Biology 130 – Tutorial 4 - Using and Building a Concept Map: In Biology concepts do not exist in isolation.

Each concept or process depends on its relationships to many others for meaning. A concept map depicts hierarchy and relationships among concepts. In attempting to identify the key and associated concepts of a particular topic or sub-topic, one will usually acquire a deeper understanding of the topic and clarification of any prior misconceptions. Concept maps are diagrammatic representations which show meaningful relationships between concepts in the form of propositions. Propositions are two or more concept labels linked by words which provide information on relationships or describing connections between concepts. The concept map is a device for representing the conceptual structure of a subject discipline in a two dimensional form which is analogous to a road map. Concept maps provide a visual image of the concepts under study in a tangible form which can be focused on very easily. Emphasis can be given to different textual aspects of a map through varying the accompanying symbol’s shape, colour and size. Linkages between different parts of the map can be described and emphasized with words and/or directional arrows. Maps can be readily revised or built upon at any time as necessary. During the formulation process there is active consolidation of the concrete and precise understanding of the meanings and inter-relations of concepts. Steps in constructing concept maps 1. Select - Focus on a theme or question and then identify related key words or phrases (one to three words). You can write the words on Post-itsTM or separate cards so that they can be moved around and grouped. 2. Rank – Rank or order the concepts (key words) from the broadest and most inclusive to the most concrete and specific. Your focus question will help you identify the most inclusive concepts. Add more concept or key words as necessary. 3. Cluster - Cluster concepts that function at similar level and/or those that interrelate closely. 4. Arrange - Arrange concepts in to a diagrammatic representation. You will be starting to build the map at this point. 5. Link and add propositions - Link concepts with lines and label each line with a proposition ( a description of the relationship or connection between the terms). 6. Give emphasis – Give emphasis to and add importance to parts of the maps using visual devices such as colour, line thickness, directional arrows, etc.

Biol 130 - Tutorial 4 – Macromolecule Concept Map Exercise Goal - Create a concept map to organize the four groups of macromolecules into their composite parts and relate each group to a molecule that is important in this course. We have already done some of the steps of creating a concept map for you. We have identified the 4 groups of macromolecules and organized the terms into the 4 categories. Now follow these steps: • • • • Rank and cluster the terms to build a relationship between them for each macromolecule type. Link the terms for each macromolecule type with lines and words that describe the relationship between them. You will be building 4 separate maps at first. Include the list of example molecules into your maps. Build a large scale macromolecule map on the attached page using the 4 separate maps.

Use these terms: Protein: primary structure tertiary structure beta sheet amino acids alpha helix secondary structure quaternary structure motifs domains Example molecules: Amylose Myoglobin Estrogen Glucose RNA Androgen Lactose Cellulose Amylopectin Chitin Collagen ATP DNA Glycosaminoglycans Carbohydrates: monosaccharides starches oligosaccarides polysaccarides disaccharides Lipids: lipid-related molecules fatty acids triglycerides steroids glycerol diglycerides phosphoglyceride phospholipid Nutritional Structural Nucleic acids: nucleotides nitrogen bases pentose sugar ACGTU ribose phosphate group deoxyribose nucleosides

You will be placing this concept map in your eportfolio. It will be used in Biol 139, Biol 273, Biol 331, amd Kin 217. Think about these questions when you place it in your eportfolio as an artefact. 1. How is this concept map about macromolecules connected to other topics in this course? This concept map of macromolecules connects to other topics in this course because they are all on the same major topic of macromolecules. They are continuations of each other.

2. What misconceptions did you have about the structure of macromolecules before you completed this piece of work? (e.g. often students think that all proteins have a quaternary structure). There were no misconceptions that I had questions about or had any.

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