iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers


Sources: • CILC Training Manual used by the National Computer Institute. • Hoe, NS and Charles, C. User Guide to Using the Linux Desktop Chapter 8: The World Wide Web (WWW) by the International Open Source Network. • • Computing for Life Book A by Tan. FNB Publications. 2005. • Cyber Ethics: slide presentation adapted by Melizza Tan from Rommel Andong’s module

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

UNDERSTANDING THE INTERNET The word Internet evolved from the terms Inter for international and Net for network. Internet refers to a global collection of interconnected networks - a network of networks. It is commonly known as “Mother of All Network”, “Cyber Village”, “Virtual Community” and other monikers. • Local Area Network (LAN): a collection of inter-connected telecommunication and computer equipment and resources that facilitate access, sharing of resources, transfer and distribution of data and information established in an office building, warehouse, campus, or any other facility that enables low cost high-speed data transfer. Two or more interconnected LANs constitute a bigger network called WAN. Geographically dispersed LANs provide employees with a means of communication and information sharing.

TCP/IP is the standard protocol for internetworking. It is the common standard by which computers of different types and brands are able to communicate with one another, regardless of their location or platform. Although the TCP/IP protocol suite comprise several protocols. The term TCP/IP represents two main protocols Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol. TCP specifies how data are broken down, to be transmitted in packets while IP takes care of routing information to desired destinations.

Overview of Internet Applications The Internet brings together the best qualities of communication systems that preceded it while improving their worst features. It can be said that the Internet is postal mailing, a telephone, a fax machine, library, newspaper, store, school/classroom, conference room, entertainment center, etc., all in one, sans their negative features. The Internet removes the hassles of having to go to a library to search on a particular topic of choice. It eliminates long waits for a letter reach a friend residing on the other side of the globe. It ushers one into the ease of doing shopping, banking and other transactions electronically without having to step outside the confines of one’s room. It’s democratic and facilitates global exchange of ideas, transforming the world into a global village without geographic boundaries. In the workplace, wise Internet use results in productivity and efficiency. Information is transmitted across management levels easily, while managerial leverage is enhanced and promoting healthy interpersonal relationships. The Internet has found its place in education, business, management, medicine and governmental arenas as more and more people get themselves connected. In the area of e-business, sales people no longer talk about the local

Unlike company networks that only provide for the needs of a closed set of individuals, the Internet is accessible to anyone connected to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) with a PC, a modem and a telephone line. It represents a vast network of computers that allows information access and exchange by users from around the world. It is no exaggeration to say that it is the world’s first global village. With the Internet, dialogues, meetings, seminars can be established with participants from all corners of the globe. Recent Internet advancements even bring commerce and education to the desktop. It operates following the Client/Server paradigm. It consists of several hundred thousand servers (hosts) accessed globally by millions of client-PCs/users for data/information. Mainframes, Unix systems can host data or provide a scheme of services. Users running TCP/IP can do searches or access information relevant to ones area of interest.

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

market but of an even larger virtual market of global proportions.

Historical Development of the Internet The U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DoD ARPA) originally developed the Internet (then called ARPANET) to be a military communication system that could survive a nuclear war – a system that was not reliant on one or more central computers. This is to enable them to still be able to transmit information and data even in the event of loss of one or more military installations. The research that ensued led to the eventual development of TCP/IP and packet switching. ARPANET was the world’s first decentralized computer network. ARPANET initially connected DoD departments and major universities and laboratories. In the 1970s, major research agencies and universities like University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Stanford, Harvard, UCL joined the network and experimented with email, File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and other primordial Internet services. ARPANET originally used Network Communications Protocol (NCP) to connect computers. As more and more computers were connected, it became necessary to use a new protocol. In response to these circumstances, DARPA and the University of California at Berkeley jointly developed TCP/IP, which eventually replaced NCP on January 1, 1983. TCP/IP was later adopted as the standard protocol for UNIX and has developed with it. At about the same time, the Domain Naming System (DNS) was introduced. This simplified Internet addressing by associating IP addresses with easy to remember names. In 1986, the National Science Foundation funded a research support system called NFSnet, established by linking five (5) supercomputers at a

backbone speed of 56kbps. This opened the gateway for external universities to tap into superior processing power and to share resources. Between 1984 and 1988, the number of hosts (servers) connected grew from 1,000 to 60,000. Bandwidth increased to T1 (1.544 Mbps). Meanwhile more and more countries joined the network - Australia, New Zealand, Iceland, Israel, Brazil, India, and Argentina. ARPANET folded up in 1990 and NFSnet took over administering the net. While many original networks (UUCP, Bitnet, Usenet) closed down with ARPANET, many new networks joined NFSnet. This fast growing web of networking eventually became the Internet of the ‘90s. In response to those who wanted to use the Internet for commercial purposes, the Commercial Internet Exchange (CIX) was born.

The Internet Explosion As of Dec. 2005, the Internet had more than 1 billion users worldwide (15.7% of the world’s population which is 6.5 billion), with a growth rate of 182% from 2000-2005. This number is projected to balloon to 1.8 billion by 2010. It is estimated that over 200 countries are linked via the Internet. The Internet has evolved beyond the original intentions of its creators. Once the sole province of the military, research institutions and universities, it is now available to anyone who wants it. Who uses the Internet? There is no question that the number and variety of people logging on is growing daily. From its birth as a tool for scientists and government personnel to its role today as a commercial and information center, the human face of the Internet has changed dramatically. The "virtual community" is increasingly representative of the demographics of the "real" community, as Internet access becomes more common in businesses, schools, libraries and homes. There are different ways of using the Internet. The Internet has electronic post

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

offices where one can mails. In recent years, has exploded – communication service forms.

send or receive the use of e-mail the preferred over traditional

Internet Architecture • Internet Protocol (IP) Addressing All computers (hosts) connected to the Internet must have their own unique address or hostname. The Internet Protocol (IP) is the default protocol for routing data. IP addresses or host numbers, like phone numbers, are used by network applications to identify hosts. IP addresses are generally set by network users or managers. To be exact, an IP address is assigned to each Network Interface Card (NIC). Therefore, if a computer has two NICs, two IP addresses are assigned to this computer. What does host number mean? Treat it in two parts: network 140.186, host 81.6. The PC with IP number and another with IP number belong to the same network because they have the same number. For PC ( to be able to communicate with PC (, a device called router is necessary. • Domain Naming System Machines and network protocols use IP addresses in forwarding data packets from one location to another. Although this combination of four numbers, called a dotted quad, is used mainly by network administrators, technicians and IT gurus. The vast majority uses a more

There are libraries that the user can use any time of the day or night, with millions of books and unlimited browsing. One can shop, order a pizza, preview a movie, watch videoclips, and listen to radio stations from around the world. In the real world, one can travel to different places using the same network of roads and highways, but using different modes of transportation. Getting around on the Internet works pretty much the same way. It is helpful to realize that there are many different kinds of communication going on at the same time. On the Internet, one uses different software programs to accomplish different tasks. For instance, many commercial Internet programs, such as Netscape Communicator, contain more than one kind of software. Communicator has a web browser, called Netscape Navigator, an e-mail program and a newsreader. You can also use more specialized and sophisticated software, such as Eudora, a stand-alone e-mail program. You can even combine many different software packages together into a system that works.

WORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICS World Regions Africa Asia Europe Middle East North America Latin America/Caribbean Oceania / Australia WORLD TOTAL Population ( 2006 Est.) 915,210,928 3,667,774,066 807,289,020 190,084,161 331,473,276 553,908,632 33,956,977 6,499,697,060 Population % of World 14.1 % 56.4 % 12.4 % 2.9 % 5.1 % 8.5 % 0.5 % 100.0 % Internet Usage, Latest Data 22,737,500 364,270,713 290,121,957 18,203,500 225,801,428 79,033,597 17,690,762 1,018,057,389 % Population ( Penetration ) 2.5 % 9.9 % 35.9 % 9.6 % 68.1 % 14.3 % 52.9 % 15.7 % Usage % of World 2.2 % 35.7 % 28.5 % 1.8 % 22.2 % 7.8 % 1.8 % 100.0 % Usage Growth 2000-2005 403.7 % 218.7 % 176.1 % 454.2 % 108.9 % 337.4 % 132.2 % 182.0 %

