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Section I: Introduction and Background

Chapter 1: Overview of Food Science ............................................. Chapter 2: Review of Chemistry ................................................. Chapter 3: Chemistry of Foods ................................................... Chapter 4: Nutrition and Digestion ............................................... Chapter 5: Food Composition .................................................... Chapter 6: Quality Factors in Foods Chapter 7: Unit Operations in Food Processing ..................................... Chapter 8: Food Deterioration ...................................................

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3
5
8
10
12
14
17

Section II: Presenration

Chapter9:Heat ............................................................... 19
Chapter 10: Cold .............................................................. 21
Chapter 11: Drying and Dehydration .............................................. 23
Chapter 12: Radiant and Electrical Energy ......................................... 25
Chapter 13: Fermentation. Microorganisms. and Biotechnology ....................... 27
Chapter 14: Chemicals ......................................................... 29
Chapter15:Packaging .......................................................... 32
Chapterl6:Milk .............................................................. 34
Chapter 17: Meat, Poultry, and Eggs .............................................. 37
Chapter 18: Fish and Shellfish ................................................... 40
Chapter 19: Cereal Grains. Legumes. and Oilseeds .................................. 42
Chapter 20: Fruits and Vegetables ................................................45
Chapter 21: Fats and Oils ....................................................... 48
Chapter 22: Candy and Confectionery ............................................ 51
Chapter 23: Beverages .......................................................... 54

Section Ill: Foods and Food Products

Section IV: Related Issues

Chapter 24: Environmental Concerns and Processing ............................... 57


Chapter 25: Food Safety ........................................................60
Chapter 26: Regulation and Labeling ............................................. 63
Chapter27:WorldFoodNeeds ................................................... 66
Chapter 28: Careers in Food Science .............................................. 69

Appendix A: Food Science Resources on the Internet .................................... 73


Appendix B: Suggested Resources .................................................... 76
Appendix C: Supply Companies ...................................................... 77

To The Teacher
LESSON PLANS
The textbook, Introduction to Food Science, is designed to be "teacher friendly." Each chapter begins with a list of Objectives and Key Terms. Chapter outlines with different heading levels are very complete. Then every chapter ends with a list of Review Questions and Student Activities and a list of Resources. A workable lesson plan includes the following: e The topic e Overall instructional goal e Rationale (why is this important) Lesson outline a Instructional procedures e Evaluation process e Materials and aids Lesson topics can come from the chapter titles or from a major heading in a chapter. Overall instructional goals are listed for each chapter in this instructor's guide. The rationale for teaching the lesson can come from a pretest or from some in-class demonstration or activity based on the Student Activities section at the end of the chapter. The Lesson Outline comes directly from the major headings in the chapter. Instructional procedures need to be varied for different learning styles. In general, instructional procedures include: Focusing event-something to get the students' attention e Teaching procedures-methods you will use e Formative check-progress check throughout the lesson e Student participation-how you will get the students involved Closure-how you will end the lesson

After the lesson is presented, some type of evaluation process will measure outcomes to determine if the material has been learned. Finally, as lessons are prepared and plans made, a list of materials needed and teaching aids should be developed. Each chapter provides a list of Student Activities and Resources, including some ideas for using the Internet,

LESSON STRATEGIES
Preview chapters with students. Start with the Objectives of the chapter, and then explain the importance of knowing the meanings of the Key Terms. Explain that tables, figures, and figure captions contain helpful information. Encourage the students to frequently use the Glossary in the back of the book. All the Key Terms can be found in the Glossary. Make reading assignments. Connect the reading assignments to the chapter Objectives and to the use of the Student Activities section. Review the Resources at the end of the chapter for other class assignments or lesson enhancements.

Vi

Ib the W h e r

Make transparencies to use in the lesson discussion. Obtain any materials or make any arrangements for some type of focusing event, student participation, or any of the Student Activities that are used. Decide which of the Review Questions at the end of the chapter to use as a pretest. This will help determine what the students know and stimulate interest. For example, use five of the questions at the end of the chapter for a pretest. To develop your lesson plan, start with the a pretest and an interest approach then build the class discussion around the chapter outline, transparencies, problems, and student activities. Tables, lists, and figures or charts in a chapter can be used to produce transparencies. Use the chapter sidebars. Make in-class reading assignments of the sidebars. Ask questions about the sidebar. Summarize the chapter (lesson). Then assess how well the students met the objectives. This can be done by giving the students a test or quiz based on the chapter objectives, or by developing projects that reinforce the objectives. Also, at the end of each chapter in the textbook some suggestions are made as to how to search the Internet. Use these for some projects and reports. Use the Appendix. It contains information to enhance learning. Table A-7 provides a list of specific Internet sites leading to lots of valuable information that can be used to enhance the learning process. This table of Internet sites is reproduced at the back of this guide as Appendix A. Refer to Appendix Table A-8 in the textbook often. It is a fairly comprehensive food composition table that can enhance many of the lessons. Besides Introduction to Food Science, other resource books are available that provide more details for some areas of food science, or they provide other ideas for teaching the subject. Appendix B in this guide suggests some resource books. Finally, a list of supply companies is provided in Appendix C at the back of this guide. These companies sell educational materials that enhance learning through classroom activities and demonstrations. Also, many of the companies provide fact sheets and newsletters that can be very helpful. Above all, realize that students pick out the best teachers by their sincerity and their enthusiasm for the subject and overall quest for knowledge. Let it show!

Food Science
OVERVIEW
Food science strives to meet the demands of consumers in local, national, and international environments.

Summary
Consumers vote every day in the marketplace with their dollars, and the market listens carefully to their votes. A continuous feedback exists from consumers, who respond to the offerings of marketers trying to meet the perceived wants of consumers. Changes in the makeup of the population, lifestyles, incomes, and attitudes on food safety, health, and convenience have drastically altered the conditions facing producers and marketers of food products. Food manufacturers and distributors maintain vigorous efforts to meet changing consumer demands. The food industry is divided into production, manufacturing/processing,distribution, and marketing. The industry is highly responsive to change, and interrelated with others. Consumers drive the food industry, and to some extent the food industry drives the consumer, making changes in food consumption, food types, and meals purchased. Food is now a global commodity due to changes in export/import laws, transportation, and processing and communication.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

&kr reading this chapter, the student should be able to: 4B Name the four parts of the food industry O Describe consumer food buying trends $ Divide the food industry by major product lines @ Compare spending for food in the United States to that in other countries +B List four consumption trends 8 Discuss trends in meal purchases 6 Identify allied industries 9 @ Explain how the food industry is international

Lesson Outline
0bj ectives Key Terms Parts of the Food Industry Trends Allied Industries International Activities Responsiveness to Change Interrelated Operations Summary

Introduction to Food Science

Answers to Review Questions


I. Away-from-home meals captures

percent of the U.S. food dollar.

45 percent

2. Why have the international activities of food industries increased?

The international activities of food industries have increased because of improvements in transportation and communications.
3. Name all seven product lines along which the food industry is divided.

cereals and bakery products; meats, fish, and poultry; dairy products; fmits and vegetables; sugars and other sweets; fats and oils; nonalcoholic/alcoholic beverages
4. List the four artificial divisions of the food industry.

production, manufacture, distribution, marketing

5. Consumption of cheese has last 27 years.

increased, decreased

,whereas consumption of red meat has

over the

6. List four reasons that influence people and the kind of food they eat.

Any four of the following: demographic shifts; supply of ingredients; availability and costs of energy; politics; scientific advances in nutrition, health, and food safety; changes in lifestyle
7. About

new food products are introduced each year.

10,000

8. Explain how the consumer votes in the marketplace.

The consumer votes with how he/she spends money on what products.

9. Define an allied industry.

An allied industry is directly associated with the food industry, such as cans for food, paper and plastic products such as paper plates and plasticware, chemicals such as preservatives, cooking equipment, or food regulatory agencies.
10. Compare the spending on food in the United States to that of Spain and Greece.

The United States spends 79 percent, Spain spends 18.2 percent, and Greece spends 31.7 pep . cent of personal income on food consumed at home.

Instructor's Guide

Chapter
Review o
OVERVIEW

The study of food science requires an understanding of simple inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry principles.

Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, are all important to food science, and they are composed of smaller building blocks. This chapter contains a review of important chemical interactions and concepts encountered in food science. Atoms are the smallest unit of an element that still shows properties of the element. Atoms bond with other atoms in chemical bonds such as covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and Van der Waals bonds. Molecules are the smallest identifiable units of pure substances. These molecules are formed by chemical reactions or become involved in chemical reactions. Reactions including those of metabolism can be classified as oxidation-reduction. Organic chemistry involves carboncontaining molecules; such groups are hydroxyl, amino, ammonia, methyl, and carboxyl.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
@r reading this chapter, the student should be able to:
@ @ @ C 9

Describe the chemical properties of an element Name the three elements most important to life Explain how covalent, hydrogen, and ionic bonds are formed Define a molecule O I d e n m symbols for hydroxyl, amino, ammonia, methyl, and carboxyl @ Discuss oxidation-reduction reactions @ Describe the two divisions of metabolism

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Elements Chemical Bonds Molecules Reactions Metabolism Organic Chemistry Summary

Introduction to Food Science

Answers to Review Questions


1 The atom is the smallest unit of an . element, element

2. Define a molecule.

that still exhibits the properties of that

Molecules are the smallest identif'iable unit into which a pure substance can be divided and still retain the composition and chemical properties of that substance.
3. Name and describe the two divisions of metabolism.

Anabolism-reactions involving the synthesis of compounds; catabolism-reactions involving the breakdown of compounds,
4. List the elements most important to life.

Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen

5. How are covalent bonds formed?

Covalent bonds are formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons.

6. The atomic number of an atom is the total number of the total number of plus--

.The atomic weight of an atom is

protons, protons, neutrons


7. Salt is an example of a/an

bond.

ionic

8. Explain the oxidation-reduction reaction.

Oxidation is the addition of oxygen, and reduction is the removal of oxygen. Oxidationreduction reactions always involve a change in the oxidation state of the atoms or ions-a loss or gain of electrons.
9. Chemical properties of an element are determined by the number of energy level of an atom.

in the outermost

electron
10. All carbon atoms have four bonds to account for. What are the names of the bonds?

another carbon, a hydroxyl, a hydrogen, an amino group, an oxygen (double bond)

Instructor's Guide

Chapter
Chemistry o
OVERVIEW

Nutrients are naturally occurring chemical substances found in food. There are six categories of nutrients: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water. The chemistry of these nutrients influences the characteristics of our food.

Nutrition is the process by which the foods people eat provide the nutrients they need to grow and stay healthy. The digestive and nutritive needs of humans are discussed in Chapter 4. Besides contributing to nutrition, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids function in food. For example, carbohydrates enhance flavor, contribute to texture, prevent spoilage, and influence color. The function of carbohydrates in foods to some extent depends on their type-monosaccharides, disaccharide~, polysaccharides. Starch is a polysaccharide whose characteristics depend on the type of or plant producing the starch. Cellulose is a nondigestible polysaccharide that contributes to the characteristics of food, and demonstrates some health benefits. Proteins in food can act as emulsifiers and also influence the color, flavor, and texture of food. Lipids contribute to the texture, flavor, and heat transfer of foods. Lipids also carry the flavors and the fat-soluble vitamins. Food provides the vitamins and minerals necessary for normal growth and health. Although not a nutrient, water is necessary for a solvent of all nutrients. Biotin, choline, and phytochemicals are nutrients that seem to have some health benefits but do not have clearly defined requirements.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
/Ifter reading this chapter, the student should be able to: @ Name four carbohydrates and describe their chemical makeup t Classify carbohydrates i 9 O Compare the sweetness of various sugars 4 Name three uses of carbohydrates in foods B O Describe the chemical makeup of proteins @ Discuss the use of proteins in foods 4 List six functions of protein in the body 3 @ Name three functions of protein in food @ Classify lipids @ Discuss the use of lipids or fats in foods @ Identify saturated and unsaturated fats f3 List the fat- and water-soluble vitamins @ Name ten minerals important in nutrition Q List two functions of water in the body Q Identify biotin, choline, and phytochemicals

Introduction to Food Science

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Vitamins Minerals Water Biotin Choline Phytochemicals Summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 What is the chemical composition of a carbohydrate? .

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen


2. List the three functions of proteins in food.

color, flavor, texture


3. What is the difference between a monosaccharide and a disaccharide?

Monosaccharides may have six carbons and are called hexoses, or they may have five cap bons and are called pentoses. Two monosaccharides may be linked together to form a disaccharide.
4. Name five functions carbohydrates play in foods.

Any five of the following: flavor enhancer and sweetener flavor due to caramelization; water binder; contribute to texture (starch, gluten); hygroscopic nature/water absorption; provide source of yeast food; regulate gelation of pectin dispersing molecules of protein or starch; act to subdivide shortening for creaming control crystallization; prevent spoilage; delay coagulation protein; give structure due to crystals; affect osmosis; affect color of h i t s ; Meet texture (viscosity, struchue); contribute flavor other than sweetness

5. Explain two functions of water in the body.


Any two of the following: carries nutrients and wastes; maintains structure of molecules; participates in chemical reactions; acts as a solvent for nutrients; lubricates and cushions joints, spinal cord, and fetus (during gestation); helps regulate body temperature; maintains blood volume
6. Triglycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids, some pigments, some vitamins, and cholesterol are
classed as

lipids

Instructor's Guide

contain what are known as double bonds. A fatty acid


7 Fatty acid molecules that are . .Fatty acids that contain two or more
that contains one double bond is called mono double bonds are called

unsaturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated


8. List the fat- and water-soluble vitamins.

Fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K; water-soluble vitamins: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin Biz
9.

is part of several major phospholipids critical for normal membrane structure and
function, is used by the kidney to maintain water balance, and is used to produce the impor-
tant neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Choline

10. Name ten minerals important in nutrition.

Macrominerals: calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, sulfur; microrninerals: chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silicon, tin, vanadium, zinc

Introduction to Food Science

rition and Diges

Nutrients-the components of food-have specific functions in the body, and a l of them together are l required for overall health. The digestive system breaks down food into nutrients for absorption.

