PROJECT Precautions when fixed for Green Delayed Petcoke

© Copyright Strømme AS 2004-

Nesveien 15, PO Box 31 N-1305 Haslum, Norway Ph Fax +47 67 52 60 60 +47 67 52 60 50

Part of Stromme ASA

Table of contents

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

PREFACE ........................................................................................................................ 3 BACKGROUND.............................................................................................................. 4 FROM “BLACK TO WHITE”...................................................................................... 4 OBSERVATIONS ........................................................................................................... 7 WHAT IS GREEN DELAYED PETCOKE? ............................................................... 8 LAB ANALYSIS & TESTS.......................................................................................... 11 6.1. COMMENTS ............................................................................................................ 16 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS.......................................................................... 16 CHEMICALS ................................................................................................................ 17 8.1. CLEANING CHEMICALS .......................................................................................... 17 8.2. PREWASH / BARRIER CHEMICALS ......................................................................... 19

9. 10.

EQUIPMENT ................................................................................................................ 19 CONCLUSION: ............................................................................................................ 20

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my thanks for your time and support. who have been supporting me in a very good way and are carrying the heavy burden. As you will understand. since the circumstances and conditions to which the cleaning advice. Hopefully. and that we have a possible “Solution to the Problems”.) Haslum. and we know the difference between coal and products being produced of the sludge from crude oil refinery. Since last time. our ongoing lab analysis. A special thanks to those of you. who have trusted me with confidential reports and photos! Also to representatives from coke plants and paint manufacturers. July 28th 2004 3 . full scale tests have been carried out onboard quite a number of bulk carriers. In my opinion. who will not have any direct benefits from this project at all. At least. Hopefully. the information in this report is correct. this small project will contribute to our efforts. this is another status report only. not at least our seamen. I much appreciate your support and hope that we can all benefit from this small project. We even believe we know why the transport of Green Delayed Petcoke creates different cleaning problems to those after discharge of Calcined Petcoke and Coal. To the best of our knowledge. However. which has brought our small study a step forward. we do not accept any loss or damage that may occur. product usage and handling are beyond our control. for quite some while you have contributed to this small project. our small and full scale tests can soon be concluded. With kind regards. At Stromme we work hard to Save you time and to stay in the forefront. at Stromme we have now got a certain understanding of what it is all about. Preface Gentlemen! This document would not have been possible to make unless for a close cooperation and exchange of information and opinions with some of you senior guys in our industry. To all of you. and I find it is due time to send you a second report. My personal thanks to all of you! I will keep you closely informed of any progress.1. However. now we know that there are different grades of petcoke (Petroleum coke). Strømme AS _______________ Jahn Stryken (sign.

or simply by using your hand. 4 . several vessels have got hold cleaning problems after discharge of Green Delayed Petcoke and similar cargoes. This has resulted in many days of off hire and/or costly cleaning including repainting of the cargo holds. and the operator followed up closely. and in the worst case repainting. When tested by hand for grain inspection. 3. The vessel passed inspection for grain. The cleaning after cargoes such as Coke. A possible problem can best be checked by whipping with a cloth.: photos below. From “black to white” Problem solved from tank top level: After discharge of coal (next cargo=grain): Note: The photos are taken onboard a gearless Panamax bulk carrier.2. stains from the old cargo did not come off. Background During recent months. Present solution to the problem: one more cleaning and chemicals heavily activated by brushing and/or high pressure cleaning of 350 to 700 bars (which requires close up access). Note: Sometimes you get a bond between cargo residues and surface at electrolytic level. which is common practice also by cargo surveyors when inspecting the holds for the next cargo. Generally. Pitch Coke seems to have similar characteristics to Green Delayed Petcoke. However. the problem has been that onboard cleaning equipment. and a thin film (footprint) from the cargo has been very difficult to remove. chemicals and procedures have solved the problem 90-95 % only. Coal and Calcined Petcoke has not been so much of a problem. Ref. The vessel was equipped with powerful equipment for cleaning from tank top level. all depending on the cleanliness required for the next cargo.