From: Internet World Stats: Usage and Population Statistics. Accessed March 2006

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

user-friendly naming scheme called Domain Naming System (DNS). Though the dotted quad address is actually more specific, humans can remember sequences of words or abbreviations more easily than sequences of numbers, so DNS makes use of the lettered IP address system which is more popular among Internet users. A domain name server takes care of associating a given DNS name say to its IP address say, The domain/host address in alphanumeric format, like the numeric one, is a series of words or word abbreviations separated by periods, called dot. For example, is the Internet address for the SEI division of the Department of Science and Technology (sei.dost) of the Philippines ( Note that the last three letters “gov” at the far right is part of the IP address. These letters, called zones, tell what kind of organization owns that IP address. Zones come in two main kinds: organizational and geographic. Three letter zones represent organizational types. The three-letter code indicates the type of organization, and the part just before the zone indicates the specific organization. Most systems using organizational names are in the US. Some major ones are: • • • • • • edu – educational institution net – network mil – military gov – government com – commercial org – organization

Computer Center may



Basic Internet Services The Internet provides several basic services. Some of the more popular ones are listed below: • Electronic mail or e-mail: Provides a means for individuals or groups to electronically correspond with each other across the global network. As compared to ordinary snail mail, email is faster and more timely, reaching its destination within an hour at the most. Newsgroups, Bulletin Boards: Provides a forum for individuals to participate in an open worldwide discussion virtually on any topic under the sun. People belonging to special interest groups can log on simultaneously and engage in free discussion of their own peculiar interests. Mailing Lists, Discussion Groups: Provides a means for users to electronically correspond as a “group” and are usually associated with a special interest. Remote Logins: Provide a means for users to log onto an Internet fileserver for purposes of downloading and uploading files and documents. Users can likewise engage in friendly chat with other logged users and use server resources. Search Engines: Provide Internet users with the ability to search for specific information relevant to one’s needs or requirements. With search engines and tools, the vast information scattered all over the world is made available at the click of a button. World Wide Web: Provide a means for users to access multimedia information through the use of threaded access called hypertext. By clicking on a highlighted portion of

If the zone is two-letters long, it is a geographical name. The two-letter specifies the country, and the item before it is specific to that country. Examples: ca for Canada, us for the U.S.A., ph for Philippines. Pedro’s computer in the Directorate for IT Manpower Development, National

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

text, users jump from one distributed server to another. WWW or W3 incorporates into a single GUI, most if not all of the abovementioned services. Because of this, WWW is popularly yet erroneously equated with the Internet.

Getting Connected with the Internet Hardware/Software Requirements A computer is indispensable when connecting to the Internet. A modem or a similar device and a telephone/cable/wireless connection are required only when the user is not connected to a local area network which . In this case, the user has to dial to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) in order to access the Internet (i.e. “dialup”). Since computers, modem brands, and capabilities change every so often, it is difficult to set fixed requirements for PCs and modems. The book Internet for Dummies cites the need for the following hardware and software components: • Computer: minimum requirement: 486DX2/66 PC with 8Mb RAM, a hard drive, a SVGA monitor and card, a mouse and appropriate O.S. Depending on their requirements,

more veteran Internet users can opt to choose more powerful PCs. Most new desktop machines, nowadays, come with at least 2Gb of hard disk. This size is large enough for Internet use unless one plans to download a lot of stuff. Having a large RAM (regular: 128/256 Mb) does more for a PC’s performance than processor speed. One must also consider getting a PC with multimedia capability in order to access some of the Webs more recent features. Other peripherals like webcams, microphones, speakers, etc., can help add color to surfing. • Modem – a modem is not needed when connecting via a LAN, since in most cases the company with LAN has direct access to the ISP via a leased line. A modem however, is necessary for dial-up connections. Regular modem speed in the market: 56kbps. Telephone line – whereas telephone, leased line, and cellular networks are available locally for connecting to ISPs, more developed countries offer faster connectivity services like ISDN, frame-relay, ATM, or packet switching. Some software – besides hardware resources, one has to invest considerably in needed software and operating systems. Browsers are

Figure 1: ISP

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

needed for WWW, like Mozilla Firefox, Netscape Communicator/Navigator, and Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE). Other applications may be required for email, ftp, telnet, instant messaging, chatting, etc.

Levels of Internet Access Connection to the Internet may be made in a number of ways, below are some of the most common: • Dedicated Leased-Line Connection – This connection is used by large organizations such as universities and government departments. In this setup, an entire LAN is connected to the Internet for a permanent and reliable ISP connection. This is the fastest form of connection thus, the most expensive. It normally involves a one-time setup cost plus an ongoing fee structure. Direct Connection – Involves buying a PC server, configuring it, and leasing some fiber optic cable or similar transmission media. In this case, one’s computer becomes a node on the network. Dial-up Connection – This is the most common and cheapest form of connection wherein a user dials into an Internet Service Provider every time a connection is needed. It is the slowest form of connection nowadays with performance varying depending on current load and location. With “dial on demand”, there is usually an initial connection fee or registration charge plus a monthly access fee of between P300 to P1200. Prepaid Internet cards are gaining popularity nowadays, with prices ranging from P50 (6-10 hours) to P250 (60 hours). ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network): high-speed dial-up and requires a special type of dedicated digital telephone line (costly!); signals are already in digital form thus no conversion is needed from analog-digital and vice-versa • Broadband Connection – This high-speed “always on” connection is recommended for small to mediumsized organizations. This type of connection are able to transmit various forms of data at the same time

Internet Service Providers (ISP) An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company that provides Internet connection services to the general public to the Internet. It can be distinguished from an Information Service such as CompuServe or America Online by its emphasis on Internet tools such as news, gopher, www, etc. An ISP is an online system that has direct Internet connection and provides access to it in one or more of several ways-through Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), Compressed Serial Line Internet Protocol (CSLIP), Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) or related protocols and through creation of shell accounts. In the Philippines, the lack of regional and local infrastructure has forced several providers to get their own leased line to the US or through a regional access point like Singapore. The latter, though cheaper, adds another link between a local ISP and the high speed backbone providers in the US. The high cost of long distance leased line to the US (about $10,000/month) makes it impossible to bring Internet connection costs down to North America levels. Internet service providers in Manila typically charge anywhere from P100 for 12 hours of dial-up access to P1,500 for unlimited broadband access, depending on the speed of data transfer. With more and more ISPs entering the market, prices are expected to drop further. ISPs fall under either one of several major groups. Although most ISPs are profit oriented, there are a large number of cooperative ISPs and community networks that support academic research and development. Partly funded by charitable institutions, these ISPs charge very minimal fees.

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

(i.e. TV signals/voice data)

and Internet

650kbps 256kbps)




Cable Broadband: ISP is the local cable television company, need for a cable modem and a network card for your computer (400kbps download and 128K upload). DSL-Broadband (Digital Subscriber Line): ISP is the local telephone service provider or the ISP the telephone company connects to, need for a DSL modem and a DSL telephone line (for both voice communications and Internet connection saving on the cost of a second line) to connect your computer (400Ways to connect to the Internet • Telephone line – for dial-up connections • Ethernet – physical connection to the LAN in your organization/home • Wi-Fi Wireless – connecting wirelessly to hotspots/access points, your PC has to have its own wireless adapter/ card to connect • Bluetooth Wireless - more common in cell phones, PDAs, and other devices for computer-type components to communicate between themselves not normally for internet connectivity • Connecting via a Cell Phone with built-in modem type adapters that enable them to provide a connection between your laptop, PDA, or other computer device and the Internet, either via dial-up to an ISP or through the use of GPRS (always connected digital service provided by the mobile phone company), using special a data cable, infrared ports, or Bluetooth

Satellite: expensive equipment and connection but sometimes the only option available (600Kbps download and 128kbps upload)

A file that takes 1 hour to download via a 56K dial-up connection will take about 26 minutes with an ISDN line, between 2.2 and 13 minutes over a cable connection, and between 2.2 and 26 minutes over a DSL connection would take. - Web Browsing The World-Wide Web (WWW or W3) is a set of software applications or programs which allow both distribution of and access to information on the Internet. The main purpose of the Web is to make all online knowledge part of one web of interconnected documents and services. The web is not the Internet but a means of distributing and accessing the information that is on it. The World Wide Web is the fastest growing Internet service. What has made the web so popular and in turn caused the Internet’s popularity to grow is that the web makes it easy, integrating into a single GUI (graphical, i.e. pictures, drawings, objects etc.) software application the functionality of all the previously developed Internet protocols (news, mail, telnet, ftp, and gopher). Additionally, the web supports multimedia on which information in different formats such as sound, video, graphics and text can be distributed and viewed through a single/integrated software application. A web document can have text, pictures, drawings, sound clips and video clips included within it.

