ARTICLE

From Ancient Medicine to Modern Medicine: Ayurvedic Concepts of Health and Their Role in Inflammation and Cancer
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Prachi Garodia, Haruyo Ichikawa, Nikita Malani, Gautam Sethi, Bharat B. Aggarwal
Recent statistics indicate that the overall cancer incidence in the United States, in spite of billions of dollars spent on research each year, has not changed significantly in the last half-century. Cancers of the prostate, breast, lung, and colon, although most common in the Western world, are least common in the Eastern world. Allopathic medicine commonly practiced currently is only 100 years old. Although traditional medicine has been around for thousands of years, no integration exists between it and allopathic medicine. Ayurveda, the science of long life and one of the most ancient medical systems still practiced on the Indian subcontinent, can be used in combination with modern medicine to provide better treatment of cancer. This review focuses on the ayurvedic concept of the

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causes of cancer and its linkage with inflammation, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. How ayurvedic medicine can be integrated with allopathic medicine is also discussed in this review. Key words: alternative, ayurvedic medicine, botanicals, cancer, complementary, herbs, inflammation, integrated, natural, phytotherapy, treatment

recent survey of the global incidence of cancer shows that the age-adjusted cancer incidence in the United States is above 300 cases per 100,000 population, whereas that in Asian countries is less than 100 cases per 100,000. Also, although the incidence of cancer of the prostate, lung, breast, and colon is highest in Western countries, it is lowest in Eastern countries.1–3 In spite of the billions of dollars spent on cancer research and the availability of the best health care in the world, the reason for such a high incidence of cancer in the United States is unclear. Lifestyle has been named as one of the major contributors to the incidence of cancer. The higher incidence of cancer among immigrants from the Eastern world to the Western world

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Prachia Garodia, Haruyo Ichikawa, Nikita Malani, Gautam Sethi, and Bharat B. Aggarwal: Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. This research was supported by The Clayton Foundation for Research (to B.B.A.) and by a P50 Head and Neck SPORE grant from the National Institutes of Health (to B.B.A.). Reprint requests: Bharat B. Aggarwal, Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA; e-mail: aggarwal@mdanderson.org. DOI 10.2310/7200.2006.029

further emphasizes the role of lifestyle.4,5 Additionally, cancer is a highly complex disease whose development may take as many as 20 to 30 years before it can be detected. Although modern science has made some major strides in understanding cancer and its molecular basis, the knowledge about how to prevent or treat cancer is still lagging behind. Although interruption of a cell signaling pathway, also called monotherapy, has been the paradigm approach until now, experience in the last few years has revealed that multitargeted therapy has a better chance for success. Modern medicine is evidence based and practices the use of a discrete, well-defined chemical entity for the treatment of given diseases. However, this medicine is very new in its origin and is approximately a century old. Aspirin is perhaps one of the oldest medicines; it was discovered in 1895 and is used even today. In contrast, whether traditional medicine that has existed for thousands years has any relevance in today’s world or can be used in combination is =the focus of this review. This review, in particular, concentrates on the ayurvedic approach for the prevention and treatment of cancer and inflammation.

What Is Ayurveda?
Ayurveda, which means science of long life, is at least a 5,000-year-old system of Indian medicine (1500–1000 BC)

Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, Vol 5, No 1 (Winter), 2007: pp 000–000 Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology JSI_2006_029.3d 21/12/06 14:34:16
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and surgical removal of tumors. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 Rev 7. blood. if pitta is predominant. and spiritual treatment (eg. Various signs and symptoms arising owing to the progression of cancer have been described in detail. the sixth layer of the skin) and the formation of abnormal branches of blood vessels. vata. early granthi or arbuda can develop. deeply rooted. purgation therapy to balance excess pitta. and swelling (Figure 1D). Number 1 > designed to promote good health and longevity rather than to fight disease and was practiced by physicians and surgeons (called bheshaja or vaidya). muscular. The balanced coordination of body.2 Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. Depending on the predominant imbalance. based on the doshas involved. dietary modification. If the patient has a predominance of kapha. yoga. Arbuda has been described as a round. Figure 2A). resulting in a morbid condition. rejuvenation. and astrology) (Figure 2B). immovable. stress relief. and consciousness is the ayurvedic definition of health. mind. sound therapy. most diseases connected with the psychophysiologic and pathologic changes in the body are caused by imbalance in three different dosha (ie. Both internal and external purifications are given by five techniques known collectively as panchakarma chikitsa (eg. Granthi has been described as a round. and fatty tissues. Until 700 BC. radiotherapy. Shamana chikitsa (palliative treatment) pacifies dosha and gradually relieves the disease. Shodhana chikitsa (strong purifying modalities). slowly growing swelling produced owing to the aggravation of doshas vitiating the muscle. Tridoshic tumors are usually malignant because all of the three major body humors lose mutual coordination. Pathogenesis of Inflammation and Cancer Ayurveda describes different stages of tumorigenesis as chronic inflammatory and intractable diseases with the possibility of developing malignancy. meditation. blood. and kapha. prayers. Figure 1B). for example. accordingly. such as unhealthy foods. or poor behavior. including meticulous aseptic techniques used for surgery (eg.7 Whereas Charaka Samhita deals with the etiology. cachexia. Volume 5. There was a careful assessment of the patient prior to selecting treatment. precancerous growth or probable malignancy. Sushruta Samhita deals with various surgical instruments and procedures. which is defined as redness. music therapy.7. pathology. prognosis. different treatment protocols were chosen. large. The purification (sodhana) therapy is first started with oleation. which is the application of medicated oils to the body. heat. Similarly. and bulging swelling. careful boiling of instruments. pitta. hard. and fatty tissues. virechana). produced owing to the aggravation of vata and kapha vitiating the muscle. The ayurvedic definition of pittaja sopha (inflammation) encompasses the modern concept of inflammation. detoxification. naishthiki chikitsa (spiritual approach). cancer results from lifestyle errors. Winter 2007. and roganashani chikitsa (disease cure. then the oil is prepared with a kaphaghna (kapha destroying) drug.8 The fundamental aim of ayurvedic therapy is to restore the balance between these three major body systems. According to ayurveda.3d 21/12/06 14:34:17 The Charlesworth Group. in the form of bubble-shaped glandular growths. all leading to imbalances of vata. herbal remedies.12 In this stage. Ayurvedic Concept of Health Ayurveda is a medical system that deals not only with body but with the mind and spirit as well. Both types of swelling can be inflammatory or noninflammatory. then the oil is processed with a pittaghna (pitta destroying) drug. rasayana chikitsa (restoration to normal). However. this treatment is prescribed only to weaker patients. resulting in injury to the inner layer of the dermis (rohini. this science was orally discussed between sages and physicians (Figure 1A). two different textbooks were assembled: one by ‘‘Charaka’’ is called Charaka Samhita6 and the other by ‘‘Sushruta’’ is called Sushruta Samhita. Modern medicine also uses cytotoxic chemotherapy. According to ayurveda. for whom shodhana chikitsa is contraindicated. Almost seven different types of inflammation have been described in ayurveda (Figure 1C). It is important to maintain the strength of the patient during the treatment. Ayurvedic Concept of Treatment of Cancer The therapeutic approach involves prakritistani chikitsa (health maintenance). and loss of appetite. loss of function. and administration of herbal decoction enema to reduce the excess vata dosha. has been primarily used for medical management of cancer. ayurveda recommends use of ? Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology JSI_2006_029. vamana. symptomatology.9–11 Any imbalance can lead to inflammation (also called sopha). and arbuda (definite malignancy. For immunomodulation.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) .6. Thereafter. which eliminates vitiated doshas. cleaning of hands). granthi (benign glandular swelling). pain. which are mainly shodhana measures and mainly kapha reducing. pitta. Figure 1E). and medical management of disease. poor hygiene. anemia. gem therapy. this is followed by emetic therapy to treat excess kapha. aromatherapy. The principles of patient safety were foremost. and.7 Treatment involves the surgical removal of tumor. or from physical trauma. and kapha.

Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 Rev 7. Teaching of ayurveda in ancient times. Development and progression of cancer through different stages.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) .Garodia et al. The role of tridoshas in the pathogenesis of the disease.3d 21/12/06 14:34:17 The Charlesworth Group. Aggravating factors are underlined. D. Different manifestations of inflammation. Ayurvedic concept of inflammation and cancer. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology JSI_2006_029. A. E. B. Different types of sophas (inflammation/swelling). Integration of Ayurvedic Medicine with Modern Medicine 3 Figure 1. C.

and antioxidant herbs such as amalaki.13–18 Rejuvenative therapies that are strengthening or restorative in nature are used to balance and remove any debility in the patient caused by the purification or cleansing. Different therapeutic modalities currently employed for the treatment of cancer. immunopotentiating. guduchi.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) . patients are advised to perform specific yoga positions that are believed to benefit them in mind and body with the least physical stress. B. Multiple approaches for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Meditation leads to emotional and stress release and detoxification of the cellular and tissue memories. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 Rev 7. Astrologic charting is done to see the planetary positions and the effect of the benevolent and maleficent planets.3d 21/12/06 14:34:38 The Charlesworth Group. ashvagandha. Number 1 Figure 2. This is the final step prior to starting therapies specifically directed at the unbalanced doshas. is contraindicated in lean and weak patients.4 Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. along with individualized nutrition plans and dietary interventions. with adaptogenic. chyavanprash. Volume 5. Emotional support and psychotherapy are provided with yoga. chants. A. Vigorous exercise. and chanting. and Brahma rasayana (Table 1 and Figure 3). pippali. and specific prayers. prayers. Certain postures are believed to stimulate the internal organs and glands and improve immunity and organ Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology JSI_2006_029. Winter 2007. Instead. and gem therapies are suggested accordingly. Ayurvedic concept of treatment of inflammation and cancer. meditation. however. Exercise and diet are important adjuncts to the primary treatment. appropriate rasayana chikitsa.

