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T. Travasarou1, J. Bray2, and N. Abrahamson3 Overview Performance-based design of civil engineering structures requires the identification of critical indices of damage. These are then correlated with key ground motion parameters whose efficiency is determined by the size of the variability in the correlation between the index of damage (engineering demand parameter) and the selected ground motion parameter (intensity measure). To obtain as accurate a prediction as possible of the level of the anticipated damage, it is desirable to minimize this variability by selecting an optimal intensity measure. Parameters that incorporate the amplitude, frequency content, and duration of the ground motion are likely to be more reliable predictors of damage than parameters only relating to ground motion amplitude. Arias Intensity is a ground motion parameter that captures the potential destructiveness of an earthquake as the integral of the square of the acceleration-time history. It correlates well with several commonly used demand measures of structural performance, liquefaction, and seismic slope stability. A new empirical relationship is developed to estimate Arias Intensity as a function of magnitude, distance, fault mechanism, and site category based on 1208 recorded ground motion data from 75 earthquakes in active plate-margins. Its functional form is derived from the point-source model, and the coefficients are determined through nonlinear regression analyses using a random-effects model. The results show that for large magnitude earthquakes (M > 7) Arias Intensity was significantly overestimated from previous relationships while it was underestimated for smaller magnitude events (M 6). The average horizontal Arias Intensity is not significantly affected by forward rupture directivity in the near-fault region. The aleatory variability associated with Arias Intensity is larger than that of most other ground motion parameters such as spectral acceleration. However, it may be useful in assessing the potential seismic performance of stiff engineering systems whose response is dominated by the short-period characteristics of ground motions. Applicability The applicability of the attenuation relationship is restricted to earthquakes occurring in active plate margin regions with moment magnitudes 4.7 M 7.6. In addition, the relationship is not intended to be used for soft soil sites (UBC site category SE) or sites requiring site-specific evaluation (UBC site category SF)
1 2

Graduate Student Researcher, University of California, Berkeley. Professor, University of California, Berkeley. 3 Seismologist, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, San Francisco.

Definition of Arias Intensity Arias Intensity is defined by Arias (1970) as:

Ia = a (t )2 dt 2g 0

Equation 1

where I a is the Arias Intensity in units of length per time, a (t ) is the acceleration-time history in units of g, and g is the acceleration of gravity. Empirical Equation The median Arias Intensity can be predicted by Equation 2. Figure 1, shows dependence of the predicted median Arias Intensity on distance for a strike-slip fault 3 different site categories and 3 different magnitude earthquakes

ln( I a ) =

c1 + c2 (M 6) + c 3 ln(M / 6) + c4 ln( R 2 + h 2 ) + (s11 + s12 ( M 6)) S C + ( s 21 + s22 (M 6)) S D + f1 FN + f 2 FR

Equation 2

where: I a : Arias Intensity in m/s (average of the two horizontal components) M: moment magnitude R: closest distance to the rupture plane in km SC, SD: both 0 for site B, 1 and 0 for site C, and 0 and 1 for site D FN, FR: both 0 for strike slip, 1 and 0 for normal, and 0 and 1 for reverse or reverse oblique faults c1, c2, c3, c4, h, s11, s12, s21, s22, f1, and f2: coefficients determined by the regression shown in Table 1. The error term in Equation 2 is normally distributed with zero mean and standard Figure 1 Median value of Arias Intensity against distance for three different site categories and three different magnitude earthquakes for a strike-slip fault

deviation tot . It is dependent on magnitude (M), median Arias Intensity ( I a ), (coefficients are listed in Table 2) and site category (Table 3).
tot (M , I a , site) = ( M ) 2 + (I a , site) 2

Equation 3

() = 1 (Ia, site) = 2

0.611 0.611 - 0.0466 (M - 4.7) 0.476

for M 4.7 for 4.7 < M < 7.6 for M 7.6

Equation 4

1 0.1064 (ln( I a ) ln(0.0132))

for I a 0.0132 m/s for 0.0132 < I a < 0.1245 m/s Equation 5 for I a 0.1245 m/s

Table 1 Coefficients of Empirical Equation for Median Arias Intensity c1












Table 2 Parameters for Computation of the Site Dependent Error Term () B 1 2 1.181 0.942 C 1.166 0.972 D 0.965 0.726

Table 3 - Bray and Rodriguez-Marek 1997 Site Classification Scheme Site Category B C D Description Rock, most unweathered California rock cases (Vs 760 m/s or < 6m of soil) Weathered soft rock and shallow stiff soil ( < 60 m of soil) Deep stiff Holocene or Pleistocene soil ( > 60 m of soil and no soft soils)

Example Calculation The median and plus one and minus one standard deviation are computed for a typical earthquake scenario in the Bay Area of a magnitude M=7 strike-slip earthquake at R=10km from the fault rupture on a D site .

Median Arias Intensity ln( I a ) = 0.418 Error Term

median I a = 1.5 m / s

(M ) = 0.611 0.0466(7.0 4.7) = 0.504

( I a , site) = 0.726 , because I a = 1.5m / s > 0.1245 and Site = D

tot = 0.504 2 + 0.726 2 = 0.867

16% and 84% levels of Arias Intensity 16% I a = exp( 0.418 0.867 ) = 0.64 m / s 84% I a = exp( 0.418 + 0.867) = 3.6 m / s For further information See Travasarou et al. (2002) referenced below, or contact Thaleia Travasarou or Jonathan Bray by e-mail at and Acknowledgment This work was supported in part by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center through the Earthquake Engineering Research Centers Program of the National Science Foundation under Award Number EEC-9701568. References Arias, A. (1970). "A Measure of Earthquake Intensity," R.J. Hansen, ed. Seismic Design for Nuclear Power Plants, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 438-483. Bray, J. D. and Rodriguez-Marek, A. (1997). Geotechnical Site Categories, Proceedings, First PEER-PG&E Workshop on Seismic Reliability of Utility Lifelines, San Francisco, CA, August. UBC (1997) Uniform Building Code Travasarou, T., Bray, J.D., and Abrahamson, N.A. (2002). "Empirical Attenuation Relationship for Arias Intensity," submitted to Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, April, 2002. Keywords attenuation relationship, Arias Intensity, engineering demand parameter, ground motion, intensity measure, performance