Using a special device like Blackberry, Treo, combination cell phone/PDAs with built-in Internet connectivity

- from arriorcontent/internetconnecting.htm

Using the World Wide Web, one can enter a virtual museum viewing images of paintings, know more about his favorite

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

personalities, listen to different type of music, read historical documents, research a topic, purchase a plane ticket, or talk with other people across the world, the possibilities are simply endless.

are often referred to as Web Sites or Home Pages. • A Uniform Resource Locator or URL is the standard way to give the address of any resource on the Internet that is part of the WWW. It provides a single, standardized way of describing almost any type of information that is available in cyberspace. A document’s URL is its address on the Internet. A sample URL is mputers/internetinfrastructure.htm

Navigating The Web The web supports hypertexting, which allows navigation through a web of information by letting a user follow links of interest. A link may be words, phrases or objects in the document that can be chosen by a reader which cause another document to be retrieved and displayed

Transmission Protocol: contains the protocol to be used to access the data in a particular server; other protocols include ftp://, gopher://, mailto://

Domain or Server Name: translated by the Domain Name Server to its corresponding numeric IP Address (e.g. that is used to connect to the host server machine or computer where the data is stored

Location within the server: specific folder in the server where the web page is stored; review: folder divisions in storage devices; not found in some URLs

File Name of the Web page: actual name of the HTML file for the web page; if not indicated, retrieves the web site’s home page normally named index.htm or index.html

NOTE: Top-level domain names include: .gov (government), .mil (military), .edu or .ac (educational), .org or .net (organizations), .com or .biz (commercial), and various domains for countries (.ph, .jp, .sg, .au).

Hypertext allows a reader to move seamlessly from one document on the web to another document that has been linked to the current document. Following the links in documents, allow the user to follow trails of interest through the web. Documents residing on web servers all over the world can be linked together and the reader navigates between them simply by clicking on highlighted text. These documents were created using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), and

A. Web Browser The Internet has much to offer in terms of information on almost any subject matter imaginable and interaction with people and organizations from all over the world. Much of this access and interaction make use of the World Wide Web (WWW) or web. To review, the WWW is an interlinked network of systems, called web servers, offering multimedia services and information. A user can access these using what is known as a web browser.

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

Figure 2: The Mozilla Web Browser

A web browser is a software application that allows one to see the contents or the World Wide Web. Examples of which are Netscape Navigator, Mozilla’s Firefox, and Microsoft’s Internet Explorer. One can also hear sounds or play music using these browsers, but needs additional equipment on the computer to be able to do this. Mozilla is a full-featured integrated web browser, email client, news reader and web page composer program. Using Mozilla, a user can be exposed to the richness and diversity of multimedia content and services available on the WWW. To start Mozilla, click on the Mozilla icon on the panel or launch the application from the menu system: Main Menu Web Browser Internet Mozilla

3. 4.

the side bar the display panel

The Navigation Toolbar

Figure 3: The Navigation Toolbar

The navigation toolbar allows you to access a website by entering its Uniform Resource Locater (URL) or more informally known as its web address, e.g. in the address box provided. Actually you need to enter only the name of the host i.e. “” and Mozilla is smart enough to figure out that you want to access the web server on that host. Clicking on the arrow at the right edge of the address box will open a pull-down menu showing a history of websites visited previously. You can click on an entry in the list to select that website to access.

By default the web browser component of Mozilla (Navigator) will be executed and displayed. The Navigator window has the following main parts.
1. 2.

the navigation toolbar the menu bar

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

Also present on the navigation toolbar are the Back, Forward, Reload and Stop buttons. The Back button enables you to go back to the previous web page displayed. The Forward button enables you to go forward to the next web page that you have already accessed. The Reload button forces Mozilla to re-access the website and load the current web page. The Stop button halts the loading of a web page that is currently proceeding. Next to the address box in the navigation toolbar is the Search button. This button enables you to perform searches for relevant web pages on the Internet by making use of a search engine. To search for some particular information, you can enter the keywords for the search into the address box and then double-click on the Search button. The results of the search will be displayed in the display panel. You can configure the search engine to use by this search button in the Mozilla Navigator configuration setup (see Configuring Mozilla below).

displayed page as well as to edit the Mozilla configuration to you personal preferences. The View button allows you to control the viewing of the various toolbars as well as the zooming of text and full page display of the display panel. The HTML source code of the currently displayed page can also be viewed using the selection “Page Source” under this button. The Go button performs similar navigational functions as the navigation toolbar described earlier. A history of previously visited sites can also be accessed by this button. The pull-down menu shows a list of previously visited websites and you can click on one of these to open up the selected web page. Under the Go button, if you select the History item, a pop-up window will be displayed showing in detail the browsing history (i.e. the list of sites visited) over the last few days (by default this period is 9 days; this number is configurable).

The Menu Bar

Figure 4: The Menu Bar

The menu bar has several menu buttons. Clicking on one will open up a drop-down menu selection where selected operations can be performed. The File button caters to the performance of file level operations like the printing and saving of web pages, opening of web pages, files etc. The Edit button allows you to find strings of text on the
Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

Figure 5: The History Pop-up Window

The Bookmarks button enables you to manage your bookmarks and personal folder. You can add frequently visited sites to the bookmark and/or personal folder. To manage and organize your bookmarks you can select the “Mange

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

Tips: 1. If a document is taking too long to be displayed, press the Stop button, then press Reload/Refresh. Documents often arrive more quickly on the second try. If you change your mind about a selection you just made, simply press Stop.
Figure 6: The Bookmark Manager Pop-up Window

Bookmarks” item in the dropdown menu. The bookmarks can be organized into folders by dragging and dropping them into the desired folder. New folders can be created by clicking on the New Folder button at the top. Folders can have a name and description. To separate and group together related folders, a separator line can be drawn by selecting the “New Separator” button. The Window button enables you to navigate and move among the windows opened in Mozilla. You can also use this button to move from one open Mozilla application to another, e.g. to move from the Navigator application to the Mail (email) application. The Help button contains the Mozilla help files arranged in user-friendly web page style and format.

2. You will often get error messages when using a browser, sometimes because a resource has been moved or removed, and sometimes because the machine where that document is stored is temporarily down. If a link does not work, try again later. 3. Click on a Netscape button or link only once. Sometimes, documents are slow to arrive, and if one clicks on another selection while a document is in progress, he may inadvertently choose another document. bar a list of links to webpages which contain similar topics to the page currently being displayed in the main browsing display area. The side bar can be turned on/off by selecting from the main menu at the top, View > Show/Hide > Sidebar.

The Main Display Panel This is the area where the contents of a web page are rendered and displayed. This display area can be made full screen by either selecting the View > Full Screen selection from the top menu bar or pressing the F11 key. To disable full screen display either press F11 again or click on the un-maximize window button on the top right corner of the menu bar.

The Side Bar By default, a side bar is displayed on the left of the main display panel. This side bar contains some of the functions which we have discussed above from the main menu bar at the top. These include the Search, Bookmarks and History functions. The side bar also contains the “What's Related” function, which when selected will display in the side
Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

Navigation Tab Bar Mozilla Navigator allows you to browse multiple websites within one browser window using navigational tabs. This overcomes

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

the inconvenience of opening several windows under Mozilla to view multiple sites. To do this either choose under the menu bar: File > New > Navigator Tab OR enter Ctrl + T. If you open different web pages using this navigation tab feature, they will all be displayed under the same window. You can then use the tab bar to select between each tab screen.

Configuring Mozilla Navigator To configure Mozilla, select from the main menu selection, Edit > Preferences. The categories available for configuration are listed on the left panel of the main configuration window. Clicking on the + button on the left of each category will open up further available subcategories for configuration.

select the page to display when the browser is launched. If you select “Home page“, the website that is designated as the home page will be displayed. This home page location is set in the Home Page location box below. If you do not want the browser to display anything on startup select “Blank”. 1. The History sub-category allows you to set the number of days to keep the history list for the history windows and for the location bar history. 2. The Languages subcategory allows you to select the language to display web pages in (where available) and also the default character coding. To add another language for web page display, click on the “Add” button and select the desired language. The listed language to use for display is in order of preference, so you will need to move your preferred language to use to the top. 3. The Internet Search subcategory allows you to choose which search engine you want to use for your search function.

Figure 7: Navigator Configuration

Finding Information on the Internet The Internet is a treasure house of information. Virtually information on any topic under the sun (and more!) can be found on the Internet. However, while information is easily available it may not be so easy to find the information you want. This is because the information may be available from very many sites, often in varying details and varying aspects of the same piece of information. To assist us in finding information more effectively a search engine or an Internet portal may be used.