Physicians were warned against leaving remnants of tumor tissue. surgery was considered one of the best methods of treatment for arbuda. 9–12. Six types of surgical operations were described: incision. cauterization with alkalis and acids to prevent recurrences. Diet is prescribed according to age.3d 21/12/06 14:34:54 The Charlesworth Group. upanaha (poultice).7.6. and suturing. After the tumor ripens (pakva). and lepa (pastes) were recommended according to the vitiated doshas.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) . With the introduction of rasa shastras (the science of heavy metal processing. and environment.Garodia et al. At the time of Atreya and Dhanwantri (seventh century BC). especially if they were treated in the early stages. surgical excision of the tumor. They found that herbal medicine treatments against cancer. Names indicated in boldface represent plants whose anticancer role is supported by modern scientific evidence. scarification. followed by cauterization by heat or alkalis and the use of medicated oil. and 21. they recorded a group of successful treatments for use against gulmas (cystic tumors) and neoplasms of individual organs. were beneficial only in the beginning stage. scraping. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 Rev 7. @ Mountain ebony Indian ophthalmic barberry Indian olibanum Gigantic swallow wort Devdar Gotu kola Turmeric Lemongrass Angel’s trumpet Hairy spurge Indian ginseng White clary Kurchi tree Kule khara Sheep’s ear Jasmine Dinda Dishrag gourd Kamala tree Khirni Neem tree Horseradish tree Oleander Black cumin Holy basil Chinese fever vine Leafflower Kutki Betel leaf pepper Garden pea Leadwort Radix plumbago Juuhi Maha nimba Shigru Kara veera Krishna jeeraka Tulasi Gandha prasarani Niruri Katuki Nagavalli Kalaya Chitraka Rakta chiktraka function. a treatment similar to sopha was recommended. 7. body constitution. it should be cut open and drained of pus and the ulcer washed with the herbal decoctions and purified. many cancers were considered curable. List of Herbs Commonly Used by Ayurvedic Doctors for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer Scientific Name Abrus precatorius Albizzia lebbeck Allium sativum Aloe vera Alstonia scholaries Anacardium occidentale Anona squamosa Aristolochia indica Asparagus racemosa Azadiracta indica Bacopa monnieri Baliospermum montanum Bauhinia racemosa Berberis aristata Berginia ligulata Boswellia serrata Calotropis gigantean Cedrus deodara Centella asiatica Curcuma longa Cymbopogon citrates Datura metal Euphoria hirta Withania somnifera Heliotropium indicum Holarrhena antidysenterica Hygrophila spinosa Inula cappa Jasminum auriculatum Leea macrophylla Luffa cylindrical Mallotus philippensis Manilkara hexandra Melia azadirachta Moringa oleifera Nerium indicum Nigella sativa Occimum sanctum Paederia foetida Phyllantus fraternus Picrorrhiza kurroa Piper betle Pisum sativum Plumbago zeylanica Plumbago rosea Hindi Name Gunja Sirisha Lasuna Kumari Sapta parni Kajutaka Sitaphala Ishwari Shatawari Nimba Brahmi Danti Kanchanara Daru haridra Pashana bedi Shallaki Arka Devadaru Mandukaparni Haridra Bhustrina Dhattura Dugdhika Ashwagandha Kutaja English Name Coral bead vine Rain tree Garlic Aloe Milky pine Cashew Custard apple Birthwort Asparagus Margosa tree Indian penny wort Table 1. leading to recurrence and metastasis and to the patient’s demise (similar to a remnant spark of fire leading to the whole house being burned down by fire). season. either in the form of granthi or arbuda. Continued Scientific Name Podophyllum emodi Rubia cordifolia Saussurea lappa Saraca indica Semecarpus anacardium Tylophora asthmatica Vernonia species Vinca rosea Hindi Name Manjistha Kustha Ashoka Bhallataka Aja dweshi Sahadevi Sadabahar English Name May apple Indian madder Costus root Ashoka tree Varnish tree Indian ipecac Ironweed periwinkle Adapted from references 6. as well as the socioeconomic status of the patient. such as mercury and arsenic19. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology JSI_2006_029. surgical opening and drainage of the tumor. excision. Excellent sterile practices were followed to minimize infections and other complications of surgery. 14.7 In the ama (unripe) stage of granthi. and postoperative care for healing of the wounds. Integration of Ayurvedic Medicine with Modern Medicine 5 Table 1. Nonetheless.9–11 Surgical treatment included external and internal cleansing. Different kinds of sweda (fomentation).20 [bhasmas]) by The Siddhas (600–1200 AD). puncturing.

6 Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. Volume 5.3d 21/12/06 14:34:55 The Charlesworth Group. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology JSI_2006_029. Winter 2007. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 Rev 7.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) . Number 1 Figure 3. A picture of ayurvedic plants that have potential in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