Summary
People require energy and certain other essential nutrients. These nutrients are essential because the body cannot make them and must obtain them from food. Essential nutrients include vitamins, minerals, certain amino acids, and certain fatty acids. Foods also contain other components such as fiber that are important for health. The Food Nutrition Board of the National Research Council establishes Recommended Dietary Allowances and Dietary References Intakes. These guidelines provide daily nutrient levels for maintaining normal functions and health. The RDA lists recommendations for energy; protein; vitamins A, E, K, C, the B vitamins; and the minerals iron, zinc, iodine, and selenium. These recommendations vary according to age, gender, pregnancy, and lactation. Protein requirements for humans should consider the essential amino acids. The food pyramid provided by the FDA is easy for the average person to follow to ensure adequate nutrition. The digestive process includes ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination. Nutrients in the diet are progressively broken into smaller components by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic means. Small molecules resulting from digestion are absorbed to supply the body with energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
& reading this chapter, the student should be able to: r d Identify nutritional needs using RDA or DRI
4 8 O @ 8 8
@

63 @ 9 69

Discuss the functions of energy, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body Provide the caloric content of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and alcohol List the essential amino acids Name two protein-deficiency diseases Describe protein quality Name an essential fatty acid List the water- and fat-soluble vitamins and their functions List six minerals required by the body Describe the process of digestion Identify the organs involved in digestion Discuss the relationship of diet to health

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms

Instructor's Guide
Nutrient Needs Water Food Pyramid Digestive Processes Vegetarian Diets Bioavailabiltiy of Nutrients Stability of Nutrients Diet and Chronic Disease
summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 Name six minerals required by the body. .

Any six of the following: calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, z n ,iodine, manganese, selenium ic
2. Identify the protein requirement for a 19-year-old male and female.

Male-58 grams; female-46 grams

3. Describe the function of protein in the diet.

To provide amino acids, energy, and nitrogen

4. How many calories are in 1 gram of protein, carbohydrate, fat, and alcohol?
4 calories per gram for proteins and carbohydrates; 9 calories per gram for fat; 7 calories per gram for alcohol
5.

- is an essential fatty acid.


acid
Linoleic

6. Identify the organ of digestion that receives enzymes from the pancreas.

duodenum

7. During digestion, enzymes such as aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, and dipeptidases con-

vert polypeptides into


amino acids

8. What nutritional deficiency causes kwashiorkor and marasmus?

protein; protein and calories

9. List five essential amino acids.

Any five of the following: phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine
10. What factor determines protein quality?

amino acid content

10

Introduction to Food Science

Chapter
Food Compos
. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . -- - --- - -- - - - - -- - -- - . -. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. -

5
- --- --- ---.---- -- ---. -

Food composition tables are used to evaluate diets and food supplies.

Summary
Food composition tables are used to evaluate the nutritional value of food supplies, to develop food distribution programs, to plan and evaluate food consumption surveys, to provide nutritional counseling, and to estimate the nutritional content of individual diets. Methods such as spectrophotometry,liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography determine the composition of foods. The bomb calorimeter measures the caloric content of foods. Many food composition tables are available, but the USDA maintains and updates data on the composition of foods.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

&r
@ @ @ @ @ 6 9
$

reading this chapter, the student should be able to:


Find foods in a food composition table and describe their nutritional value List three methods of determining the composition of foods Describe the method for determining the caloric content of foods Explain the difference between Calorie and calorie Identify common abbreviations and terms used in a food composition table Discuss the use of food composition tables List four factors that affect the nutrient content of foods

Lesson Outline
0bj ectives Key Terms Determining the Composition of Foods Energy in Food Food Composition Tables Summary

Answers to Review Questions


Note: The answers to some of these questions will be found by using Table A-8.
1 How many Calories and grams of protein are in 3 oz. of Froot Loops' cereal? .

Protein-6 grams; Calories-530

Instructor's Guide
2. How many grams of fat are in one slice of cheese pizza?
9 grams of fat

3. Describe item #4270.

Chocolate chip cookie, home recipe


4. List three methods for determining the composition of foods.

Any three of the following: proximate analysis, bomb calorimeter, spectrophotomehy, liquid chromatography, gas chromatography
5. A

is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram one 'C?

calorie
6. Describe two uses of a food composition table.

Any two of the following: evaluate the nutritional value of food supplies, develop food distribution programs, plan and evaluate food consumption surveys, provide nutritional counseling, estimate the nutritional content of individual diets
7. Name four factors that affect the nutrient content of foods.

Any four of the following: variety, season, geographical differences, stage of harvesting, handling, commercial processing, packaging, storage, display, home preparation, cooking, and serving
8. Explain the relationship between Calorie, Kcal, calorie, and cal.

A Calorie is a metric unit of heat measurement. The small calorie (cal) is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree. A large Calorie, or kilocalorie (kcal), usually referred to as a calorie and sometimes as a kilogram calorie, equals 1,000 cal. This unit is used to express the amount of energy that a food provides when consumed,
9. Identify the following abbreviations: oz., mg, IU, RE, mono, sat, poly, carb, chols.

oz.: ounce; mg: milligram; IU: International Units; RE: retinol equivalents; mono: monosaturated; sat: saturated; poly: polyunsaturated; carb: carbohydrate; chols: cholesterol
10. In terms of energy and protein, what is the difference between a slice of white bread and a slice of whole wheat bread?

Whole wheat bread contains 15 more calories per slice and one more gram of protein than white bread.

12

Introduction to Food Science

Chapter
Quality Factors in Foods
OVERVIEW

Consumers expect certain qualities fkom their food, including color, flavor, texture, and even size. Food science works to maintain these qualities.

Summary
Quality of a food product involves maintenance or improvement of the key attributes of the productincluding color, flavor, texture, safety, healthfulness, shelf life, and convenience. To maintain quality, it is important to control microbiological spoilage, enzymatic degradation, and chemical degradation. These components of quality depend upon the composition of the food, processing methods, packaging, and storage. When quality factors are missing or different than expected, the food is rejected. Food science determines and uses methods to measure food-quality factors. These methods ensure a consistent, reliable product. Some evaluation methods are chemical and mechanical techniques. Others are completely human, such as taste panels. The USDA-AMS establishes quality and grading standards. Also, in cooperation with industry, the AMS develops and maintains c o m m ~ aitem descriptions for hunl dreds of items. Within the food industry, methods such as HACCP, TQM, and GMP monitor quality.

LEARNING OBJECIlYES
- -

m r reading this chapter, the student should be able to:


@ 8 @ @ O @ O

Describe the influence of color on food quality Identify the instrument that could be used to measure food texture Discuss the influence of color, texture, size, and shape on consumer acceptance Describe how water changes texture Identify six words used to describe food flavor Describe sensory methods humans use to determine food flavor Discuss three factors that can affect food flavor 4 Explain three means for maintaining or assessing quality in foods 3 @ Describe the role the USDA plays in food quality

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Appearance Factors Textural Factors Flavor Factors Additional Quality Factors Quality Standards Quality Control

s-w

Instructor's Guide

Answers to Review Questions


t List the three components of reflected light used to derine colors.
value, hue, chroma

2. Name one instrument used to measure texture.

Any one of the following: tendemmeter, succulometer, Brookf'ield viscometer, Instron, Warner Bratzler, penetrometer
3. Discuss what humans can taste and what they smell and how this forms food flavor.

Humans can taste sweet, salty, sour, bitter; they can smell aromas; taste and smell are used interchangeably.
4. Identify the following acronyms: AMS, HACCP, TQM,GMP, CID.

Agricultural Marketing Service, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, Total Quality Management, Good Manufacturing Practices, Commercial Item Description

5. Industry and

develop and maintain CIDs.

AMS (Agricultural Marketing Service)

6. List six factors that can influence the flavor of food.

Any six of the following: color, texture, bacteria, yeasts, molds, enzymes, heatlcold, moisture/dryness, light, time, additives, shelf life, healthfulness, convenience
7. Changes in the texture of food are often due to

water

8. What qualities do consumers expect of their food?

good color and good size and shape

9. The study of the science of the deformation of matter is called

rheology

10. How do fats or lipids affect the texture of food?

Lipids are softeners.

14

Introduction to Food Science

t Operations in

Food Processing
OVERVIEW
Most food processing is comprised as a series of physical processes that can be broken down into a number of basic operations.

Summary
Unit operations make up the basics of food processing. These unit operations can stand alone and depend upon logical physical principles. Unit operations include materials handling, cleaning, separating, size reduction, fluid flow, mixing, heat transfer, concentration, drying, forming, packaging, and controlling. Most food processing involves a combination or an overlap of these unit operations. Where unit operations overlap or are combined, complex controls ensure the proper function of each operation. Many of the unit processes discussed in this chapter are discussed in more detail in chapters that follow.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
& r
@ @ @ @ @ @

4 3
@ @ @ O O

reading this chapter, the student should be able to: Describe materials handling in the food industry Name three methods of reducing the size of a food product Name three methods for separating food products Identify two general types of pumps Describe four factors that affect mixing Describe five factors influencing heat transfer Identify five unit processes that include heat transfer Discuss the uses of three common methods of drying List two examples of a formed food Describe the purposes of concentration Identify two reasons for packaging food products Discuss why some unit operations overlap

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Materials Handling Cleaning Separating

Instructor's Guide
Size Reduction Pumping (Fluid Flow) Mixing Heat Exchanging Concentration Drying Forming Packaging Controlling Overlapping Operations Conserving Energy New Processes Summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 The manufacture of ice cream is an example of a/an .

overlapping operation
2. Why are foods packaged?

Foods are packaged for shipping; dispensing; improving the usehlness of the product; protection fkom microbial contamination, dirt, insects, light, moisture, drying, flavor changes, and physical alterations; and for marketing and selling purposes.
3,

is the amount of heat required to change the temperature of a unit mass of product a specific temperature without changing the material. Specific heat

4. Name the three methods for separating foods.

cream separator, clM~cation, membrane processes

5. What are the two types of fluid flow pumps?


Centrifugal and positive
6.

- exchanges pass fluid over a plate where a heating or cooling medium is being
heat
passed up or down on the other side of the plate.
Plate

7. List the four factors affecting the mixing of food products.

Design of impeller, diameter of impeller, speed, baffles


8. Why is it important to handle food materials carefully?

Food materials should be handled correctly for sanitary reasons, to minimize losses, to maintain the quality of the food, and to minimize bacterial growth.

16

Introduction to Food Science

9. Explain the three common methods of drying foods.


The three common methods of drying food are (1) sun or tray drying, which is exposing the product to sun or placing it in trays and drying in a current of warm or hot air; (2) spray drying-spray nozzles are used to atomize the fluid into the heated air; and (3) f'reeze drying-the moisture is removed without a phase change (sublimation).

10. List three membrane processes for separating food products.


reverse osmosis, ultraf"~ltration, microfiltration

Instructor's Guide

17

Chapter
Food De
OYERVIEW
Food science seeks to minimize food deterioration as much as possible.

Summary
Deterioration includes changes in organoleptic quality, nutritional value, food safety, aesthetic appeal, color, texture and flavor. To some degree, all foods undergo deterioration after harvest The role of food science is to minimize negative changes as much as possible. All foods undergo deterioration-physical, chemical, or biological. There are many ways to control this deterioration-from proper handling in the initial stages of harvesting to correct food preservation techniques. Some deterioration produces toxins that are not destroyed by heat. Some of these toxins can cause infections in humans. All foods from living tissues have enzymes. Some of the postharvest enzymes are desirable and are controlled by heat, chemicals, and radiation. Food processors realize the importance of controlling deterioration through such means as heat, cold, drying, acids, sugar, atmosphere, chemicals, and radiation.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
@r reading this chapter, the student should be able to: @ List three general categories of food deterioration @ Discuss shelf life and dating 6B Name six factors that cause food deterioration @ Identify six preservation techniques that prevent deterioration @ Describe normal changes in food products following harvest or slaughter @ Identify four food enzymes and describe their function

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Types of Food Deterioration Shelf Life and Dating of Foods Causes of Food Deterioration Post-Harvest Biochemical Changes Post-Slaughter Biochemical Changes Principles of Food Preservation Summary

18

Introduction to Food Science

Answers to Review Questions


1 Name the two environmental conditions that affect microbial growth on food.
.

temperature and oxygen

2. Name the three general categories of food deterioration.

physical, chemical, biological

3. Some

are desirable in food preservation.

microorganisms

4. Why do foods have a shelf life?

Foods are given a shelf life to determine usefulness.

5. The growth of aerobes is slowed by removing the


growth of anaerobes.

oxygen, oxygen
6. List four factors that cause food deterioration.

;while providing

limits the

Any four of the following: microorganisms; activity of food enzymes; infestationsby insects, parasites, and rodents; inappropriate temperatures during processing and storage; gain or loss of moisture; reaction with oxygen; light; physical stress or abuse; time
7. What is a food-borne disease?

A food-borne disease is an infection in a human when infected food is consumed.