The Appearance category allows you to configure the default fonts and colors used. Here you will also be able to set the theme and select the language to be used. The Navigator category allows you to configure the Mozilla Navigator web browser itself. The main Navigator configuration allows you to

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

Note: Information obtained from the Internet should be scrutinized carefully and not taken as “correct” in all cases. This is because due to its free flowing nature and easy means of access and creation, anyone can publish information on the Internet. As such, unless one is certain that the information is from an authoritative and reliable source, it should be verified by another source or means as far as possible.

Other portals offering general information as well as links to other more subject-specific portals and websites include:
• •

Yahoo ( Netscape ( Network

• •

Microsoft Network ( Angelfire (

Using an Internet Search Engine While portals provide a guided and categorized means to access information, sometimes we want to be more specific about the topic we want to find and portals generally are not able to provide this in a timely and efficient manner. An alternative is to utilize a search engine. A search engine allows you to query it about some specific subject and it will try to retrieve links to web pages and resources which contain information about the subject matter being queried.

Using a Portal A portal is a website that acts as a gateway for providing information about a subject area or group of subjects – information as well as links to other sites providing information about the topics in question may be found. Portals are useful starting places for new web users who do not know where and how to go and look for information about a specific topic

Figure 8: Home Page for an ISP Figure 9: A Search Engine

or subject. Many major ISPs provide portal-like information services for their subscribers so that if the latter make this their home page for their web browser, on launching their browser the ISP's portal page is opened. The subject areas covered by these ISP portals are typically subjects of general interest like shopping, local and foreign news, entertainment etc.

The popular search engines available are: Google ( Lycos ( Yahoo ( Yehey (

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

There are also sites which allow you to search using more than one search engines e.g. ( Easysearcher ( While each search engine will have its own technology, its utilization to perform a simple and basic search is essentially the same irrespective of which search engine is used. To use a search engine for basic searches, just type in a few descriptive words about the item/subject you are searching for. It will return a list of links to web pages and resources which contain all the words in the query string. Note that common words like “the”, “a”, “how” etc. are usually ignored by the search engine unless specifically told not to. Words are also not case

sensitive unless enclosed by quotation marks. To refine and narrow down your search, you will need to add more words to the search terms you have already entered. Your new query will return a smaller subset of the pages found. The basics of using current search engines is essentially keyword matching and so it is important to be able to identify appropriate keywords so that your search is more efficient and false hits are minimized. The keywords entered should be as specific as possible in order to get better results. More details on how to use each particular search engine are available on their respective websites and they should be consulted so that you can make efficient use of them.

3. The search results are returned to the user in a fraction of a second.

1. The web server sends the query to the index servers. The content inside the index servers is similar to the index in the back of a book--it tells which pages contain the words that match any particular query term.

2. The query travels to the doc servers, which actually retrieve the stored documents. Snippets are generated to describe each search result.

Copyright © 2003 Google Inc. Used with permission.

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

Electronic Mail Electronic Mail, or most commonly called as e-mail, is the most widely used Internet service. Internet email has become one of the most popular applications on the Internet. It works similarly with the manual mailbox systems found in most large organizations, where messages such as memos, letters, agendas, minutes and etc. are deposited in a mailbox or pigeonhole for later collection. E-mail, however, is computerized and is therefore faster and more reliable. An advantage is that messages can be collected and sent from any computer connected to the Internet. To send a mail message, a user simply has to log in to the computer and use a mail program to compose and send the message. The message, once sent, is later accepted by the remote computer which stores it in the recipient’s electronic mailbox. The recipient is then informed the next time they log in that a new message has arrived for them. It can arrive at its destination within seconds even to the other side of the world. It provides an automatic delivery service allowing users, separated by location and time, to exchange information not only within an organization but all over the world.

mail works on the usual Post Office paradigm where mail is sent to a central post office. The users connect and the mail is moved or downloaded from the PO to the personal computer. This model is used by most Internet Service Providers. Once mail is downloaded, mail can be processed offline. The disadvantages of using this method is the big problem of accessing the PO if direct Internet access to the personal computer is not available and accessing mail on the personal computer if one is elsewhere. The main difference between a webmail system and a POP3 email system is that for the former, generally, you have to be online to the server housing your mailbox to access and manage your mail. For the POP3 system, you need to be online to the server only to download your mail, after that you can go offline to read, reply and manage your local mail storage. You only need to go online again when you want to send out your email. In addition to having a webmail account somewhere on the Internet, webmail needs only a web browser and Internet access to work. Examples of popular webmail services are those from Yahoo, Hotmail, Google (gmail). Most ISPs also offer webmail services in addition to their traditional POP3 email services. To use POP3 email, you will need to have a POP3 email client software running on your computer. Mozilla Thunderbird supports POP3 email. In addition, you will also need to know the name of the computer on which your POP3 mailbox is located - the POP3 server, as well as the name of the computer which allows you to send out (relay) mail through it - the SMTP server.

Email Models There are two main types of Internet email systems: webmail and POP3.

Webmail, the traditional method of accessing e-mail, makes use of a web browser to read, compose, send and manage your mail. E-mails will be stored to a host computer and users will be able to access it by executing a mail program on the computer. The distinct advantage of this method is that one can access the mail from any location where there is access to the Internet, anywhere in the world. POP3 email makes use of a POP3 email client to download your email from a server housing your email mailbox. This method of accessing e17

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

E-Mail Address

Parts of an E-Mail Regardless of which mail program the user uses all electronic mail messages have two main components. The first is the header of the message and the second is the body of the message or its contents.


To send an e-mail to someone, the user needs the recipient’s address. This address is basically a replacement for an address on an envelope. Elements:

Mailbox name or username – which is usually the user name of the user’s account (letters, numerals and some punctuation characters). Capitalization does not matter in email addresses. A mailbox name should not contain commas, spaces and parentheses. @ (at sign) Address or hostname – majority of e-mail addresses have hierarchical structures similar to a real-world address. Networks are divided into administrative regions known technically as domains which are then further divided into sub-domains. These sub-domains are then further sub-divided into smaller domains. Each component domain within the address is delimited using a dot ”.”. To illustrate this, consider a typical email address: “rcopinon” – is the name of the person sending or receiving the message, this is referred to as the username. “” – in this instance, “ph” is the top-level domain, usually referring to the country of origin (usually the first two letters of the country’s name). The sub-domain “gov” indicates the organizational affiliation of the addressee, like for this instance, it indicates that the addressee belongs to a government body.

The header consists of a number of fields which are either completed by the user or automatically by the computer. This may consist of the following: Addressee (To:) – where the username and address of the intended recipient must be entered; must be typed correctly. Carbon Copy (Cc:) – optional field where the sender can enter the username of those whom he wants to give a copy of the e-mail. Blind Carbon Copy (BCc:) – an optional field where the sender can enter the username of those whom he wants to give a copy of the e-mail but whose addresses will not appear in the recipients’ message. Title of Although common message title. Message (Subject:) this is optional, it is courtesy to give every a relevant/descriptive

• •

Sender (From:) - automatically entered by the mail server into any mail messages that is sent out. Its purpose is to inform the recipient of the sender’s e-mail address, so that message sent will be traceable.

The body of the message is usually composed using an editor similar to a word processing program built-in to the mail program. The user has the option to send the message as plain text or as an html file (i.e. with formatting). He/She also has an option to attach files within the body.

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

Sending an E-Mail Message All mail programs have a New Message or Write/Compose Mail command, often located on a message menu. When starting a new message, the program will open a new window, then type the address of the person to whom the user wishes to send the mail. To create and send an e-mail message in Mozilla Thunderbird:


When finished, click the Send button or select File Send Now/Later menu.

Select File New Message or Message New Message in the menu or click the Write button in the toolbar. The Netscape -

[Message Composition] window appears.

Type the recipient address in the Mail To: text box. In almost all email programs, the Tab key can be pressed to jump from box to box or from area to area when filling in an address and subject. Generally, the user can also just click directly in the desired area to go to in most programs. If the user wants to send a copy of the e-mail message to more than one recipient, he can either type that person’s address on the Cc: text box, separating the addresses with commas. In some e-mail programs, the addresses may appear on separate lines. After entering the recipient/s’s address in the Mail To: or Cc text box, press Tab or go to the Subject text box. The subject typed in the subject line should be fairly short, but should be a good description of the contents of the message. Good subject lines can help recipients categorize their mail and respond more quickly to the message sent. Go to the blank message area and key-in the message.

Reading an E-Mail Message It is a good habit to check e-mail every time you log into the Net. Unread or new mail typically appears as bold or with a closed envelope icon. This is supposed to help the user pick out the messages that are not read yet. To Read an e-mail message in Mozilla Thunderbird, do the following:


On the toolbar, click the Get Mail


button or select File Get New Messages in the menu bar.