the same chemical had a small dissolving effect only after discharge of Green Delayed Petcoke from a similar vessel. which is not the easiest task. The operator visited the vessel during the cleaning operation. 5 . even by strong alkaline chemicals activated by heavy brushing. The cleaning was performed from tank top level.Coke (Next cargo = Soya for Australia): After cleaning from tank top level: Note: The photos are taken onboard a geared Handymax bulkcarrier. During discharge of Calcined Petcoke: After cleaning to “Pulp standard”: Note: The photos are taken onboard a 42.000 Dwt bulk carrier of Open Hatch design. Total time for preparing 2 cargo holds for the next cargo = 28 man hours. and will not come off or create any problems in this trade. The black shadows are from a previous cargo. The vertical stains are from a previous cargo of black rubber. all included. The vessel passed inspection for Soya. These vessels require a cleaning standard much higher than grain (standard of cleanliness to be “Hospital Clean”). and were impossible to remove. A few weeks later.

and the cleaning problems involved. Before loading of Green Delayed Petcoke: After discharge (stains all over): Note: The photos are taken onboard a 44. that if stains/ footprints of previous cargos are allowed to accumulate over time.Inspection after discharge of Pitch Coke (Pencil Pitch): High pressure cleaning from crane basket: Note: The photos are taken onboard bulk carrier of Open Hatch design. We can all agree. Next cargo = Potash. seem to be similar to Green Delayed Petcoke.000 Dwt bulk carrier of Open Hatch design. which requires a high standard of cleanliness. 6 . however with no success. this may result in a costly cleaning and renewal of cargo hold paint! Time for cleaning and applying of cosmetic paint: 11 days. The characteristics of this cargo. The crew has tried various chemicals and high pressure cleaning.

which needs to be dissolved by chemicals. even though it is not considered necessary to clean the cargo holds for the next cargo. 7 . and it is believed that a chemical reaction with the salt started the fast attacking rust process. and lime washing not considered to be necessary. maintenance and off-hire in the future. We are working to find the correct types of chemicals. This gives a different cleaning problem to that from “oils stains” of coal. Observations Cleaning and maintenance of cargo holds are two sides of the same coin. which can be overcome by use of high alkaline chemicals applied as wet foam and powerful air/water cleaning from tank top level. most probably because calcination of the raw petcoke burns off all the pitch. These costs will easily be saved in reduced cleaning.After discharge of Salt (last cargo = Coal): After discharge (next cargo = Grain): The corrusion have had different activity Probably dependant on amount of coal strains left prior to salt loading Level of cargo Note: The photos are taken onboard a Panamax bulk carrier after discharge of salt. 4. Note: Coke plants have informed us that highly aromatic solvents such as toluene can dissolve asphaltenes. or by use of high pressure cleaners from crane baskets. the operator found different activity of corrosion and still some coal stains from the previous cargo. Before loading. of different reasons these chemicals need to be avoided. When visiting the vessel. and to try them out in full-scale tests. The vessel passed inspection for grain after being cleaned from tank top level. the hold paint was in a good condition. Coal contains sulphur and carbon (and raw Petcoke even more). As a thumb of rule. Cargo holds need to be cleaned and maintained to meet the future requirements in existing and possible new charters. Note: We do not find the same cleaning problem after discharge of calcined petcoke. Green Delayed Petcoke (+ Pencil Pitch = Coal Tar Pitch and Pitch coke) gives a different cleaning problem to solve compared with cargoes such as coal and calcined petcoke. residues and stains from previous cargos should not be allowed to accumulate. However. probably from asphaltenes contained in the pitch (unconverted vacuum residuum – crude oil heavy fractions in raw petroleum coke). the main problem is to dissolve “oil stains” from the cargo. When cleaning after coal. Green Delayed Petcoke (+ Pencil Pitch and Pitch coke) seems to leave a thin layer of colour pigments.

This product is reported as marketable coke or catalyst coke.5 – 7 % For further information. Coal usually is found in the 8. buyers choose coal over petroleum coke every time. It could go to a plant that has a scrubber or large amounts of low-sulphur coal to blend into a high-sulphur product such as petcoke. Coke from petroleum has a heating value of 6. In the past few of years. The higher Btu content of petroleum coke makes it very attractive from a cost standpoint. The conversion is 5 barrels (of 42 US gallons each) per short ton. The proximity of refineries to power plants also influences the amount of petcoke purchased for use in electricity generation. ref. cement kiln or steam boiler for making electricity in relative proximity to a refinery and their emissions limit or technology would allow them to use a certain percentage of this product in their blend. however.: Cargo Description attached.500 Btu/pound range. Petroleum coke also has a lower ash content than coal. transportation costs drop. The way petroleum coke was used up until a couple of years ago was strictly on a microbasis. Because it takes less total tons of petroleum coke to achieve the desired heat input. This is a win/win for both the refinery and the power plant. What is Green Delayed Petcoke? INTERNET: Petroleum Coke (Petcoke): A residue high in carbon content and low in hydrogen that is the final product of thermal decomposition in the condensation process in cracking.000 British thermal units (Btu)/pound.000 to 13. Coal is a higher quality product. Petroleum coke is used in a similar fashion to coal. where someone might have a boiler. 8 .024-mil Btu/bbl. which reduces the problem of bottom ash disposal and particulate the collection. because it gets the petcoke off the refinery's property and results in a "cheap” form of fuel for the power plant. EXPORTER (Green Delayed Petcoke = Green Petcoke): Moisture/Water content = normally 8-10 % Loading temperature = normally ambient Sulphur content fuel grade = 3.5. there has been an increase in the amount of petcoke produced and because of that you had some more aggressive marketing of the product made to people who operate coal-fired generating plants. Its heating value exceeds 14. and if the price is right.

