Introduction Optical fiber (or "fiber optic") refers to the medium and the technology associated with the transmission

of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic strand or fiber. Optical fiber carries much more information than conventional copper wire and is in general not subject to electromagnetic interference and the need to retransmit signals. The main advantages of using optical fibres in the communications industry are:  A much greater amount of information can be carried on an optical fibre compared to a copper cable.  In all cables some of the energy is lost as the signal goes along the cable. The signal then needs to be boosted using regenerators. For copper cable systems these are required every 2 to 3km but with optical fibre systems they are only needed every 50km.  Unlike copper cables, optical fibres do not experience any electrical interference. Neither will they cause sparks so they can be used in explosive environments such as oil refineries or gas pumping stations  For equal capacity, optical fibres are cheaper and thinner than copper cables which make them easier to install and maintain. Construction and working of an optical fibre An Optical fiber comprises of a light carrying core surrounded by a cladding which traps the light in the core by the principle of total internal reflection. Most optical fibres are made of glass, although some of them are made of plastic. The core and cladding are usually fused silica glass which is covered by a plastic coating called the buffer or primary buffer coating which protects the glass fiber from physical damage and moisture. There are some all plastic fibres used for specific applications. Glass optical fibres are the most common type used in communication applications.

optical fibres are cheaper and thinner than copper cables which makes them easier to install and maintain. . optical fibres do not experience any electrical interference. The newest systems use multiple lasers with different colours to fit multiple signals into the same fiber. Modern fiber optic cables can carry a signal quite a distance -.Unlike copper cables. keyhole surgery). Medicine Industry Optical fibres have paved the way for a whole new field of surgery. small switches in pedestals in subdivisions or office parks or in the basement of a larger building). Fiber easily offers the higher bandwidth needed to prepare the network for the much higher speeds projected for the near future. For copper cable systems these are required every 2 to 3km but with optical fibre systems they are only needed every 50km.Some Important Applications of Optical Fibres: Telephone In the telecommunication. The signal then needs to be boosted using regenerators. the large bandwidth of the fiber trunk cable enables the CATV operator to support transmission in the return direction from subscribers in a large service area via the fiber trunk. On a long distance line. which would then be able to be used to cut the tissue or affect it in some other way. . The hut contains equipment that picks up and retransmits the signal down the next segment at full strength. A laser at one end of the pipe switches on and off to send each bit. LANs Local Area Networks (LANs) use fiber optics primarily in the backbone of the network. however the use of fiber optics to the desk is increasing. analog voice signals are translated into digital signals. there is an equipment hut every 40 to 60 miles. which is usually used for operations in the stomach area such as appendectomies. N . by using an optical fibre to carry the laser beam to the relevant spot. . the cable TV industry has been busy upgrading a good portion of its infrastructure using a hybrid fiber coax (HFC) cable combination. To send telephone conversations through a fiber optic cable.perhaps 60 miles (100 km). The LAN backbone often needs longer distance transmissions and more bandwidth than copper cable is capable of providing.A much greater amount of information can be carried on an optical fibre compared to a copper cable. single mode fiber is used to connect long distance switches. cable TV subscribers can be supported by one fiber main trunk node being connected to coax feeder and drop cables. Moreover.the laser can turn on and off several billions of times per second. central offices and SLCs (subscriber loop carriers. Modern fiber systems with a single laser can transmit billions of bits per second -. called laparoscopic surgery (or more commonly. HFC and Cable Modems In addition to conducting fiber-to-the-home trials. and another bundle can be used to bring information back to the surgeon.In all cables some of the energy is lost as the signal goes along the cable. this can be coupled with laser surgery. The main advantages of using optical fibres in the communications industry are: . In addition.For equal capacity. Through the use of HFC between 500 and 3000. One bundle of optical fibres can be used to illuminate the chosen area.