Check the left frame of the application window that shows the mail folders – the new messages will be directed to the Inbox folder. The top-right frame contains the list of messages or mails within that particular folder, while the bottom frame shows the content of the selected message. You may opt to resize the different frames to your liking.

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers


If the mail continues beyond the bottom of the window, use the scrollbar to view the rest of the message.

conversation has evolved its way onto a new topic.

Replying To/Forwarding Messages Use the Reply/Reply All button when replying to an e-mail message, the new message is automatically addressed back to the sender, and depending on the application settings, you can easily quote the message received (in this case, the contents of the original message will be included automatically with a “ > “ or “” character at the beginning of each line to indicate that it is quoted text.. You can also send or forward messages to other recipients.
• •

Add other recipients if necessary, tab into the message area to type the reply then choose the Send command when finished.

To Forward an e-mail message in Netscape Mail, do the following:

To Reply to an e-mail message in Mozilla Thunderbird, do the following:

Highlight the received message in the Inbox or open the message then select Message Forward from the menu bar or use the corresponding icon on the toolbar. This will display the Message Composition window for the current message’s forwarding. The Mail To: field is blank and the original Subject field is prefixed with Fwd (i.e. Fwd: <original subject>). Type in the recipient/s’ addresses then click the Forward button or select Message Forward in the menu.

Highlight the received message in the Inbox or open the message, then select Message Reply from the menu bar or use the corresponding icon on the toolbar. This will display the Message Composition window for replying to the current mail message. The Mail To: field is pre-addressed to the original message's sender.


Using Web-Based E-Mail Services There are numerous Web-based e-mail services that are available. These services follow the Login to Host model or the traditional method of accessing e-mail. It provides free personal email account. The accounts are paid for by advertisements that are seen onscreen while connecting. Having a separate personal e-mail address protects the user’s privacy because he can keep the communication private, off his employer’s server. Even while one is away from the office and needs to check an important e-mail message, for as long as he can access the World Wide Web, he can check his e-mail. This is particularly helpful for mobile professionals who are always on the go. These services also allow them to travel light simply by sending an e-mail message, files or any other document to his own address or account and retrieve the presentation upon arriving at the destination.


If the user wants the Mail To: field pre- addressed to the original message’s sender and all other recipients of the current message, click the select Message Reply to All from the menu bar or use the corresponding icon on the toolbar. Click or tab on the Subject: textbox and type a new subject if the old one is no longer significant, the default value of which is the original message’s subject prefixed with Re: (i.e. Re: <original subject>). People often fail to change the subject line of messages, even when the


Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

You do not even need to have your own computer since libraries, cafes, and other venues provide Internet access. Since your account is located at the service provider’s Web site, you can send and receive e-mail anywhere as long as there is an Internet connection. Some examples of these are:
• •

Hotmail (, Rocketmail (, Yahoo (, Google (, Pinoymail(

• • •

button that says “Submit This Form”. 6. A confirmation page will be displayed to verify that your email has been set up. Click the button that says, “Continue to Yahoo Mail”. 7. Now you can start using your new, free Yahoo email account. 8. After successfully registering, the user can now send and receive email with his account as well as avail of its other features and services.

Searching E-mail Addresses Presently, there is no central directory or “White Pages” that contains everyone’s Internet e-mail addresses although considerable resources have been developed which gives a good chance of finding someone’s e-mail address. The main resources on the Web mainly rely on three sources of information:

Registering/Getting an Account To avail of the services offered by a Webbased e-mail service provider, simply go to its web page and look for the option to subscribe or register an account which is usually the Sign Up Here or Sign Up button or link. One of the most popular web-based e-mail service-provider to date is Yahoo. It allows 200 MB of storage space per account absolutely for free.

How to set up a free Yahoo Email Account: 1. Go to 2. Click the button that says “Sign up now”. 3. On the succeeding page, click the button that says “Sign Up for Yahoo! Mail” – make sure that it’s the free account. 4. Fill out the entire form, use the Tab key or the mouse to move from one field to another (do not hit enter until you have filled out entire form). Check the validity of the Yahoo ID you recommended until Yahoo permits your new ID. 5. Type in the security word to verify that an actual person is filling up the form and not an automated registration sequence. Click the

People registering their e-mail addresses with ‘people finder’ search engines. Some of these search engines require the user to give the name and e-mail address before they allow to carry out a search. That way, they build up their directory as well. E-mail addresses that appear on Web sites. People who have contributed to one of the many thousands of Newsgroups and E-mail Discussion lists.

You normally have a better chance of finding someone’s e-mail address if you know their approximate location like the city, state or country. Many of the e-mail search sites have a number of other facilities, usually free. One common offering is a free web-based e-mail address, which means that you can access mail sent to this address from anywhere you can get web access. Other facilities often offered are company searches, telephone number searches and address searches. Example of this is Four11

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

(, which has two search options. First is for the registered and the other is for unregistered users.

Strategic Uses Of the Internet

Project Management Project Management covers all of the tasks required to create a strong project plan, manage the on-going project progress, and provide management with an accurate status of the project on a regular basis. To ensure the success of any project, it is important for the project manager and team to have a clear understanding of how the project will be planned monitored and reported on. The project manager can use the Internet to work collaboratively and communicate effectively with clients, project staff, management, and support staff in a timely manner. Project adjustment decisions, team member status reports, project status reports, cost tracking, expenses projected and incurred reports can all be done in a workgroup computing environment using the Internet or Intranet. A workgroup system allows the group and its clients to send e-mail to one another, share data files, and schedule meetings. Sophisticated workgroup systems allow users to define workflow so that data is automatically forwarded to appropriate people at each stage of a process. Groupware: class of software that helps workgroups attached to a LAN to organize their activities and facilitate communication among the team by supporting the following operations: scheduling meetings and allocating resources, e-mail, password protection for documents, telephone utilities, electronic newsletters, and file distribution.
Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

Scheduler: a software product designed to help a group of colleagues schedule meetings and other appointments, complete with automatic reminders and reservation of resources such as conference rooms and overhead projectors. Workflow: used to define different workflow for different types of jobs, notifies appropriate personnel and send relevant data that they need to execute their stage of the process. Teleconference: to hold a conference via a telephone or network connection and share applications, complete with a common whiteboard (e.g. Microsoft's NetMeeting). Whiteboard: An area on a display screen that multiple users can write or draw on especially during teleconferences; enable visual as well as audio communication.

E-Commerce The Internet can provide both consumers and businesses new ways of doing things, both short-term and long-term benefits. Not only can it open new markets, enabling users to reach new customers, but it can also make it easier and faster for others to do business with the existing customer base. Moving business practices such as ordering, invoicing, and customer support, to network-based systems can also reduce the paperwork, time, and effort involved in business-tobusiness transactions, so as to better focus on meeting customer’s needs. Tracking customer satisfaction, requesting more customer feedback, and presenting custom solutions are likewise made more efficient. E-Commerce allows customers to do comparison shopping more easily without the need to see the actual product and pay for the ordered item

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

electronically. It opens up new kinds of intermediaries, even if direct buyerseller communications increase. For example, some businesses will become intermediaries or brokers to track special markets, notifying clients of bargains, changing market conditions, and hard-to-find items, and even conducting periodic searches for special products on their behalf. Using the Internet for business-tobusiness transactions is less expensive than using private networks. The World Wide Web has allowed more consumers to confidently use the Internet, and has offered individuals and businesses new ways to present and find information.

another country, learn how to use computers in the classroom or keep up with the latest advances in teaching everything from physics to physical education. ArtsEdge: 2/artsedge/artsedge2.html Ask Dr. Math: dr.math@forum.swarthmore. edu or r-math/dr-math.html AskERIC: Educational Resource and Information Center, provides a way for educators, librarians and others with information about virtually everything; contains digests of questions and answers, lesson plans in a variety of fields and other educationally related information. or Health-Ed: Kidsphere: for elementary and secondary teachers to arrange joint projects and discuss educational telecommunications. Includes news on new software, lists of sites from which you can get computergraphics pictures from various NASA satellites and probes and other news of interest to modem-using teachers. or skoool: subject matter content for elearning by Intel; instructional materials and assessment tools various groups, associations and networks to assist teachers: lesson plans,

