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Review of Sources and Quality of Statistics on International Migration in selected countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States
UNITED NATIONS New York and Geneva, 2012
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontier or boundaries.
This document was prepared by Olga Chudinovskikh within a consultancy for the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Development Account Project: “Strengthening National Capacities to Deal with International Migration: Maximizing Development Benefits and Minimizing Negative Impact” 1
The 2006 High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development at the United Nations General Assembly concluded that international migration could play an important role in national development, provided that it was supported by the right set of strategies and policies. This has led to the increase in international efforts related to migration and its measurement. Responding to the demand for evidence-based policies, the report provides a review of sources and quality of statistics on international migration in selected countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan. The report was prepared under the responsibility of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe in the framework the project “Strengthening national capacities to deal with international migration: maximizing development benefits and minimizing negative impacts”. The project involved all five regional commissions of the United Nations and was financed from the United Nations Development Account. The report gives a general overview of the existing or potentially available systems of migration data collection and of data quality assessment where data are available. It builds on the review of the systems of migration data collection and production in CIS countries, which the United Nations Economic Commission in Europe (UNECE) conducted in 2007. We expect that the information presented herein improve understanding of migration and migration statistics in CIS countries.
Preface............................................................................................................................................... iii Introduction......................................................................................................................................... 1 I. A review of UNECE activity in data collection and assessment in the CIS .................................... 4 II. A review of the statistical system for migration and of strategies in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan ...........................................................................11 Azerbaijan ......................................................................................................................................11 Kazakhstan .................................................................................................................................... 13 Kyrgyzstan .................................................................................................................................... 18 Russian Federation........................................................................................................................ 21 Tajikistan ....................................................................................................................................... 30 III. Recommendations on improving migration statistics in the region............................................ 34 Bibliography...................................................................................................................................... 35
Table A Definitions of immigrants and emigrants in selected CIS countries used in statistics of flows.................................................................................................................................................. 36 Table B Availability of statistics on stocks in selected CIS countries.............................................. 36 Table C National definitions of place of residence in legislation of selected CIS countries ........... 37 Table D Available variables in statistics of flows of immigrants and emigrants ............................ 38 Migration cards used in selected countries ...................................................................................... 39
List of Tables
Table 1 Net migration in the five selected countries in 2000-2008 ................................................... 2 Table 2 Emigrants from selected CIS countries................................................................................. 7 Table 3 Immigrants to selected CIS countries by country of next residence (flows 2000-2008) by country of previous residence (flows 2000-2008) .............................................................................. 7 Table 4 Migration-related questions in the censuses of 1999 and 2009, Azerbaijan ....................... 12 Table 5 Migration-related questions in the 1999 and 2009 census programmes. ............................ 15 Table 6 Stock of foreign resident population in Kazakhstan ........................................................... 15 Table 7 Migration related questions in population census programmes in Kyrgyzstan (1999 and 2009). ................................................................................................................................................ 19 Table 8 Temporarily absent migrant-workers as measured by emigration module questions in surveys and censuses in Kyrgyzstan ................................................................................................. 20 Table 9 Migration related questions in the All-Russia population censuses 2002 and 2010 ........... 25 Table 10 Migration-related questions in the censuses of 2000 and 2009, Tajikistan....................... 31 v
List of Figures
Chart 1 Stocks of foreign and foreign-born population as a percentage of the total resident population in the CIS countries........................................................................................................... 6 Chart 2 Net migration exchange between pairs of countries as measured by the NSIs of both countries, 2000-2008, thousands......................................................................................................... 8 Chart 3 Comparison of data on emigration as measured in the country of previous residence with data on immigration recorded in the country of destination, 2000-2008............................................ 9 Chart 4 A comparison of border statistics collected in Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation on the same flows of travellers. ................................................................................................................... 17 Chart 5 Increase of immigration in Russia as a result of new rules of data collection ..................... 24 Chart 6 Composition of immigration flows by citizenship, Russian Federation .............................. 24 Chart 7 Issuance of visas in Russian consulates and entries of visa-holders in Russia .................... 29 Chart 8 Border Service data on entries to the Russian Federation from some of the CIS countries 29 Chart 9 Comparison of data on labour migration from Tajikistan to Russia.................................... 32
List of abbreviations