8. Give four preservation techniques to prevent food deterioration.
Any four of the following: heat, cold, drying, acid, sugar, salt, smoke, atmosphere, chemicals, radiation

9. Why are some fruits and vegetables washed immediately after being picked?

Fruits and vegetables are washed af'ter being picked to begin removing internal heat

10. Name four food enzymes and describe their fbnction.

Use enzymes from Table 8-2 (text pages 129-131).

Instructor's Guide

19

Chapter

Heating (cooking) foods kills some microorganisms, destroys most enzymes, and improves shelf life.

Heat produces varying degrees of preservation depending on the product and the use of the product. Heat treatments can be selected on the basis of time and temperature combination to inactivate the most resistant microbe and the heat penetration characteristics of the food and the container. The most heat resistant microbe in canned foods is Clostridium botulinum Thermal death curves describe the time/temperature relationships for preservation of food. Depending on the type of food and its acidity, the heat treatment can be mild or severe. Convection, conduction, and radiation transfer heat to the processed foods. Commercially, foods are heated before or after packaging. Different types of retorts efficiently process commercial foods. Aseptic packaging is used when the food is sterilized outside the container. Home canning follows the same principles as commercial heat preservation methods.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
lqpter reading this chapter, the student should be able to:
@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ 43 8

Name four degrees of preservation achieved by heating Describe how specific heat treatments are selected Identify how the heat resistance of microorganisms is determined Discuss methods of heating foods before or after packaging Describe one type of retort Compare conduction and convection heating Explain time-temperature combinations List three factors that influence how foods heat Describe a thermal death curve Compare the acidity of various foods to the heat treatment required

Lesson o t3 e ul n
Objectives Key Terms Heat Degrees of Preservation Selecting Heat Treatments Heat Resistance of Microorganisms Heat Transfer Protective Effects of Food Constituents

20

Introduction to Food Science

Different Temperature-Time Combinations Heating Before or After Packaging Home Canning


summary

Answers to Review Questions


I The most heat resistant microbe in canned foods is .

Clostridium botulinum
2. What are the two main objectives of pasteurization?
( ) Destroy all pathogenic microorganisms that might grow in a specfic product; and (2) 1 extension of shelf life by decreasing number of spoilage organisms present
3. Name four types of preservatives achieved by heating.

sterilization, commercial sterility, pasteurization, blanching

4. In the thermal death curve, the D value relates to the microorganisms, and the Z value relates to the isms.

to reduce the number of required to decrease the microorgan-

time, temperature

5. Heating after packaging requires what type of packaging?

aseptic

6.

heating is thermal transfer due to collisions of hot food particles with cooler ones. Conduction

7. What is the difference between a still retort and an agitating retort?

A still retort is when the product is placed in a container and then heated in a steam atmosphere without agitation. An agitation retort agitates the product during cooking and allows for the use of high temperatures during processing.
8. Identify the two factors to pick the right heat treatment severity for a specific food.
(1) Time-temperature combination required to inactivate the most resistant microbe; (2) heat penetration characteristics of the food and the container

9. Define conduction heating.

Conduction heating is the transfer of heat fkom one particle to another by contact.

10.

is the transfer of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves.


Radiation

Instructor's Guide

21

Chapter
OVERVIEW

10

Cold (cool) storage, refrigeration, and frozen storage are methods of food preservation and processing differing in temperature and time.

Various methods of using cold take food to temperatures necessary for cold storage or frozen storage. Freezing and refrigeration preserve foods not because they destroy microbes but because they slow or stop microbial growth. Refrigeration temperatures range from 40" to 45F; frozen storage temperatures range from 32" to OF. Refrigerated storage also requires air circulation, humidity control, and a modii3ed gas atmosphere. During refrigerated storage, foods can experience the absorption of flavor, a loss of firmness, color, flavor, and sugar. Freezing technology has been key to the development of convenience foods. Foods properly frozen and stored experience minimal changes in food quality. Frozen storage varies with temperature and the type of food being stored. General freezing methods include still air, blast freezer, and fluidized-bed freezer. Single plate, double plate, and slush freezers freeze foods or packages that directly contact a cold surface. Immersion freezing is the direct contact of the food or package and the refrigerant such as liquid nitrogen. To maintain quality, frozen foods must be packaged in airtight and liquid-tight strong and flexible containers. Home freezing of foods follows the same general principles as commercial freezing.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
@r reading this chapter, the student should be able to:
@ @ O O

Compare cooling, refrigeration, and freezing Identify four requirements for refrigeration Correlate storage temperature to length of storage Compare requirements for refrigeration to those of freezing 4 List three methods of freezing 3 @ Describe changes in food quality that may occur during refrigeration or freezing O Compare home freezing to commercial freezing

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Refrigeration versus Freezing Refrigeration and Cool Storage Freezing and Frozen Storage New Developments Home Freezing Summary

22

Introduction to Food Science

Answers to Review Questions


1 Name the three methods of freezing. .

Freezing in air such as blast fieezer; fieezing where food packages directly contact a sup face that is cooled by a rewgerant; immersion fkeezing
2. List the four requirements of refrigerated storage.

low temperatures, air circulation, humidity control, modified gas atmosphere

3. Identify four changes in food during refrigeration.

Any four of the following: chill injury; flavor (odor) absorption; loss of firmness, color, flavor, and sugar

4. A key factor in food fkeezing is how

the food is frozen.

fast

5. Describe the temperature difference between cooling, refrigeration, and freezing. Cooling-temperatures from 68"to 28OF;refkigeration-temperatures fkom 40"to 45OF;f'reez2 ing-temperatures fkom 3' to O F
6. Why do food processors blanch vegetables prior to freezing them?

Blanching is a mild heat treatment designed to inactivate enzymes.

7. Name the two types of containers for home freezing use.

Rigid containers and flexible bags or wrappings

8. Freezing cannot improve the

or texture of any food.

flavor

9. Explain why a freezer should not be overloaded with u@ozen food.

Overloading the fieezer slows down the freezing rate, and foods that fieeze too slowly may lose quality.
10. List the three things packaging for frozen foods protects against.

dehydration, light, air

Instructor's Guide

23

Chapter
Drying and Dehydra
.. ... . .. . .. . . . . . ... ... ... . .. . .. . . .. .. .... . .. .. ...

11

OVERVIEW

Besides preservation, drying and dehydration decrease the weight and volume of a product and thereby decrease shipping costs.

Summary
Drying and dehydration both remove water from foods. Dehydration occurs under natural conditions in the field and during cooking. Dehydrated and dried foods are lighter, take up less space, and cost less to ship. Drying is affected by surface area, temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure. As foods dry, they demonstrate a typical drying curve. Some chemical changes that can occur during dehydration include caramelization, browning, loss of rehydration, and loss of flavor. Foods can be dried by air convection, drum, vacuum, or freeze-drying. Food concentration removes one third to two thirds of the water and reduces weight and volume. Methods of concentration include solar, open-kettle, flash evaporators, thin-film evaporators, freeze concentration, and ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis. Home drying of foods follows the same general principles as commercial processes. Small home dehydrators are available or can be built. The kitchen oven (or microwave) can also be used for drying foods.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

&zr reading this chapter, the student should be able to:


@ Discuss two reasons for dehydrating foods 9 Describe changes that occur during dehydrating Q List three factors affecting dehydration @ Identify chemical changes that can occur in food during drying @ List two problems that can occur during drying @ Identify reasons for food concentration 69 Describe three drying methods @ Describe the methods of food concentration O Compare home drying of foods to commercial drying

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Dehydration Food Concentration Home Drying
S-ary

24

Introduction to Food Science

Answers to Review Questions


1 List the three drying methods.
.

Any three of the following: air convection, drum, vacuum, freeze

2. Dehydration results in decreased

and

and shipping costs.

weight, volume

3. Vacuum drying produces the highest quality of product but is also very

expensive

4. What is ultrafiltration?

Ultrafiltration is a membrane filtration process operating at 2 to 10 bars (international unit of pressure equal to 29.531 in. of mercury at 32'5') pressure and allowing molecules the size of salts and sugars to pass through the membrane pores, while molecules of the size of proteins are rejected.

5. The principle of

is that under conditions of low vapor pressure (vacuum), water


evaporates &om ice without the ice melting.

6. The purpose of drying is to remove enough moisture to prevent


microbial

7 Define sublimation. .

growth.

Sublimation is when water goes from a solid to a gas without passing through the liquid phase.
8. What types of foods are dried using drum or roller driers?

liquid foods, purees, pastes, and mashes

9. Discuss the two problems with drying of a food product.

The two problems with drying products are (1) the rate may be too low and organisms may cause spoilage before the product can be dried; and (2) problems with contamination of the product.
10. List three chemical changes that occur during drying.

Any three of the following: caramelization, enzymatic browning, nonenzyrnatic browning, loss of ease of rehydration, loss of flavor

Instructor's Guide

25

Chapter
Radiant and E Energy

12

Ionizing radiation, microwaves, and ohmic heat are new methods for heating and preserving foods.

summary
Ionizing radiation and microwaves are invisible energy waves moving through space. Food processors use these two forms of radiation. Electrical or ohmic heating of foods is a relatively new method for heating and preserving foods. Ionizing radiation (irradiation) and microwaves are both used to preserve food. Although irradiation has been in use since 1950, the FDA must approve its uses on each additional food. The latest approval for irradiation occurred in 1997 for fresh and frozen red meats. Irradiation serves four uses in the food industry: preservation; sterilization; control of sprouting, ripening, and insect damage; and control of foodborne illness. Though irradiation demonstrates little effect on nutrient content, the greatest challenge will be consumer acceptance. Microwaves are also used to heat foods by generating heat inside the food due to water friction. Scientists refer to microwaves as nonionizing radiation. Microwave development has led to a whole new group of convenience foods. Attempts to use microwave energy in food processing include baking, concentrating, cooking, curing, drying, heating, puffiing, foaming, tempering, and thawing. The best use of microwaves depends on the product quality and the cost. Ohmic heating heats foods between electrodes using alternating current. It is one of the newest methods of heating, and it is useful because solid and liquid in a food are heated at the same time.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

&er reading this chapter, the student should be able to:


@ Describe ionizing radiation @ Name two requirements for the irradiation process @ Discuss the four areas in which irradiation is most useful O List the three specific ways the FDA has approved irradiation uses 4 Explain how microwaves heat food 3 Describe ohmic (electrical) heating and its major advantage 8 Explain why salt and water content are important in microwave heating

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Food Irradiation Microwave Heating

26

Introduction to Food Science

Ohmic (Electrical) Heating


summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 Describe ohmic heating. .

Ohmic heating is the heating of a food product by using an alternating current flowing between two electrodes.
2. Name the two requirements for irradiation.

The two requirements for the irradiation process are (1) a source of radiant energy, and (2) a way to confine that energy.
3. Radiation is broadly defined as

moving through space in invisible waves.

energy

4. Explain ionizing radiation.

Radiant energy has different wavelengths and degrees of power. Ionizing radiation is short wavelengths capable of damaging microorganisms that contaminate food or cause food spoilage and deterioration.

5. List the four ways in which irradiation is most useful.


( ) preservation; (2) sterilization; (3) control of sprouting and ripening, and insect damage; 1 and (4) control of foodborne illness 6. Describe how microwaves heat food.

Microwaves generate heat inside a food due to water fiction.

7. When

is added to water, it changes the microwave heating characteristics in two different directions. salt

8. List three specific ways irradiation has been approved for use by the FDA.

Any three of the following: eliminating insects from wheat, potatoes, flour, spices, tea, fruits, and vegetables; to control sprouting and ripening; to use on pork to control trichinosis; to control Salmonellaand other harmful bacteria in chicken, turkey, and other fresh and frozen uncooked poultry; to control pathogens in fkesh and fkozen red meats
9. Food composition influences microwave heating of food in what two ways?

(I) water loss factor; (2) penetration depth of microwaves


10. Irradiation cannot be used on what two specific products?

(I) milk; (2) some fruits such as peaches and nectarines

Instructor's Guide

27

Chapter

13

Fermentation, Microorganisms, and Biotechno


OVERVIEW
Food science develops the use of fermentation, microorganisms, and biotechnology to alter, improve, and preserve food.

Fermentation allows the growth of microorganisms in order to produce a stable product Products commonly produced, at least in part, by fermentation include: beer, pickles, olives, some meat products, bread, cheese, coffee, cocoa, soy sauce, sauerkraut, and wine. Microorganisms can become food, and biotechnology changes the way microorganisms are used. Fermentation is the breakdown of carbohydrate materials by bacteria and yeasts under anaerobic (without atmospheric oxygen) conditions. The main benefit of fermentation is preservation of the product. For example, acid produced may prevent spoilage by some microorganisms. Fermentation may add flavor-for example, wine. It may remove or alter existing flavors-for example, soy. Or fermentation can alter the chemical characteristics of the food as in sugar to ethanol, ethanol to acetic acid, or sugar to lactic acid. To encourage the growth of certain microorganisms, fermentation can be controlled by pH, salt content, and temperature. Controlling fermentation is an attempt to favor desired organisms. Fermentation is stopped by pasteurizing and cooling. Microorganisms, like SCP, can become food. Biotechnology can bring great changes to food production but not without controversy.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

& r
8 @ O Q @ @ @ 43 @

reading this chapter, the student should be able to:


Discuss the use of fermentation in food preservation Provide the general reactions for fermentation Name three methods for controlling fermentation List six foods produced by fermentation Identifv the uses of acetic acid bacteria and lactic acid bacteria Describe fermentation use in bread making Identify four uses of acetic acid Describe the use of microorganisms as food Discuss a role of biotechnology in the food industry

LEARNING OBJECTIYES
Objectives Key Terms Fermentations Uses of Fermentation Microorganisms as Foods

28

Introduction to Food Science

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Summary

Answers to Review Questions


I Describe SCP. .