The Net in the Classroom More and more schools have begun to see the tremendous educational potential the Net has for use in the campuses and classrooms. Usenet Newsgroups: Because the Net now reaches so many countries and often stays online even when the phones go down, instructors and students can "tune in" to first-hand accounts during international conflicts. Many newsgroups are of a scientific bent. with subjects ranging from archaeology to economics to astronomy to nanotechnology. The Usenet ‘sci’. groups encourage critical thinking. Beyond science, social-studies and history classes can keep busy learning about other countries, through the soc.culture newsgroups. Other Educational Internet Resources There are a number of resources on the Internet aimed specifically at elementary and secondary students and teachers. One can use these to set up science experiments with classes in
Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

strategies, collaborative support groups

materials, projects,

Web gtools/teachingtools.html yapple/teacherresources.html tion/ PhEdNet (planned) Resource-Based Learning and Inquiry-Based Learning (refer to the exercises at the end of the chapter) Online Scavenger Hunt: requires students to visit websites to gather information that would answer specific questions. Typically, an activity such as this does not require the student to create a new product from the information that is gathered. The questions can range in difficulty depending on the age of the child and the instructional goals. Online Treasure Hunt: “typically used when teachers want students to learn specific, often factual, information about a selected topic, using multiple prescreened Web resources. Giving students pre-screened Web sites ensures "safe surfing" on the Internet with developmentally appropriate and high quality resources.” (McGraw Hill website: nce/education/cybereducator/ cybpart07c.html)
Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

Quest: “an inquiryoriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from resources on the Internet” (

Distance Learning: students work on their own at home or at the office and communicate with faculty and other students via email, electronic forums, videoconferencing and other forms of computer-based communication. The Internet provides links to online course and degree program providers and online study resources. There are application software for the delivery of interactive live group learning and training, and web-based training via the Internet or corporate intranets, such as Content and Learning Management Systems, Computer-based Training modules, Discussion Forums, etc. Distance learning is becoming especially popular with organizations that need to regularly re-train their staff. It is less expensive than bringing all the students together in a traditional classroom setting.

Research and Development Research and development work has never been most comprehensive and productive than in this period of Internet explosion. The Internet is synonymous with the Information Superhighway, and as such provides access to a wealth of archived information in several formats, among them, documents, images, technical papers, software, sound, and animations. databases free software

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

numerous university and public libraries with own electronic card catalogs networking high computing centers performance

computer centers for use by scientists, researchers, students, businesses and other organizations representations, associations, and publications of professions, interests, hobbies, research and development work of millions of people globally discussion groups, and bulletin boards newsgroups,

ONLINE TREASURE HUNT from the McGraw-Hill website, 2001. n/cybereducator/cybpart07c.html The steps below will provide you with guidelines and helpful Web resources for designing the hunt. (See sample below.) 1. What is the topic of your Treasure Hunt? (i.e., U.S. Westward Expansion, female African-American writers) 2. Search for high quality Web sites that are relevant to your selected topic. 3. Bookmark and organize your selected Web sites on your Web browser (Microsoft Explorer, Netscape Navigator, etc.). 4. Select Web sites for your "Resource Bank" from your collection of bookmarked sites. Provide both the titles and Web addresses of Web sites in the "Bank". • One of the goals of this type of activity is to help students feel competent in using the Web. To avoid anxiety and frustration, direct younger students to the exact Web page where answers to your questions may be found. You may direct older or more experienced students to the home page of a Web site and ask them to search throughout the site to find

the answers. Finally, you may offer hints about where to look for the answers as in the following sample Treasure Hunt. 5. Develop Treasure Hunt questions, using information within each Web site one time. 6. Ask a final, evaluative question that asks students to synthesize the information they have learned and develop it into a broad understanding of the topic. • Learn more about asking purposeful questions at Levels and Types of Questions: Bloom's Taxonomy ( ts/question/quest1.html). Your final question should be a higher level question within Bloom's taxonomy, requiring students to analyze, synthesize, or evaluate information.

Some samples online: • Black History: hunt_quiz.html • My China: a/sampler.html • Hunting for Migrant Workers: rants/hunt.htm#intro (make sure that you view the rubric and guide)

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

WEB QUEST from The WebQuest Place: ts/page3.html WebQuests consist of five main components: the introduction, task, process, evaluation, and conclusion. 1. Introduction: usually a short paragraph that introduces the activity to the students. It often has a role or scenario involved 2. Task: informs the learners of what their end-result or culminating project will be 3. Process: identifies the steps the students should go through to accomplish the task. It also includes the online resources they will need, and provides scaffolding for organizing the information gathered 4. Evaluation: describes to the students how their performance will be evaluated, and is often in the form of a scoring rubric 5. Conclusion: summarizes what the learners will have accomplished by completing the WebQuest, and often provides additional opportunities to extend their thinking Additional Elements: 1. WebQuests are usually a group activity. Often they are designed to have 3 to 5 students per group, with the students working cooperatively on the task. Usually the groups work on different aspects of the task. 2. WebQuests often include role-playing. By incorporating role-playing, students learn to look at issues from multiple perspectives. Each group could represent a role; or each student in a group could represent a role and become an expert on a particular topic. The group then synthesizes the information they find and creates a

Tom March’s model: from Best

product that demonstrates their learning. 3. WebQuests can be single discipline or interdisciplinary. WebQuest lessons can just focus on one subject, but they can easily cover multiple subject areas. Some samples online: • A WebQuest about Evaluating Websites: jvweb/evalwebstu.html • The WebQuest Place: s/page3.html • Best • Look Who’s Footing the Biill - An Introductory WebQuest on Democracy and the National Debt: ocracy/debtquest.html • So, you’re gifted! A Webquest of SelfDiscovery: bQuests/Gifted/index.htm • Math and Baseball: eball/ • Buying your First Car - Computer Application: el/carshoppingwebquest.htm • El Niño or El No No: s/elnino/ •

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

A Rubric for Evaluating WebQuests from: The WebQuest format can be applied to a variety of teaching situations. If you take advantage of all the possibilities inherent in the format, your students will have a rich and powerful experience. This rubric will help you pinpoint the ways in which your WebQuest isn't doing everything it could do. If a page seems to fall between categories, feel free to score it with in-between points. Beginning Developing Accomplished Score

Overall Aesthetics (This refers to the WebQuest page itself, not the external resources linked to it.) 0 points There are few or no graphic elements. No variation in layout or typography. Overall Visual OR Appeal Color is garish and/or typographic variations are overused and legibility suffers. Background interferes with the readability. 2 points Graphic elements sometimes, but not always, contribute to the understanding of concepts, ideas and relationships. There is some variation in type size, color, and layout. 4 points Appropriate and thematic graphic elements are used to make visual connections that contribute to the understanding of concepts, ideas and relationships. Differences in type size and/or color are used well and consistently. See Fine Points Checklist. 0 points Getting through the Navigation & lesson is confusing and Flow unconventional. Pages can't be found easily and/or the way back isn't clear. 0 points There are more than 5 Mechanical broken links, Aspects misplaced or missing images, badly sized tables, misspellings and/or grammatical errors. 2 points There are a few places where the learner can get lost and not know where to go next. 4 points Navigation is seamless. It is always clear to the learner what all the pieces are and how to get to them. 2 points

1 point

There are some broken No mechanical links, misplaced or problems noted. missing images, badly sized tables, See Fine Points misspellings and/or Checklist. grammatical errors.

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

Introduction 0 points The introduction is purely factual, with no appeal to relevance or Motivational social importance Effectiveness of OR Introduction The scenario posed is transparently bogus and doesn't respect the media literacy of today's learners. 0 points Cognitive Effectiveness of the Introduction The introduction doesn't prepare the reader for what is to come, or build on what the learner already knows. 1 point The introduction makes some reference to learner's prior knowledge and previews to some extent what the lesson is about. 1 point The introduction relates somewhat to the learner's interests and/or describes a compelling question or problem. 2 points The introduction draws the reader into the lesson by relating to the learner's interests or goals and/or engagingly describing a compelling question or problem.

2 points The introduction builds on learner's prior knowledge and effectively prepares the learner by foreshadowing what the lesson is about.

Task (The task is the end result of student efforts... not the steps involved in getting there.) 0 points The task is not related Connection of to standards. Task to Standards 2 point The task is referenced to standards but is not clearly connected to what students must know and be able to do to achieve proficiency of those standards. 3 points Task is doable but is limited in its significance to students' lives. The task requires analysis of information and/or putting together information from several sources. 4 points The task is referenced to standards and is clearly connected to what students must know and be able to do to achieve proficiency of those standards. 6 points Task is doable and engaging, and elicits thinking that goes beyond rote comprehension. The task requires synthesis of multiple sources of information, and/or taking a position, and/or going beyond the data given and making a generalization or creative product. See WebQuest Taskonomy.

