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An Integrated UWB and Bluetooth Antenna with Dual Band-notched Characteristic
K. C. Law, S. W. Cheung, and T. I. Yuk Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Abstract— This paper presents the design of an integrated Ultrawideband (UWB) and Bluetooth microstrip monopole antenna with a dual band-notched characteristic. The antenna consists of an elliptical ring as the radiator to cover the frequency bands for both the Bluetooth (2.4–2.5 GHz) and UWB (3.1–10.6 GHz) applications. A triangular resonator and a meander defected-ground structure (DGS) are used to generate two notches at the centre frequencies of 2.856 and 5.5 GHz. The return loss, radiation pattern, peak gain and eﬃciency of the antenna are studied using computer simulation.
Since the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) assigned 3.1–10.6 GHz frequency band of Ultrawideband (UWB) systems in February 2002 , UWB technology has been attracting considerable interests in both the academic and commercial domains due to the potentially high data rate (more than 110 Mbits/s) for short range, low power consumptions and easy connections to diﬀerent devices such as wireless USB, PCs, high-deﬁnition TVs, etc. In 2006 , the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) selected the WiMedia Alliance multiband orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) version of UWB, which could be integrated with the current Bluetooth wireless technology. Nowadays, some portable devices are equipped with the Bluetooth antenna and WLAN antenna. It will be a diﬃcult task to put an additional UWB antenna in the same portable devices due to the limited space available. One of the possible solutions is to use an antenna that can operate in both the UWB and Bluetooth frequency bands. The current IEEE802.11a/n WLAN systems are occupying a small portion of the UWB. Thus there will be interference between the UWB systems and the IEEE802.11a/n systems. To reduce this interference, the antenna can be designed to have a band-notched characteristic. Diﬀerent techniques have been studied to produce the band-notched features [3–11]. However, in these designs, the suppressed gains and eﬃciencies of the antennas at the notched frequency bands were quite limited and far from zero. In this paper, we propose a planar-monopole antenna using an elliptical ring as the radiator to cover both the UWB and Bluetooth frequency bands with a dual-band notch. As there are other wireless communication systems between the Bluetooth and UWB bands, for example: 3GPP (2.57– 2.62 GHz), CDMA2000 (US 2.5 GHz Band) and CMMB (2.635–2.66 GHz), a triangular resonator is placed at the centre of the elliptical-ring radiator to create a notch at 2.856 GHz to reduce interference between the Bluetooth system and these wireless systems. The centre frequency of the notch can be controlled by adjusting the dimensions of the triangular resonator. To reduce interference between the UWB system and the IEEE802.11a/n WLAN system (5.15–5.825 GHz), a meander-DGS is employed to create another notched band at 5.5 GHz. Results show that the peak gain can be suppressed by more than 12 dB at the frequency of around 5.5 GHz, which is deeper than the notches designed for other integrated UWB and Bluetooth antennas [8–11], and the eﬃciency is close to zero.