and amla. hydroxydoxorubicin. saffron84–87 and taking seasonal detoxifiers and antioxidants such as triphala (K). protein kinase C) have been identified as targets.20 Differences Although modern science believes in using a single chemical entity for a particular cancer (eg. tulsi. inducible nitric oxide synthase). producing therapeutic benefits and lowering the risks on adverse effects.82 and synergistic or protective effects owing to buffering between various constituents.57.63.71–80 Development of new synergistic anticancer agents based on these herbs would be beneficial for modern treatment modalities. derived from the plant Vinca rosea.66. ginger or cumin water. the CHOP [cyclophosphamide. cancer growth factors (such as epidermal growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor). or kashaya (astringent) or other properties as laghu (light). It is possible that enhanced toxic effects associated with modern medicine are due to a lack of other components of the plant.83 Relationship of Ayurvedic Treatment to Modern Treatment of Cancer Similarities There are several common features between the ayurvedic concept of cancer and those currently practiced. Ayurveda usually recommends the use of several plant extracts in combination. paclitaxel. yoga and mediation techniques and prayer therapy have started to be implemented in many major cancer treatment centers. turmeric. Modern medicine must start accepting and incorporating the mind and emotional aspects of the whole being while considering the treatment of an individual person. pepper. For instance. These include surgery followed with treatment with drugs derived from plants.000 years ago. Ayurvedic medicine takes into consideration the behavioral. teekshna (sharp. The preparations are then prescribed with certain anupanas (accompaniments) (eg. Anticancer Herbs Many herbs have been described for the treatment of cancer (see Table 1 and Figure 3). ginger.47. prednisone] regimen for nonHodgkin’s lymphoma. dacarbazine] regimen for Hodgkin’s disease.24–70 Similarly.88 neem. the components of herbs used at that time now appear to target these molecules. etoposide). The use of Vinca rosea in the treatment of cancer is very well described in ayurveda. Already. several herbs have been described in ayurveda that can suppress either expression of COX-2 or its activity. tikta (bitter).3d 21/12/06 14:35:24 The Charlesworth Group. matrix metalloproteinase 9. Although these targets were not known 5. fluorouracil] regimen for breast cancer). and usna (hot) guna (biophysical property) and usna veerya (biopotency) and katu (pungent) vipaka (catabolic effects). which has been known to play a major role in tumorigenesis. ayurvedic treatment involves the use of whole plant extracts. ruksha (dry). mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK].88 Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology JSI_2006_029.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) . can be used as a standard therapy for several cancers. penetrating). Diet and Lifestyle Use of herbs every day in the diet (eg.21.Garodia et al. Oncovin (vincristine). Within the last three decades. cloves. and cancer-causing protein kinases (AKT. Modern medicine has shown that vincristine.19. paclitaxel for breast and ovarian cancers and arsenic trioxide for acute myelogenous leukemia are being used How Ayurvedic Medicine Can Be Integrated with Modern Medicine Various aspects of ayurvedic therapy can be combined with modern treatments. and psychological effects of drugs on the whole mind-body complex. garlic.23 after they were scientifically proven to be effective by modern science. vincristine. the ABVD [Adriamycin (doxorubicin).15. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 Rev 7. Each herbal formulation contains multiple active principles that may operate synergistically.69. is targeted by the components of several herbal remedies described in ayurveda (Table 2). cancer-suppressing genes (tumor suppressor genes). vinblastine. cancercausing genes called oncogenes. Similarly. methotrexate.22 These herbs are classified based on their rasa (taste) as katu (pungent). Integration of Ayurvedic Medicine with Modern Medicine 7 This was true for both the basic common neoplasms and neoplasms of the individual organs. nuclear factor kB. cancer-promoting enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase [COX]-2.51. including delivering trace elements81. tulsi extract) that have been shown to protect against unwanted toxicity owing to various mechanisms. bleomycin. which is somewhat similar to the combination of various chemical entities that are currently used for the treatment of cancer (eg. physiologic. Cancer medicine currently practiced is meant to inactivate or activate specific molecules or cell signaling pathways. and the CMF [cyclophosphamide.