which fall out the bottom of the drum for subsequent loading into trucks or railcars for shipment. The heavier product remains and. All three types of petcoke have higher calorific values than coal and contain less volatile matter and ash. Next a hole is drilled in the coke from the top to the bottom of the vessel. Much of the low-sulphur product is employed to produce electrodes for the electrolytic smelting of aluminum. cracks ultimately to coke. known as petcoke. The three processes are delayed. I guess you could say that delayed green coke and calcined green coke are the SAME type of coke but of DIFFERENT grade separated by the calcination process. Green delayed coke could be sold as it is for immediate use.BIMCO (ref. a solid carbonaceous substance akin to coal.bimco. The cracked lighter product rises to the top of the drum and is drawn off. depending on the process of production. Green delayed coke (or sometimes called raw coke) is a commonly used term for a primary carbonization product from high-boiling hydrocarbon fractions (heavy residues of petroleum or coal processing) produced by the delayed coking process. the petcoke is further processed by burning. and is then discharged into a coke drum for extensive and controlled cracking.: www. It is heated to about 475 degrees centigrade to 520 degrees centigrade in a furnace. Cokers produce no liquid residue but yield up to 30 percent petcoke by weight. 9 . which is normally transported hot. because of the retained heat. ie.: www. Or it may go through a further process of purification or calcination. Decoking is accomplished by a high-pressure water jet. fluid and flexi coking.dk ): There are basically three types of pet coke produced. Most lower quality coke is burned as fuel in admixture with coal. Residue components of heavy crude oil is used as feedstock in thermal cracking process known as coking to produce lighter fuels. Then a rotating stem is lowered through the hole. First the top and bottom heads of the coke drum are removed. forming calcined coke. TORM (ref. The highpressure jet cuts the coke into lumps.dk): Green Delayed Petroleum coke Petroleum coke (petcoke) is a residual by-product of oil refining process.torm. The two most important qualities are "green coke" and "calcinated coke". spraying a water jet sideways. with delayed coking producing over 90%. Based on the above. Green delayed petcoke is normally used for cement production.

10 . Graphite.Usage of Petcoke for Chinese customers Most of the imported Petcoke (petroleum coke) is used for burning as the fuel materials like power generation. After calcining of GPC (Green Petroleum coke). Over 70% of CPC production goes into the production of carbon anodes for this reduction process. This kind of Petcoke normally have high sulphur. etc. Moisture. Substantial quantities of CPC are also used in the production of titanium dioxide. Anode grade Petcoke normally with High HGI. Calcined Petroleum coke-CPC What's the usage of CPC (Calcined Petroleum coke)? CPC can be used for producing Aluminium Anode.M. some of them is 100% shot coke). according to the different grade. Petroleum coke 1. Approximately 8% of total CPC production goes into the ferrous foundry recarburizer market. and high real density characteristic. which will be used to produce Pre-baked Anode or Graphite products. cement industry. The aluminum industry. Fuel grade Petcoke have high HGI and metal content. which will use for producing of Pre-baked anode and Graphite. mostly with high Shot coke content. ash and metal content.What's the difference between fuel grade Petcoke and Anode grade Petcoke? Fuel grade Petcoke is mainly used for Power generation. CPC have the low Ash. These kinds of petcoke should be sponge coke with low sulphur. 100% sponge coke. metal content. which utilizes Calcined Petroleum Coke (CPC) in the reduction of bauxite to aluminum is by far the largest consumer of this product. also have high shot coke content (over 30%. Low metal content. silicon melting. Anode grade Petcoke is mainly used for Calcining with products of CPC (Calcined Petroleum Coke). Cargo receiver: Power plant in Spain: Petcoke is also widely used to produce Calcined Petroleum Coke (CPC). This process upgrades the coke to nearly pure carbon. V. Calcined Petroleum Coke(CPC) Petroleum Coke Calcining is a process in which green coke is subjected to temperatures in the range of 1200-1350 degrees centigrade to remove moisture and volatile combustion matter. Cements Industry and Silicon melting as the materials of Fuel.