Other Applications -The military uses fibre because it's nearly tap-proof and impossible to jam.8 in. a continuously welded copper tube. In addition. and diagnostic testing methods. and the repeaters. An important requirement for these systems is that the regenerator spacing be as wide as possible to cut down on the system failure probability and the power requirements. If a fibre is stretched or squeezed. all embedded in an elastomeric substance and covered with a nylon sheath. and an insulation of low-density polyethylene for electrical insulation and abrasion resistance. the cable light source.). known as the Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) in North America and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) in Europe. salt water. unstable environmental interference. and broadcast of potentially sensitive information to half the world.17.000 pounds per square inch (psi) at depths of 7.18. It is composed of a high-voltage power supply. there is usually a small but measurable change in light transmission. The cable is made of a central core and a surrounding support. . and other services that require economical bidirectional transmission. often carrying light from outside to rooms in the interiors of large buildings.Thus. SONET [Synchronous optical networking] Advances in the use of fibre-optic transmission systems resulted in a requirement for standards to enable interoperability between interexchange carriers and telephone companies.300 meters. induced noise.Another important application of optical fibres is in sensors. The core has an outside diameter of 2. the cable itself. an HFC infrastructure provides the opportunity for cable TV operators to provide telephone service. a considerable growth in communications from companies and government agencies resulted in a requirement to define the interface of commercial communications equipment to an evolving optical network. . represents a transport vehicle capable of supporting data rates in the gigabit range. -Optical fibres can be used for the purposes of illumination. This assembly is in turn covered with steel strands.6 mm and consists of 12 optical fibres wound helically around a central copper-clad steel wire called a king wire. a multiplexer with inputs for several types of information. network management. Internet access. The environment includes pressures of 10. heated or cooled or subjected to some other change of environment. because power must be fed from the ends of the cable. a supervisory terminal. A schematic of the SL Undersea Light guide System is shown in Figure 7. Undersea cable systems have some understandably difficult environmental requirements. as shown in Figure 7. -Fibre is even used by the aviation and aerospace industries because of its smaller size and weight. International Systems— SL Underwater Cable The advent of optical-fibre technology for undersea cables provides point-to-point channel capacity equal to satellite systems at reduced cost and without long transmission delays. optical interfaces. The outside diameter of the completed cable is 21 mm (about 0. and the possibility of mechanical damage from anchors and earth movement in shallow waters. The resulting standard.

Although each DS1 signal includes 8000 bits per second for framing. Thus. requiring additional equipment and adding to the cost of the carrier's infrastructure.736Mbps. The interest in developing multi-terabit networks is driven by the increasing availability of more bandwidth in fibre optic networks.Until SONET standards were developed. there was a void in compatibility between fibre terminal equipment operating at rates above the DS3 transmission rate of 44. less loss and highly efficient. the carrier typically had to first demultiplex the DS3 signal. Future Needs in Fibre-Optic Transmission • • • • Spectral Efficiency higher than 1. This process is known as drop (removal of the signal on a channel) and inserts (addition of a signal on a channel). Multi-Terabit Networks DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) opens the door to multi-terabit transmission. Cricketers are also tested for chucking (throwing) by using fibre optics and optical sensors. From FTTN to FTTH:. The resulting DS3 signal is asynchronous because each DS1 signal is independently timed. Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) cells efficiently concentrate sunlight in solar panels for clean energy production. Recognizing this problem. There is no need of conversion to the electrical form. to remove one PCM digitized voice signal in a carrier's DS3 transmission hierarchy.5 b/s/Hz ƒ 100 Gb/s per wavelength ƒ Regeneration-free optical reach greater than 1500 km ƒ Security “encryption” technique that is Low in Cost and in Size. which makes it almost impossible to locate an individual DS0 signal within the DS3 signal. That operating rate is formed by a communications carrier using a device known as an M13 multiplexer to combine 28 DS1 channels into a DS3 signal. One terabit network was achieved by using 10 GB /s data rate combined with 100 DWDM channels.“Fibre To The Node to Fibre To The House” In FTTN all the devices were supplied the data from a common optical fibre via copper wires but in FTTH the devices are directly provided with optical fibre thus making the transmission faster. This CPV technique is used in solar system integrators along with optical fibre cables which directly convert solar energy to light energy. Gesture recognitionGesture recognition uses an optical sensor to sense the body movements which has wide applications in motion sensor gaming and also in the industry. the developers of the SONET standard developed a frame structure that enables lower-speed channels within a higher-speed signal to be easily removed from or added to the signal. the resulting multiplexed DS3 signal includes three intermixed framing signals. Weight and Power .