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Introduction to Optisystem And practical optical systems Simulations and design by

Introduction to Optisystem :
Optisystem is a professional modern simulation software produced by Optiwave Company which made great efforts in the interests of optical communications system and practical applications of optical networks, Fig. 4-1 shows Optiwave and Optisystem logos.

Fig. 4-1, Optiwave and Optisystem logos

What kinds of Applications can be done?


OptiSystem gives us the ability to simulate/design: Next Generation optical networks. Current optical networks. SONET/SDH ring networks. Amplifiers, receivers, transmitters.

What about Analysis Tools provided?


OptiSystem enables users to simulate and get results via great tools provided such as: Eye diagrams, BER, Q-Factor, and Signal chirp. Polarization state, Constellation diagrams. Signal power, gain, noise figure, OSNR. Data monitors, report generation, and more!

Getting Started with Optisystem Environment :


After Optisystem being installed, we can do all benefits of simulations and designs, let's start here!

To start the program go: Programs Optiwave Software Optisystem 7

Start menu

Optisystem, as shown in Fig. 4-2.

Fig. 4-2, Path toward Optisystem

When Optisystem opens, the main window would be as shown in Fig. 4-3.

Fig. 4-3, main window of Optisystem

Basic optical components and systems:


Simulations and designs in Optisystem in mainly depends on block diagrams, we place all needed blocks of sources, channels, multiplexers, scopesetc then run the simulation to get results.

Example 4-1: simple optical transmitter system:


Create a new design work sheet and place the following components from the default library directory to the left of the workspace.

Continuous Wave (CW) Laser, a great commonly used optical source.

Optical Power Meter, a scope used to estimate the power of an optical signal.

Optical Spectrum Analyzer, an optical analyzer to show where most energy of an optical signal exists, i.e., the fundamental frequencies region.

Optical Time Domain Visualizer, a scope to show us the optical signal in normal time domain.

Optical Fiber, The Optical Channel.

Make the needed Connections for the blocks to get our system and edit needed blocks parameters as shown in Fig. 4-4.

Fig. 4-4, Simple Optical Transmitter system Block diagram of Example 4-1

To Edit any block parameters, double click on the block the make changes in need as following: CW Laser: set Frequency to 193.1 THz and the source Power to 1 mW, as shown in Fig. 4-5.

Fig. 4-5, editing CW Laser Parameters

Optical Fiber: set Length to 20 km and Attenuation to 0.1 db/km, as shown in Fig. 4-6.

Fig. 4-6, editing Optical Fiber Channel Parameters

Now, let's run simulation and calculation results by clicking on the icon to perform simulation.

Note: Simulation with Optisystem may take several minutes in large systems and designs.

After calculations are finished, we can click on scopes to view results, for example:

To view the power used by the CW Laser source, double click on the Optical Power Meter related to it, as shown in Fig. 4-7.

Fig. 4-7, CW Laser Power Meter

Same way to view power at the end of the channel, look Fig. 4-8.

Fig. 4-8, Optical Power Meter at the end Of the 20 km Fiber Channel.

Now

let's

see

the

Optical

Spectrum

Analyzer

to

investigate fundamental frequency of transmitted signal, look Fig. 4-9.

Fig. 4-9, Spectrum Analyzer Scope Screen

Notes: Spectrum Analyzer results are shown versus the Wavelength which more commonly used instead of Frequency in Optical Communications. It's known that Wavelength of Light is related to Frequency as following:

c f

where,

: wavelength c: speed of light 300000 km/s. f: frequency. Thus in our case we have:

c 3 10 8 = f 193 . 1 10

12

1 . 553

Example 4-2: 16-QAM Modulation system:


Create a new design work sheet and build in the following system shown in Fig. 4-10 by placing components directly from the library directory to the left of the workspace.

Fig. 4-10, Design for Example 4-2

New blocks used are:

Pseudo-Random Bit Sequence Generator, Used to generate bits sequence randomly.

QAM

Pulse

Generator,

Used

to

generate M-Array QAM Pluses/Symbols.