SCP is single-celled protein. These microorganisms are selected for their rapid growth, nutritional value, and other properties that make them a good food or feed. Examples of microorganisms used as food or feed include brewer's yeast and baker's yeast
2. Explain fermentation.

Fermentation is the breakdown of carbohydrate materials by bacteria and yeasts under anaerobic (without atmospheric oxygen) conditions. It produces acids and alcohols, with some aldehydes, ketones, and flavorings. Products produced by fermentation help preserve foods against microbial degradation.
3. Show the general reactions that fermentation follows.

Glucose

pyruvic acid --+acetaldehyde + carbon dioxide

alcohol (ethanol)

4. List six foods produced by fermentation.

Any six of the following: pickles, olives, some meat products, sour cream, cottage cheese, cheddar cheese, coffee

5. Name three factors that control fermentation.


pH, salt content, temperature
6. BST,

,is a growth hormone and is produced by genetically engineered

microorganisms.
bovine somatotropin
7 Acetic acid produces .
;while lactic acid bacteria produce

and

Any of the following: beer, wine, whiskey, bread; cheese, chocolate


8. What action does yeast perform in bread making?

Yeast performs its leavening fbnction by fermenting carbohydrates such as the sugars, glucose, hctose, maltose, and sucrose. The principal products of fermentation are cap bon dioxide, which produces the leavening effect, and ethanol. Yeast also produces many other chemical substances that flavor the baked product and change the dough's physical properties.
9.

became the first genetically engineered product approved for use in food. Renin

10. Define recombinant DNA technology.

The process of recombining genes bearing a chosen trait into the DNA molecules of a new host is called recombinant DNA technology.

Instructor's Guide
--- -- --

29

Chapter

14

Food additives (chemicals) are used only to maintain or to improve quality of food or to give it some added quality that consumers want.

Summary
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) monitors the use of additives and allows them to be used only if proven information has shown that the additive will accomplish the intended effect in the food. Also, the amount used cannot be more than is needed to accomplish the intended effect in the food. Food additives are used to maintain or improve the quality of food. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) monitors the use of additives. According to the FDA, additives are any substance intentionally or indirectly a component of food. Intentional food additives include the general categories of flavor, colors, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, antioxidants, antimicrobial agents, acidulants, sequestrants, gums (thickeners), sweeteners, and surface active agents. Some additional additives include fat replacers and irradiation. The majority of direct food additives fall into the category of Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). Unacceptable uses of food additives include any uses to deceive, disguise, lower nutritional value, or avoid good manufacturing practices. For years the use of food additives has been controlled by the Delaney clause.

LEARNING OBJECTIWS
14fter reading this chapter, the student should be able to:

Describe three reasons for using food additives Discuss how food additives are monitored and controlled List five general categories of intentional food additives Identify the five specific uses of food additives and give examples Discuss the use of nutritional additives Identify five uses of food additives that would be considered an abuse Name two methods used to reduce fat intake 4 Identify three color additives exempt from certification 9 @ Read food labels and identify the additives and provide a reason for their use
@ @ @ @ O Q O

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Reasons for Use Preservatives Nutritional Additives Color Modifiers

30

Introduction to Food Science

Flavoring Agents Texturing Agents Acidulants Fat Replacers Irradiation Hazards Summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 Name the two methods used to reduce fat intake. .

(I) decreasing fat content; (2) using fat replacers, substitutes, extenders, mimetics, or synthetic fat
2. List three reasons for using food additives.

Any three of the following: To maintain or improve nutritional value; to maintain freshness; to aid in processing or preparation; to make food more appealing
3. Using Table 144, choose three additives and describe their function.

Refer to Table 141 (text page 217) for answers.

4. BHT is a/an and vegetables.

that retards rancidity of unsaturated oils and prevents browning in fruits

antioxidant
5. Nitrates and nitrites of sodium and potassium add to meats.

and maintain

in cured

flavor; color
6. What organization is responsible for controlling all color additives used on foods in the United

States? Food & Drug Administration (FDA)


7. Why are vitamins and minerals added to foods?

To make the foods more nutritious and sometimes to replace those nutrients lost during processing
8. Green potato skins and apple seeds are two examples of common foods containing foodborne

toxicants
9. List five categories of intentional food additives.

Any five of the following: Flavors; colors; vitamins; minerals; amino acids; antioxidants; antimicrobial agents; acidulants; sequestrants; gums; sweeteners; surface active agents

Instructor's Guide
10. List three colors that are exempt fYom FDA certification.

31

Any three of the following: annatto extract; beta-carotene, beet powder; canthaxanthin; caramel color; carrot oil; cochineal extract; cottonseed flour; ferrous gluconate; h i t juice; $rape color extract;paprika; riboflavin; saffron; titanium dioxide; turmeric, vegetable juice

32

Introduction to Food Science

Chapter
Packaging
OVERVIEW

15

Food science develops packaging to protect food. The package also serves as a vehicle for the manufacturer to communicate with the consumer.

Food packaging development started with humankind's earliest beginnings. Early forms of packaging ranged from gourds to seashells to animal skins. Later came pottery, cloth, and wooden containers. These packages were created to facilitate transportation and trade. Using modern technology, society created an overwhelming number of new packages containing a multitude of food products. A modern food package has many functions, its main purpose being to physically protect the product during transport. The package also acts as a barrier against potential spoilage agents, which vary with the food product. Practically all foods should be protected from microorganisms, moisture, and objectionable odors. Consumers rely on the package to offer that protection. Aside from protecting the food, the package serves as a vehicle for the manufacturer to communicate with the consumer. Nutritional information, ingredients, and often recipes are found on a food label. The package is also used as a marketing tool designed to attract attention at the store. This makes printability an important property of a package. Globalization of the food industry and the consumers are driving the development of innovations in packaging.

LEARNING OBJECTIYES
d & r reading this chapter, the student should be able to: 63 Identify three types of food packaging @ Name the describe the use of four basic packaging materials 8 List ten features or requirements of packaging material @ Describe tests that measure the properties of packaging material @ Identify packages with special features @ Discuss how packaging addresses environmental concerns Q Identify and describe a packaging innovation

Lesson Outline
Objectives

Key Terms
Types of Containers Food-Packaging Materials and Forms Package Testing Packages with Special Features Environmental Considerations

Instructor's Guide
Innovations in Packaging

33

Answers to Review Questions


1 What are the two basic tests to measure the protective properties of packaging materials?
.

chemical and mechanical

2. Name the three general types of food packaging.

primary, secondary, tertiary

3. Explain the three layers in a retortable package.

The three layers consist of an outer layer of polyester film for strength, temperature resistance, and printability; a middle layer of aluminum film for barrier properties; and an inner layer of polypropylene film that provides for a heat-seal.

4. List ten features of packaging materials. Any ten of the following: Nontoxic and compatible with food; sanitary protection; moisture protection; resistant to impact; light protection; gas and odor protection; ease of opening and closing; tarnper-resistant and tamper evident; pouring features; size, shape, and weight limitations; reseal features; ease of disposal; appearance and printability; transparent; low cost

5. Name the four basic packaging materials used by the food industry.

metal, plant matter (paper/wood), glass, plastic

6. The collection, separation, and purification of the consumer's disposed food packages is the
main problem with

recycling
7. Packaging

is of concern because of small children and the elderly.

security

8. Packages with special features have what requirements?

being able to withstand freezing and boiling temperatures

9.

are an example of edible film packaging.


Sausage casings

10. Describe the functions of primary, secondary, and tertiary packaging.

Primary containers come in direct contact with the food. A secondary container is an outer box or wrap that holds several primary containers together. Tertiary containers group several secondary holders together into shipping units.

34

Introduction to Food Science

Chapter
OVERVIEW

16

Milk provides high-quality protein, energy, vitamins, and minerals to human nutrition. Besides fluid milk the dairy industry produces a variety of milk products including butter, cheeses, condensed and dried products, and cultured products.

Milk is the first food of young mammals. It provides a high-quality protein, a source of energy, and vitamins and minerals. Worldwide, many mammalian species are used to produce milk and milk products. Some of these include goats, sheep, horses, and yaks. The focus of this chapter is milk from dairy cows. Most milk in the United States is produced by cows. The dairy industry produces milk as a fluid product and in a variety of manufactured products including butter, cheeses, condensed, dry, and cultured. The USDA and the FDA maintain quality standards. To protect the consumer against pathogenic microorganisms in milk, it is pasteurized. Butterfat globules in homogenized milk are reduced in size to prevent coalescence. Butterfat is also separated from milk and added back to produce beverage milk with specific fat content or to be used in the production of butter and creams. Butter is produced by churning butterfat, and a by-product is buttermilk. Concentrated or dried dairy products such as evaporated milk, sweetened condensed milk, condensed whey, milk powder, or whey powder increase shelf life and convenience and decrease transportation costs. Traditionally, cheese developed as a way to preserve the nutrients of milk. Today, many varieties of cheese have evolved. Production of cheese basically involves the coagulation of the milk and separation of the whey. Coagulation can be accomplished with enzymes, acid, or heat. Yogurt is a fermented dairy product, as are acidophilus milk, sour cream, and kefii. Fermented dairy products require a starter culture for fermentation. By legal definition, ice cream contains 10 percent or more butterfat. It also relies on sweeteners at a level of l 2 to 16 percent. The USDA established grade standards for butter, cheese, and instant nonfat dry milk. The FDA established grade designations for fluid milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese. Only officially graded products may carry the grade shield. In an effort to meet new consumer demands, the food industry developed milk and milk product substitutes such as coffee whiteners, whipped toppings, imitation milk, and reduced fat products.

LEARNING OBJECTIYES
@r reading this chapter, the student should be able to:
423

@ @ O @ @ O

Define the term "milk" Describe quality control during the production of milk and milk products Explain pasteurization and homogenization Identify three methods of pasteurization Describe the "solids" composition of milk Discuss the separation of butterfat and its uses List four beverage milk products

Instructor's Guide
GB Describe butter Q Name five concentrated or dried dairy products

@ @ @ 6 3

List the steps in cheese making Identify three bacteria used to produce dairy products Name five fermented dairy products List the steps in making ice cream d Describe three USDA quality grade shields

Lesson OuUine
Objectives Key Terms Fluid Milk Milk Products and By-products Quality Products Milk Substitutes Reduced Fat Products
summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 .

heats the milk to at least 16I0Ffor at least 15 seconds. life-forms.


Pasteurization, Sterilization

eliminates all viable

2. Name four beverage milk products.

Any four of the following: whole mi& skim milk, low fat milk, buttermilk, acidophilus milk
3.

- made by churning pasteurized cream.


is
Butter

d Define "milk."
Milk is a solution containing lactose, water-soluble vitamins (thiamin and riboflavin), and mineral salts. It is also a colloidal dispersion of the protein casein and the whey proteins. Finally, fluid milk is an emulsion with fat globules suspended in the water phase of milk.

5. List the steps in cheese making.


1 treatment of milk; 2. additives; 3. inoculation and milk ripening; 4. coagulation; . 5. enzyme; 6. acid; 7. heat-acid; 8. curd treatment; 9. cheese ripening
6. Why is milk homogenized?

Milk is homogenized to prevent the cream portion from rising to the top of the package.
7. Name the three reasons manufacturers use the grade standards.

1. Identify levels of quality; 2. Provide a basis for establishing prices at wholesale; 3. Give consumers a choice of quality levels

36

Introduction to Food Science

8. List the six areas of inspection that occur at the dairy farm for quality control of milk produc-

tion.

heard health, farm water supplies, sanitation of milking equipment, temperature, holding times, bacteria counts of milk
9. After water, what are the components of milk solids?

carbohydrates, lactose, fats, proteins, minerals


10. Name three dried milk products.

milk powder, whey powder, whey protein concentrates


1 . LAB or lactic acid bacteria aid in making 1

cheese
12. List the steps in making ice cream.

1. blending of the mix ingredients; 2. pasteurization; 3. homogenization; 4. aging the mix; 5. freezing; 6. packaging; 7. hardening

Instructor's Guide
-

37

Chapter
Meat, Poul ry, and Eggs
OVERVIEW

17

Food science maintains the quality of meat, poultry, and eggs and seeks to provide safe, healthy, and new foods based on these products.

Summary
The first meat packers in the United States were the colonial New England farmers, who packed meats in salt as a means of preservation. The beef industry moved from the large metropolitan areas to be near commercial feedlots in the central United States in such states as Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska. The pork industry remains centrally located in the Midwest, principally in Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, Michigan, and Nebraska, but it is making a move to the west and southeast. Rapid growth and vertical integration characterize the poultry industry. The term "meat" generally refers to the skeletal muscle from the carcasses of animals-beef and veal (cattle), pork (hogs), and lamb (sheep). Inspection takes place at practically every step of the livestock procurement and meatpacking processes. Grading establishes and maintains uniform trading standards and aids in the determination of the value of various cuts of meat. Carcasses are given both a quality and a yield grade. Meat and processed meat products, and other foods of animal origin,provide a complete protein source that contains, in favorable quantities, all the essential animo acids. The most causes of variation in tenderness of beef, pork, lamb, and veal include genetics, species and age, feeding, muscle type, suspension of the carcass, electrical stimulation, chilling rate, aging, mechanical tenderizing, chemical tenderizing, freezing and thawing, cooking, and carving. Poultry includes meat from chickens and turkeys. Meat from chickens and turkeys provides a high-quality protein that is low in fat. The protein is an excellent source of essential amino acids. Appearance, texture, and flavor of poultry meat are a primary concern in the food industry and to the consumer. Poultry meat color is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat, moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions, and processing variables. Chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, guineas, and pigeons are all eligible for grading and certification services provided by the USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) Poultry Program's Grading Branch. Although eggs are widely known as breakfast entrees, they also perform in many other ways for the knowledgeable cook. Eggs are an excellent source of amino acids. The structure and characteristics of an egg include its color, shell, white, yolk, air cell, chalaza, germinal disc, and membranes. Classification is determined by interior and exterior quality and designated by the letters AA, A, or B. In many egg packing plants, the USDA provides a grading service for shell eggs. Food manufacturers have taken different approaches to reducing the cholesterol in eggs, from physically separating the cholesterol from the yolk to formulating yolks from other products and combining these with the albumen. Producers are also trying to reduce the cholesterol and change the fat content of eggs by changing the genetics of chickens.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
. ..