Syzygium cumini. Commiphora mukul. Salvia officinalis. Allium sativum. Tanacetum parthenium. Aloe vera. Curcuma zedoary Curcuma longa. Boswellia serrata. Saussurea lappa. Saussurea lappa. Coriabdrum sativum. Tiospora smilacina. Dysoxylum binectrariferum. Indigofera tinctria. Saussurea lappa. Vitis vinifera. Indigofera tinctria Curcuma longa. Vitis vinifera Curcuma longa Curcuma longa Curcuma longa. Boswellia serrata. Volume 5. Number 1 Table 2. Foeniculum vulgare Curcuma longa. Boswellia serrata.8 Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. Brassica compestris. Vitis vinifera. Tribulus terrestris Saussurea lapparis. Cinnamomun cassia. Vitis vinifera Curcuma longa. Indigofera tinctria Curcuma longa. Salvia officinalis. Phyllanthus amarus. Saussurea lappa. Gmelina arborea Aloe vera. Nigella sativa. Cydonia oblonga Curcuma longa. Gmelina arborea. Vitis vinifera Curcuma longa. Cassia angustifolia. Commiphora mukul. Nigella sativa. Punica granatum. Cassia angustifolia Curcuma longa. Coptis teeta. Molecular Targets of Selected Ayurvedic Plants Target Transcription factors Nuclear factor kB Herbs Curcuma longa. Cydonia oblonga. Gmelina arborea. Juniperus communis. Phyllanthus amarus. Indigofera tinctria. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 Rev 7. Vitis vinifera Gmelina arborea. Semicarpus anacardium. Tribulus terrestris.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) . Vitis vinifera. Rumex crispus. Boswellia serrata. Rumex crispus Curcuma Curcuma Curcuma Curcuma longa. Indigofera tinctria. Citrullus colocynthis. Aloe vera. Vitis vinifera Curcuma longa. Vitis vinifera longa longa longa Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 Nrf-2 Growth factors Epidermal growth factor (EGF) Transforming growth factor b Vascular endothelial growth factor Her2/neu Receptors Androgen receptor EGF-R Estrogen receptor a Fas-R Invasion/metastasis Matrix metalloproteinases Inducible nitric oxide synthase Nitric oxide Cyclooxygenase 2 Curcuma longa. Zingiber zerumbet Curcuma longa. Rumex crispus. Salvia officinalis. Boswellia serrata. Citrullus colocynthis. Curcuma zedoary. Boswellia serrata. Glycine max. Brassica oleracea. Medicago sativa. Commiphora mukul. Vitis vinifera. Vitis vinifera. Zingiber zerumbet.3d 21/12/06 14:35:24 The Charlesworth Group. Withania somnifera. Plumbago zeylanica. Vitis vinifera Curcuma longa. Aloe vera. Zingiber zerumbet Curcuma longa. Coriabdrum sativum. Curcuma zedoary Cydonia oblongas Curcuma longa. Plumbago zeylanica. Bergenia ligulata. Phyllanthus amarus. Withania somnifera. Phyllanthus amarus. Plumbago zeylanica. Commiphora mukul. Saussurea lappa. Plumbago zeylanica. Winter 2007. Indigofera tinctria. Saussurea lappa. Aegel marmelos. Saussurea lappa. Dysoxylum binectrariferum. Cydonia oblonga. Boswellia serrata. Ocimum sanctum. Gmelina arborea. Foeniculum vulgare. Rumex crispus. Boswellia serrata. Cydonia oblonga. Coriabdrum sativum. Indigofera tinctria Inflammatory cytokines Tumor necrosis factor a Interferon-c Interleukin (IL)-1 IL-4 IL-6 IL-8 Protein kinase Extracellular signal-regulated kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK ) Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK ) Protein kinase C AKT Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology JSI_2006_029. Boswellia serrata.

