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M. LEE MARSH and EDWIN G. BURDETTE

To determine the resistance concrete offers to tensile pullout, the concept of the stress cone has been developed. When a tensile load is applied to an anchor bolt, failure may occur by pulling out a cone of concrete which radiates outward from the embedded head to the surface of the concrete.1 The internal angle of the cone's apex is approximately 90°. The calculation of the concrete's resistance to pull-out is accomplished by applying a nominal concrete stress to the horizontal projected area of the potential failure cone. This is illustrated in Fig. 1. The calculation of the projected area of the stress cone is easily performed for a single anchor. The equation for this area is given by:2 Ap = πle(le + dh) However, when anchors are placed closely enough together that their individual stress cones overlap, calculation of the effective projected area becomes more difficult. As anchorage configurations become more irregular or complex, calculation of effective stress areas can become extremely difficult, Consider, for example, the anchorage configuration and projected areas shown in Fig. 2. The projected areas overlap threefold. Simple geometric manipulations are not adequate to solve the problem, and thus calculation of the effective area requires considerable effort. Because of the myriad of different anchorage configurations and the ensuing possibility of multiple overlaps, there is no easy panacea for the problem of calculating effective areas. For this reason a "building block" approach has been developed for determining these areas. While parts of this approach are exact in their predictions

M. Lee Marsh is a Structural Engineer with Midwest Technical Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Edwin G. Burdette is Professor of Civil Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.

Fig. 1. Tensile pull-out cone

Fig. 2. Stress cones with multiple overlap

FIRST QUARTER / 1985

29

The principles are much the same in that a slight error is incurred. le (Fig. For unequal spacing (i. the sum total is not exact because some parts of the method are only approximate and lead to relatively small errors (1-3%). excluded area similar to that outlined in Method 3. 3 will accurately evaluate the shaded area. This is a base area from which subareas can be subtracted. 8). it does provide a way to estimate the area. one or more of the following five area calculations can be employed to estimate the effective area. Its calculation is based on the determination of two individual areas as illustrated in Fig. While the equation for this case is not strictly correct.of area. The idea behind this area calculation may be expanded to any configurations of anchorage which are appropriate. This method is an alternative to the use of more complex geometrical relationships. For instance if the triangular areas at midsides and the square area at the center are deducted from the base area. it is a way to calculate an approximate area. This area is the triangular sub-area referred to in the discussion of Method 1. The inscribed square has sides with lengths equal to the out-to-out spacing. The square can actually be inscribed between the circles when x is equal to y. x or y. 6. 4. Method 2 facilitates calculation of the shaded area in Fig. 6. Bolt holes are conservatively omitted from the calculations for the sake of simplicity. Method 3 (Fig. Examples of application of the methods follow the explanations of the area calculations. Method 2 area calculation Fig. Method 4 in Fig.e. Fig. 7). 4. While the square does not quite conform to the shape of the excluded area. an accurate calculation of the effective area results. The area calculation given in Fig. The given equation for the base area is based on the determination of four individual areas as shown in Fig. Method 1 area calculation Fig. This sketch allows the geometry of the problem to be recognized. 8 provides a means to approximate an interior. Simple extensions of any of these calculations can be used for configurations which do not permit evaluation by the five primary methods. 3. 5. but it is an error which does not greatly reduce the accuracy of the resulting calculations. 5. It is always advisable to make a scale sketch of the configurations and their projected areas. minus twice the embedment depth le (Fig. Individual areas of Method 2 30 ENGINEERING JOURNAL / AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . x ≠ y) the square will not fit between the circles. Once the sketch is made. 7) allows calculation of the area of a diagonally inscribed square. minus twice the embedment depth. The method is based on finding the area of a square with the length of its sides equal to the diagonal distance d. The error incurred should be minimal and thus not detract greatly from the accuracy of the effective area calculations. This square will become a rectangle if the distances x and y are unequal. Individual areas of Method 1 Fig.

APPENDIX—EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS Example 1 Calculate the effective area of the anchorage configuration given in Fig. This procedure is illustrated in Fig. 1981. 1970. A. A1. New York. this calculation is possible only if the overlaps are independent of one another. J. N. 10. Individual areas of Method 5 Fig. Cannon. Method 3 area calculation Fig. J. 10. as shown in Fig. R. Moreadith Guide to the Design of Anchor Bolts and Other Steel EmbedmentsConcrete International. Al. Method 4 area calculation Method 5 allows calculation of the area of a circle which has a segment clipped off. July. that is.Y. Tuma. 9. subtracting the area of a sector (2). 8. Example 1: Projected area FIRST QUARTER / 1985 31 . W.Fig. and then adding back the area of the triangle (2). However. if each overlap only involves two circles and not three. 9. Engineering Mathematics Handbook McGraw-Hill Book Company. Godfrey and F... L. 7. 2. D. It must be emphasized that some areas will be added while some will be subtracted in order to estimate the effective area. Method 5 area calculation Fig. REFERENCES 1. Fig. The area is found by calculating the area of a complete circle. The area calculations outlined in the five methods presented can be used collectively to estimate the effective projected area of a multi-bolt anchorage. The equation given to calculate this area can be readily modified to accommodate more than just one overlap.

2 S 2 A2 = [2le − le − ( S 2 /4) ] − 2 2 sin−1 ( S/2le ) πle 180° Example 2 Calculate (estimate) the effective area of the anchorage shown in Fig.2 A3 = ( x 2 + y 2 − 2le ) 2 A3 = [ 142 + 142 − 2(8)]2 A3 = 14.6) Aeff = 762 in.70 in.Solution: Using Methods 1. A2.2 A4 = (y–2le) (x–2le) A4 = [36–2(10)] [24–2(10)] A4 = 64 in. A2.2 S 2 A2 = [2le − le − ( S 2 /4) ] − 2 sin −1 ( S / 2le )πl 2 e 180° 12 A2 = [2(10) − 102 − (122 /4) ] − 2 sin −1[12/2(10)]π102 180° A2 = 7. Example 2: Projected area 32 ENGINEERING JOURNAL / AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION .2 Effective Area.2—checks earlier results Fig.65) – 64 Aeff = 2.6 in.378 in.65 in.70) – 14.378 – 12(7.222 in. Aeff = A1 – 4A2 – A3 Aeff = 845 – 4(16. Solution: A1 = π le2 + 2le (x+ y) + xy A1 = π(10)2 + 2(10)(36+24) + 36 (24) A1 = 2.2 Aeff = 4(A5) Aeff = 4(190. 2 and 3: A1 = π le2 + 2le(x+y) + xy A1 = π82 + 2(8)(14+14) + 14(14) = 845 in.43 in.2 14 A2 = [2(8) − 64 − (142 / 4) ] − 2 2 sin− 1( S / 2le )πle 180° A2 = 16. Check Using Method 5: 2 cos 2 A5 = π le − 360° −1 2 ( S/2le )π le2 (2) + S 2 (2) le − S 2 /4 2 2 cos−1 (14/16) π82 (2) A5 = π82 − + 360° 14 82 − 14 2 / 4 A5 = 190.43 Aeff = 764 in.2 Aeff = A1 – 12A2 – A4 Aeff = 2.

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