. . . ..... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... - -- -- -- -- - -- - --- - ---- ------------- --------. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

m reading this chapter, the student should be able to: r @ Describe the production of meat from cattle, pigs, and poultry @ Identify meat products from cattle, pigs, and poultry @ Discuss the general composition of meat and meat products @ List five factors affecting meat tenderness

38
@ 49 6 3 @ O @

Introduction to Food Science


Describe the cooking of meat Discuss the production of meat substitutes Identify quality grading of meat Describe egg production Identify factors affecting egg quality Discuss egg grading

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Meat and Meat Products Meat Substitutes Poultry Eggs Summary

Answers to Review Questions


I The general composition of meat is .

percent water,

percent protein,

percent fat,

and

percent ash (mineral).

70, 21,8, 1

2. Define what the Contract Acceptance CeMicate ensures.

The contract acceptance service ensures the integrity and quality of poultry and further processed poultry products bought by quantity food buyers such as food manufacturers, food service operators, and food retailers.
3. Who authorizes meat inspection?

Food Safety and Inspection Service h m the USDA


4. Why was the development of the extrusion method important in the meat industry?

With the extrusion method, the vegetable protein, combined with flavor, color, and other ingredients, is formed into a plastic mass in a cooker-extruder. Under pressure this mass is forced through a die to form beeflike strips or other shapes characteristic of meats.

5. List three general meat by-products.

Any three of the following: cosmetics, glues, tallow, variety meats, meat and bonemeal

6. What are the parts of an integrated meat chicken production company?

Hatching egg production, hatching, growing, processing, and marketing of the birds; often they mill their own feed and render the offal and feathers to produce feed ingredients.
7. Explain the difference between a grade AA, a grade A, and a grade B egg.

When cracked onto a surface, a grade AA egg will stand up tall. The yolk is f i i and the area covered by the white is small. A large proportion of thick white to thin white exists.

Instructor's Guide

39

When cracked onto a surface, a grade A egg covers a relatively small area. The yolk is round and upstanding. The thick white is large in proportion to the thin white and stands fairly well around the yolk. When cracked onto a surface, a grade B egg spreads out more. The yolk is flattened and there is about as much (or more) thin white as thick white.
8. Why are eggs gathered and refrigerated frequently?

The moment an egg is laid, physical and chemical changes begin to reduce freshness.

9. Beef and veal are from

,pork from

,and lamb from

cattle, hogs, sheep

10. Another word for egg white is

.
become less tender, and becomes more tender.

albumen
1 . As meat is cooked, contractile 1

proteins, collagen

12. List the five factors affecting meat tenderness.

Any five of the following: suspension of carcass, electrical stimulation, chilling rate, quality grade, mechanical, chemical, marinading, freezing/thawing, cooking

40

Introduction to Food Science

Chapter
sh and She

18

Fish and shellfish spoil easily, so food science finds ways to process and preserve them to maintain safety and quality.

Fish and shellfish provide a source of high-quality protein to the diet. Due to the demand and popularity of fish and shellfish, many are commercially cultured and processed. Processed fish and shellfish are checked for quality and graded. Fish includes saltwater and freshwater finfish such as catfish, trout, halibut, salmon, tuna, herring, and eel. Shellfish include a group of mollusks and crustaceans like clams, oysters, lobsters, crabs, shrimp, and crayfish. Fish and shellfish are provided by commercial fishing and aquaculture producers. Fish and shellfish provide a high-quality protein and are also a good source of B vitamins, calcium, phosphorus, iodine, and potassium. Fish spoil easily, so they require strict processing and preservation procedures to maintain quality. Fish processing operations adhere to standards in the Good Manufacturing Practice Code and processors use the HACCP method to monitor quality. After inspection, grading determines the quality. Grade A indicates a product of high quality that is uniform in size, free of blemishes and defects, in excellent condition, with good flavor and odor. Fish and shellfish are marketed fresh or frozen. Fish can be marketed as whole, dressed, pandressed, filleted, steaks, sticks, or nuggets. Fish protein concentrate or fish flour are fish by-products used for humans. Roe is fish eggs used for human food also. Surimi represents a new manufactured product made from pieces of fish.

LEARNING OBJECTIYES
&er reading this c h a p m the student should be able to: @ Identify three fish and three shellfish used for food 8 Describe aquaculture and processing @ Discuss the composition of fish and shellfish @ Identify three spoilage issues associated with fish 49 Describe two processes that ensure quality O List four factors that affect the grading of fish @ List four fish products and by-products 4 Describe two methods for preserving fish 3 @ Explain the methods of inspection during processing

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Fish, Shellfish, Salt- and Freshwater Fishing versus Culture

Instructor's Guide
Composition, Flavor, and Texture Spoilage Processing Preservation Shellfish Fish By-products Storage New Products Summary

41

Answers to Review Questions


I Fish are classified on the basis of their .

content.

fat

2. Describe the difference between fish and shellfish.

Fish have vertebrae, and shellfish are soft-bodied and have a shell.

3. Fish is a good source of vitamins

and

fat, and high-quality

A, D, unsaturated, protein

d Discuss three indications of spoilage in fish.


Any three of the following: skin markings and colors less distinctive; gills change color; scales loosely attached to skin; eyes cloudy and shrunken; flesh separates fkom bones, may also become soft and slimy; odor will be fishy

5. List the steps for catfish processing.


I receiving and weighing the live fish at the processing plant; 2. holding them alive until . . needed; 3. stunning; 4. deheading; 5. eviscerating; 6. skinning; 7 chilling; 8. size grading; 9. freezing or ice packing; 10. packaging; 11. warehousing; 12. icing; 13. shipping the finished product

6. What does HACCP stand for?

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point

7. Name the four grading factors for fish.

appearance, discoloration, cuttingltrimming defects, improper boning

8. What are the head, gills, and intestines of fish used for?

fish meal or fertilizer

9. Caviar is sturgeon

preserved in brine.

roe

10. List four methods of preserving fish.

drying, salting, curing, smoking

42

htmduction to Food Science

Chapter
Grains, Legumes,

19

and Oi
OVERVIEW
Cereal grains and legumes supply energy (starch) and protein. As a food, they are consumed as seeds, food science develops techniques to process these seeds into many useM products.

As a food, cereal grains, legumes and oilseeds are consumed as seeds, but more often they are consumed in some processed form such as flour, syrup, or vegetable protein extract Corn refining and soybean extraction provide a wide variety of products for food and technical uses. Cereal grains and legume seeds, and products from these, are used as food for people throughout the world. Cereal grains provide mainly starch and some protein. Legumes provide mainly protein, oil, and some starch. Starch has unique properties that are used in foods. Seeds of the grains and legumes are used to produce flour. These flours are used to produce a variety of other food products. Corn refining and soybean extraction separate the corn seed and soybeans, respectively, into component parts and convert these to high-value products. These processes are some of the best examples of value added agriculture and the application of food science.

LEARNING OBJECTIYES
reading this chapter, the student should be able to: Diagram the general structure of a grain Name three cereal grains Describe the general composition of grains, legumes, and oilseeds Identify three properties of starch List four factors that must be controlled when cooking starch Discuss the milling of grain to flour Identify five types of wheat flour Explain the classes of wheat and grades of flour Identify the type of flours other than wheat flour List the steps in corn refining Name four products derived fi-om corn Explain the processes that take place during baking List four oilseeds and indicate the use of their products @ Discuss the general use of legumes (B Name four general categories of products &om soybean extraction @ Identify five food products of soybean extraction
O @ @ @ Q 8 @ 43 @ @ 6 3 @ Q

& r

Instructor's Guide

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Cereal Grains Starch Milling of Grains Corn Refining Breakfast Cereals Principles of Baking Legumes Soybeans

sY =
Answers to Review Questions
1 Explain the processes that take place during baking. .
Liquid serves as a solvent for salt, sugar, and other solutes; assists in the dispersion of all the colloids and suspensions; assists in the development of gluten; and contributes to both the leavening and gelatinization phenomena during baking. Sugar facilitates air incorporation by shortening, inhibits development of gluten and gelatinization of starch, and elevates the temperature at which egg and flour proteins heat denature. Eggs contribute to the structure of a baked product The leavening source used in a baked product may serve to produce gas by physical, chemical, or biological methods. Salt functions to control yeast metabolism in yeast bread.
2. Soy is made from roasted soybeans in a fine powder. Soy are substitutes for cream cheese or sour cream. Soy is a dark brown liquid made from soybeans that have been fermented. Soy comes from defatted soy flakes.

flour, cheeselyogurt, sauce, protein concentrate


3. List three properties of starch.

Any three of the following: completely insoluble in cold water; on cooking, a colloidal dispersion is formed in the resulting starch paste; some pastes form gels and some are nongelling; some are opaque and some are clear, semiclear, or cloudy in appearance and soft or cohesive in texture; some tend to become rigid on standing; some are cohesive and tend to be stringier
4. Name five types of wheat flour.

enriched, bread, cake, all-purpose, pastry

5. List four general uses of legumes.


Any four of the following: fermented foods, flours, imitation meats, infant formulas, oils, and sprouts
6. The is the large central portion of the kernel and contains most of the starch. The
is the small structure at the lower end of the kerneL It is rich in fats, proteins, and minerals.

endosperm, germ

44

Introduction to Food Science

7. Identify five food products of soybean extraction.

Refer to Table 19-2 (text page 346) for answer.


8. What is the purpose of the first step of corn refining-steeping?

During steeping, the kernels absorb water, increasing their moisture levels from 15 percent to 45 percent and more than doubling in size. The corn swells and softens. The mild acidity of the steepwater begins to loosen the gluten bonds within the corn and release the starch.

9. List four factors that must be controlled when cooking starch. Any four of the following: temperature of heating; time of heating; intensity of agitation or stirring; pH of the mixture; addition of other ingredients
10. Name four products derived fkom corn.

Any four of the following: organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and food gums, citric and lactic acid, ethanol, dextrose, high-fiuctose corn syrup, feeds for animals, vitamins C and E, monosodium glutamate, xanthan gum

Instructor3 Guide

45

Chapter
s and Vege
OVERVIEW
- ...... .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... ... . .. .. . . .. . .......... .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .

20

Fruits and vegetables include a wide variety of edible parts. Food science seeks to maintain the quality and safety of fresh fruits and vegetables, and to develop new, safe, healthy food products from fruits and vegetables.

Summary
Fruits, vegetables, and other plant tissues either directly or indirectly supply all foods to humans. An estimated 270,000 plant species exist. The number of crops that fit into humans' dietary picture is probably between 1,000 and 2,000 species. Fruits and vegetables take in a wide variety of edible plant parts. Fruits include apples, pears, peaches, apricots, plums, cherries, bananas, oranges, tangerines, and grapes. The term vegetable includes many different parts of plants, including some fruits. They vary widely in carbohydrate and protein content. Many have a high water content. Fruits and vegetables are a good source of many vitamins and minerals. Because many parts of plants are eaten as fruits or vegetables, an understanding of plant tissues is critical to food scientists. Harvesting of fruits and vegetables can be affected by variety, soil type, water, temperature, and season. Climacteric fruits produce ethylene gas during ripening; nonclimacteric fruits do not. Fruits and vegetables get their characteristic color from numerous pigments. In general, water transport in plant tissues influences the texture of fruits and vegetables; flavors and aromas are due to compounds such as aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, esters, organic acids, and sulfur compounds. The USDA assigns quality grades to both fruits and vegetables. These quality grades determine the eventual use of the fruit or vegetable. Post-harvest care is critical to maintaining the optimal quality of fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables are sold fresh, canned, and frozen. Most of these processes are automated. By-products from fruit and vegetable processing are often used for livestock feed. Biotechnology offers the promise of providing h i t s and vegetables to meet new consumer demands.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
m reading this chapter, the student should be able to: r
@ Identifv the parts of a plant considered a vegetable or a fruit Q Describe the nutrient composition of a fresh fruit or vegetable

68 8 @ @ @

8 8
@ @ @

4 3

Discuss the structure of a plant cell Describe the plant tissues and their hnctions Explain climacteric and nonclimacteric with examples Name one pigment in fruits or vegetables and describe how it responds to heat or pH List four factors affecting the texture of fruits or vegetables Name four general compounds that give fruits and vegetables their flavor Identify the quality grades for fruits and vegetables Describe how quality grade determines the use of a fruit or vegetable List five factors considered during storage Describe the processing of fruits Discuss the processing of vegetables

46

Introduction to Food Science

Lesson Outline
0bj ectives

Key Terms
General Properties and Structural Features General Composition Activities of Living Systems Harvesting Post-harvest Processing of Fruits Processing of Vegetables By-products Biotechnology Summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 F'ruits and vegetables get their characteristic color from .

pigments
2. What are the grade designations for fresh fruits and vegetables and canoed fruits and vegeta-
bles?