gasoline. ref. T-Grön and Li 200. Results: Solvent Ethanol Gasoline Li 200 T-Grön Solubility Very poor Very poor Poor Poor Time to be clear Approx. First test (responsible: Gunilla Johanson) Form: Black powder and lumps Green Delayed Petcoke consists of: Residue component of heavy crude oil in cracking process. These have given us a better understanding of the cargo and the correct type of chemical to be recommended.com and www. For further information. www. Lab analysis & tests To find a solution to the problems after transporting cargoes such as Green Delayed Petcoke.: www. ref.com 6.sinowaypetro. The lab analysis show that the cleaning problems after discharge of Green Delayed Petcoke are not so much caused by stains of oil.: documentation below. and also carried out some small and full-scale tests.com. pressure and condense during sea voyage / transport.petcokes. Nearest substance I know is asphalt. www. but more from remaining colour pigments / pitch caused by the temperature. 1 min 1 min 40 s 2 min 10 s 2 min 45 s 11 . The mixtures were left over night. The day after we stirred the mixtures and notified the time it took for the mixtures to be clear. Solubility: Tests were performed with ethanol. we have made lab analysis of the cargo. 1 g Green Delayed Petcoke was mixed with 50 ml solvent.coking.glcarbon.com.For further information.

Following day we stirred the mixtures and notified the time it took for the mixtures to become clear. Results: Product Aquaclean HD Industrivask Solubility Poor Poor Time to be clear 2 min 30 s 1 min 20 s The mixtures were after that heated on water bath for approx. maybe that can be the trick. resting: Mixtures after 1 hour resting: Conclusion: Green Delayed Petcoke is very difficult to dissolve. T-grön seems to be the best alternative.Mixtures after blending: Mixtures after 3 min. Second test (responsible: Gunilla Johanson) Analysis of solubility. I have not done any tests with heating. Green Delayed Petcoke Tested products: Aquaclean HD Industrivask Performing: 1 g Green Delayed Petcoke was mixed with 50 ml of each product and was left over night. 12 . 30 min (90°C).

Heating has an interesting effect on Industrivask. The times it takes for the mixtures to be clear shall not be compared with the times in previously tests because it is a very subjective judgement. but more heavy sank to the bottom. After standing overnight: After blending: After resting for 10 minutes: After heating: Conclusion: Aquaclean HD seems to solve Green Delayed Petcoke better than Industrivask. but it is hard to tell what happens in practice. neither can the two different tests be compared. Maybe a little more Petcoke was solved.Results: For Aquaclean HD it was no bigger differences. Note: It should be remembered that the tests performed by Gunilla Johansson are all very subjective. Small particles of Green Delayed Petcoke stayed in the layer on top. Industrivask was separated in two layers. 13 .

Picture 4 After 11 days the plates were taken out of the heater and the loose GDP was shaken of. to raise the plates from the bottom of the boxes (see picture 1) and to avoid the plates and the Green Delayed Petcoke (GDP) to be in direct contact with the water. The plates then were rubbed with GDP. Afterwards 5 ml of a 5 % solution of the two products who earlier gave the best result were tried. Under each plate a glass bowl were placed. The plates then were put in a vertical position.Third test (Responsible: Silje Bjorlykke) Test of Different Detergents on Painted Plates Soiled with Green Delay Petcoke The aim of this experiment was to test which cleaning effect different detergents had on painted plates soiled with Green Delayed Petcoke (GDP). Picture 1 Picture 2 Picture 3 The boxes were left in a heater at 55°C for 11 days (see picture 4). Yellow 2 . Titan Industri and P3 Redskapsvask. Finally water was poured into the boxes (see picture 3). P3 Redskapsvask. The water and the heat were used to simulate the warm and moist weather to which the cargo can be exposed.normally used to paint the cargo holds • Conseal Touch up. Addi SU 931 and TASKI R20 plus. Method To make the surface as similar as possible to the one found in cargo holds. Yellow 2 – used for cosmetic reasons to repaint discolorations and stains The plates were placed in plastic boxes. and a centimetre thick layer of GDP was put over the plates (see picture 2). painted metal plates were used in the test: • Jotamastic 87. The products tested were Titan Industri. First 5 ml of a 2 % solution of four different products were poured on the plates with pipettes. 14 .