0 points Task requires simply comprehending or retelling of information found on web pages and answering factual Cognitive questions. Level of the Task

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

Process (The process is the step-by-step description of how students will accomplish the task.) 0 points Process is not clearly Clarity of stated. Students would Process not know exactly what they were supposed to do just from reading this. 0 points The process lacks strategies and organizational tools needed for students to gain the knowledge needed to complete the task. Activities are of little significance to one another and/or to the accomplishment of the task. 2 points Some directions are given, but there is missing information. Students might be confused. 3 points Strategies and organizational tools embedded in the process are insufficient to ensure that all students will gain the knowledge needed to complete the task. Some of the activities do not relate specifically to the accomplishment of the task. 4 points Every step is clearly stated. Most students would know exactly where they are at each step of the process and know what to do next. 6 points The process provides students coming in at different entry levels with strategies and organizational tools to access and gain the knowledge needed to complete the task. Activities are clearly related and designed to take the students from basic knowledge to higher level thinking. Checks for understanding are built in to assess whether students are getting it. See: • • Process Guides A Taxonomy of Information Patterns Language Arts Standards and Technology WebQuest Enhancement Tools Reception, Transformation & Production Scaffolds

Scaffolding of Process

0 points

1 points

2 points Different roles are assigned to help students understand different perspectives and/or share responsibility in accomplishing the task.

Few steps, no separate Some separate tasks or roles assigned. roles assigned. More Richness of complex activities Process required.

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

Resources (Note: you should evaluate all resources linked to the page, even if they are in sections other than the Process block. Also note that books, video and other off-line resources can and should be used where appropriate.) 0 points Resources provided are not sufficient for students to accomplish Relevance & the task. Quantity of Resources OR There are too many resources for learners to look at in a reasonable time. 0 points Links are mundane. They lead to information that could be found in a Quality of classroom Resources encyclopedia. 2 point There is some connection between the resources and the information needed for students to accomplish the task. Some resources don't add anything new. 4 points There is a clear and meaningful connection between all the resources and the information needed for students to accomplish the task. Every resource carries its weight.

2 points Some links carry information not ordinarily found in a classroom.

4 points Links make excellent use of the Web's timeliness and colorfulness. Varied resources provide enough meaningful information for students to think deeply.

Evaluation 0 points 3 points 6 points

Criteria for success are Criteria for success are Criteria for success are not described. at least partially clearly stated in the described. form of a rubric. Criteria include qualitative as well as quantitative Clarity of descriptors. Evaluation Criteria The evaluation instrument clearly measures what students must know and be able to do to accomplish the task. See Creating a Rubric. Total Score /50

Original WebQuest rubric by Bernie Dodge. This is Version 1.03. Modified by Laura Bellofatto, Nick Bohl, Mike Casey, Marsha Krill, and Bernie Dodge and last updated on June 19, 2001.

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

This page is to help you look at the aesthetic fine points of your page and pinpoint the little things to fix that will make your good pages into great ones. You can use it to look at your own project or you can ask someone else to provide you with a peer review. Any line that doesn't have Yes checked suggests that there might be something to fix. Each item is keyed to the appropriate section of the Fine Points page. Project Name: Project Author: Checked By: Date: No ? Yes



Aspect Fine Point 1. The lines in the page are constrained so that they never exceed 8 to 15 words per line. Fine Point 2. Paragraphs are no longer than 8 lines of text in a row. Bulleted and numbered lists are used appropriately. Fine Point 3. Sans-serif fonts are used for body text. Fine Point 4. Fonts are used consistently. Any change in font is used to indicate a change in the purpose or source of the information. Fine Point 5. The reading level of the text seems appropriate for the intended audience. Fine Point 6. The only underlined words are hyperlinks. Fine Point 7. Each page has a meaningful title in the Title Bar. Fine Point 8. Transparency is used in graphics appropriately. Fine Point 9. There is a 2 to 10 pixel space between graphics and text. Fine Point 10. Backgrounds don't interfere with the readability of the text. Fine Point 11. There is a 2 to 10 pixel space between text and any page or table boundaries. Fine Point 12. Graphics and text are put side by side where appropriate to minimize long scrolling pages. Fine Point 13. Graphics that are hotlinked are chosen to look like links and do not have a link-colored border around them. Fine Point 14. Graphics have an ALT Text tag to make them accessible to the visually impaired.

© Bernie Dodge, 1999. May be freely used by non-profit educational organizations. 31
Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

CYBER SEURITY slides Internet

recognize the risks and become familiar with terminology associated with them

Positive: venue where people get together to communicate, exchange information, entertain, transact business, and understand how the world operates. Negative: playground of crooked individuals and ruthless firms who take advantage of the freedom it maintains as well as its many weaknesses.

Security Settings
• • • • •

High, Medium, Low Trust sites vs. Restricted sites Internet & LAN content Firewall Filters


Malicious Individuals

E-mail is completely insecure. Each e-mail you send results in at least 3 or 4 copies being stored on different computers. You can take measures to protect your e-mail.

Hacker, attacker, or intruder exploit weaknesses in software and computer systems for their own gain intentions: sometimes benign and motivated solely by curiosity actions: typically in violation of the intended use of the systems they are exploiting


Cyber Security Unfortunately, there's no 100% guarantee that even with the best precautions some of these things won't happen to you, but there are steps you can take to minimize the chances.

designed “to wreak havoc on personal computers and networks” by attaching to programs (“hosts”) and spreading from one program or storage device to another ranging from silly pranks to data destruction/ thef alware Virus: attaches to various files and executes (infects the computer) when the host programs are run (or an email attachment is opened or a particular web page is visited) Worm: propagates without user intervention via email, web sites, or network-based software, clogs the system via numerous reproductions Logic Bomb: lies dormant until triggered by a certain event Trojan Horse: unsuspicous delivery program of malware



Cyber Security

protecting digital information by preventing, detecting, and responding to attacks

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

Spyware & Key Logger

Spyware (also called sneakware or stealthware) - software that comes hidden in free downloadable software tracks your online movements mines the information stored on your computer uses your computer’s CPU and storage, slows it down

Key logger, or key trapper, software, a program, when installed on a computer, records every keystroke and mouse click. record keystrokes and steal private information for advertisers, hackers, and cyberthieves Cookie - a small record deposited on your hard disk by a Website containing information about you and your Web activities. Adware - software to generate ads that installs itself on your computer when you download some other (usually free ) program from the Web.

Earthlink computer programs

(ISP) study: harbors 26

average spyware

Tips 1. Perform basic computer maintenance firewall, data encryption, regular update of security patches regularly run anti-virus and anti-spyware software 2. Don't open files from strangers/ unreliable sites E-mail and IM verify first 3. Help fight spam and online scams use filters be wary of phishing check for secure pages (lock icon), server authentication, and message integrity review the privacy policies of websites before entering information 4. learn how to protect yourself from adware/spyware Regularly run anti-spyware software read license agreements of freeware against attached spyware 5. take precautions when you go wireless convenient but with security risks 6. password-protect your computer— and lock it as first line of defense 7. back up your work


Anti-virus software and firewalls are 100% effective. Once software is installed on your computer, you do not have to worry about it anymore. There is nothing important on your machine, so you do not need to protect it. Attackers only target people with money. When computers slow down, it means that they are old and should be replaced.

Safeguard your passwords! Guidelines from Learn the

Although passwords should be easily remembered, do not use passwords that refer to easily obtainable personal information, such as your name, address, phone number, or birthday. Avoid using common words. Passwords should be at least six alphanumeric characters – meaning, combine upper and lower case letters, numbers, and symbols, e.g. 2fjm0x@Ic.

2. 3.

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

NOTE: Passwords are case-sensitive.

CYBER ETHICS slides Issues
• • • • • • •

Ideally, use a different password for each service you register with. For sensitive accounts, such as financial services, change your passwords frequently. Never ever disclose your password/s. Don’t have your computer “remember your password”.

Privacy and Personal Information Trust Freedom of speech Intellectual Property Computer crime Computers and Work Professional Responsibilities Ethics and


Computer Ethics

Category of professional ethics similar to medical, accounting, legal ethics For computer professionals & those who select, manage or use computers in a professional setting Many people do technology well... not understand

Concerns relationships & responsibilities towards customers, clients, coworkers, users, people affected by computers, ...

What is Ethics ?

Study of what it means to "do the right thing" View ethical rules as fundamental & universal made up to provide a framework to interact with other people

• •

Behaving ethically is often practical Needs courage sometimes ...

Some important distinctions

Right, wrong, acceptable



• •

Distinguising Wrong and Harm Separating Goals from Constraints

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers
• •

Personal Preference and Ethics Law and Ethics


To handle information in a responsible way you must understand: The importance of ethics in the ownership and use of information. The importance to people of personal privacy and the ways in which it can be compromised. The value of information to an organization. Threats to information and how to protect against them (security).

