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and effectively. But how do you become a more confident English speaker? Practise where you can, when you can. Any practice is good - whether you speak to someone who is a native English speaker or not. It's important to build your confidence. If possible, use simple English sentence structure that you know is correct, so that you can concentrate on getting your message across. Try to experiment with the English you know. Use words and phrases you know in new situations. Native English speakers are more likely to correct you if you use the wrong word than if you use the wrong grammar. Experimenting with vocabulary is a really good way of getting feedback. Try to respond to what people say to you. You can often get clues to what people think by looking at their body language. Respond to them in a natural way. Try NOT to translate into and from your own language. This takes too much time and will make you more hesitant. If you forget a word, do what native English speakers do all the time, and say things that 'fill' the conversation. This is better than keeping completely silent. Try using um, or er, if you forget the word. Don't speak too fast! It's important to use a natural rhythm when speaking English, but if you speak too fast it will be difficult for people to understand you. Try to relax when you speak - you'll find your mouth does most of the pronunciation work for you. When you speak English at normal speed, you'll discover that many of the pronunciation skills, such as linking between words, will happen automatically. Remember, when speaking English… Try to become less hesitant and more confident.Don't be shy to speak - the more you do it, the more confident you'll become.Remember to be polite - use "please" and "thank you" if you ask someone to do something for you
How to say what's important
Sometimes you need to say how important things are to you. These are all common ways of telling someone what your priorities are. In a job interview "The most important thing for me is that the job is challenging." "What's really important to me is being able to learn something new." "The most crucial thing for me is to be valued by my colleagues." "The most vital thing is knowing that I am doing a good job." "What really motivates me is learning about new ways of doing something." "I'm extremely interested in learning more about the market." "In terms of priorities, I am most interested in getting results. In addition, I would like to develop my marketing skills." "As far as my priorities go, getting results is the most important." "At the top of my list of priorities is feeling appreciated." "The least important thing is salary."
How to express shock in English
It is sometimes difficult to say how you feel in unexpected situations, such as natural disasters, especially when you feel sad. Here's a list of some common expressions to help you express shock and disbelief. Shock I was shocked to hear… The news came as a complete shock. We're all in complete shock. Everyone's reeling from the shock of… It happened out of the blue. Who could have predicted it? I (just) can't get over …. We were completely taken aback by… I was just stunned by… Disbelief I just can't believe… It's unbelievable.
I / You just can't imagine… Words can't describe… (how I feel about / the terrible devastation etc) There's no way it could have happened. Saying how bad something is It's so awful. It's terrible / What terrible news. It's a tragedy. It's a catastrophe (pronounced "ca - tas - tra - fee" with the stress on "-tas") This is the worst thing that could have happened. Making requests When you ask someone to do something for you, or ask if you can do something, it's important to sound polite. Here are some of the common ways that you can do this. Asking someone to do something for you "Could you open the door for me, please?" "Would you mind opening the door for me, please?" "Can you open the door for me, please?' Speaking tip: could and can are followed by the verb without to. Would you mind is followed by the verb and -ing. Asking if you can do something "Can I use your computer, please?" "Could I borrow some money from you, please?" "Do you mind if I turn up the heating?" "Would you mind if I turned up the heating?" Speaking tip: Could is more polite that can. Do you mind if…" is followed by the verb in the present tense, but would you mind if… is followed by the verb in the past tense. When you're using these two sentences, don't use please. It's already polite enough
Sometimes we say things that other people don't understand, or we give the wrong impression. This is an example conversation where one person says something that the other person thinks is strange. LUIZ: "English is a very easy language to learn." IRENE: "What do you mean?" LUIZ: "Well, what I meant to say was that it is easy if you practise every day." IRENE: "Oh, right." Rephrasing expressions "What I meant to say was…" "Let me rephrase that…" "Let me put this another way…" "Perhaps I'm not making myself clear…" Back to the beginning If you're explaining something, and you realise that the other person doesn't understand, you can use the following phrases: "If we go back to the beginning…" "The basic idea is…" "One way of looking at it is…" "Another way of looking at it is…" If you forget the English word If you forget the word you want to use, you can say: "I can't find the word I'm looking for…" "I'm not sure that this is the right word, but…" "What I want to say is…" Speaking Tip Don't be afraid to repeat what you're saying, especially if you can do it in a slightly different way