CES CIS EECA EECCA FMS IDP ILO IOM MOE MOFA MOI MOJ NSI OECD OSCE UN UNDESA UNECE UNFPA UNHCR USAID USSR WB Conference of European Statisticians Commonwealth of Independent States Eastern Europe and Central Asia Eastern Europe Caucasus and Central Asia Federal Migration Service (Russian Federation) Internally displaced persons International Labour Organisation International Organization for Migration Ministry of Education Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Interior Ministry of Justice National Statistical Institutes Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe United Nations United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs United Nations Economic Commission for Europe United Nations Population Fund United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United States Agency for International Development Union of Soviet Socialist Republics World Bank
This report provides a general overview of the existing or potentially available systems of migration data collection and of data quality assessment where statistics are available. It includes the following: • a review of previous assessments of migration data produced, • a review of the statistical system for migration and of strategies in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan, • a brief but detailed specification of the existing quality of statistics and its characteristic features, in order to contribute towards the development of national capacities, • a list of notes on availability and usage, and specific recommendations concerning administrative data, border statistics, consular data and sample surveys, including largescale surveys, • ongoing and recent migration policy initiatives, including key institutional actors involved in migration statistics. Statistics on international migration in the former Soviet countries and a review of data sources and agencies responsible for data collection had been a subject of research initiated by international organizations. In 2007 the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) organized a comparative study of data in 11 CIS countries, which incorporated data collection as well as its sharing and analysis. Several other agencies of the United Nations (UN) family and international organizations have expressed interest in the development of this research topic. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) has for several years been involved in research of data pertaining to the region. In 2006 it published a book2 which contains a description of the institutional organization of statistics collection in several countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (Ukraine, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Republic of Moldova). Under a large-scale regional project on labour migration (2008), IOM initiated research into the situation concerning labour migration statistics in the Russian Federation and four Central Asian countries (CALM). In 2010, IOM and OSCE started a project which focuses on the inventory of available statistics in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan and on the technical aspects of data collection. It involves collecting detailed information on existing databases, variables and availability of statistics on migration. Simultaneous efforts had been undertaken by the International Labour Organization which resulted in a series of reports and seminars (See Khakimov P. 2011, Jamangulov K. 2010). It is expected that consultations undertaken by team leaders and experts involved in these projects will help avoid overlapping and synergize the joint efforts to make migration statistics of in the region more available and readily comparable. This report incorporates the results of the previous research conducted under the UNECE project in 2007 and refers to publications dealing with systems of migration data collection and production in the five countries of the CIS region. It involved the collection of series of data (both stocks and flows) for several years between 2000 and 2006. For some countries, the time series were extended up to 2008-2009 (if data were available). Data on stocks of foreign-born and foreign population are mainly based in population censuses of the previous round (2000).
IOM, 2006, Sharing Data: Where to Start.
All five countries have conducted the censuses of the current round and the data are expected to be processed in 2011 or later3. Updated information on the most significant and most recent changes (if any) was provided by specialists at the national statistical institutes in the five countries. More detailed information on data sources and peculiarities of data collection, as well as on the quality of statistics, could only be obtained through in-depth interviews with experts from different agencies (mostly administrative ones) in the countries covered by the report. Due to better availability of information, the most detailed description of sources and quality of data on international migration is provided for the Russian Federation. It could be a model for describing the situation in the other states when information becomes more available. The five selected countries have different trends and scales of migration, as well as different priorities in migration management. Therefore national interests in statistics are focused on different types of migration. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are largely migrant-sending countries, both from the perspective of outflows of temporary labour migration and long-term emigration for residence, resulting in chronic net emigration. Countries that have rich natural resources (mainly oil and gas), such as the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, receive migrants from other CIS countries (Kazakhstan joined the Russian Federation recently). In Azerbaijan, economic reforms have slightly changed the migration trends. Since 2008, the country has had net immigration and a relatively significant inflow of migrant-workers. Table 1 Net migration in the five selected countries in 2000-2008
Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Russian Federation Tajikistan 2000 -5.6 -108.3 -22.5 213.6 -12.8 2001 -4.7 -88.2 -26.6 72.3 -11.6 2002 -3.1 -62.0 -27.8 77.9 -10.5 2003 -1.3 -8.3 -16.7 35.1 -8.8 2004 -0.4 2.8 -19.3 39.4 -6.8 2005 -0.9 22.7 -27.0 107.4 -6.1 2006 -0.4 33.0 -31.0 132.3 -7.3 2007 -1.1 10.9 -50.6 239.9 -10.1 2008 1.1 1.1 -37.8 242.1 -9.0
Source: Data provided by the National Statistical Institutes
Most of both immigrants to and emigrants from the countries are involved in migration within the CIS area. In 2000-2007 about 92% of all immigrants and 72% of emigrants arrived from or moved to another CIS country. For Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan these figures were even higher (over 95% for both immigration and emigration), while a considerable part of emigrants from the Russian Federation (about 42% in 2000-2005 and only 35% since 2006) and Kazakhstan (26% on average in 2000-20064) move to other countries. Although statistical and administrative sources are becoming more available, there are still limitations in data access, mainly caused by traditional (and unmotivated) secrecy of information. It is not always easy to persuade the persons in charge that statistics needs aggregated data, not individual records containing personal information. Difficulties in data access could be encountered even at the national level; centralized data collection by the national statistical agency does not compensate for the shortage of administrative statistics such as data on naturalization and on residence permits and visas issued. A lack of cooperation is also observed at the international level – the countries, as a rule, do not have data exchange at a bilateral or
Kazakhstan supplied provisional information on foreign population in 2009. This was mainly due to emigration of ethnic Germans and their family members.
