Describe and analyze the changes of MSIL s culture over the years .

Maruti Udyog Limited had relatively few problems with its labour force. Its emphasis of a Japanese work culture and the modern manufacturing process, first instituted in Japan in the 1970s, was accepted by the workforce of the company without any difficulty. But with the change in management in 1997, when it became predominantly government controlled for a while, and the conflict between the United Front Government and Suzuki may have been the cause of unrest among employees. A major row broke out in September 2000 when employees of Maruti Udyog Ltd (MUL) went on an indefinite strike, demanding among other things, revision of the incentive scheme offered and implementation of a pension scheme

Maruti's history of evolution can be examined in four phases: two phases during pre-liberalization period (1983-86, 1986-1992) and two phases during post-liberalization period (1992-97, 1997-2002), followed by the full privatization of Maruti in June 2003 with the launch of an initial public offering (IPO).The first phase started when Maruti rolled out its first car in December 1983. During the initial years Maruti had 883 employees, a capital of Rs. 607 mn and profit of Rs. 17 mn without any tax obligation. From such a modest start the company in just about a decade (beginning of second phase in 1992) had turned itself into an automobile giant capturing about 80% of the market share in India. Employees grew to 2000 (end of first phase 1986), 3900 (end of second phase 1992) and 5700 in 1999. The profit after tax increased from Rs 18.67 mn in 1984 to Rs. 6854.54 mn in 1998 but started declining during 1997-2001.

During the pre-liberalization period (1983-1992) a major source of Maruti's strength was the wholehearted willingness of the Government of India to subscribe to Suzuki's technology and the principles and practices of Japanese management. Large number of Indian managers, supervisors and workers were regularly sent to the Suzuki plants in Japan for training. Batches of Japanese personnel came over to Maruti to train, supervise and manage. Maruti's style of management was essentially to follow Japanese management practices.

The Path to Success for Maruti was as follows:

(a) teamwork and recognition that each employee's future growth and prosperity is totally dependent on the company's growth and prosperity (b) strict work discipline for individuals and the organization (c) constant efforts to increase the productivity of labor and capital (d) steady improvements in quality and reduction in costs (e) customer orientation (f) long-term objectives and policies with the confidence to realize the goals (g) respect of law, ethics and human beings. The "path to success" translated into practices that Maruti's culture approximated from the Japanese management practices.

Maruti adopted the norm of wearing a uniform of the same color and quality of the fabric for all its employees thus giving an identity. Employees were handsomely rewarded with increasing bonus as Maruti produced more and sold more in a seller's market commanding an almost monopoly situation. During the preliberalization period the focus was solely on production. teamwork and job.rotation. principles and procedures for group decision making. All the employees ate in the same canteen. Attendance approximated around 94-95%. The plant had an open office system and practiced on-the-job training. These practices were unheard of in other Indian organizations but they worked well in Maruti. . Near-total transparency was introduced in the decision making process. quality circles. There were laid-down norms. Employees reported early in shifts so that there were no time loss in-between shifts. kaizen activities. They commuted in the same buses without any discrimination in seating arrangements.

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