Talking about probability in English There are many ways of saying that something will probably or possibly happen. Probable bound to = certain: "They are bound to succeed!" sure to = certain: "He is sure to win the championship." likely to = probable: "We are likely to win the contract." definite = sure: "He's a definite frontrunner for the job!" probable: "It's probable that we will be on holiday around then." likely: "An election is likely next year." will definitely happen: "There will definitely be a storm later." will probably happen: "They will probably take on more staff." Possible may: "We may be able to help you." might: "There might be a holiday next month - I'm not sure." could: "There could be a bug in the system." … is possible: "Do you think he will resign?" "Yes, that's possible." … is unlikely: "It's unlikely that she will move." will possibly: "She'll possibly tell us tomorrow." probably won't: "They probably won't hear until next week." definitely won't: "I definitely won't go to the party." … is highly unlikely: "It's highly unlikely that the company will expand." Note: Be careful of the word order. "Definitely" and "probably" come after "will" (in positive sentences) and before "won't" in negative sentences. Variations You can add words to alter the strength of probability: highly likely / unlikely (= very likely / unlikely) quite likely / probable / possible (= more likely, probable or possible) could possibly / probably most definitely won't (= even more unlikely)
Making predictions When we want to say what we think will happen in the future in English, we can either use will followed by the verb without to, or going to followed by the verb. "What do you think will happen next year?" "Next week is going to be very busy, I think." "There won't be a rise in house prices next year." "He isn't going to win the election." Because we also use will to talk about intentions and strong decisions, we often use going to to sound less emotional. "He won't help us" can mean that he has decided not to help us. But "He isn't going to help us" doesn't have this negative implication. It sounds more like a prediction and a simple, non-emotional fact- perhaps he isn't able to help us. Predictions based on what you know now We can make predictions based on what we can see now. To do this, we use going to and the verb (not will). For example: "Watch out! You're going to hit that car in front." "It's going to be a lovely day today - not a cloud in the sky."
Making offers English speakers make offers all the time in conversation. They say things like: Can I… ? Shall I… ? Would you like me to… ? Using these common English phrases - and being able to accept and reject offers - will make you sound polite and helpful. "Can I help you?" "Shall I open the window for you?" "Would you like another coffee?" "Would you like me to answer the phone?" "I'll do the photocopying, if you like." Shall, can and will are followed by the verb without to. Shall is more formal than can. Would you like… is followed either by a noun, or by the verb with to. Responding to offers These English dialogues show you ways to accept or reject offers made to you. "Can I help you?" "Yes please. I'd like to know what time the train leaves." "Can I help you?" "No thanks, I'm just looking." (In a shop.) "Shall I open the window for you?" "Yes please. That would be very kind of you." "Would you like another coffee?" "No thanks." Or, "No thank you."
"Would you like another coffee?" "Yes please, that would be lovely." Or, "Yes please, I'd love one." "Would you like me to answer the phone?" "If you wouldn't mind." Or, "If you could." (Don't answer "Yes, I would", as this sounds like you expect someone to do it for you.) "I'll do the photocopying, if you like." "It's OK, I can do it." Or, "Don't worry, I'll do it. "Or, "Thank you, that would be great." English speaking tip With a little practice, you'll find it easy to use these English expressions. They'll help you sound both natural and confident.
Making appointments Useful phrases for making and changing appointments. Asking to meet "Are you available on the 17th?" "Can we meet on the 16th?" "How does the 3rd sound to you?" "Are you free next week?" "Would Friday suit you?" "Is next Tuesday convenient for you?" "What about sometime next week?" Agreeing on a date "Yes, Thursday is fine." "Thursday suits me." "Thursday would be perfect." Suggesting a different date "I'm afraid I can't on the 3rd. What about the 6th?" "I'm sorry, I won't be able to make it on Monday. Could we meet on Tuesday instead?" "Ah, Wednesday is going to be a little difficult. I'd much prefer Friday, if that's alright with you." "I really don't think I can on the 17th. Can we meet up on the 19th?" Setting a time "What sort of time would suit you?" "Is 3pm a good time for you?" "If possible, I'd like to meet in the morning." "How does 2pm sound to you?" Changing the arrangement "You know we were going to meet next Friday? Well, I'm very sorry, but something urgent has come up." "I'm afraid that I'm not going to be able to meet you after all. Can we fix another time?" "Something has just cropped up and I won't be able to meet you this afternoon. Can we make another time?"