2. STRUCTURE OF ANTENNA, MODELING OF MEANDER-DGS AND DESIGN OF ANTENNA 2.1. Structure of Antenna
Our proposed dual band-notched UWB antenna is shown in Fig. 1. In this design, we use the planar-monopole technology to achieve a compact antenna size for applications in small wireless devices. The antenna has an area of 31.5 × 39.75 mm2 and is designed on a Roger PCB, RO4350B, with a relative permittivity of 3.48, thickness of 0.762 mm and loss tangent of 0.0037. The antenna consists of an elliptical-ring radiator fed by a 50-Ω microstrip line printed on one side of the
25 w4 0. but the resonant frequency has a linear relationship with the height t1 . 13]. There is no exact method to design a general microstrip triangular resonator.8 L2 2. we can simply select the required value from Fig.5 t1 17. with detailed values listed in Table 1. From these results.68 w1 1. It can be seen that t2 has an insigniﬁcant eﬀect on the resonant frequency. At resonance. gap.8 rv1 9. The inductance and capacitance of the LC resonant circuit can be changed by using the dimensions of the meander-DGS and hence used to adjust the notched frequency. NO. Design of Antenna The meander-DGS etched on the ground plane behaves like a parallel LC resonant [12.1 gl 14. 2(a). 2.7 L1 13 L6 3.2. 7. except for equilateral and isosceles right-angled triangular resonators [14.63 W 31. To create a notch at a particular frequency. Fig. VOL. producing a notched characteristic for the antenna. changing gradually from w1 = 1. L 39.25 w3 0. curve ﬁtting is used as a guideline to design the triangular resonators. 7. Fig. which is used in our studies here. 2011 622 (a) (b) (c) Figure 1: Conﬁguration of proposed antenna: (a) top view.PIERS ONLINE. We ﬁrst study the eﬀects of the base t2 and height t1 of the triangular resonator on the resonant frequency by computer simulation. the distance.1893 × t1 + 6. The dimensions of the antenna are optimized using computer simulation. between the radiator and the ground plane is set to 0. As an illustration. Table 1: Optimized parameters of antenna (mm). The other side of the substrate is a ground plane where a meander-DGS is etched under the feed line and acts as an LC resonator to create another notched frequency band centered at 5. 2(b) shows the simulated resonant frequency versus t1 for diﬀerent t2 . the signal from the feed line will be coupled into the meander-DGS.7 mm to w2 = 0.5 w2 0.122 (1) . A triangular resonator is printed inside the elliptical-ring radiator to create a notched frequency band at 2.8 mm as shown in Fig.58 t2 5. To achieve good impedance matching. 1.23 rv2 12 L4 4.2 substrate. 15].75 L5 0.1 L3 1.5 rh1 9.856 GHz next to the Bluetooth band. 2(a) shows the simulated notched frequency versus length L4 of the meander-DGS. (b) side view and (c) bottom view. we can use linear interpolation to relate the centre frequency in GHz to t1 by the following equation: f = −0.6 mm and the width of the feed line is tapered.7 rh2 12.5 GHz. Usually.
For the antenna without any notch.44 to over 12 GHz. (a) (b) (c) Figure 3: Simulated (a) return losses.08 GHz. The simulated peak gain and eﬃciency of our proposed antenna with two notches are shown in . Figure 4: Simulated radiation pattern of proposed antenna. which can suppress interference to/from the WLAN systems operating in the frequency band from 5. the lower operating frequency extends to 2.36 GHz and the notch at 2. With the meander DGS. centered at 2.5 GHz with a bandwidth from 5. It should be noted that the triangular resonator and the meander-DGS do not aﬀect each other.21 GHz. the notch is centered at 5. our proposed antenna has the bandwidths (for return loss > 10 dB) from 2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The antenna has been designed with two notches. 3. 7.856 and 5. VOL. 7.66 to 3. NO.5 GHz.PIERS ONLINE.1–10. fully satisfying the bandwidth requirement for UWB applications (3. on a RO4350B substrate using computer simulation. the bandwidth is from 2. 3(a). The return loss of the antenna without notch is also shown in the same ﬁgure for comparison. 2011 623 (a) (b) Figure 2: Simulated resonant frequency versus (a) length L4 and (b) height t1 for diﬀerent bases t2 .6 GHz). The simulated return losses of the antenna.31 to over 12 GHz. (b) peak gain and (c) eﬃciency with or without notches.11 to 6. with a single notch and dual notch are shown in Fig.15–5. in all these conditions. It can be seen that. With the triangular resonator.825 GHz.856 GHz has a bandwidth (for return loss < 10 dB) from 2.
