Saint Mary s University

Graduate School Department Master of Science in Nursing

In Partial Fulfilment of our Requirements in Nursing Administration 4

A Report on Systematic Research Reviews

Submitted By: Prince Rener Velasco Pera, RN Submitted To: Peter Tom Callang, RN, MAN Submitted On: September 21, 2011

. Money.A dictionary-like definition. Operational Definition .It helps researchers to say more clearly what is meant. Equipments b. . Conceptual definition . Research Question: What is the relationship between body-cathexis and selfesteem among college women? . The question is feasible It can be investigated with available resources. In case one knows a possible causal relationship between variables à Experimental research. . In case one knows the crucial variables àCorrelational research. Definition of Research Question Research Question .It broadly defines a term. . as well as by either quantitative or qualitative method. not clear enough for a specific situation.A problem that someone would like to research.Most of research questions can be answered by either exploratory or validating approach. Example: Research Question: Is a humanisticaly oriented classroom effective? Key words: humanistically oriented classroom . A case one wishes better understanding of the problem .I.Sometimes.Probably qualitative study to obtain variables that relates to the problem. effective Conceptual definitions: humanistically oriented classroom the needs and interests of students have the highest priority Students work on their own for a considerable amount of time in each class period The teacher acts as a guide and resource person rather than an informant. where the relationships between the variables are statistically investigated.Time. Characteristics of Good Research Questions a. .A situated definition that a researcher intends to look at. The question is clear One way to clarify an ambiguous research question is to identify conceptual and operational definitions of key terms in the research question. .Survey research to find out which variables are most crucial. What is a Research Question? Research question should be clearly defined before method is determined. A case one has a complete list of variables that might be related to the problem .It precisely defines a term to be measured or identified.

Researchable What is the best way to learn to read Not researchable. Is the question significant? Why would it be important to answer this question? . (Examples) Should I put my youngster in pre-school? Not researchable à Do children enrolled in pre-school develop better social skills than children not enrolled? . or 7? Researchable Are some people born bad? Not researchable. Independent Variable Precedes.Any physical or psychological harm for anyone as a result of my research? .Practically? Theoretically? How might answers to this question contribute to my field? . Self-esteem = the sum total of a person s feeling of personal worth and selfconfidence c.Connections to the previous research and research in future? Is the question ethical? . à Do people who have personality disorders commit more crimes than others? Researchable Types of Variables Dependent Variable Outcome of interest. College women Conceptual definitions: a. influences. à At which age is it better to introduce phonics to children age 5. 6. Non-Researchable Question? A researchable question should contain information that can be collected in attempt to answer the question. Affected or predicted by the independent variable. Body-cathexis = extent of satisfaction with various parts or process of the body b. Extraneous Variable Source of error affecting the dependent variable. College women = female students enrolled at public or private universities or colleges. Confounding Variable . Self-esteem c.Key terms: a. Body-cathexis b. or predicts the dependent variable.Institutional Review Board (IRB) Is it Researchable vs.

as a result. . .Incidents can be captured in journal entries or on videotapes of classroom activities. II.To get started. Identify a burning concern (identifying the area of concern) Ex: What is it that is bothering me about the performance of the students in my classroom? . perspective. Describe the burning concern . comparison of interventions. the interpretation of the result. It may be useful to include summary tables which present key information relating to population. 2. The story describes the situation that shows the concern: . It must be focused on improving instruction in the teacher s classroom so that student learning improves. methods and results.Varies systematically with the independent variable. measure of benefit and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Provides a general direction for the study. . Method to Identify a Research Question 1. it is suggested that you tell a story about an incident. This area of concern can emerge from a critical incident in the classroom12 or moments which surprise or perplex. Once the story is written. it can be shared with a critical friend who may be asked to write down the values that are observed in the story. .The researcher may think about questions like. What are my values? Is my behavior consistent with my values? III.Capturing these initial stories allows the researcher to describe a starting point or baseline for future analysis. Synthesis of the Data Synthesis should begin with descriptive comparisons of the study question. . The concern must be something about which the teacher researcher cares passionately. The range of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios should be presented and the reliability (internal validity) and relevance (generalisability) of the estimates should be explored.You may record such incidents in a personal journal. whether in hardcopy or in electronic form.The actual refinement of the research question emerges from the data collection and analysis process. .That passion provides momentum that carries the research through what may be difficult learning by the teacher. country. for example. whether the studies used the same type of modeling technique and the same model structure. The analytical approaches used in the studies should be compared and their robustness discussed.

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