How to make and accept invitations in English. "What are you doing next Saturday? We're having some people over for a meal. Would you like to come?" "Are you free next Thursday?" "Are you doing anything next weekend?" "Would you be interested in coming to the cinema with me tonight?" "How do you fancy going out for a meal at the weekend?" Accepting "Would you like to…" "I'd love to, thanks." "That's very kind of you, thanks." "That sounds lovely, thanks." Do you fancy coming to the cinema tonight? "What a great idea, thanks." Declining "Would you like to come over for dinner on Saturday?" "That's very kind of you, but actually I'm doing something else on Saturday." "Well, I'd love to, but I'm already going out to the cinema." "I'm really sorry, but I've got something else on." "I really don't think I can - I'm supposed to be doing something else." Speaking Tip It's important to be polite when you decline an invitation. We normally give a reason why we can't do something and either apologise, or use words like "actually" or "really".
Asking for directions
Here is some useful vocabulary for asking directions in English. Asking for directions "How do I get to your office?" "Can you tell me the best way of getting to your office?" "What's the quickest way of getting to your office?" "Where are you exactly?" Getting information "Will you be coming by car or by train?" "It's much easier if you take the train." "Which hotel are you staying at?" General information in English "We're not far from…" or "We're quite close to…" "It's about a mile / kilometre / two blocks from…" "We're opposite / next to / in front of / across the road from / round the corner from the supermarket." Giving directions in English "Come off the motorway / highway at Junction / Exit 12." "It's signposted 'Manchester'." "Follow the signs to …" "There's a one-way system in the centre of town." "Take the 'A12' to 'Chelmsford'." "Go straight on / left / right at the lights / at the roundabout /at the junction of … and …" "Go past the supermarket." "You'll come to / see …" "It's the first turning on the right after the bank." Use landmarks to help "You'll see a large sign / roundabout." "On your left you'll see an industrial centre / a hospital / the police station." "Just after the level crossing / shopping centre (or mall)." "Go past the petrol station / the garage."
Final tips If you're giving directions over the phone, remember to speak slowly to allow the other person to write things down. Check that the other person has understood. If you're speaking face-to-face with someone, use your hands to show left, right, or straight on. Use "please" when you ask someone to give you directions. It's polite, and will normally get you what you want!
Speaking about hopes in English
There are a number of expressions you can use to show your hopes and preferences. Hopes I'm hoping for (noun) ("I'm hoping for a new cell phone.") I'm hoping to get… ("I'm hoping to get a new phone.") I would like… I really want… (Using "want" can be impolite unless you are talking to a close friend or family member.) Something I've always wanted is… I'd be delighted / over the moon if… ("I'd be delighted if you gave me a new watch.") What I'd like more than anything else is… On my Christmas wish list is… Preferences I'd rather have (noun) ("I'd rather have tickets to the opera.") I'd rather you (simple past) ("I'd rather you saved your money.") I'd prefer (noun) ("I'd prefer some money for the new house.") I'd prefer it if you (simple past) ("I'd prefer it if you gave some money to charity.") ….. would be more suitable / would be better If I had a choice, I would go for… If it's all the same to you, …. ("If it's all the same to you, I'd like some book tokens.")
