressurized up to each hose cabinet at all times. Buildings can either use county water pressure, or have some type of pressure booster, such as a pump. The following are guidelines for dry standpipe systems: a. Required in buildings 4 stories or more Note: Not required in buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system. b. Riser size (pipe) 2 2 c. Outlet (Fire hose cabinet) on each floor level

d. Building fire pumps may be needed to meet flow and pressure requirements (UL Underwriters Laboratory FM Factory Mutual)

3)

## Combination / Combined Systems

It is not uncommon to find occupancies having a combination of systems for fire protection. Examples of combination systems are: a. Combination System (Wet standpipe and Dry standpipe)

## b. Combined System (Dry standpipe and Automatic Sprinkler System)

Pumping Operations:
The following is an example of a typical dry standpipe operation. Using fire ground calculations, figure out the engine pressure of a fire truck pumping this evolution.

## EP= 10 psi gpm 25 psi

FL ( 2 hoses to siamese) 2 2-1/2 lines flowing 200 gpm FL (2 hose on fire floor) 1 2-1/2 line flowing 200 gpm FL (1 firefighting lines) 1 1-1/2 line flowing 100 35 psi FL (Appliance for siamese) FL (Wye on the fire floor)

3 psi

psi BP (Back pressure 11 floors) 50 psi NP (Nozzle pressure) psi Engine Pressure = 208 psi note: The way I like to figure this one out is to break up the evolution into 3 parts. First, figure the friction loss for the evolution on the fire floor. 80

## Step 1: Find the friction loss in the wyed hoses

Find the average length of the wyed hoses 100 ft + 100 ft = 200 ft 200 ft 2 = 100 ft 1 flowing 100 gpm = 35 psi / 100 FL = 35 psi Step 2: Find friction loss in 2 hose Total flow = 200 gpm (both 1 hoses) 2 hose flowing 200 gpm = 10 / 100 FL = 10 psi Step 3: Find NP and Appliance loss NP = 80 psi Appliance Loss = 5 psi (2 to 1 wye) Total other losses = 85 psi Step 4: Combine figures for steps 1 - 3 35 + 10 + 85 130 psi Second, find friction loss for hoses supplying the siamese. Step 1: Find the friction loss in the siamesed hoses Find the average length of the wyed hoses 100 ft + 100 ft = 200 ft 200 ft 2 = 100 ft Find the flow for each 2 hose 200 gpm (both 1 hoses) divided by 2 (number of siamesed hoses) Each hose is flowing 100 gpm

2 flowing 100 gpm = 3 psi / 100 FL = 3 psi Step 2: Find Appliance loss Appliance Loss = 25 psi (siamese connection) Step 3: Combine figures for steps 1 - 2 3 + 25 28 psi Third, find back pressure and add this figure to the totals of the above steps. BP = 10 x 5 (fire on 11th floor = 10 floors above ground) BP = 50 Now we can add all the figures from the 3 parts. Part 1 = 130 Part 2 = 28 Part 3 = 50 Total = 208 psi

## Chapter 9: Automatic Sprinkler Systems

General Information
1) History
Sprinkler systems were developed around the 1850s. These early systems were made up of perforated piping and were not automatic. In 1878, USA saw its first automatic sprinkler system and shortly afterward, Federick Grinnel began rapid commercial development of these automatic sprinkler systems. Nowadays, law requires automatic sprinkler systems in certain

occupancies. These requirements vary from local jurisdictions. Hawai`i law requires automatic sprinkler systems in the following occupancies: a. High Rise Buildings (required since 1972)

## d. Hospitals e. f. g. Large Assembly Buildings Basements Hazardous Storage Areas

These modern sprinkler systems are very efficient, extinguishing approximately 96% of all fires before firefighters arrive at the scene.