15 . But to give a good cleaning result. On the plates painted with Conseal Touch up it was impossible to remove the GDP (see picture 9). Rough scrubbing made the GDP loosen. but this was easily removed with a soft touch with a finger (see picture 8). and because of this the strength of the solutions were increased from 2% to 5 %. which makes the water hit the surface with a certain force. but together with the paint. Because of this it seems necessary to use cleaning equipment. because it spread more easily on the plate (better wetting). Even after this a hard layer of GDP remained on the plates (see picture 6). It seemed like P3 Redskapsvask gave the best result. P3 Redskapsvask gave the best wetting of the two products. But the best result would probably be achieved using brushes. Jotamastic 87 did not loosen from the plate when scrubbed with a pad. It remained as a rough. On the plates painted with Conseal Touch up the GDP hardly fell of at all. and the GDP seemed to be burned into the paint. Cleaning chemicals alone is not enough. leaving only a thin layer of black dust and grease (see picture 5). and force had to be used to scrape of the residues. stone like surface.Results Already after turning the plates up-side-down to shake of the GDP we could see a great difference between the two types of paint. some of the GDP was removed together with the paint itself. But the cleaning results were not satisfactory. After scrubbing with a rough pad. Still some sort of fatty film remained on the plates. A thick layer of GDP remained on the plates. Picture 7 Picture 8 Picture 9 Conclusion The plates painted with Jotamastic 87 was satisfactory cleaned with both products. the chemicals had to be combined with a light physical touch on the surface (light scrubbing with finger). On the plates painted with Jotamastic 87 the GDP fell easily of. Picture 5 Picture 6 P3 Redskapsvask and Titan Industri seemed to give the best result on plates painted with Jotamastic 87 (see picture 7). P3 Redskapsvask and Titan Industri (see picture 10). The plate painted with Conseal Touch up was impossible to clean at all (see picture 11).

and miscellaneous residues from materials used in paper manufacture. tacky residue resulting from distillation of coal tar. Solutions to the problems A possible solution to these problems is a combination of correct choice of chemicals and powerful cleaning equipment. to give us a better understanding of the cleaning problem. Comments As mentioned already. roofing compounds or wood preservation. the GDP did not loosen. and the GDP did not stick to it. Our recommendation is to try P3 Redskapsvask in practice in the cargo holds concerned. In a previous experiment the same test were preformed. It might be that the plates were treated under more extreme circumstances in this experiment. Conseal Touch up seemed softer and more porous. calcium soaps from wood components.Picture 10 Picture 11 The biggest difference can be seen between the two types of paint.1. Some types such as glance pitch occur naturally. petroleum. pitch can best be translated with the Norwegian words “bek” and “kvae”. Consequently. 16 . we do not seem to have this difficult cleaning problem after discharge of calcined petcoke. In papermakers’ terminology. but on plates of stainless steel. 6. 7. a mixture of calcium carbonate. The GDP could easily be removed with detergent and light scrubbing. most probably because calcinations of the raw petcoke burns of all the pitch. Unquote Note: According to this. it is important to know what “pitch” really is. Jotamastic 87 remained hard. Even after hard scrubbing. Quote Pitch is a carbonaceous. than in real life. We may find that onboard some vessels (which need the cargo holds to be “Hospital Clean”). On stainless steel the GDP was washed away even without touching the plate. pine tar and fatty acids. They are used chiefly as seals. it may be cost-effective to use a Prewash or Barrier type of chemical. Correct test results are only achieved under real test conditions. and the GDP fastened to it in big lumps.