Suggestions in English
The following English words and expressions are all used to make suggestions and give advice to people. should "You should try to practise English." "You shouldn't translate too much." Why don't you "Why don't you join an English club?" ought to "You ought to read more." If I were you, I'd… "If I were you, I'd watch more television." *All these expressions are followed by a verb, without to. For example: "He should visit the Eiffel Tower." (Not "he should to visit the Eiffel Tower.") suggest and recommend Either use a verb + ing "I suggest visiting the Eiffel Tower." (We should all go.) OR use that + a verb without to "I suggest that you visit the Eiffel Tower." (I'm not going.) OR use a noun "I recommend the lasagne." (It's a very good dish to choose in this restaurant.) advise "I advise you to buy a good dictionary." advice Advice is an uncountable noun. This means that we can't say an advice. Instead, we say some advice or a piece of advice. "Let me give you some advice." "She gave me a very useful piece of advice: to buy a good dictionary." Speaking tip Many people don't like getting advice if they haven't asked for it! To avoid giving the wrong impression, you can try some of these expressions: "You could always…" "Have you considered…" "Perhaps we could…" "Do you think it's a good idea to…"
English speakers often prefer to make generalisations, rather than saying something is a fact. When you make generalisations, you will sound less direct and sure of yourself and therefore more open to other people's suggestions and ideas. People will think you're friendly! To show that something is generally true tend to "I tend to agree with you." (I agree with most of what you say.) "I tend to go to bed early in winter." (I normally go to bed early in winter.) have a tendency to "The English have a tendency to drink tea, not coffee." Note: have a tendency to is used more in written than in spoken English. To show how common something is Generally speaking "Generally speaking, more men than women use the internet." In most cases "In most cases, wars are caused by land disputes." In some cases "In some cases, English beaches are unsafe for swimming." In a large number of cases "In a large number of cases, obesity is caused by over-eating." Mostly, often, sometimes (These words go before the main verb, or after the verb to be) "We are mostly concerned with costs." "They mostly go to the cinema at weekends." "Eating chocolate sometimes causes migraines." "He is sometimes difficult to work with." "English people often complain about the weather." Speaking Tip Although you may find it strange to avoid saying exactly what you mean, being able to make generalisations is a speaking skill that will make you sound much more like a native English speaker.
Talking about likes and dislikes in English
There's a whole range of English expressions you can use to talk about how much you like or dislike something. If you love something "I love eating ice-cream." "I adore sun-bathing." If you like something a lot "She's fond of chocolate." "I like swimming very much." If you like something "He quite likes going to the cinema." "I like cooking." If you neither like nor dislike something "I don't mind doing the housework." If you don't like something "She doesn't like cooking very much." "He's not very fond of doing the gardening." "I dislike wasting time." If you really dislike something "I don't like sport at all." "He can't stand his boss." "She can't bear cooking in a dirty kitchen." "I hate crowded supermarkets." "He detests being late." "She loathes celery." Things to remember… Dislike is quite formal. Fond of is normally used to talk about food or people. The 'oa' in loathe rhymes with the 'oa' in boat. Grammar Note To talk about your general likes or dislikes, follow this pattern: like something or like doing something. Common mistake Be careful where you put very much or a lot. These words should go after the thing that you like. For example, "I like reading very much." NOT "I like very much reading."
First impressions are important, so here's a guide to using the right expression. Greetings Two friends meeting Friends often say "Hi" to each other. Then they often ask a general question, such as "How are you?" or "How are things?" or "How's life?" The reply to this question is normally positive. "Fine thanks, and you?" "Fine thanks, what about yourself?" "Not bad." Or "Can't complain." Greeting people you don't know You can use "Hello" with people you don't know, but a more formal greeting is "Good morning / afternoon / evening." The other person normally replies with the same greeting as you have used and then makes polite conversation, such as "How was your trip?" or "Did you find our office easily?" Introducing yourself At an informal party "Hello, I'm Maria." Or "Hello, my name's Maria." The reply could be: "Hi, I'm Sarah." Or "Hello Maria, I'm Sarah." Or "Nice to meet you, I'm Sarah." At work-related events "I'd like to introduce myself. I'm Maria, from english@home." Or, "Let me introduce myself. I'm Maria from english@home." The reply could be: "Nice to meet you. I'm Peter Mitchell, from Mitchell Creations." "Pleased to meet you. I'm Peter Mitchell, from Mitchell Creations." "How do you do? I'm Peter Mitchell from Mitchell Creations."