2)

## Design & Installation per Occupancy Classification

Sprinkler systems are usually activated when a sprinkler head is exposed to extreme heat. Sprinkler heads have links or fuses that are designed to open at a pre-determined temperature. Once this temperature is reached, the link or fuse will break and water will begin to flow. Each sprinkler head has its own fuse or link, and only those exposed to the predetermined temperature will flow water. In other words, if a fire starts in a corner of the room, only the sprinkler heads affected by the fire will activate. The heads in the opposite corner may not be exposed to enough heat to activate them. Light hazard occupancies (low combustibility) require sprinkler heads to open when exposed to temperatures around 135 - 150. Examples of these occupancies are: a. Churches

## b. Schools c. Office Buildings

Ordinary hazard occupancies (moderate quantity of combustibles) require sprinkler heads to open when exposed to temperatures of 160 and above. Examples of these occupancies are:

a.

Warehouses

## b. Laundries c. Manufacturing Occupancies

Extra (high) hazard occupancies require sprinkler heads to open when exposed to temperatures of 325 and above. Examples of these occupancies are: a. Airplane Hangars

b. Occupancies dealing with explosives c. Occupancies dealing with flammable liquids or gases

## Basic Types of Automatic Sprinkler Systems

1) Wet-pipe System
Wet-pipe sprinkler systems are the most common in use today. These systems contain water under pressure to each individual sprinkler head. When a head is exposed to a pre-determined temperature, the fuse or link will break and water will begin to flow.

2) Dry-pipe System
Dry-pipe systems are usually installed in occupancies where there is a chance of the water freezing in the lines. Dry-pipe systems have air or nitrogen under pressure to each sprinkler head. The pressure in these lines is slightly above the water pressure, and this pressure difference is what keeps the water out of the sprinkler lines. When a sprinkler head is activated, the air will begin to expel, and the air pressure will drop. As the air pressure drops, water will begin to advance throughout the lines and flow through the activated heads.

3)

Preaction System
Pre-action systems are usually installed in areas or occupancies that are concerned about water damage from broken or faulty sprinkler lines or heads. Water is stopped at the feeders (in the walls before the pipes supplying the sprinkler heads) by a valve. This valve is electronically activated by a heat-detecting device within the area. Once the heatdetecting device detects heat, a signal is sent to the valve and the valve opens. Water will then flow to all heads, but will only discharge through the activated heads. If a forklift or some other type of equipment breaks a sprinkler line, water will not immediately discharge because the valve is holding back the water flow and not the sprinkler heads (unlike the wetpipe or dry-pipe systems).

4)

Deluge System
Deluge systems are generally installed in hazardous areas requiring the immediate application of water. This system is very similar to the preaction system, except all sprinkler heads are open (no activating device). Once the heat-detecting device activates the valve, water will flow from all heads within the area.

Pumping Operations
Sprinkler systems are installed in accordance with building and fire codes, and therefore usually designed with adequate pressure to supply water. However, there may be circumstances when a fire pumper is needed to supplement the system. Examples are: a. City water main broken or out of order

b. Building fire pump not working When pumping into sprinkler systems, fire pumps may attach hoses to the sprinkler systems siamese connection (similar to a standpipe connection). It is recommended that: a. Initial water pressure be 100 psi

b. Minimum of 2 supply lines (2 ) Most sprinkler heads have a discharge opening. Each head can cover approximately 100 (10 x 10) square feet. The discharge for sprinkler heads can be found using the following formula: Sprinkler Discharge = Pressure + 15 Sprinkler Discharge = P + 15 note: this formula is to find discharge per head (must multiply # of heads flowing) Work Problem: A sprinkler system has 8 sprinkler heads activated at 40 psi. Find the total gpm (discharge) Discharge = P + 15 Discharge = (40) + 15 Discharge = 20 + 15 Discharge = 35 (per head)

Total Discharge = 35 x 8 (# of heads flowing) Total Discharge = 280 gpm The pressure of a sprinkler head can be found using the following formula: Sprinkler Pressure = 2 x (Sprinkler Discharge 15) P = 2 (Dis 15) Work Problem: An activated sprinkler head is flowing 35 gpm. What is the pressure of that sprinkler head? Pressure = 2 ( Dis 15) Pressure = 2 (35 15) Pressure = 2 (20) Pressure = 40 psi