Your basic ethical structure, which you developed as you grew up. The set of practical circumstances involved in the decision that you’re trying to make — that is, all the shades of gray in what are rarely black or white decisions. Intellectual Property

Intellectual property - intangible creative work that is embodied in physical form. Copyright - the legal protection afforded an expression of an idea, such as a song, video game, and some types of proprietary documents. Fair Use Doctrine - says that you may use copyrighted material in certain situations — for example, for teaching purposes. Creative Commons Pirated software - the unauthorized use, duplication, distribution or sale of copyrighted software. Counterfeit software - software that is manufactured to look like the real thing and sold as such.


• •

Ethics - the principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people. Two Factors That Determine How You Decide Ethical Issues

how much or how little benefit or harm will come from a particular decision?

what is your perception of what society really thinks of your intended action?

how much do you identify with the person or persons who will receive the benefit or suffer the harm? what length of time will it take for the benefit or harm to take effect?

what is the probability of the harm or benefit that will occur if you take the action?

how many people will be affected by your action?
Ethics: Practical Considerations

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers


Privacy - the right to be left alone when you want to be, to have control over your own personal possessions, and not to be observed without your consent. E-mail is completely insecure: at least 3 or 4 copies being stored on different computers. You can take measures to protect your e-mail.

4. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal. Using a computer to break into the accounts = robbery. Use and respect passwords the use of

Cyber crimes, e.g. identity theft and illegal use of personal accounts (i.e. Internet access, email account, financial accounts) 5. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness. maligning or spreading untruths Always check the reliability of your information 6. Thou shalt not use or copy software for which you have not paid. Observe Copyright Laws. AntiPiracy.

• • • • •

Cookie Adware Trojan-horse software Spyware Key logger, or key trapper, software,

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS FOR COMPUTER ETHICS from the Computer Ethics Institute 1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. Follow the Golden Rule Do not be offensive. Follow the moral standards that guide your everyday life. 2. Thou shalt not interfere with other people's computer work. Do not tamper with other people’s computer settings, folders, and files. Generating and spreading computer unethical. consciously viruses is

Cracking registration codes Shareware vs. Freeware 7. Thou shalt not use other people's computer resources without authorization. common courtesy: get permission authorization system/hierarchy for multi-user systems 8. Thou shalt not appropriate other people's intellectual output. Intellectual Property Rights – always acknowledge your sources. If permission to use the content is not obvious in the source material, ask for it and wait for the author’s or publisher’s response before using the content copy-and-paste practice as alternative to paraphrasing or summarizing = plagiarism and does not enhance your higher order thinking skills Modern (MLA): Language Association

3. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people's files. Respect other people’s privacy. Hacking, spyware Obtaining other people’s nonpublic files (e.g. letters, documents)

Author’s Last Name, First Name. (Date of publication or last update

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

notice.) “Title of Work.” Title of the Complete Work. [URL/Address] (Date Accessed) Examples: Harnack, A. and Kleppinger, E. (2003) “Using Other Styles to Cite and Document Sources.” Online! A Reference Guide To Using Internet Sources. m/online/citeappxa.html (Accessed: July 1, 2005) Lottor, Mark. (February 18, 1996) “Internet Domain Survey.” (Accessed: June 16, 1996) 9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you write. Do not waste people’s time, effort, and resources. Spam, hoaxes messages, flame and unreliable

or unimportant messages and sending large attachments Keep your messages to the point you may opt to use common abbreviations Limit the size of attachments to 100 kb.

Be pleasant and polite. Although the Internet advocates freedom of speech, it does not give anyone the right to write anything he wants without minding how it will affect others. Avoid using CAPS LOCK. Minimize the use of exclamation points. Use smileys or emoticons when appropriate Do not use offensive language. Use descriptive subject lines for your messages as a courtesy to your reader to help people organize and prioritize their messages. Let the recipient know who is sending the message. From: or end your messages with your name Signature

10. Thou shalt use a computer in ways that show consideration and respect. respect queuing be generally nice to other people in the environment Be sure not to change the settings of other users. Observe Laboratory Rules and Regulations. Respect other people’s time and resources. Be considerate and patient with neophyte computer users. Polish your forwarded emails.



When forwarding messages: Check the reliability of the source of a forwarded message and the accuracy of the message or story before passing it on. Do not unnecessarily alarm people, waste their precious time, and clog the network. Clean up your messages before you forward them. Take out unnecessary header information and forwarding symbols (usually the > sign). Retain only those that are important to your recipient. Choose the recipients forwarded message. of your

NETIQUETTE from Tan, Computing for Life Book A. FNB Publications, 2005.

be responsible enough not to waste other people’s time or bandwidth by posting unnecessarily long messages
Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers


When replying to a mass email, avoid hitting Reply to All. When sending mass email, it would be better to use BCCs (Blind Carbon Copies) respect your recipients’ privacy

Case 4 I have an English book report due tomorrow, and I have not even read halfway through the book. I found a web page that gives a review on the same book. All I have to do is to copy and paste the contents of the page onto my word processor. That would be a lot easier than finishing the book and writing this entire book report in one night. My teacher would not know. Case 5 Despite several warnings, Bogs still leaves his computer account open even if he knows that another user will be using the same unit afterwards. Annoyed with his non-compliance, I decided to move all his documents to another folder without his knowledge. That would teach him to close his account. Case 6 My friend sent me this really funny story via email. I decided to change all the characters’ names to those of people in our neighborhood, just for laughs – and CC:d all the people in my Address Book. Case 7 Danny brags that he can break into any computer system. He says that it’s really fun. He is coaxing me to help him get into the school’s main computer to get a peek at next week’s exam questions. Case 8 I saw this girl enter her password for email access. Now, I can log in as her and send hate mail to take revenge against my enemies. Case 9 I used my father’s credit card, without his knowledge, to bid on this collector’s item Star Wars figurine. I am so happy because I won the online auction.


NOTE: Be careful when corresponding to strangers on a network.

Do not give out sensitive or personal information to people you do not personally know. Be wary of people who give out or lie about their own information to gain your trust.

discussion points From Tan, Computing for Life - Book A. 2nd edition. FNB Publications, 2005. Adapted from

Case 1 You are a unit supervisor. A member of your unit is out sick and another member requests a copy of all files from the sick employee's computer to his so that he can do some work. Case 2 My brother and I saw this really cool game being played in the network gaming shop. We would really like to get a copy but it costs a lot of money. My classmate told me that that there is a website where I can copy it for free. That way, I can enjoy the game without having to shell out any money! Case 3 When I went over to James’ workstation to copy a file, I found that he left his Instant Messenger open. A mutual friend, who is on the other end, just sent a message. Since nobody is looking, I sat down, typed a response, and sent it pretending to be James.

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics

iSchools ICT Literacy Training Program for Teachers

Sample Emoticons :-) ;-) :-D :-I |-O |-I :-/ :-( >:-( :-@ :-C :'-( :-O :-X }:-) O:-) ^5 Happy face Kidding or teasing Laughing hard Indifferent. Either way is O.K. Yawning Asleep Not quite sure about something Frowning Angry Screaming Disappointed Crying Surprise or amazement Your secret is safe with me A devil An angel High 5

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


Hug and Kiss Gone For Now Have A Good 'Un Great Minds Think Alike How's It Going Have A Good Night I See Have A Nice Day

IMNSHO In My Not So Humble Opinion HT IMCO ILY IMS IMHO JK IMO IRL IOW JTLYK J4G KIT JMO KWIM KISS L8R KOTC LHO L8R G8R LOL LMSO LY4E Hi There In My Considered Opinion I Love You I'm Sorry In My Humble Opinion Just Kidding In My Opinion In Real Life In Other Words Just To Let You Know Just For Grins Keep In Touch Just My Opinion Know What I Mean Keep It Simple, Stupid Later Kiss On The Cheek Laughing Head Off Later 'Gator Laugh Out Loud Laughing My Socks Off Love You Forever

Sample Acronyms
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •


As Far As I Know

AFK Away From Keyboard ASAP B4N BBL BRB BBS CYA CU DLTBBB CYAL8R FC F2F G As Soon As Possible Bye For Now Be Back Later Be Right Back Be Back Soon See You (Seeya) See You Don't Let The Bed Bugs Bite See You Later (Seeyalata) Fingers Crossed Face To Face Grin

LSHMBH Laughing So Hard My Belly Hurts ROTFL LY STO OIC OTOH Rolls On The Floor Laughing Love Ya Sticking Out Tongue Oh, I See On The Other Hand

• • • • •

FTBOMH From The Bottom Of My Heart GL FWIW Good Luck For What It's Worth

• •

Internet, Cyber Security & Ethics