Fancy; No. 1,2,3; Grade A, B, C


3. What is the difference between climacteric and nonclimacteric fruits?

Climacteric fruits produce ethylene gas during ripening, and they are ethylene sensitive.
4. List four compounds that give fruits or vegetables their flavor.

Any four of the following: aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, organic acids, esters, s u m compounds

5. Plant tissues existing in fruits and vegetables are the

,which contains the xylem and phloem; the

,a protective tissue layer; the ,which differs according to the

plant; and the

tissue, which is the edible portion of the h i t or vegetable.

dermal, vascular, supporting, storage


6. The crispness of a vegetable is due to the movement of

in the plant.

water
7. Describe the processing of fruit for canning or freezing.

Harvested at the proper stage of ripeness; automated equipment used as much as possible so that workers do not have to handle the product; product is sorted by machine and washed; some fruits are mechanically peeled or cut; pits and seeds are removed by automatic equipment; fruit prepared in various styles by machine; undesirable portions removed; cans or jars filled with the product by machine; syrup added; cans or jars are then sealed and cooked, cooled, and stored until shipped.

Instructor's Guide

47

8. Name the single most important factor influencing quality during storage of f u t and vegetaris bles.

temperature reduction
9. Why are frozen vegetables blanched or precooked?

The precooking process ensures that the itozen vegetables will retain much of their natural appearance and flavor for long periods of time in storage. Without blanching, the product would prematurely turn brown or oxidize before it could be marketed.
10. List the steps of orange juice processing.

extraction; clarification (clearing); deaeration (removal of air); pasteurization; concentration; essence add-back (flavors); canning or bottling; iteezing

48

Introduction to Food Science

Chapter
s and Oi
OVERVIEW

21

Fats and oils from plants and animals contain 2.25 times more energy than carbohydrates or proteins. Food science deals with their high energy content and with simple lipids such as the triglycerides that make up fat, butter, shortening, and oil.

Like proteins and carbohydrates, fats and oils are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, yet they contain 2.25 times more energy per unit of weight. In foods and food processing, they contribute unique characteristics. Some foods such as butter, cooking oils, and shortening are pure fat. Other foods make use of the properties of fats. Chemical characteristics of fats influence their properties. The function and properties of fats in foods are important. For example, fats can be used for textural qualities, emulsions, tenderizers, heat transfer, aeration, flavor, and dispersion. Fats and oils are extracted from plants and animals. Rendering extracts fats from animal products. Expellers and solvents extract fats from plants. Extracted fats undergo additional processing such as degurmning, alkali refining, bleaching, winterization, hydrogenization, deodorization, and interesterification. Chemical tests such as iodine value, rancidity, melting point, smoke point, and saponification provide information about function and stability. Because fats contain more calories per pound than carbohydrates or proteins, the food industry continues to reduce the fat content of foods or to search for fat substitutes.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
m reading this chapter, the student should be able to: r @ Explain saturated and unsaturated, cis and trans in terms of fatty acids 63 Describe fatty acids Q Discuss melting point and the structure of fatty acids O Identifj six sources of fats and oils @ List eight hnctions fats and oils serve in foods @ Compare the extraction of fats or oils from animals to that of plants @ Describe the process used on oils after extraction @ List five processes in the refining and modifying of oils or fats after extraction @ Discuss monoglycerides and diglycerides and their uses @ Identify substances that may substitute for fat @ Describe two tests conducted on fats and oils

Lesson Outline
0bj ectives Key Terms

Instructor's Guide
Effects of Composition on Fat Properties Sources of Fats and Oils Functional Properties of Fats Production and Processing Methods Products Made from Fats and Oils Monoglycerides and Diglycerides Fat Substitutes Tests on Fats and Oils Summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 List eight functions fats and oils serve in foods. .

Any eight of the following: produce satiety (fhlhess after eating); transfer heat; add flavor; provide texture (body and mouthfeel); tenderize; decrease temperature shock in h z e n desserts; solubilize flavors and colors; disperse; aid in the incorporation of air (foaming)
2. The number of acids.

and

influence the melting point of some common fatty

carbon atoms, saturation


3. Describe fatty acids and how they relate to saturated and unsaturated fats.

Fatty acids are chains of 4 to 28 carbon atoms with the carbons in the chain joined by single or double bonds depending on the number of hydrogen atoms attached. If a fatty acid has all the hydrogens possible attached to the carbons in the chain, it is said to be a saturated fatty acid. If some of the carbons in the chain are joined by double bonds, thus reduo ing the number of hydrogen atoms, the fatty acid is called unsaturated.

4. Name the two methods of extracting oil from plants.


The oil is removed from the plant source by mechanical presses and expellers that squeeze the oil fkom oilseeds. Another method is the solvent extraction method. A nontoxic fat solvent such as hexane is percolated through the cracked seeds. The oil is then distilled fkom the solvent, and the solvent is reused.

5. List the eight processes used on oils aAer extraction.


degumrning, refining, bleaching, winterization (fkactionation), hydrogenization, d e o ~ dorization, and interesterification
6.

and are used as emulsifiers in a variety of foods. A is a


is a glycerol with two fatty
glycerol molecule with only one fatty acid attached; a acids attached.

Monoglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, diglycerides


7. Explain the difference between cis and trans fatty acids.

Atoms or other groups may exist as cis or trans forms around the double bond of the fatty acids. Cis and trans forms have the same number of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms but in a Werent geometrical arrangement. A longer carbon chain increases the melting

50

Introduction to Food Science point; the more double bonds, the lower the melting point; and cis fatty acids have a lower melting point than do trans.

8. Name and discuss the two chemical tests on fats and oils.

Chemical tests can determine the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids in a fat This is expressed as the iodine value of the fat The test is based on the amount of iodine absorbed by a fat on a per 100 grams basis. The higher the iodine value, the greater the degree of unsaturation. Another chemical test yields the peroxide value. This indicates the degree of oxidation that has taken place in a fat or oil. The test is based on the amount of peroxides that form at the site of double bonds.
9. List six sources of fats and oils.

Fats and oils come &om plant and animal sources, including fish. The plant or vegetable fats include cocoa butter, corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, olive oil, canola oil, and many others. Animal fats include lard from pigs, tallow fkom beef, and butterfat b m milk. Fish oils include cod liver oil, oil fkom menhaden, and whale oil.
10. What is Olestra?

It is a fat substitute and a chemical derivative of table sugar (sucrose).

Instnu:tor's Guide

51

Chapter
Candy and Con
OVERVIEW

22

An understanding of food science helps combine sugar or similar substances with other compatible ingredients such as fruits, nuts, or chocolate to produce a wide variety of candies and confectionery.

Summary
The word "candy" does not cover only pure-sugar concoctions, but also includes an array of tasty confectioneries combining sugar or similar substances with other compatible ingredients such as fruits, nuts, or chocolate. Some people may not like the idea, but candy is a food. Its basic elements are included in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Pyramid. Some candies such as those containing milk or nuts do offer some beneficial food values. Candy or confectionery are divided into those in which sugar is the main ingredient and those based on chocolate. Further, candies can be classified as crystalline and noncrystalline. The processes of creating an invert sugar and caramelization produce unique flavors and characteristics. The relationship between sucrose concentration and the boiling point determines the percentage of water and sugar in the final product. Interfering agents interfere with the formation of sucrose crystals and provide secondary properties to candies. Sugar-based sweeteners developed from cornstarch brought about major changes in the food industry. These sweeteners include corn syrup, maltodextrin, dextrose monohydrate, and dextrose anhydrous. High-fructose corn syrups are produced when cornstarch is hydrolyzed by an invertase. Again, high-fructose corn syrup revolutionized the food industry. Cocoa is the ground, defatted, roasted cacao kernels. Federal standards define cocoa and other chocolate products including milk chocolate, dark chocolate, and baking chocolate. Much of candy manufacturing, including chocolate manufacturing, relies on automation, and precision instrumentation. Sugar substitutes and high-intensity sweeteners are often used to reduce the calories in candy and confectionery. Labeling requirements for candy and confectionery are the same as for other foods.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
@ @ @ @ 49 @ GB O

6B
@ Q Q

reading this chapter, the student should be able to: Identify three crystalline and three noncrystalline candies Describe the relationship between sugar concentration and the boiling point Discuss common components of candies and confectioneries Identifv two ways to produce invert sugar Explain caramelization in candymaking Name four sugar-based sweeteners developed from corn starch Describe uses of high-fructose corn syrup Define cocoa Explain conching Describe modern candy and confectionery manufacturing List four sugar alcohols and four high-intensity sweeteners Discuss the labeling information and requirements for candy

52

Introduction to Food Science

Lesson Ou&*ne
Objectives Key Terms Sugar-Based Confectionery Chocolate and Cocoa Products Confectionery Manufacturing Practices Sugar Substitutes Labeling Summary

Answers to Review Questions


I Define conching. .

Conching is a flavor development process that puts chocolate through a "kneading" action and takes its name fkom the shell-like shape of the containers originally employed.
2. Sugar-based sweeteners are developed from

sugar

cornstarch

3. Candies based on a

sugar include rock candy, fondant, and fudge. candies include hard candies, brittles, chewy candies, and gummy candies. crystalline, Noncrystalline

receives lines of assorted centers (nuts, nougats, fruit, etc.) and showers them
4. The with a waterfall of liquid chocolate. This generally covers and surrounds each center with a
blanket of chocolate.
enrober

5. Why are h c t o s e and high-fructose products frequently substituted for sucrose?

Fructose is a monosaccharide that is approximately 75 percent sweeter than sucrose.

6. What is the most common sugar in candies?

sucrose

7. What labeling information is required on candies and confectionery?

B law, all packaged foods must bear a label listing ingredients in order of predominance; y candy is no exception. Every package of hard candies or chocolate bar must offer such a listing. As part of the new food labeling rules under the 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, manufacturers must include substantially more nutrition information on labels than in the past.
8. Define cocoa.

Cocoa is fmely pulverized, defatted, roasted cacao kernels, to which natural and artificial spices and flavors may be added.

Instructor's Guide

53

9. What substance is added to the ingre,dientsof candy that serves indirectly to decrease the rate of cl.gstallization as well as crystal size?

cream of tartar
10.

is the application of heat to the point that sugars dehydrate and break down and polymerize.

54

Introduction to Food Science

Chapter
Beverages

23

Using science and technology, the food industry creates and markets a wide variety of beveragesincluding carbonated; nonalcoholic; noncarbonated; alcoholic; coffee; teas; and water. Some beverages are marketed for their health benefits.

People drink beverages for their food value, thirst quenching, and stimulating effects. Also people drink because consumption is pleasurable, and some drinks are considered healthhl. The food industry creates a wide variety of beverages. This includes carbonated, nonalcoholic beverages, with different flavors and with nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. Carbonation in beverages provides their zest and sparkle. Recently, the popularity of carbonated beverages has given way to new products created by the food industry such as vitamin-fortified h i t drinks, scientifically formulated sports drinks, nutritionally enhanced beverages, and water. Bottled water represents a profitable, fast-growing segment of the beverage industry. Fermentation of carbohydrates from corn, rye, rice, molasses, wheat, potatoes, barley, agave, and fruit juices creates alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, whiskey, vodka, rum, sake, and tequila. Fermentation by yeast changes sugar to alcohol; the taste of the beverage depends on the carbohydrate source and the process. Coffee comes from roasted beans of a small tree. Coffee flavor is determined by the variety and length of roasting time. Coffee substitutes are produced from roasted grains and grain products in combination with other flavors. Tea comes from the processed leaves of a plant. The type of tea produced depends on the enzymatic action on tea leaves. Both tea and coffee have been produced in an instant form. Tea has been bottled as a beverage. Herbal teas come from many plants and not just the leaves: flowers, roots, bark, and seeds of herbs all can be used in a blend for herbal tea. Herbal teas are enjoyed because of their wide ranging tastes, and they are often recommended as beneficial alternatives to coffee, tea, and carbonated drinks.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
@r
@
@

@ @ @ @ @ @ Q @ @

reading this chapter, the student should be able to: Describe how carbonated nonalcoholic beverages are manufactured List the steps in the production of beer Compare the production of wine to vinegar Indicate how fermentation plays a role in the production of coffee Name six ways enzymes are used in the production of beverages Discuss how two beverages meet the demand for a healthful drink Identify the fastest growing segment of the beverage industry Name five herbs used in beverages Identify the plants that produce coffee and tea Describe how to produce a coffee substitute Compare tea to herbal teas

Instructor's Guide

55

Lesson OutUne
Objectives Key Terms Carbonated Nonalcoholic Beverages Noncarbonated Herbal and Healthful Beverages Bottled Water Alcoholic Beverages Coffee Coffee Substitutes Tea Herbal Tea Summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 List the five reasons why hops and wort are boiled in the beer-making process. .

(I) Concentrate the solids, (2) kill microorganisms, (3) inactivate enzymes, (4) coagulate proteins, (5) caramelize the sugars
2. Name the three categories of wines.

Natural or table wines; sparkling wines; fortified wines

3. What is the difference between viticulture and vinification?

Viticultwe-the science and art of growing grapes; vinification-the production of wine &om grapes
4. How is the flavor of coffee determined?

B the variety of the bean and by the length of time the green beans are roasted
y

5. Coffee comes from a


bean, leaf

;tea is made from a

6. Bottled
water

is the fastest growing segment of the beverage industry.