Full-scale tests of protective chemicals have now been carried out onboard several bulk carriers of Open Hatch design. and a final report from these tests is expected late summer 2004. 17 . Correct choice and use of cleaning chemicals is necessary for the final result. Hopefully. 8. Exchange of Opinions and Documentation between all of us will make it easier to operate bulk carriers from “black to white”.: photos. However. in the end we will find Time Saving and Cost Effective Solutions to the present Cargo Hold Cleaning Problems. 8. it is more easily to see from tank top level that we have covered all parts of the cargo hold. Equipment and Know How.1. Only by doing this we believe we can add a profit to our bottom line and be successful in the years to come. the main trade of these vessels involves very sensitive cargos and a cleanliness of cargo holds much higher than grain (“Hospital Clean”). if cleaning chemicals are effective for bulk carriers of Open Hatch design. Applied as wet foam. New cleaning chemicals have also been tested out. Ref. and to solve the cleaning and maintenance problems of stains or “footprints” of black cargoes such as Green Delayed Petcoke. The chemicals should dissolve footprints of the cargo and thus make the following cleaning by powerful air/water nozzles from tank top level or high pressure cleaners from crane baskets / working platforms easier. Consequently. The cleaning chemicals should be applied as white and wet foam. Our main target at Stromme is to “SaveYou Time”. Applied as white. Note: Bulk carriers with open hatches and double skins are easier to clean compared with cargo holds of the conventional construction. vessels of the conventional construction will be covered as well. the chemicals will have a longer working time before drying and thus be far more effective. Chemicals Cleaning chemicals Cost effective cleaning procedures depend on the correct choice of Chemicals.

but this equipment requires close up working baskets / platforms. and they will create smell and vapour. some owners use to repaint the cargo holds with acryl products.The use of hot water will increase the dissolving effect of cleaning chemicals. modified epoxy paint (Mastic types) is most commonly used to protect the cargo holds. However. Note: Aromatic solvent-based degreasers can dissolve most types of oily stains. it should be remembered that use of strong alkaline chemicals must be avoided. Hot water can be provided by portable high pressure cleaners. but strong solvents will dissolve the paint. When trying to find a possible solution to the Pitch problem. For cosmetic reasons. these chemicals may give problems to the strict non-polution controls. we all know that large amounts of hot fresh water are not available onboard bulk-carriers. 18 . The resistance of these types of paints is acceptable against alkaline chemicals (if treated with care). strong chemicals should be treated with care. However. Aluminum paint is not so much used today. However. Today. type/system of hold paint also needs to be considered. Unless a topcoat of pure epoxy is applied.

19 . 9.2. the air compressor and the dimensions of the deck pipes. cleaning of cargo holds should preferably be performed from tank top level. Note: Wrong choice or use of chemicals may give paint problems. or to protect the cargo holds from corrosion. Prewash / Barrier chemicals Prewash chemicals are applied prior to loading of difficult to clean cargoes to save time and costs during the following cleaning operation.8. We also need powerful cleaning equipment to be used from tank top level or from hatch baskets. Pressure drops should be calculated and simple and cost effective improvements such as increasing the diameter of water and compressed air couplings should be evaluated. Barrier chemicals are used to protect the cargo hold paint if a very high standard of cleanliness is required. Equipment We all know that chemicals can only solve “half the cleaning problem” after discharge of cargoes such as Green Delayed Petcoke. Maxi-Gun in use: Powerful cleaning of the upper parts: Note: The cleaning effect of such equipment requires a minimum of pressure and flow of the general service pumps. As time at port is shorter and shorter. and cranes cannot easily be used during sea voyage.

all geared and in the range of 15. no doubt that these will make the cleaning operation easier and save a lot of chemicals. High pressure cleaners of 350 to 500 bar should also be part of the standard equipment onboard any bulkcarrier. which increased to 4 bar when compressed air was turned on. but also to clean and maintain hatches. However. all depending on the paint system it should be remembered that cargoes such as Green Delayed Petcoke often cause serious cleaning problems and many days of off-hire.000 to 40. we have not found any chemicals. not only for the reachable parts of the cargo holds. comings and main deck areas.4 bar. service air reduced from starting air bottles. So far. The cargo Generally. which can dissolve stains of pitch from cosmetic types of alkyd paints to allow us to perform the following cleaning from tank top level. The water pressure at tank top level with water only was 2. 10. and small dimensions of outlets / valves only.1. and a protective coating prior to loading this cargo or bleaching of the holds may be the only 20 . when fixing the vessels for this type of cargo lost time and cleaning costs should be considered.Onboard this vessel (ref.4 bar. a cargo which requires cargo holds to be “hospital clean”.000 DWT. others have been of the open hatch design with double skin to be cleaned for pulp. to clean from black to white from tank top level is not so much of a problem if the vessel has adequate equipment and a sea-stock of chemicals onboard and the crew is well trained for the job. Hot water cleaners are not so commonly part of ships’ equipment. maximum pressure of the sea water pumps was 6.: page 19). However. 10. A few of these have been of the old single skin construction in a trade to be cleaned to a “grain standard”. Consequently. CONCLUSION During recent months. These are very useful. small and full-scale tests have been carried out onboard quite a number of vessels.