multilateral level. Information collected by the Statistical Committee of the CIS is very limited in terms of categories of migration and variables. The general lack of accurate statistics of immigration and emigration for residence is a big problem faced by the CIS states, but not the only one. The countries of the region experience a considerable movement of short-term and long-term labour migration, which tends to be dramatically underestimated both in the receiving and in the sending countries. Among the five countries reviewed in the report there are states of the sending and the receiving type, as well as a “mixed” type. To fill the gap in statistics on other types of migration, administrative sources should be used more extensively, although the quality of administrative data is sometimes poor. The development of different data sources and the availability of statistics are limited by financial and technical resources and sometimes by the capacity of the staff involved in data collection and migration management. The scale of migration movement in the post-Soviet space (several million temporary labour migrants and about half a million migrants annually changing their place of usual (permanent) residence) has dramatically increased the role played by the CIS countries in the global migration processes. However, efficient migration management and investigation appears to be hampered by a lack of statistical data. Towards the end of the first decade of the 21st century, several influential international organizations – ILO, IOM, OSCE and the World Bank – almost simultaneously launched projects focused on describing available sources and harmonizing statistics in the CIS2. Migration policies in the region focus mainly on the situation within the borders of the CIS. A large number of bilateral and multilateral international agreements as well as national legislation are devoted to the regulation of migrant entry (mainly on the basis of a visa-free regime), stay and access to the labour market. Most migrant stocks and flows come from the countries of the former USSR. There are certain similarities in the countries' migration policies, although the same programmes show varying degrees of efficiency. Some of the states developed repatriation programmes for population belonging to the titular ethnicity (“Oralmans” in Kazakhstan, “Kairylmans” in Kyrgyzstan) or to a broader category of “compatriots” (Russian Federation). These target groups of migrants are a subject to special registration in some cases, not overlapping with immigration statistics. Where there are considerable inflows of special categories of migrants, these figures should be taken into account in estimating immigration. Each country of the region has a diversified legislation on migration issues. Some of the laws and bylaws directly deal with data collection. However, a lack of control and coordination between agencies, insufficient correspondence between different legal acts, as well as financial and other considerations, have a strong negative impact on the quality and availability of data. One of the main problems in all of the countries is a traditionally frequent restructuring of administrative agencies involved in migration management, delegation of functions and responsibilities from one agency to another, and considerable staff turnover.
Mainly in its Asian sub-region
I. A review of UNECE activity in data collection and assessment in the CIS
In 2007, UNECE collected migration data from 11 countries of the CIS. During this process it evaluated data availability and definitions used. The main part of the work dealt with comparative analysis of emigration data collected in the country of previous residence and immigration data collected in the country of destination. The collected data were incorporated into a very simple and user-friendly database where flows of emigrants and immigrants were provided by country and year, thus making it possible to quickly select information on departures to a given country from all the other countries of the region, as well as on arrivals from that country to all the other countries. The database was distributed among the participants of the UNECE Seminar on International Migration Statistics in Bishkek (February 2010). The most important results and findings of the research were presented at the Joint UNECE/Eurostat Work Session on Migration Statistics (Geneva, 3-5 March 2008)5. In the CIS countries, data on immigrant and emigrant flows are based on procedures of registration at a new place (country) of residence (immigration) or deregistration from the previous one (emigration). This means that the definitions of immigrants and emigrants used in collecting statistics in the region seem to be very close. Thus, it facilitates comparison of statistics collected in the countries of origin and destination. (For definitions of immigrants and emigrants in the five selected countries see Annex, table A.) Although the definition of a place of residence may vary between national legislations in the countries, (see Annex, Table C) it does not have a considerable impact on the quality of international migration statistics. Only some countries6 (of the 11 involved in the research in 2007) use a time criterion to decide whether a person must register at a place of residence or at a place of stay (see Annex 3 for the details on time limits). Belarus and Russia do not use it. A six-month criterion of stay at the new place (for registration at the place of residence) is used in Georgia, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova and Tajikistan. Some countries use different criteria for nationals and foreigners or define it only for foreigners. Very often, a time criterion is connected with the status of a foreigner, as an application for a residence permit (and further registration at a place of residence) is necessary after a certain period of stay. In all CIS states, foreigners must have a residence permit if they want to reside in the country and be registered at a place of residence. If a foreigner does not have a residence permit, only registration at a place of stay is possible, and statistical forms are not filled out7 in this case. In all countries except Republic of Moldova and Georgia, data on flows is collected on paper forms that are filled in when a migrant is registered at, or deregistered from, the place of residence. These forms are stored in local agencies responsible for registration and transmitted to
http://www.unece.org/stats/documents/ece/ces/ge.10/2008/wp.5.e.pdf Not all of the countries have provided information. 7 In Russia, before 15 January 2007, foreigners with temporary residence permits could also be registered only at a place of stay even though such a permit was valid for 3 years. In Armenia, an ordinary residence permit can be issued for a person who has resided in the country for 3 years as a temporary residence permit holder (with the exception of special categories of migrants).