Punica granatum.89 Avoiding a nonvegetarian diet has been shown to be preventive for tumorigenesis. Indigofera tinctria. Ocimum sanctum. malnutrition. Elettaria cardamomum. Boswellia serrata.92 Herbs such as Terminalia chebula could be useful against chronic constipation and digestive disorders. These herbs have been shown to improve appetite. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 Rev 7. Sida cordifolia. Integration of Ayurvedic Medicine with Modern Medicine 9 Table 2. and insomnia. Indigofera tinctria. which could elicit body-weight gain. Tribulus terrestris. Terminalia chebula. For instance.90 Alleviation of Side Effects Several herbs have been described in ayurveda that can alleviate some of the common side effects associated with modern medical treatment of cancer. and change in body image. Zingiber officinale. Vitis vinifera Vitis vinifera. Vitis vinifera Aloe vera. are used to control cough and shortness of breathe. tones up the body systems. Asparagus racemosa. Certain ayurvedic herbs. Zingiber zerumbet Curcuma longa. Gmelina arborea.94 Thus. fatigue.83 Cancer Cachexia Ayurvedic herbs can also be used to diminish the side effects noted with modern treatments that substantially impact the quality of life of cancer patients. A Piperine from black pepper has been shown to be a bioenhancing principle for many of the herbs. Commiphora mukul. and Zingiber officinale. and Plumbago zeylanica can be used to manage cancer-associated diarrhea.93 Studies have also shown that Allium sativum (garlic) could be helpful to manage pain and ache. Commiphora mukul. Salvia officinalis. Vitis vinifera. an herbal combination based on the ancient rasayana formulations of Withania somnifera. Ocimum sanctum is beneficial against stress and depression during cancer. Emblica officinalis. Asparagus racemosa. Zingiber zerumbet. the ayurvedic regimen rejuvenates the body tissues.85–88 Additionally. tension. Cyperus rotundus. Cancer-associated cachexia includes anorexia. and chanting can help release mental and physical stress. and Piper longum can be directed to correct nausea and vomiting.91 Similarly. Vitis vinifera. which are common in cancer patients and result in a loss of appetite. Eclipta prostrata. Plumbago zeylanica.13–15. Pisum sativum Herbs Bcl-xl Bax Survivin Caspases Cell cycle p53 p21Cip1/WAF1 Cyclin D1 Others Histone deacetylase See references 24 to 70. Brassica compestris. Boswellia serrata. Aegle marmelos. Alstonia scholaris Curcuma longa Curcuma longa.88 Also. Indigofera tinctria Curcuma longa. Cymbopogon citrus Curcuma longa. Dysoxylum binectrariferum. Vitis vinifera. Yoga.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) . Bacopa monnieri has been shown to strengthen mental faculties and helps manage insomnia or sleeplessness owing to stress. meditation. Anorexia or weight loss could be effectively managed by the commonly used rasayana herbs Withania somnifera. Withania somnifera. Cymbopogon martini. Vitis vinifera. and sensation of well-being. prayer. Gmelina arborea Curcuma longa.Garodia et al. Plumbago zeylanica. Cymbopogon winterinus. Glycyrrhiza glabra.3d 21/12/06 14:35:25 The Charlesworth Group. and Adhatoda vasica. food intake. Vitis vinifera. Nardostachys jatamamsi. Emblica officinalis. Hydrocotyle asiatica. especially for lung cancer patients. Vitis vinifera. Zingiber officinalis.22. Glycyrrhiza glabra. chronic nausea. such as Curcuma longa. Continued Target Enzymes Adenosine triphosphatase Glutathione-S-transferase Apoptosis Bcl-2 Curcuma longa. Tinospora cordifolia. and Eclipta alba could also be useful in the treatment of anxiety. Brassica oleracea. Brassica oleracea. Holarrhena antidysenterica. Plumbago zeylanica. Plumbago zeylanica. Gmelina arborea. Brassica compestris Vitis vinifera Plumbago zeylanica. herbs such as Zingiber officinalis. Boswellia serrata. and acts as a tonic to the body Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology JSI_2006_029.