Recent full-scale tests show that our cleaning chemical Aquaclean HD applied undiluted as wet foam. 21 . These tests are considered to be a big step forward. However. Cosmetic paints will not protect the steel. tests are still been carried out. the rust can be seen and taken care of. Green Delayed Petcoke seems to leave a discolouring pattern on the bulkheads at the top of the cargo level. Frequent cosmetic repainting will increase the long-term cleaning and maintenance problems of cargo holds. but is more probably caused by the upper parts of the cargo moving during sea-voyage. but is a method to protect a “white” cargo from being discoloured and the ship to be accepted for this cargo only. This may have something to do with the loading process (which is practised to avoid too much dust all around). which did not give the same cleaning effect as our Aquaclean HD.alternative to frequent repainting. Note: Left side of the hold has been cleaned and painted with cosmetic paint and right side partly cleaned only. Behind thick layers of loose paint. you will also find spots of rust. the humidity and temperature. to find more cost-effective solutions to the problems. High pressure cleaning has removed the loose paint. remained to be soaking for 15-20 minutes and removed by high pressure cleaners of minimum 300 bar and a good water flow will solve the problem. Tests are being carried out with bleaching chemicals. Onboard all vessels we have visited.

and which is said to be soluble in n-pentane but not in propane. etc. even though the protective paint is considered to be in a good condition. operators have become more and more effective and ballast trips are shorter and shorter. not only cleaning but also corrosion may create problems. Raw or green sponge coke. the resins (pitch) are being burned off. 22 .2. Rotations of cargoes such as petcoke/coal and salt may give fast attacking rust problems. being too small During recent years. • • • • Much time is spent onboard to clean old fashioned bilge systems Much time is spent onboard because of limited fresh water supply on deck Much time is spent onboard because of lack of service air Much time is spent onboard because of water and air on deck pipes. a brown sticky hydrocarbon part. most bulk carriers are of the old fashioned (single skin design) and not built to transport all sorts of dry bulk cargoes. Construction / design As we all know. which also contains sulphur. which gives us the most serious cleaning problems. etc. couplings. make time for hold cleaning during stay at port shorter and shorter. and because of the new security rules less deckhands are available for cleaning during vessels stay at port. Crude oil contains different fractions: 1) oil which also contains sulphur. 2) and resins (pitch). We have different grades of petcoke. Not only the new security rules. it is important to remember that all grades of petcoke origins from crude oil. During calcinations (heating) of the petcoke. Neither are these vessels normally being equipped for close-up cleaning and maintenance of the upper parts of the cargo holds during sea voyage. It should be remembered that because of the sulphur content of petcoke. 10. and calcined petcoke. port states controllers. but also frequent visits by class authorities. which is why it is easier to clean after calcined petcoke.In order to understand the cleaning problems after carrying dry cargoes such as Green Delayed Petcoke.

complete removal of old paint will be the only and a costly alternative. the more glossier the paint the more easier it is to clean. Paint systems Generally. We have also seen that frequent cosmetic repainting may increase the cleaning and maintenance problems. Note: It should be remembered that these cosmetic fast drying paints are not only difficult to clean but also sensitive to strong chemicals.More and more. These paints are applied of cosmetic reasons only and even when cleaning at a distance from tank top level the cosmetic paint may easily be removed. to be “bleeding” from the inside of the paint. cosmetic repainting may be a costly solution to unsolved cleaning problems. Strong alkaline detergents and strong aromatic solvents have to be avoided. 23 . Note: In the end. It seems to be “burned” into the paint. preparing the cargo holds for the next cargo has to be performed from tank top level during sea voyage with closed hatches! 10. and we will find rust. We have seen both from lab tests and full scale tests that Green Delayed Petcoke (Pitch) is very difficult to remove from some types of paints. Today.3. modified epoxy seems to be the most common paint used for cargo holds. In the long run. Behind loose paint it may be difficult to clean even by heavy brushing. but in the pulp trade many vessels frequently repaint the holds with cosmetic types of fast drying acryl paints to meet the requirements of the exporter. and unless a second cleaning heavily activated with brushes is performed.