regional statistical bureau for processing. Variables included in these forms make it possible to produce statistics of migration disaggregated by different characteristics. (See Annexes, Table D) On a monthly basis, statistical forms are collected, stored and transmitted by local agencies of the registration agency8 to regional departments of National Statistical Institutes (NSI) for further processing. Statisticians prepare them for input, check the completeness of the information, and input it9 into a database for further processing. A census is generally the main source of data on migrant stocks (foreign-born and foreign population). However, in order to estimate the stock of foreign population, the NSI of the Kyrgyzstan also uses sample surveys; the Central Statistics Bureau of Republic of Moldova regularly receives data from the central population register; the Statistical Committee of Belarus can obtain data from the Ministry of Interior upon request; and the Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation also provides, upon request, a variety of data from the central data bank of aliens. Other countries do not disseminate any administrative information on the foreign population stock. (For availability of data on migrant stocks provided by the selected five countries, see Annex, Table B) Data on the foreign-born population in the countries should be interpreted carefully because at the time of the censuses of the previous round (2000) the majority of the “foreign-born” had come from other republics of the Soviet Union before the break-up of the USSR, and were therefore internal migrants moving within the borders of the same state. Thus, the high percentage of “foreign-born” population in the former USSR countries at the beginning of the third millennium demonstrated the results of internal rather than international migration (Chart 1). The preliminary analysis of the available data from the CIS countries showed that data on flows are available in all countries except Georgia. Only some of the countries process data on the citizenship of immigrants, and even fewer have this information on emigrants. The reliability of information on foreigners in flows of immigrants and emigrants depends on the data collection procedures and the terms of citizenship acquisition for immigrants from different countries. Data on flows is collected via registration at a place of residence, and a foreigner, as a rule, must have a residence permit. A time criterion for registration at a place of residence is used in several countries but may be different for nationals and residents and, more importantly, from the United Nations recommendations.
Ministry of Interior (MOI) in Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, Ministry of Justice in Kazakhstan, Federal Migration Service - a branch of MOI – in the Russian Federation. 9 With the exception of the migrants’ names.
Stocks of foreign and foreign-born population as a percentage of the total resident population in the CIS countries
16 14.1 14 11.5 10.7 10 8.9 8.2 8 5.3 8.3
4 1.7 0.4 0 Armenia Belarus Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstam Moldova Russia Tajikistan Ukraine 0.9 0.2 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.7 0.2 0.3
Source: Census round 200010
Data on emigration could not always be verified on the basis of immigration statistics in the country of destination. The best results in the comparison of flows of immigrants were demonstrated by Belarus and Ukraine (the coverage of the same flows between the countries was almost one-to-one); the Russian Federation and Ukraine (the number of immigrants in the Russian Federation (RF) was very close to the number of emigrants counted in Ukraine); Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan; Armenia and Ukraine. In the CIS countries, coverage and correlation of the data heavily depends on the geopolitical context, historical background, national legislation and international agreements in the region, which determine the process of migration, registration and citizenship acquisition. For instance, it is not possible to compare statistics on flows collected in Republic of Moldova with data collected in other countries, as a large part of its territory (Left Bank of the river Dniester) is not under the jurisdiction of the central government: migrants coming to other CIS countries from this region are reported as immigrants from Republic of Moldova, while the statistical office of Republic of Moldova is not informed about them.
The NSI of Tajikistan did not process the information on place of birth of population collected in the census.