mortality. shatavari. This review also attempts to reveal how these approaches can be employed in today’s world.55:74–108. and morbidity could be lifestyle and diet related. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine has recommended doing more case studies to determine the herbal efficacy and future clinical studies. Ocimum sanctum.1 The cause of the lower incidence. and this may also contribute to the lower incidence of cancer. this approach tends to ignore the relationship between mind. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology JSI_2006_029. controlled. not many randomized. Migration patterns and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. Ayurvedic treatment of cancer is a holistic approach and is currently preferred. The individualized therapies are sometimes poorly documented. the question of whether it is due to ayurvedic principles leading to a better diet and lifestyle is difficult to pinpoint.96 the other immunomodulating herbs mentioned above also show these properties. Ayurvedic treatments are still followed by 75 to 80% of the rural population of India. bael.14 Besides bael. and curcumin. amla. Although current treatment tends to be highly focused at the molecular level.98 There are very few studies available with complex herbal formulations.95. As much as 70% of the Indian population is vegetarian. rasagenthi lehyam. which show promising results. et al. Number 1 against cancer cachexia. for example.97. guduchi. turmeric. Brahma rasayana. Hoover RN. Plumbago rosea.94. 2. ashwagandha.14. Winter 2007.100. Ziegler RG. It also. curcumin. Volume 5. The use of this nontoxic preparation as an adjuvant in cancer therapy will prove to be highly beneficial.101 Many anecdotal and case reports are available that show the efficacy of the herbs and the treatments used. resveratrol.85:1819–27. however.98. References 1. way with curcumin. and Podophyllum hexandra.and chemosensitizing properties. brahmi. such as semecarpus lehyam. for example. ashwagandha.13. triphala. semecarpus lehyam.103 Some human clinical trials are under C Acknowledgment We would like to thank Walter Pagel for a careful review of the manuscript. The new wave of ‘‘system biology’’ and ‘‘genome revolution’’ is expected to provide a holistic approach to the treatment of cancer. Because of this holistic approach toward total healing and health promotion. B Clinical Research Treatment according to ayurveda is very individualized. ginger. and prostate are most prevalent in the Western world.102. unable to be accepted in the standardized Western field. kutki. Enough preclinical studies are done with individual herbs or their derivatives. Thus.16–20.98 and polyherbals. and arsenic trioxide.99 have been shown to possess radio.81.14. Withania somnifera. CA Cancer J Clin 2005. Ferlay J. Emblica officinalis. Piper longum. such as guduchi. ginger. For example. Global cancer statistics. thereby making it difficult to conduct a large populationbased clinical study.13.88. and Terminalia chebula. neem.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) . and other rasayanas. Picrorhiza kurroa. triphala. Bray F.97 Radiosensitization and Chemosensitization Various herbs.13. breast. 2002. this review provides a glimpse of the ayurvedic approach to cancer diagnosis and treatment. It is our hope that ayurveda can help fill this gap.3d 21/12/06 14:35:25 The Charlesworth Group. and spirit. guggulu. ayurvedic treatment has a great deal of promise in cancer therapy. and double-blind clinical trials are available. Immunomodulation and Adaptogen Among the above-mentioned herbs.16 Other herbs frequently used either singly or in formulations are Asparagus racemosus. Parkin DM.95.100. amla.16–18 Radioprotection and Chemoprotection Brahma rasayana has been shown to be myeloprotective against chemotherapy and radiotherapy in cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993. More randomized clinical trials need to be done for the herbs and formulations containing multiple constituents. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 Rev 7.101 Conclusion Overall. In spite of it. Cancers of the colon. et al. Withania somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia are also proven to be powerful immunostimulants. raises several questions about current treatment. and flavopiridol. Pike MC. it is highly unfocused at the whole organism level. body. making it reductionist. which could increase body resistance power during cancer-associated immunosuppression.10 Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. the incidence of prostate cancer is 50-fold less in India compared with the United States. lung. The mortality and morbidity in India owing to all of these cancers is very low.

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AU: Changes as you meant? AU: If all authors do not share this affil. AU: What is the source of these statistics? AU: In spite of what? Pls clarify.3d 21/12/06 14:35:27 The Charlesworth Group.Garodia et al. then pls provide the missing affils.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) . AU: Ref 62 is incomplete. Integration of Ayurvedic Medicine with Modern Medicine 15 Authors Queries Journal: Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology Paper: JSI_2006_029 Title: From Ancient Medicine to Modern Medicine: Ayurvedic Concepts of Health and Their Role in Inflammation and Cancer Dear Author During the preparation of your manuscript for publication. AU: Are quotation marks necessary around these names? AU: What do you mean by almost seven? AU: Change as you meant? AU: This isn’t a sentence. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 Rev 7. AU: Ref 67 is incomplete. the questions listed below have arisen. AU: Which is the place of publication: Delhi or Varanasi? 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology JSI_2006_029. CHARLESWORTH CHINA +86 (0) 106779 9806 OR SCAN AND RETURN VIA EMAIL TO bcdeckerproofing@charlesworth. Many thanks for your assistance RETURN VIA FAX TO BC DECKER PROOFING. AU: Ref 70 is incomplete. Pls complete.com Query Remarks 1 2 3 AU: Pls provide degrees. Please attend to these matters and return this form with your proof.

Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 Rev 7. Number 1 14 AU: Publisher.3d 21/12/06 14:35:28 The Charlesworth Group.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) . and year? Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology JSI_2006_029. Winter 2007. place of publication. Volume 5.16 Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology.

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