However. which is not commonly known by our seamen. bulk carriers are not designed for carrying all the different dry bulk cargoes and not well equipped for preparing and cleaning the cargo holds from “black to white”. you may face an even bigger problem.Chemicals Cleaning chemicals To remove discolouring from Green Delayed Petcoke. different cleaning chemicals have been tested. it should be remembered that chemicals such as our Fat Cargo Slip must be applied as described. Bleach chemicals Still. So far. Protective chemicals If cleaning is to be performed from tank top level. Bleaching may solve the immediate problem to be accepted for a “white” cargo. remember that bleaching must not be compared to cleaning. owners and management companies try to avoid investments. Equipment Generally. and powerful Maxi-Gun cleaning is necessary. The cleaning problem of this cargo seems to be more from colour pigments “burning” into the paint rather than from stains from oil. If not. we consider bleaching to be an alternative to frequent repainting onboard some types of vessels. we have not found any cleaning chemical. use of protective chemicals in combination with strong alkaline detergents seems to be the only alternative. which can solve the problem in a good way (which makes it possible to carry out the cleaning from tank top level with closed hatches). strong caustic alkaline ones as well as strong solvents. However. Shipyards seem to avoid proposals to new designs. Note: It should be remembered that cleaning chemicals need to be removed before drying on the surface. and operators will not pay as many ships are on a short-term charter only. 24 . Applied as wet foam the chemicals will have a longer working time and be far more effective. because after some time the stains will appear again. our Aquaclean HD has to be applied fairly concentrated.

whilst our Maxi-Gun air/water cleaning nozzles are the most powerful alternative for cleaning during sea voyage with closed hatches. As a rule of thumb. used from tank top level or at close distance from working platforms or crane baskets. Remember that these high-pressure cleaners will need a good water flow. The company shall assist the master in obtaining special information about a particular cargo and shall advice him of any special precautions to be taken. the crew needs to be well trained for the job. our Mari-Clean high-pressure cleaners are recommended when cleaning at port. All depending on the paint. Know how & Procedures To perform cost effective cleaning and maintenance of cargo holds.It should be remembered that use of strong chemicals only is not sufficient to clean the cargo holds. The cleaning result will depend on a correct choice and use of chemicals and the use of powerful equipment.4. 25 . 10. Extracts from the ISM code chapter 15: The company shall provide the ship with general reference information about cargoes. which are regurarly carried in ships trade. discolouring from pitch seems to be solved by chemicals and use of high-pressure cleaners (300 bar and upwards) or heavy brushing. Do not forget underneath the hatches! High pressure blasting of rust spots with injection of sand prior to repainting.

26 . 10. it is necessary with access to the upper parts of the cargo holds and small investments in cost-effective hold cleaning will be accepted. It is possible!!! No doubt that it is possible to clean and prepare the cargo holds from “black to white” with ships’ own crew. first of all charters should avoid difficult cargoes or rotations of cargoes if the paint is not suitable for the cargoes to be carried. only small changes are necessary. Note: To establish safe and cost-effective cleaning procedures. Hopefully. sometime in the future shipyards will give the cleaning of cargo holds some considerations when designing dry bulk carriers. Hopefully. Hopefully. it should be remembered that necessary time should be allowed for the cleaning operation. However. paint manufacturers will put more efforts into developing fast drying and glossier paints suitable for maintaining holds of bulk carriers. the vessels should be well equipped. it is necessary to provide the Master with a description of the cargo including Material Safety Data Sheets of the cargo and the chemicals to be used.The company shall establish and maintain procedures to ensure that the ship is technically fit and prepared for the intended type of cargo. which are carrying all types of wet cargoes in bulk such as crude oil and all types of chemicals. To make the life of our seamen easier. most dry bulk carriers are of the old fashioned design/construction. and a sea-stock of chemicals should be carried onboard. However.5. and access problems and choice of hold paint give serious problems when a bulk carrier is fixed for a cargo such as Green Delayed Petcoke. the crew trained for the job. ship owners will realise that when ordering a new ship. Opposite to tankers. not equipped from the ship yard or the owner to carry out cost effective cleaning and/or maintenance of the cargo holds. which are designed to be trading for 25 to 40 years.

Hopefully. charters will have to calculate + 5 to 10 days for the cleaning operation when fixing their vessels for cargoes such as Green Delayed Petcoke. more and more operators of dry bulk carriers will find that the vessels need to be well equipped and the crew trained for the job. charters have to be more selective when fixing the ship for a new cargo. 27 . If not. Meanwhile.

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