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**Compressibility from Core ☺
**

Phil McCurdy and Colin McPhee

☺and from logs too

**Why is compressibility important???
**

Hydrocarbon recovery

Reservoir depletion causes increase in effective stress Pore volume compacts and adds energy to reservoir Pore volume compressibility used in material balance calculations

**Porosity and permeability reduction
**

Reduction in porosity and permeability with increasing effective stress on depletion Productivity reduction in depleting reservoirs Compaction can lead to casing and tubular failures Compaction can lead to surface subsidence Compaction linked to compressibility

2

In-Situ

1.05 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65 0.6 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Inferred Reservoir Pressure, psi Permeability Multiplier

Compaction and subsidence (weak sands & HPHT)

**Compressibility terms and calculations
**

Compressibility units

10-6psi-1 referred to as “microsips”

**Grain compressibility, Cma or Cg
**

Cg ~ 0.16 – 0.20 microsips

Cup for a “microsip”

Bulk Modulus, K

related to rock stiffness inverse of compressibility

E K = 3(1 − 2ν )

Cb =

1 K

Bulk Compressibility, Cb

Cbc –constant pore pressure and changing confining pressure

Cbc = 1 ⎧ ∂Vb ⎫ ⎬ ⎨ Vb ⎩ ∂Pc ⎭ Pp

Vb = bulk volume Pc= confining pressure Pp = pore pressure

**Cbp - under constant confining pressure and changing pore pressure (depletion) 1 ⎧ ∂Vb ⎫
**

Cbp = ⎨ ⎬ Vb ⎩ ∂Pp ⎭ Pc

3

**Compressibility terms and calculations
**

Bulk and Grain Compressibility

Cbp = Cbc − Cg

As Cg is small in comparison, Cbc ≈ Cbp

**Pore Volume Compressibility, Cf (Dake) or Cp
**

Cpc - isostatic pore volume compressibility under constant pore pressure and changing confining pressure

Cpc =

1 ⎧ ∂Vp ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ Vp ⎩ ∂Pc ⎭ Pp

⎡ Cbc − Cg ⎤ Cpc = ⎢ ⎥ φ ⎣ ⎦

i.e. pore volume compressibility is 3 to 5 times higher than bulk compressibility

Cpp – isostatic pore volume compressibility under constant confining pressure and changing pore pressure (depletion)

Cpp =

1 ⎧ ∂Vp ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ Vp ⎩ ∂Pp ⎭ Pc

Cpp = Cpc − Cg

4

As Cg is small in comparison, Cpp ≈ Cpc

Measurement Conditions

σv = σz

Reservoir (Triaxial)

three principal stresses uniaxial loading σhmin = σy σhmax = σx

Axial Radial

SCAL Labs

isostatic loading radial stress = axial stress

**Rock Mechanics Labs
**

biaxial loading radial stress < axial stress

5

**Compressibility terms and calculations
**

Isostatic and Uniaxial Compressibility, Cpu

uniaxial loading assumes reservoir formations behave elastically and are boundary constrained in horizontal direction

assumes strain is entirely vertical assumes no tectonic strain during burial loading

Reservoir has stiff lateral restraints

Cpu defined as uniaxial pore volume compressibility under producing conditions (from Teeuw)

**⎡α (1 +ν ) ⎤ Cpu = Cpp ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 3(1 −ν ) ⎦
**

For example, Biot factor (α) = 1 and ν = 0.3 then Cpu = 0.62*Cpp

6

**Typical Lab Presentation
**

⎡α (1 +ν ) ⎤ Cpu = Cpp ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 3(1 −ν ) ⎦

Note neither α nor υ are measured!

7

**Core Test Methods
**

Direct

Measure change in pore volume as a function of increasing effective stress

σ 'iso = σ iso − αp p

Effective stress method – SCAL labs

Increase σ to increase σ’

**Simulated depletion method – SCAL labs
**

Reduce Pp to increase σ’

**Uniaxial (K0) Test – Rock Mechanics labs
**

Reduce pp to increase σ’ Instrument core to determine strains

Indirect

From E and υ from triaxial tests

8

Direct Measurements – SCAL Lab

**Effective Stress Method
**

SCAL lab method (porosity/FF at overburden) pore pressure constant, radial pressure increased effective stress increased by increasing confinement 1 ⎧ ∂Vp ⎫ 1 ⎧δVp ⎫ pore volume by squeeze-out = Cpc = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬

Vp ⎩ ∂Pc ⎭ Pp Vp ⎩ δσ ' ⎭

**Simulated Depletion Method
**

raise stresses and pore pressure to reservoir values total stress (Pc) constant – Pp reduced 1 ⎧ ∂Vp ⎫ 1 ⎧δVp ⎫ depletion Cpp = ⎬ ⎨ ⎨ ⎬ = Vp ⎩ ∂Pp ⎭ Pc Vp ⎩ δσ ' ⎭ isostatic pore volume compressibility (SCAL)

9

Uniaxial Ko Test

Sample instrumented with axial and radial strain gauges Core Compaction Sample loaded to same total vertical (axial) and total horizontal (radial) stresses as in reservoir Pore pressure increased to reservoir value Pore pressure reduction ∆σh vertical stress stays the same horizontal stress adjusted to maintain εh = 0 zero radial strain rock mechanics labs only uniaxial pore volume compressibility (K0) ∆pp 1 ⎧ ∂Vp ⎫

Cpu =

⎨ ⎬ Vp ⎩ ∂Pp ⎭ε radial =0

10

Example PV calculation – SCAL data

14.20

14.00

13.80 Pore Volume (ml)

cf ( hyd ) =

1 (Vpi − Vpd ) Vp i (σ 'i −σ 'd )

13.60

Data Model

13.40 Initial Reservoir Pressure Depleted Reservoir Pressure 13.20

13.00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Effective Hydrostatic Pressure (psi)

11

Stress Hysteresis

Effective Stress Method initial loading cycle microcracks in plug close higher pore volume reduction OK for φ stress correction Simulated Depletion Method extended loading cycle load to initial conditions (cracks close) depletion stage (Cp from matrix pore volume compaction)

GAUGE

ROSETTE

more reliable pore volume compressibility data

**Uniaxial KO Method potentially most reliable data closest representation of stresses/pressures during depletion
**

12

Stress Hysteresis Example

50.0

45.0

40.0 Pore Volume Compressibility (x10-6psi-1)

35.0

30.0

25.0

20.0

Suffix A: Effective Stress Method Suffix D: Simulated Stress Mrthod

15.0

10.0

1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 1D 2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D 8D

5.0

0.0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Effective Overburden Stress (psi)

13

**Indirect Method Triaxial data
**

Determine E and υ over equivalent deviatoric stress range associated with depletion

⎡ Cbc − Cg ⎤ Cpc = ⎢ ⎥ φ ⎣ ⎦

1 Cbc = K

K =

E 3(1 − 2ν )

14

**Compressibility from Logs
**

DSI Logs

DTS (∆ts), DTCO (∆tc)

**Obtain dynamic (elastic) moduli
**

Poisson’s Ratio, ν

1 (∆t s / ∆tc )2 − 1 2 (∆t s / ∆tc )2 − 1

Shear Modulus, G (psi)

1.34 x1010

ρb

∆t s2

ρb in g/cc ∆t in µsecs/ft

Young’s Modulus, E (psi)

2G (1 + ν )

K=

-1

Bulk Modulus, Kb (psi)

Bulk Compressibility, Cbc (psi )

1 Kb

-1

E 3(1 − 2ν )

Pore Volume Compressibility, Cpc (psi )

⎡ Cbc − Cg ⎤ Cpc = ⎢ ⎥ φ ⎣ ⎦

15

**Scaling Dynamic and Static Moduli
**

Dynamic

elastic and perfectly reversible

Static (core)

large strains irreversible

Scaling

static ε < dynamic ε Esta = 0.15 - 0.5 Edyn − νsta = 0.8 - 1.2 νdyn

16

**Compaction and Subsidence
**

Compaction

change in reservoir thickness (Hres) as a result of depletion (Geertsma)

∆H = C m H res ( Pi − Pfinal )

Mud Line Subsidence

Compaction coefficient

1 ⎡1 +ν ⎤ (1 − β )Cb Cm = ⎢ 3 ⎣1 − ν ⎥ ⎦

Depth, D

Cg β= Cb

Compaction

**Casing compressive strain
**

ε c = 0.5(1 + cos 2θ )Cm ∆p

Thickness, H H

Reservoir Radius, R

Subsidence (Bruno)

S = 2C m (1 − ν ) H res − (R 2 + ( D + H res ) 2 ) + ( R 2 + D 2 ) 0.5 ∆p

0 .5

[

]

17

Conclusions

Common techniques for measuring compressibility and situations that they are most suited to

18

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