7. List five herbs used in beverages.

Any five of the following: ginseng, ginkgo, guarana, chicory, carob, cassia bark, allspice, star anise, hibiscus, rose hips, chamomile, peppermint, blackberry, cloves, cinnamon
8. What is the difference between what plain teas and herbal teas are made from?

Teas are made f h m leaves; herbal teas are made from leaves and flowers, roots, bark, and seeds
9. What are coffee substitutes made from?

Cereals such as barley, wheat, rye, malt, bran

56

Introduction to Food Science

10. Name the drink that provides minerals, vitamins, and energy during exercise.

Gatoradea

Instructor's Guide

Chapter
Environmen and Process
OVERVIEW

24

57

Concerns

Solid wastes and wastewater from food processing are environmental concerns, and food science and technology create methods for dealing with these concerns.

The food-processing industry uses technology to reduce the quantity of high-moisture-content solid wastes generated by washing, cleaning, extracting, and the separation of undesirable solids from fruits and vegetables processing. Research in this area continues to develop ways to reduce the volume and water content of solid wastes, to increase the value of solid wastes sold as animal feed, and to convert the solid wastes into other by-products. Food processing produces solid wastes. To remain environmentally friendly, food processors seek ways of disposing of or using solid wastes. Because food processing requires large quantities of potable water and produces large quantities of wastewater, this creates other environmental issues. Food processors must clean up wastewater. They also try to reduce the amount of water used in processing to lower the wastewater production. Responsibility for disposing of solid wastes and for treating and reducing wastewater resides with the food processor to meet environmental standards, laws, and restrictions.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
-

@er reading this chapter, the student should be able to:


@ @ @ @ @ 69 8 @ @

Describe the properties and the requirements of water used in food processing Discuss four methods food-processing industries use to dispose of solid wastes Explain how water becomes wastewater during food processing Relate the level of solids in wastewater to BOD Describe wastewater treatments to lower BOD List eight products that could be in wastewater Identify four methods of separating water from solid wastes Name four ways food processors reduce the amount of solid wastes and water discharge List five methods of conserving water during food processing

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms Water in Food Production Properties and Requirements of Processing Waters

58

Introduction to Food Science

Environmental Concerns Disposal of Solid Wastes Properties of Wastewaters Wastewater Treatment Responsibility Summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 Water serves as a universal .

solvent
2. List five methods of conserving water during food processing.

Any five of the following: set water conservation goals for the plant; make water conservation a management priority; install water meters and monitor water use; train employees l how to use water eff~ciently; use automatic shut-off nozzles on a l water hoses; use high-pressure, low-volume cleaning systems; do not let people use water hoses as brooms; reuse water where possible; minimize spills of ingredients and of raw and finished product on the floor; always clean up the spills before washing
3. Name the three aspects of water that concern food-production and -processing industries.

Microbiological and chemical purity; suitability for processing use; decontamination &er use
4. Define BOD.

Biological oxygen demand

5. Explain how water becomes wastewater during food processing.


Industries use large volumes of water to process food products and clean plant equipment Using water for cleanup in food processing plants flushes loose meat, blood, soluble protein, inorganic particles, and other food waste to the sewer. The water is wasted because it is not usable for any other purposes.
6. When BOD levels are high, the more

the wastewater will require,

treatment
7. List four methods of separating solids from wastes.

Any four of the following: dewatering such as screw presses, belt presses, vacuum filters; separations; screening; filtering; cenmging; skimming; settling; coagulation or flocculation; trickling filters; activated sludge tanks and ponds; anaerobic digestion
8. Name four ways food processors can reduce solid wastes and water discharge.

Any four of the following: grease trap, solids recovery basin, activated sludge system, keep ing wastes off the floor, trays beneath machines to catch spillage, picking up spillage before hosing down the floors, placing screens over drains

Instncctor's Guide
9. Explain dry cleanup.

59

Dry cleanup uses methods to capture alI nonliquid waste and prevent it from entering the wastewater.
10. Name one way dry cleanup can be used.

animal feed, rendering plant

60

Introduction to Food Science

Chapter
Food Sa
OVERVIEW

25

Food safety concerns include pesticides, additives, and spoilage, but a major focus for many food scientists and consumers is on microorganisms in food.

Summary
Food safety is a very broad topic. Pesticides, herbicides, chemical additives, and spoilage are all of concern, but food scientists, food processors, and consumers focus most on microbiological quality. Microorganisms pose a challenge to the food industry, and most food processes are designed with microbial quality in mind. Microorganisms are too small to be seen with the unaided eye and have the ability to reproduce rapidly. Many of them produce toxins and can cause infections. For these reasons, the microbiological quality of the food is scrutinized closely. Microorganisms cause foodborne illnesses that vary in severity. Many people call foodborne illnesses 24-hour flu, upset stomach, or diarrhea. However, for the very young and the old, these foodborne illnesses can be life-threatening. Microorganisms of concern include viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. To control microorganisms, food scientists must understand factors affecting microbial growth. These include pH, oxygen availability, nutrient availability, moisture availability, storage temperature, lag time, and generation time. Because foods cannot be tested for all microorganisms, the presence of E. coli serves as an indicator. The detection of E. coli is accomplished by the standard plate count. The goal of proper processing and handling is to keep microbial loads to a minimum to provide safe, high-quality food. During processing, microbial destruction and control are achieved by heat or chemicals. Also during processing, cleaning before sanitization is an important part of maintaining safe food. Depending on the type of processing, appropriate and approved sanitation procedures must be followed. The USDA, FDA, and EPA are all involved in regulatory considerations of food safety. HACCP is a food safety program developed for the astronauts more than 30 years ago. HACCP involves seven steps and is now being used to monitor and control foodborne diseases.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
&er reading this chapter, the student should be able to: @ List three categories of food safety Name four factors contributing to the development of a foodborne disease @ List four types of microorganisms that can cause foodborne illness O List five factors affecting microbial growth @ Identi9 the microorganisms that provide an index of food sanitation 8 Discuss the role of sanitation and cleaning during processing in food safety 8 Identify the correct order of sanitizing or cleaning a food contact surface Q Name three types of food soils @ List two types of sanitization @ Identify agencies involved in food safety regulation @ Describe the role of I-IACCP in food safety

Instructor's Guide

61

Lesson Oudine
0bj ectives Key Terms Safety, Hazards, and Risks Food-Related Hazards Microorganisms Microbiological Methodology Processing and Handling Rodents, Birds, and Insects Cleaning and Sanitizing HACCP and Food Safety Summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 List three types of food soils. .

Any three of the following: soluble in water (sugars, some starches, most salts); soluble in acid (limestone and most mineral deposits); soluble in alkali (protein, fat emulsions); soluble in water, alkali, or acid
2. Briefly list the seven steps involved in HACCP.

1. Analyze hazards; 2. identi& critical control points; 3. establish preventive measures with critical limits for each control point; 4. establish procedures to monitor the critical control points; 5. establish corrective actions to be taken when monitoring shows that a critical limit has not been met; 6. establish procedures to verify that the system is working properly; 7. establish effective recordkeeping to document the HACCP system.
3. List four foodborne diseases.

Any four diseases from Table 25-1 (text pages 455457).


4. A rule of thumb for the numbers of organisms required to produce toxins or to produce desired per gram. or undesired flavors is

1 million

5. Name three ways cross-contamination occurs.


Hands that touch raw foods, such as chicken, then touch food that will not be cooked, like salad ingredients; surfaces, like cutting boards or cleaning cloths, that touch raw foods, are not cleaned and sanitized, then touch ready-to-eat food; raw or contaminated foods that touch or drip fluids on cooked or ready-to-eat foods.
6. The four main microorganisms are ,which are the tiniest and simplest forms of life; which need a host to survive; ,which are molds or yeast; and ,which, when they multiply, can make food hazardous to eat.

viruses, parasites, fungi, bacteria


7. Name the two general heat processes for microbial destruction.

Pasteurization and sterilization

62

Introduction to Food Science

8. Name the correct order of events for cleaning/sanitizing of food product contact surfaces. 1. Rinse; 2. clean; 3. rinse; 4. sanitize 9. The two types of sanitization include ,which involves the use of or ,which involves the use of an a specified temperature and contact time, and approved sanitizer at a specified concentration and contact time.

for

thermal, hot water, steam, chemical, chemical


10. List the five most commonly reported food preparation practices from the Centers for Disease

Control that contribute to foodborne diseases. Improper holding temperatures; poor personal hygiene; inadequate cooking; contaminated equipment; food flrom an unsafe source

Instructor's Guide

63

Chapter
ion and Labe
OVERVIEW

26

Government regulation and labeling of foods represent significant issues in the food industry. Food science helps organizations, government, and businesses address these issues.

Summary
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and legislative acts, regulate foods and the labeling of foods and food laws to protect the consumer. Additionally, many states and cities have food laws. Food labeling provides basic information about the ingredients in, and the nutritional value of, food products so that consumers can make informed choices in the marketplace. The FDA, operating under the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, regulates the labeling for all foods except meat and poultry. The USDA under the federal Meat Inspection Act regulates meat and poultry products. Additional federal acts cover specific foods. Recent changes in the food label provide consumers with more accurate and more u s e l l nutritional information. This information is provided on the nutrition panel. Some of the components of the food label are mandatory and some are voluntary. DRVs establish dietary standards for labels. Guidelines for labels promote the uniform definitions for words such as free, low, lean, high, reduced, and less. Additionally, label regulations address how and when certain health claims can be made for foods. Finally, food-labeling requirements also address ingredient labeling.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
r p e reading this chupter, the student should be able to: q Lr 4 Identify the agencies and laws that regulate foods and labeling 3
@ Describe the functions of a quality assurance department

Q Q @ @ @ 4 3 @ O

Discuss the history of food labels List five features of new labels Name two general categories of food exempt from food labels List six components found on the nutritional panel Describe the format of the nutritional panel Discuss the use of DRVs Identify when these words can be used: free, low, high, less, light, and more List two health claim relationships that can be listed on a food package

Lesson Outline
0bj ectives Key Terms Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Additional Food Laws Legal Categories of Food Substances

64

Introduction to Food Science

Testing for Safety Quality Assurance Food Labeling New Food Labels The New Food Label Summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 What are DRVs? .

Daily Reference Values, established for macronutrients that are sources of energy and do not contribute to calories
2. What is the new requirement on ingredient labels?

A full ingredient labeling on standardized foods with more than one ingredient
3. Name three agencies that regulate foods and labeling.

Any three of the following: U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Food Safety and Inspection Semce (FSIS); USDA
4. List three foods exempt from food labels.
Any three of the following: food sewed for immediate consumption; food prepared on site

such as a bakery; food shipped in bulk; medical foods; plain coffee, tea, spices, and other foods that contain no significant amounts of any nutrients; food produced by small businesses

5. Name four functions of quality assurance programs.


Any four of the following: compliance with specWications; test procedures; sampling schedules; records and reporting; troubleshooting; special problems
6. What type of claim would this be on a nutrition label-'While many factors affect heart disease, diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of this disease"?

health claim
7. List six components found on the nutritional panel.

Any six of the following: total calories; calories fkom fat; calories fkom saturated fat; total fat; saturated fac polyunsaturated fat; monounsaturated fat; cholesterol; sodium; potassium; total carbohydrate; dietary fiber; soluble fiber; insoluble fiber; sugars; sugar alcohol (sugar substitutes xylitol, mannitol, and sorbitol); other carbohydrates (the merenee between total carbohydrate and the sum of dietary fiber, sugars, and sugar alcohol if declared); protein; vitamin A; percent of vitamin A present as beta-carotene; vitamin C; calcium; iron; other essential vitamins and minerals
8.

means that a nutritionally altered product contains at least 25 percent less of a nutrient or of calories than the regular, or reference, product. Reduced

Instmetor's Guide

65

9, Name the two terms used to describe the fat content of meat, poultry, seafood, and game meats.

lean and extra lean


10, What are the DRVs for fats and sodium?

Total fat: less than 65 g; saturated fat: less than 20 g


Sodium: less than 2,400 mg

66

Introduction to ~ o o Science d

Chapter
d food Needs
OVERVIEW
Food science can help solve world hunger.

27

Summary
World hunger is a serious problem with no apparent solution. Awareness, many times, is the first step in solving a problem. About 800 million people are hungry. In fact, if all the world's undernourished people were gathered in one place, their population would be greater than every continent except Asia. Each year people die from hunger or problems caused by hunger. Many of these are children under 5 years of age. One word explains hunger-poverty. Poverty is the state of one who lacks a usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions. This means that if someone has so few things or so little money that their society says they are poor, then they live in poverty. We have shown that there is enough food produced. We have also shown that every country has the resources to rid itself of hunger. But often people do not have the money needed to buy the food that is produced. Poverty, hunger, and malnutrition are some of the principal causes of accelerated migration from rural to urban areas in developing countries. The largest population shift of all times is now underway. Harmful seasonal and midyear instability of food supplies can be reduced. Food security progress should include targeting on minimizing the vulnerability to, and impact of, climate fluctuations and pests and diseases. Unless national governments and the international community address the many causes of food insecurity, the number of hungry and malnourished people will remain very high in developing countries, particularly in Africa, south of the Sahara, and sustainable food security will not be achieved. The resources required for investment will be generated mostly from domestic, private, and public organizations and groups.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
- ....- - -. . ...- - .. . .