Introducing other people Introducing a friend to a work colleague "Sarah, have you met my colleague John?" "Sarah, I'd like you to meet my colleague John." Sarah says: "Pleased to meet you, John." Or "Nice to meet you, John." John could say: "Nice to meet you too, Sarah." Or "Hello, Sarah." Introducing clients "Mr Mitchell, I'd like to introduce you to my manager, Henry Lewis." Mr Mitchell could then say: "How do you do?" and Henry Lewis also says "How do you do?" Or Mr Mitchell could say: "Pleased to meet you." Or "Good to meet you." Speaking Tip "How do you do?" is quite formal for British English speakers and the reply to this question is to repeat the phrase, "How do you do?" (as strange as that may sound!) At a more informal party When you introduce two of your friends to each other, you can simply say, "John, this is Sarah." Cultural considerations At work, one person may have higher status - your boss, or a client, for example. It's polite to address them as Mr / Ms until the situation becomes more informal. If someone says, "Please call me (Henry)", you know you can use first names. If someone uses your first name, you can use their first name too. People in European and English-speaking cultures often shake hands when they meet someone for the first time.* Don't forget to smile! :-)
How to talk about illness
Sometimes you don't feel very well, but you're not really ill. Here are some common expressions that you can use to describe general "aches and pains" and some useful "sympathetic" responses. General aches and pains "I feel a bit under the weather." "I'm not feeling very well." "I think I'm going down with a cold. I've got a sore throat." "I've got a slight headache." (Or toothache / stomach ache / backache) Pronounced "ake" as in "cake". "I'm not sleeping very well at the moment." "I feel a little faint." "I've got a nagging pain in my shoulder." (nagging = a pain that won't go away) "I've got a splitting headache - I hope it's not a migraine." Sympathetic responses "I'm sorry to hear that." "You don't look very well." "You look a little pale." "Maybe you're going down with something. There's a bug going around." "Maybe you should go home and get some rest." "Why don't you go home and have a lie-down." Mild illness "I have a bit of a stomach bug." "I think I've got a bit of a temperature." "I have a touch of flu." (Flu = influenza) "I've got a nasty cough." (pronounced "coff")
How to keep the conversation going
What can you say when you want to encourage people to keep talking to you? Try making a comment or asking a question - it shows the other person you're interested in what they are saying. Here are some examples of what you can say: Making comments "No!" - to show surprise. "I don't believe it!" - to show surprise. "Wow!" - to show admiration or surprise. "That's incredible / amazing / unbelievable" - to show great interest in the subject of conversation. "How awful / terrible" - to show sympathy with someone else's bad news. Asking questions "Really?" - to show surprise. "And you?" - when someone asks you how you are. "Did you?" - can be used to encourage someone to tell their story. For example, "I saw her last night", "Did you?" "Yes, she was with one of her friends, and she…."
Talking about the weather
It's true! British people often start a conversation with strangers and friends by talking about the weather. As weather is a neutral topic of conversation, it's usually safe to use it to strike up a conversation - at the bus stop, in a shop, or with a neighbour over the garden fence. Some examples of conversation starters "Lovely day, isn't it!" "Bit nippy today." "What strange weather we're having!" "It doesn't look like it's going to stop raining today." Attitude to weather Although British people like to complain about bad weather, they generally put a brave face on it. If someone complains about too much rain, you might hear: "Never mind - it's good for the garden." If someone complains that it's too hot, you could hear: "At least my tomatoes will be happy." If the conversation has been about general bad weather, perhaps someone will say: "Well, I've heard it's worse in the west. They've had terrible flooding." Predicting the weather We can make predictions about the weather, using a range of forms - not just the "will" or "going to" form: "I think it'll clear up later." "It's going to rain by the looks of it." "We're in for frost tonight." "They're expecting snow in the north." "I hear that showers are coming our way." Human attributes We also attribute human features to the weather, almost as if the weather can decide what to do:
"The sun's trying to come out." "It's been trying to rain all morning." "It's finally decided to rain." Understanding the forecast Many British people are keen gardeners, and they keep a close eye on the weather forecast. Here are some of the weather features which can worry gardeners: a hard frost blizzard / galeforce conditions hailstones prolonged rain blustery wind a drought Here are some more temperate conditions which gardeners like: mild weather sunny spells light drizzle
Tell a story
A useful skill in English is to be able to tell a story or an anecdote. Anecdotes are short stories about something that happened to you or to someone you know. How to start Traditional stories often start with the phrase "Once upon a time". However, if you are going to tell your story after someone else has already spoken, you can say something like: That reminds me! Funny you should say that. Did I ever tell you about… Hearing your story reminds me of when… Something similar happened to me…. How to tell your story First of all, your story should be quite short. Try to keep it grammatically simple as well, so that it is easy to follow. Make it easy for the listener to understand by using sequencing and linking words: Sequencing words These words show the chronological sequence of events. First of all, I (packed my suitcase) Secondly, I …. (made sure I had all my documents) Previously (before that) ….. I changed some money. Then… I (called a taxi for the airport) Later (on)… (when we were stuck in traffic, I realised…) But before al that… (I had double checked my reservation) Finally… (I arrived at the wrong check-in desk at the wrong airport for a flight that didn't go until the next day) Linking words
Use these words to link your ideas for the listener. Linking words can be used to show reason, result, contrasting information, additional information, and to summarise. I booked a flight because…. As a result, I was late… Although I had a reservation, I hadn't checked the airport name. I made sure I had an up-to-date passport and I also took along my driving licence. In short, I had made a complete mess of the holiday. Tenses We can use a variety of tenses to tell stories and anecdotes. Jokes are often in the present tense: A man walks into a bar and orders a beer. We also use the present tense to give a dramatic narrative effect: The year is 1066. In medieval England people are worried that the king, Harold, is not strong enough to fight off a Norman invasion. However, we generally use past forms to talk about past events. If you tell your story in chronological order, you can use the past simple: I double checked my reservation. I packed my suitcase, and then I called a taxi. Use the past continuous to describe activities in progress at the time of your story, or to describe the background. The sun was shining and it was a beautiful day. We were driving along the motorway quite steadily until we suddenly saw in front of us the warning lights to slow down. We were heading towards a huge tailback.