Electrical

Constellation

Visualizer, a scope to scatter-plot the symbols in Constellation diagram.

Electrical

Adder,

used

to

perform

the

summation of 2 electrical signals.

Electrical

Phase

Shift,

used

to

delay/shift the phase of an electrical signal.

Noise Source, simulates the noise at specific noise power.

Mach-Zehnder

Modulator,

to

modulate the optical signal according to the electrical pulses.

To Edit any block parameters, double click on the block the make changes in need as following:

QAM Pulse Generator: set the bits per symbol to 4 to get a 16-QAM system and the duty cycle to 1(100%) as shown in Fig. 4-11.

Fig. 4-11, Parameters for QAM Pulse Generator

Electrical Phase Shift: set the Phase shift to 90 deg, which will be used to prepare the imaginary part of the QAM scheme, look Fig. 4-12.

Fig. 4-12, Parameters for Electrical Phase Shift

Noise Source: set the Noise Power to be -80 dBm as shown in Fig. 4-13.

Fig. 4-13, Parameters for the Noise Source

Now, let's run simulation and calculation results by clicking on the icon to perform simulation.

After calculations are finished, we can click on scopes to view results, for example:

To view the Constellation of the 16-QAM, double click on the Electrical Constellation Visualizer, look Fig. 4-14.

Fig. 4-14, Constellation of 16-QAM

To view the optical signal transmitted after modulation, double click on the Time Domain Optical Visualizer, look Fig. 4-15.

Fig. 4-15, Time Domain Optical signal Notice the noise effect!

Notes:

Optisystem provides abilities to design many other common modulation systems such as PSK, PAM, FSK and son on using same methods.

By applying the number of bits needed for each symbol we then apply the system to be Binary, 4, 8, 16, 64, 128-QAM.

It's a good practice to set noise power to practical values, thus our design be more realistic.

Example 4-3: WDM Optical System with 4 Channels:


Create a new design work sheet and build in the following system shown in Fig. 4-16(a, b and c) by placing components directly from the library directory to the left of the workspace.

Note: The Design is wide to show in a single Fig. so we have portioned it into 3 graphs as shown in Fig. 4-16(a, b and c).

Fig. 4-16-a, Design of Example 4-3, These blocks are the most left in the Design work sheet

Fig. 4-16-b, Design of Example 4-3, These blocks are the middle in the Design work sheet

Fig. 4-16-c, Design of Example 4-3, These blocks are the most right in the Design work sheet

New important blocks used are:

WDM Mux 4x1, an optical multiplexer of 4 channels input being multiplexed into 1 output channel.

EDFA,

the

common

and

known Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier.

WDM

DeMux

1x4,

and

optical

demultiplexer with 4 output channels being recovered from 1 input channel.

BER

Analyzer,

Bit

Error

Rate

Analyzer, provides BER estimations with graphs.

Photodetector PIN, an optical photo detector receiver, converts light into corresponding electrical signal.

Low Pass Gaussian Filter, a low pass electrical filter with Gaussian response.

RZ Pulse Generator, a return to zero pulses generator from bits sequence.

WDM analyzing.

WDM Analyzer, a tool helps in

Now, let's run simulation and calculation results by clicking on the icon to perform simulation. Then we can click on scopes to view results, for example: To view the optical spectrum of the multiplexed channels, double click on the optical spectrum, look Fig. 4-17 below.

Fig. 4-17, Optical spectrum of the 4 multiplexed channels

The

WDM

Analyzer

can

give

us

some

useful

information about the multiplexed channels and how much each channel is affected by noise, see Fig. 4-18.

Fig. 4-18, WDM Analyzer Window The other important estimation is the BER information so make double click on the BER Analyzer block and mark the Shoe Eye Diagram, Fig. 4-19.

Fig. 4-19, Details about BER and Eye Diagram The Analyzer as well shows the Eye Diagram as shown in Fig. 4-20 below.

Fig. 4-20, Eye Diagram shown by BER Analyzer