Responses to Light and Temperature

y y y Introduction pages o Chapter 40: 854, 860-861 Thermoregulation o Chapter 40: 860-870 Ionic and Osmotic Balance o Chapter 51: 1092-1110 o Chapter 39: 836, 845-851 Biological Clocks o Chapter 53: 1140, 1152-1154 o Chapter 38: 826-832


Sample Exam Questions
1. ___________________ is the process of physiological and biochemical changes that an animal undergoes in response to manipulations of selected environmental parameters in a controlled laboratory setting. a. Acclimatization b. Acclimation c. Metabolic compensation d. Homeostasis 2. If the Q10 of the metabolic rate of an animal is 2, then« a. The animal is better acclimatized to cold than if its Q10 is 3 b. The animal is an ectotherm c. The animal consumes half as much oxygen per hour at 20°C as it does at 30°C d. The animal¶s metabolic rate is not at basal levels e. The animal produces twice as much heat at 20°C as it does at 30°C

Temperature Effect on Reaction Rate


Most reactions have a Q10 between 2 and 3 (between light blue and dark blue curves)

Response to the Environment: Occurs at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization

Response to the Environment: Occurs over Various Time Periods
y y Acute: Immediate response o E.g. Temperature effects on enzyme activity Chronic adaptation: change in physiology to adjust set points in relation to prolonged changes in the environment (occurs at multiple levels of organization) o E.g. Bunny changes its fur colour according to the amount of daylight Evolutionary adaptation: (occurs at multiple levels of organization) o E.g. Horses had toes, now they have hooves


Regulators and Conformers
y Conformers: Allow internal environments to follow external changes


o Will change its body temperature with the temperature outside Regulators: Maintain constant internal environments in the face of varying environmental conditions o Practice homeostasis o More advanced and more complex

What kinds of animals are conformers? (ectotherms)
y y Lizards Some fish (exception: tuna)

What kinds of animals are regulators? (endotherms)
y y Humans Horses

Can animals be both a regulator and a conformer?
y Surprisingly, yes!

Small endotherms that hibernate for varying lengths of time

Galapagos marine iguanas control blood flow to the skin to alter heating and cooling

Conformer or Regulator?
y y y y Rattlesnake conformer Galapagos conformer Whip poor will regulator Blue fin tuna regulator

Response to the Environment:
y y Organisms can adjust their range of tolerance over time in response to alterations in their environment. Can you think of an example in humans? o People in high altitude have stronger hearts and high blood count level How would you determine if a fish changes its range of tolerance?


o Set up several water tanks of different temperatures o Measure activity levels and growth rates

There are Two Experimental Approaches
y y Acclimatization: response in the wild induced by climatic change sin the natural environment Acclimation: response in the lab induced by experimentally induced changes

Assessment of the Response to Temperature Acclimation
y Hold groups of fish at warm and cold temperatures: o Measurement endpoints:  Performance at the whole animal level Behaviour  Molecular and cellular level Changes in gene expression Changes in protein expression

The cold fish swims best in the cold water, the warm fish swims best in the warm water


Measure global gene expression in warm and cold acclimated fish using gene array technology o Isolate RNA from cold and warm acclimated fish and label with different dyes Green dye: cold acclimated Red dye: warm acclimated o Hybridize labeled mRNAs and look at the relative abundance of genes o The expression of each cDNA = ratio of transcript abundance in each cooled sample relative to its mean abundance in the control warm-acclimated samples o The comment on fold repressed or fold induced is saying that for a given condition the relative abundance of the gene is increased or decreased

7 GO Categories
Nucleic acid processing
y y y y y Cold believed to affect translation Transcriptional regulation RNA splicing and translation Largest GO category DDX21 and CIRBP

y Increased capacity for ATP synthesis through oxidative phosphorylation

Protein catabolism
y Ubiquitin-dependent

Cell stress/molecular chaperones

y Increased capacity for ATP synthesis through oxidative phosphorylation


Cell structure
y Microtubule structure temperature dependent


This figure illustrates gene expression for multiple tissue and multiple genes. These are arranged in different categories that relates to comparable processes. The GO project has developed structured and controlled vocabularies (ontologies) that describe gene products in terms of their associated biological processes,

cellular components, and molecular functions in a speciesindependent manner. This was for illustration purposes only. The data in tis figure was based on paper by Gracey et al.

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