Sometimes, you might want to avoid telling your story as one chronological event after the other. You can use the past perfect (simple and continuous) to add more interest to your story by talking about events that happened before the events in your story: I double checked my reservation, which I had made three days previously. I wanted to visit some friends who had been living in France for the last five years. Vocabulary Try to use a wide range of words to make your story more interesting. Remember that you can "exaggerate" when you tell a story, so instead of using words like "nice" or "bad", experiment with more interesting words, such as "beautiful", "fabulous", "wonderful", "horrible", "awful" or "terrible". Finally - remember that you are telling a story - not giving a lecture. Look at the people listening, and try to "involve" them in the story or anecdote. Keep eye contact, use the right intonation and try to make your face expressive. You might also want to try practising a few anecdotes in the mirror before "going live". Have fun!
improve your English pronunciation Here are some tips to help you improve your English pronunciation. First of all, don't worry about not having a native-English accent. It's important to be able to speak clearly, so that people can understand you. However, it's almost impossible to sound exactly like a native English speaker if you are learning English as an adult in a non-English speaking country. However, there are many things that you can do to improve your pronunciation and your speaking skills. 1. Listen to spoken English as often as possible. Listen to how speakers pronounce various words and phrases and "model" your pronunciation on what you hear. 2. Learn the phonetic alphabet. Use the phonetic alphabet page (at the beginning of most good dictionaries) as a guide to pronouncing new words. 3. Don't forget to learn the word stress of a new word. Every English word has its own stress, or intonation. For example, the word "believe" has two syllables (be and lieve), but only the second syllable is stressed. We say be'lieve and not 'be lieve. Your dictionary will show the syllable stress by an apostrophe (') before the syllable to be stressed. Word stress is important. In fact, it is more likely that someone misunderstands you because of wrong word stress than because of the wrong pronunciation of a sound. 4. Work out which sounds cause you most problems in English. Depending on what your first language is, you may have problems with certain sounds. For example, French speakers have difficulties with "th"; speakers of
Mandarin have difficulties with "r" or "l", and Arabic speakers have difficulties with "p" and "b". 5. Practise the sounds you find difficult. A useful exercise is a "minimal pair" exercise. For example, if you have difficulty distinguishing between "p" and "b", try practising pairs of words which are the same except for the sound "p" and "b": For example, "pair" and "bear"; "pond" and "bond"; "pie" and "buy" etc. 6. Be aware of intonation and sentence stress. Not all words in a sentence have equal stress, and generally only the "information" words (nouns and verbs) are stressed. 'Where's the 'pen I 'gave you? 'Where's the 'red 'pen I 'gave you? Where's the 'red and 'blue 'pen I 'gave you 'yesterday? The unstressed words (such as "the", "I", "you" and "and") don't carry as much "weight" as the stressed words. They become much smaller in length, and are almost abbreviated. For example, "and" becomes "un". Changing stress Sentence stress isn't "fixed" like word stress. In fact, you can stress words that are normally unstressed in order to highlight different meanings. For example: I 'love you. (Love, rather than just like.) 'I love you. (With the stress on I to highlight that it's me rather than another person who loves you.)