&r
@
43 O O @ @ @ @

readirg this chapter, the student should be able to: Discuss the effects of hunger and malnutrition Describe the impact of hunger worldwide Discuss possible causes of world hunger List seven steps identified by the United Nations for eliminating hunger Explain the role of technology in eliminating hunger Identify agencies and organizations involved in preventing and eliminating hunger Discuss the Plan of Action developed at the World Food Summit Recognize agencies and organization concerned with eliminating hunger

Instructor's Guide

Lesson OuUine
Objectives Key Terms World Food Hunger and Malnutrition Fighting the Problem Roles of Technology World Food Summit Hunger Agencies and Organizations Summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 What are the three effects of hunger on children? .

stunting, underweight, wasting

2. List five agencies involved in world food hunger.


Use any agency listed in Table 27-1 (text pages 516515)

.
areas in devel-

3. Many of the people who suffer fkom hunger are people who live in the

oping countries.

4. Name the four ways that technology research can help with hunger.

Improve the application of technology to natural resource management; protection of crops without heavy reliance on pesticides; genetic improvement of key crops; global action to advance scientific knowledge and its application

5. What three things does world hunger usually mean?


malnutrition, undernutrition, famine
6. List the seven steps identified by the United Nations for eliminating hunger.

Step 1-Many countries that are suf'fering from hunger have to buy a lot of the things that they need from other countries. The countries that s a e r from hunger need to learn to do more things by themselves. This way they will not have to buy as much fkom other countries. Step 2-Many developing countries have rules and regulations for the farmers. These rules need to be checked to make sure that farmers will still want to produce food. These regulations should make sure that the farmers get a fair amount of money for their food. The farmers also need help to use their land and water wisely Step 3-Once the food is h a r vested, it has to be stored until it is needed. When the food is needed, it has to be taken where it is needed and when it is needed most. Both the storage and the transportation of the food need to be improved. Step &The food aid has to be checked to make sure it gets to the hungry people. Because of the food aid, the country's production needs to be checked. The country must not be allowed to produce less food because of the food aid. Step 5-Developed and developing countries need to work together more. This will make it easier for them to trade. They can also make the food prices stay the same longer. Step 6Countries need to be kept f'rom using too much food. They also need to keep fkom wasting food. Step 7-Many developing countries owe a lot of money. These countries need to pay

68

Introduction to ~ o o Science d off their debts. This can be done by paying back more money they make on exports (things that they sell to other countries). Because these countries owe a lot of money, it makes it m ~ l t for them to borrow money.

7. Define food security.

Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
8. List the four common misconceptions about the causes of hunger.

Not enough food available to feed everyone; population is too large; governments cause hunger; foreign aid helps eliminate hunger
9.

eradication is essential to improve access to food. Poverty

10. Hunger can be a

,but more often it is a very limited

famine, diet

Instructor3 Guide

69

Chapter
Careers in Food Science
OVERVIEW
.... . . . . . . .... .. . .. . . . ..

28

Jobs or careers in the food science industry range from those very closely tied to the industry to those that support the food industry.

In terms of value of shipments, food processing is the largest manufacturing industry in the United States. The major technological support of the food processing industry comes from food scientists, technicians, and other industry employees who use their training and experience to convert raw foods into quality products quickly, efficiently, and with a minimum of waste. They are directly concerned with the industry's high standards of quality, new manufacturing methods, new preservation techniques, and new packaging materials. A knowledge of chemistry,microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences plays an important part in maintaining the flavor, color, texture, nutritional value, and safety of our food. The goal of education and training is primarily to become employable and stay employable-to get and keep a job, career, or to run a successful business. The world of work requires people who can read, write, do math, and communicate. Rapidly changing technology has made this even more critical. Also, the modern workplace now looks for people who possess thinking skills. Even with a solid set of basic skills, future employees also need to relate to other people; must be able to use information; need to understand the concept of systems; and know how to use technology. Old-fashioned ideas like responsibility, self-esteem, sociability,self-management, and integrity are not out of date. Jobs or careers in the food industry range from those very closely tied to the industry to those that support the food industry. In general, potential job or career areas in the food industry include production management, product development, food engineer, microbiology, quality control, research, technical representative, sales, and service. Education and training in the food industry vary from on-the-job training to high school and college degrees and certificates. After training and education, finding and getting the right job or career may still be a challenge. Good resources exist for locating a job. Still, one of the best resources is personal contact. Wellwritten letters of inquiry, application forms, a clear eye-catching rksumk, and being prepared for the job interview will help secure a job.

LEARNING OBJECTIYES
@r reading thfs chaptec the student should be able to:
@ List the basic skills and knowledge needed for successful employment and job advancement

@ Describe the thinking skills needed for the workplace of today @ Identify the traits of an entrepreneur

d List six occupational areas of the food industry @ Identify the careers that require a science background Describe the general duties of the occupations in six areas of the food industry @ Describe the education and experience needed to enter six areas of the food industry @ List six general competencies needed in the workplace @ List eight guidelines for choosing a job O List ten guidelines for filling out an application form

70
@ @ @ @

Introduction to Food Science

Describe a letter of inquiry or application List the elements of a rksum6 or data sheet Describe ten reasons an interview may fail Discuss what research studies indicate about basic skills and thinking skills for the workplace

Lesson Outline
Objectives Key Terms General Skills and Knowledge Entrepreneurship Jobs and Courses in the Food Industry Education and Experience Identifying a Job Food Industry Supervised Agricultural Experience Getting a Job Occupational Safety Summary

Answers to Review Questions


1 What are the six basic skills required in the workplace? .

reading, writing, mathematics, listening, speaking, thinking


2. Define "entrepreneur."

One who takes risk and starts a new business


3. List the parts of a r6sumk.

Name, address, and phone number; brief, specif'ic statement of career objective; educational background-names of schools, dates, major field(s) of study, degrees or diplomaslisted in reverse chronological order; leadership activities, honors, and accomplishments; work experience listed in reverse chronological order; special technical skills and interests related to job; references; limit to one page if possible, neatly typed and error fkee; logically organized; honestly-listed q ~ ~ c a t i oand experiences ns is to obtain information about possible job vacancies. A letter of 4. A letter of to apply for a specific position that has been publicly advertised. inquiry, application is

5. Name ten reasons why an interview may fail.


Any ten of the following: poor attitude; unstable work record; bad references; lack of selfselling ability; lack of skill and experience; not really anxious to work; "bad mouthing" f o r mer employers; too demanding (wanting too much money or to work only under certain conditions); unable to be available for interviews or canceling out; poor appearance; lack of manners and personal courtesy; chewing gum, smoking, fidgeting; no attempt to establish rapport, not looking the interviewer in the eye; being interested only in the salary and benefits of the job; lack of confidence; being evasive; poor grammar, use of slang; not having any direction or goals

Instructor's Guide
6.

71

processing is the largest manufacturing industry in the world.

Food

7. List the five thinking skills needed in the new workplace.

Creative thinking, decision making, problem solving, mental visualization, knowing how to learn and reasoning
8. Research and development in any area of the food industry requires a

background.

science

9. What education is required for a chef certification?

A high school diploma and three years' cook's apprentice program or formal training abroad
10. Identify four jobs in the food safety and inspection area of the food industry.

Any four of the following: crop certification inspector; dairy products inspector; f s and ih f s products inspector; h i t and vegetables inspector; grain inspector; livestock inspector; ih
plant protection inspector; poultry inspector; public health and restaurant inspector

Appendix
Food Science Resources he Interne
Namempic
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
(careers) American Association of Cereal
Chemists American Culinary Federation American Dairy Science Association

I
f

URL
<www.cfa-fca.ca/careers/indexl .html>

<www.scisoc.org/aacc/>

I <www.adchek.org/>
<www.adsa.org/> <www.aeb.org/>

<www.eatright.org/adafansa. html> American Dietetic Association "......".........."."................................................".....,............................. ............."."................."."."..................."."..............."............"........".."........."......"......"......"."......"...."."

American Egg Board

American Soybean Association

I <www.asa-europe.org/> I <www. burgerking.com > I <www.thevision.net/DMS/canning.htm>


<vm.dsan.fda.gov/list. html>

Burger King California Agricultural Technology


Institute
Canning Basics for Food Preservation Center for Food Safety and Applied
Nutrition Coca-Cola Cornell Food Science and Technology Council for Agricultural Science and
Technology Dairy Network.com FDA's Bad Bug Book

I <www.coca-cola.com/gafeway.html>

I ~www.nysaes.cornell.edu/fst/>
--

I <www.dairynetwork.com/content/homepage/>
I <vm.cfsan.fda.gov/-mow/intro.
html> (continued)

<www.cast-science.org/>

This table i s not a complete listing of food, food science, food processing, or food industry resources on the Internet. It is
merely a starting point. Sources in this table will lead to other sources. Many more resources can be found by using one of
the search engines available such as Yahoo!, HotBot, AltaVista, Excite, Northernlight, Dogpile, About, or Google.

73

74

Introduction to Food Science

APPENDIX A Food Science Resources on the Internet(continued)


NamerCopic

URL

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food and health (University of Minnesota Extension Service) Food and Nutrition lnformation Center

I
]
]

~www.foo.org/> amvw.fda.gov/>

<www.nalusda.gov/fnic/etext/fnic. htrnl>

Food Design Net Food Industry Resource FoodNet Food preservation (KSU)

I
]

<www.foodesignet.com/>

<www.foodfront.com/index. htm>

I <foodnet.fic.ca/> I <www.oznet. ksu.edu/ext_f&n/foodpreservation/drying.htm


<www.fsis.usda.gov/index.htm>

>

Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA)

FruitNet

<www.fruitnet.com/>

Grocery Manufacturers of America

I
I

<www.g mabrands.com/>

Hormel Foods

IBe Inc.
Institute of Food Technologists

<www.ibpinc.com/> <www.ifi.org/>
*** ... *

International Food ................. "................. ." lnformation Council " ........."................................ ............................................... .................................................................. . " .................................................................. <www.ificinfo.heaIth.org/> International Organization for Standardization (ISO) <www.iso.ch/welcome. html>

KFC Kraft Kroger

<www.kfc.com >

<www.kraftfoods.com/index.cgi>

McDonald's Meat and Poultry Online


tandpoultryonline.com/content/homepage/>

(continued)

Instructor's Guide
APPENDIX A Food Science Resources on the Internet (concluded)
Nameflopic
MinuteMaid Nasco National Food Safety Database (USDA) <www.nascofa.com/>

URL

I <www.foodsafeiy.ufl.edu/index. html>
<www.nppc.org/>

National Pork Producers Council

National Food Service Management


Institute

<www.nbmi.org/>

Nutrition and Food Curricul PastryWiz Food Resource Center Pepsi


Perdue Farms Performance Food Group

.org/uta hlink/lp-res/nutri375.html>

I <www.sweettechnology.com/>

Pizza Hut <www.pinahut.com>


............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................"....................
Postharvest series Produce Marketing Association

I
I I

I <www.pfgc.com/frame.htm>

"

I <www.perdue.com/>

<www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extansion/publicat/posthaw/~

I <www.pma.com/>

Seafood Network Information Center Seafood education Soy Protein Council Smithfield Foods

I <seafood.ucdavis.edu/~
I ~www.vims.edu/adv/seafood/>

I <www.spcouncil.org/> I <www.iyson.com/>
r

<www.smithfield.com>

Tyson Foods, Inc. U.S. Meat Animal Research Center U.S. Poultry and Egg Association U.S. Soyfoods Directory

Wendy's <www.wendys.com > ._.------"..""..........."."-."*-".".".".."---."...-."*"--*".".


."...."......"......"....".""...."................".""....".."....."........."...."..".."~.
World food issues (Iowa State University)

I
r

<www.soyfoods.com/~

<www.ag.iastate.edu/grank/SALV96/salv97.cp. html>

76

Introduction to Food Science

Appendix
Sugges ed Resources

Bartlett, J. 1996. The cook's dictionary and culinary reference. Chicago: Contemporary Books. Corriher, S. 0.1997. Cookwise: The hows and whys of successful cooking. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. Cremer, M. L. 1998. Quality food in quuntiw Management and science. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. Drummond, K. E. 1994. Nuhition for the food service pmfessionul, 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Gardner, J. E., Ed. 1982. Reader's digest. Eat better, live better. Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. Horn, J., J. Fletcher, and A. Gooch. 1997.Cooking a to z The complete culinury reference source. Glen Ellen, CA: Cole Publishing Group, Inc. McGee, H. 1997.Onfood and cooking. The science and lore of the kitchen. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster Inc. National Council for Agricultural Education. 1993.Food science, sqtiet. and nutrition. Madison, WI: National FFA Foundation. Potter, N. N., and J. H. Hotchkiss. 1995.Food science, 5th ed. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall. . Vaclavik, V. A., and E. W Christina. 1999. Essentials of food science. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc. Vieira, E. R. 1996.Elementaryfood science, 4th ed. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall.

Instructor's Guide

77

Appendix
Carolina Biological Supply Company, PO Box 6010, Burlington, NC 27215
URL: <www.carolina.com/>
Fisher Scientific, 485 Frontage Road, Burr Ridge, IL 60521
URL: <www.fishersci.com/ or http://www.fisheredu.com/>
HACH Company, PO Box 389, Loveland, CO 80539
URL: <www.hach.com/>
LAB-AIDS, Inc., 17 Colt Court, Ronkonkoma, NY 11779
URL: <www.lab-aids.com/>
LaMotte Company, PO Box 329, Chestertown, MD 21620
URL: <www.lamotte.com/>
NASCO, 901 Janesville Avenue, PO Box 901, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538-0901
URL: <www,nascofa.com/>
Nebraska Scientific, 3823 Leavenworth Street, Omaha, NE 68105
URL: <www.nebraskascientific.com/>
Ward's Inc., 5100 West Henrietta Road, PO Box 929l2, Rochester, NY 14692-9012
URL: <m.wardsci.com/>