H. 15. Weng. Opt. El Dein. 7. “A small integrated bluetooth and UWB antenna with WLAN band-notched characteristic. Such large drops are due to the high attenuation characteristic of the meander-DGS.bluetooth. R. Speciﬁcations of Bluetooth System. No. 783–785. First Report and Order.858 and 5. J. Y. the gain and eﬃciency are signiﬁcantly dropped by more than 12 dB and to about 1. E. 173–189. S.5–12 GHz. W. 3. .5 GHz. J. Hwang. “A compact 5 GHz WLAN notched bluetooth/UWB antenna. Y.832 mm3 . Fat-Helbary. Microwave Theory and Techniques. Hassani. 1... Dadashzadeh. respectively.75×0. At the notched frequency of 5. F. R. “Novel planar UWB monopole antenna with triple bandnotched characteristics. Chao.856 GHz. A. “Compact planar monopole UWB antenna with band-notched characteristic. L. 7. the radiation patterns are smaller and distorted. the radiation pattern in the E-plane at 8 GHz shows two nulls in the z-direction which is typical for a monopole antenna. 2008. the gain varies from 2 to 5. and A. with the corresponding peak gains dropping by about 5. The size of the antenna is only 31. Park. The radiation patterns in the H-plane at these frequencies are omnidirectional. X. 2005. Figure 4 shows the simulated radiation patterns of the antenna at the notched frequencies of 2. Guo. M. Weng. Wong. Zhao.” International Multi-conference on Systems Signals and Devices (SSD). and G. May 2010.. Zhan..-K. “An overview on defected ground structure..-L. Dai. No. 10.856 and 5. At 2. Oct. B. Vol. Z. 417–424. and C..5 and at 8 GHz. S.” Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium. Q. “Novel modiﬁed monopole antenna with band-notch characteristic for UWB application. 1207–1213.5 GHz. Hong. and K. 2010. Y. 41. and C. W. F. W.” International Conference on Ultra-wideband. Systems and Electronics. VOL. Liang.” IEEE Trans. O.” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters.” Microw. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Aug. 52.-H. 2009. Sep. and T. Weng. Yoon. and S. Jun. 50.4 dB and to about 16. Li.. 2004. A triangular resonator and meander-DGS have been employed to produce a dual-band notch centered at 2. Vol. J.4 dB and 12 dB and eﬃciencies to about 16. X.4%. Z. Y. respectively. Zhang. Yuk.1 [Online] Available: http://www. R.5×39. Vol. and T. C. Jul. “An antenna for UWB and bluetooth standards with band-notched characteristic. 2002. 7. K. Huang. Feb. 2009.5 dB and the antenna eﬃciency is above 95%. S. Li. and Y.-W. 7. and Y. 7. 8. Proﬁles..5 GHz. L. Version 1. Jiao.com. respectively. Song.. W. 9. “A novel kind of bluetooth and UWB antenna. 8. Apr. 767–760. Lu. Vol. Kim. At the notched frequency of 2.” International Symposium on Signals. Cheung.5 GHz. Yuk. Y. G. H. 2010. Cheung. 1–4. 170–174. No. 2008.. and Z.. Zhao.8%. W. 6. 1–4.” International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT). 2009. 14.” Progress In Electromagnetic Research.. Nov.-Q. S. 10. 1–3. C. Kim. Cheng.PIERS ONLINE. C. 1094–1098.” Progress In Electromagnetic Research B. Sep. REFERENCES 1. X. 2007. Letters. At 8 GHz. 2656–2658. and S. “Theory and experiment of dual-mode microstrip triangular-patch resonators and ﬁlters. 77. Oct. L. “Tunablecompact bandstop defected ground structure (DGS) with lumped element. Montaser. 4. Zhao. I. Kim.4%. 2010. 11. 1237–1243. Y. 1038–1041.. Shi. and X. “Band-notched UWB planar monopole antenna with two parasitic patches. A.” Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference. Radiation is substantially smaller at 5. NO. 14. Vol. 2011 624 Figs. M. H.856 and 5.-X Chen. “UWB antenna with single or dualband notched characteristic for WLAN band using meandered ground stubs.8% and 1. Technol. 3(b) and 3(c). Shi. K. the gain and eﬃciency are dropped by about 5. Abdel-Rahman. Z. Li. Vol. Q. 4. Across the frequency band from 2. CONCLUSION The design of an integrated UWB and Bluetooth antenna with a dual band-notched characteristic has been presented. Quo. 12.-P. 2010. T. 13. Vol. I.” Electron. J. W. 14. Y. Hei. H. Jul. Ruan. Ahn. B. 2.” IEICE Electronics Express. 5. H. L. X. Lett. Q. Chen. Abdollahvand. 16. Vol. “Novel design of dual-mode dual-band bandpass ﬁlter with triangular resonators.
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