I love 'you. (And nobody else.) Intonation There are a couple of easy to remember rules about intonation. Usually our voices go up at the end of the sentence to show a question, and down at the end to show a statement. Intonation is also important in "tag questions": You know him, don't you? (With rising intonation on "don't you?" to show it's a question) You know him, don't you. (With falling intonation on "don't you" to show it's a statement you expect the other person to agree with.) 7. Learn to recognise spelling patterns. For example, "tion" on the end of a word is pronounced "shun", while "sion" can be pronounced "zhun". There are often many ways to pronounce a particular spelling pattern, but it certainly helps to know what the variations are. For example, the pattern "ough" can be pronounced "uff" as in "enough" and "tough", or "or" as in "ought" and "bought" or "oh" as in "although" and "dough". 8. Don't rush. If you speak too fast, the danger is that you could skip over some words, fail to pronounce them completely, or mix them up. If you speak too slowly, you might end up sounding unnatural. But it's better to speak slowly and clearly than too quickly
Saying dates and numbers in English Remember to use ordinal numbers for dates. (The first, the second, the third, the fourth, the fifth, the twenty-second, the thirty-first etc.) Years For years up until 2000, separate the four numbers into two pairs of two: 1965 = nineteen sixty-five 1871 = eighteen seventy-one 1999 = nineteen ninety-nine For this decade, you need to say “two thousand and —-” in British English: 2001 = two thousand and one 2009 = two thousand and nine Large numbers Divide the number into units of hundreds and thousands: 400,000 = four hundred thousand (no s plural) If the number includes a smaller number, use “and” in British English: 450,000 = four hundred and fifty thousand 400,360 = four hundred thousand and three hundred and sixty Fractions, ratios and percentages ½ = one half 1/3 = one third ¼ = one quarter 1/5 = one fifth 1/ 6 = one sixth etc 3/5 = three fifths 1.5% = one point five percent 0.3% = nought / zero point three percent 2:1 = two to one
Saying 0 Depending on the context, we can pronounce zero in different ways: 2-0 (football) = Two nil 30 - 0 (tennis) = Thirty love 604 7721 (phone number) = six oh four… 0.4 (a number) = nought point four / zero point four 0C (temperature) = zero degrees Talking about calculations + (plus) 2 + 1 = 3 (two plus one equals three) - (minus / take away) 5 – 3 = 2 (five minus three equals two / five take away three equals two) x (multiplied by / times) 2 x 3 = 6 (two multiplied by three equals six / two times three equals six) / (divided by) 6 / 3 = 2 (six divided by three equals two)
Very Important RULES : Rule 1. Learn PhrasesRule 2. Don't Study GrammarRule 3. Focus On ListeningRule 4. Learn Deeply (Repeat A Lot)Rule 5. Use Point of View StoriesRule 6. Use Only Real English MaterialsRule 7. Use Listen & Answer Stories
Saying how happy you are Here are some of the ways you can express your happiness in English. You can be… - (absolutely) delighted - thrilled to bits - over the moon - really pleased - so happy Or you can say… - I couldn't be happier. - That is fantastic / wonderful / great / marvellous! When you hear good news you can say: - What great / wonderful / fantastic news! - We've been waiting so long for this (moment). - Thank God! / Thank God for that!(British English speakers tend not to be particularly religious) Pronunciation tip Stress the adverbs and adjectives for greater emphasis: - I'm really pleased.- What great news! Being friendly in English Having good social skills is important if you want to make a good impression on the people you meet. Here's some advice on what is considered polite or impolite in English-speaking cultures. 1. Please, thank you, excuse me and I'm sorry These polite expressions are used a lot in spoken English, and not using them can make you appear rude. As politeness is considered perhaps the most
important quality in relationships, make sure you use them! Don't worry if you think you use them too frequently: the worst that people will think of you is that you are sweet and charming:)) Please = use whenever you want someone to do something for you, or if you want something from another person Can you tell me where the post office is, please? Can you pass me that newspaper please? Never use imperative forms unless you are giving someone directions. So although you can say to someone "Take the 130 bus to Croydon and get off at Asda supermarket", you can't say to someone "Pass me that newspaper". Thank you = use whenever someone does something for you, or gives you something. Excuse me = use when you want to introduce a request to someone, or if you want to get past someone Excuse me, can you tell me where the post office is, please? Excuse me, is this the right platform for the London train? I'm sorry = use any time that you inconvenience someone, tread on someone's toes in a crowded train, or if someone asks you something that you can't do. I'm sorry, but I don't understand. Is the post office on the left or the right? Is Mr Jones in the office?I'm sorry, he's out this morning. 2. Ask permission before doing something that may inconvenience others Do you mind if I open the window?Can I take this chair? 3. Avoid controversial topics when you meet someone new Some topics of conversation can lead to arguments, so unless you know someone well, it's best to avoid them. These topics are politics, religion and financial information such as how much money you earn. If you are in doubt
