L09-10

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4 categories of fallacy : † Fallacies of Inconsistency † Fallacies of Irrelevance † Fallacies of Insufficiency † Fallacies of Inappropriate Presumption -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------:

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I1 1.1

s
Self Contradiction p not p

Contradiction is the relation between a proposition p and its denial not p.

Peter is reading and Peter is not reading 1.2 Contradictory propositions can neither be both true nor both false. 1.3 p not p p not p

* Are The car is black and the car is white contradictory? : I2 1 2 Self Defeating ! ( ( ) ) )= : ( I3 Double Standard  : † † † .

2. 3.II1 Argument Ad Populum † : p p II2 Argument Ad Hominem † : II3 Appeal to Inappropriate Authority X p d † X † X † : 1. + + II4 Strained Analogy † † A † B A p B p .

. } / : III1 Hasty Generalization ..[ II5 Smuggling a Fake Subject † a) †  &  ' ¿ Attacking a Straw man / b) † † B  Red-herring A. . A B A A .  / / / / / .

it is obvious that police cars should not exceed the speed limit.Inductive Generalization / : a) b) c) drawn) (the sample size is too small) (there is a structural bias in the sample) / / (there are unfavorable. III3 Composition † † III4 † † ( ) ( ) Division ( ) ( ) ************************************************************************************* . Since police cars are vehicles. contradicting findings against the conclusion supposed to be (Hasty Generalization) III2 Accident Vehicles should not exceed the speed limit.

is also a great player.I know that there are some great players in that basketball team. being one of the few players in that team who do not come to daily training regularly. III5 False Cause (a) Post hoc Fallacy †  B A B A (b) The Fallacy of Slippery Slope : =/= . so the team is a great team. being a player in the team. *************************************************************************************  Most of the players in that team are great players. So Tim. Tim. is also a great player. so most/all players in the team are great players. Each player of that basketball team is a great player. Since the team is a great team.

_________________________________________ † † | † III6 III7 III8 The Fallacy of Denying Antecedent The Fallacy of Affirming Consequent Appeal to Ignorance : IV1 Complex Question † Have you stopped stealing? ( ) .

Horse-riding is dangerous. because it is unsafe.What do you admit if you answer this question? Yes You admit you did steal in the past. IV3 False Dilemma | / .It is also known as circular argument ( ). No You still engage in stealing now. † IV2 Begging the Question / Circular Argument / the conclusion is stated or assumed as one of the premises.

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