about what to talk about, let the other person take the lead, and respond to them. This leads on to the next point: 4. Keep the conversation going If someone asks you a question, respond to it. Avoid one-word answers, and try to say at least a few words. Then you can return the question. For example, if someone says "Terrible weather, isn't it", avoid just saying "yes". Instead you can say "Yes, I wish it would stop raining" or "Yes, it wasn't like this last summer, was it?" Some cultural tips - in Britain, queuing is considered polite. If you "jump the queue" (go to the front, rather than stand behind the last person in the queue) or push the people in front of you, you will make yourself very unpopular! - don't stand too close to people. Stand at least an arm's length away if you can. On crowded public transport this isn't possible, but people rarely talk to each other in these situations. - keep eye contact when you talk words and expressions about fear There are many words and expressions for talking about fear. Words afraid: "Are you afraid of the dark? "frightened: "I'm frightened of spiders. "scared: "He's scared of making mistakes. "feel uneasy: "I felt a bit uneasy when I walked home in the dark. "spooked: "My cats are easily spooked before a thunderstorm. "terrified: "She was absolutely terrified when she heard the noise. "petrified: "The building began to shake and we were all petrified."
Expressions a terrifying ordeal send shivers down my spine give me goosebumps (goosebumps are when you skin has little bumps on it) make the hairs on the back of my neck stand up (dogs also do this when they are scared) scare the hell out of mebe scared shitless / shit scared (British slang - vulgar) be bricking it (British slang - vulgar) frighten the life out of meshake with fearjump out of my skin Exemples: One of the best horror films I have seen is "The Blair Witch Project". It tells the story of a terrifying ordeal in the woods of northern USA. Some of the scenes in the film sent shivers down my spine, especially the one when the students run out of the tent in the middle of the night. When they go back, one of the guy's rucksack has been emptied. When that same guy goes missing the next day, it gives you goosebumps. There are some fabulous sound effects, especially the ones of the wind blowing and howling. When you hear the crying voices at the end of the film, it will make the hairs on the back of your neck stand up. Perhaps the scariest part of the film is at the end, when you see one of the surviving students literally shake with fear in the corner of the basement. It certainly frightened the life out of the girl when she saw him, and I jumped out of my skin at the end when the camera stopped filming. The film scared the hell out of me for weeks afterwards, and I'm ashamed to say that I wouldn't go into an empty room in the house unless there was someone there with me.
Giving orders and instructions How can you ask someone to do something for you in English without sounding rude? Here are some of the ways that you can give orders and instructions. 1. Use the imperativeform We use the imperative form to give orders, warnings and advice: Be quiet!Take care!Listen to me carefully! Because it can sound rude to give direct orders (especially if you are talking to an adult), we "soften" the imperative form with "let's" or "please": Let's go now.Please listen to what I'm saying. 2. Use a modal verb to turn the order into a request We use modals to change the mood of a sentence. For example, "You should help her" is more polite than "Help her!" Other modal verbs you can use to make requests are: Could: Could you make me some tea?Can: Can you come here please?Will: Will you shut the door please?Would: Would you wait here until the doctor is ready for you? 3. Use an introductory phrase to soften the order Instead of using an imperative, you can use a phrase instead. Here are some common ways of phrasing an order, in order of the most indirect to the most direct: Would you mind possibly… (+ ing) (Most indirect)Would you mind possibly moving your car? It's parked right in front of mine. I was hoping you could … (+ infinitive without to)I was hoping you could spare me a few minutes this morning. Do you think you could … (+ infinitive without to)Do you think you could do this photocopying for me? If you have a couple of minutes spare…If you have a couple of minutes spare, the office needs tidying up. I'd like you to…I'd like you to file this correspondence for me.
I want you to…I want you to finish this by tomorrow. 4. Use sequencing words You can use sequencing words to make instructions clear. Firstly, make sure the appliance is disconnected.Secondly, open the back with a screwdriver.Then, carefully pull out the two black cables….
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