Table 2 Emigrants from selected CIS countries
Countries of emigration (origin ) Countries of next residence Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Republic of Moldova Russian Federation Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan Total to CIS Total from countries outside CIS Total emigrants Not identified
Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Russian Federation Tajikistan
0.0 2.4 0.6 3.5 0.3 0.1 84.1 0.0 0.4 4.6 0.4 96.9
0.0 0.1 1.6 0.0 0.4 0.1 71.0 0.1 0.1 1.3 1.0 75.7
0.0 0.1 0.4 0.0 10.8
1.2 2.0 8.9 1.1 15.3 1.1 1.3 0.8 0.3 20.3 1.5 53.8
0.0 0.1 0.5 0.1 3.0 6.6 0.0 78.7 0.0 0.1 1.8 8.7 99.6
0.0 81.0 0.3 0.0 0.6 1.4 94.7
3.0 100.0 0.1
Table 3 Immigrants to selected CIS countries by country of next residence (flows 2000-2008) by country of previous residence (flows 2000-2008)
Countries of immigration (destination) Countries of previous residence Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Republic of Moldova Russian Federation Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan Total to CIS Total from countries outside CIS Total immigrants Not identified
Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Russian Federation Tajikistan
0.5 0.0 0.7 8.4 4.2 0.6 0.2 61.7 0.3 5.0 5.3 3.3 1.5
0.2 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.0 3.7 0.1 30.0 0.6 5.3 1.1 45.3 73.5
0.1 0.3 0.3 0.0 14.7 0.0 0.1 59.5 12.6 0.2 0.9 9.3 78.8
6.4 4.7 3.1 4.1 25.4 7.1 4.3 0.0 4.3 2.2 18.4
0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 2.3 7.1 0.0 74.4 0.0 0.4 1.3 13.2 99.3
94.2 100.0 0.1
Chart 2 Net migration exchange between pairs of countries as measured by the NSIs of both countries, 2000-2008
150000 30000 20000 100000 10000 0 50000 -10000 0 2000 -50000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 -20000 -30000 -40000 -50000 -100000
Russian Federation d
25000 20000 15000 10000 10000 5000 5000 0 -5000 -10000 -15000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 0 2000 -5000 -10000 2001 2002 2003 25000 20000 15000
800 600 400 200 0 2000 -200 -4000 -400 -600 -5000 -6000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 -3000 2000 2001 2002 2003
Source: National Statistical Institutes’ data
Comparative analysis could be done using the values for immigration and emigration flows as well as net migration (Chart 3). The latter might be preferable, as net migration is important in estimating population balance. Data on the five selected countries have proved that there are no precisely “mirrored” pictures of net immigration and net emigration. The comparison of data on immigration and emigration was made only for some pairs of the five selected countries (charts 3, a-h), the choice is explained by the number of migrants moving between them. The Russian Federation is the main country of destination for emigrants (Tables 2 and 3). The Russian Federation accumulates 70-84% of migrants leaving the other 4 selected countries; 60% to 74% of immigrants to Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan also come from 8
the Russian Federation, while in Kazakhstan the majority of immigrants (45%) come from Uzbekistan, reducing the share of the Russian Federation to 30%. Kyrgyzstan has, besides the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, a relatively noticeable exchange with Tajikistan (chart 3 gh). Chart 3 Comparison of data on emigration as measured in the country of previous residence with data on immigration recorded in the country of destination, 2000-2008
(number of migrants)
a) Data on emigrants - Stat. Committee of Azerbaijan, data on immigrants - Rosstat
25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 Immiigrants from Azerbaijan emigrants to the Russian Federation 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000
b) Data on emigrants - Stat. Committee of Tajikistan, data on immigrants - Rosstat
Immigrants from Tajikistan Emigrants to the Russian Federation
c) Data on emigrants - Stat. Agency of Kyrgyszstan, data on immigrants - Rosstat
60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 Immigrants from Kyrgyzstan Emigrants to the Russian Federation
140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0
d) Data on emigrants - Stat. Agency of Kazakhstan, data on immigrants - Rosstat
Immigrants from Kazakhstan Emigrants to the Russian Federation
20002001 20022003 2004 20052006 20072008
e) Data on emigrants -Stat. Agency of Kazakhstan , data on immigrants - Stat. Committee of Kyrgyzstan
1 000 800 600 400 200 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Immigrants from Kazakhstan Emmigrants to Kyrgyzstan 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
f) Data on emigrants - Stat. Committee
of Kyrgyzstan ; data on immigrants - Stat. Agency of Kazakhstan ,
Immigrants from Kyrgyzsatn Emigrants to Kazakhstan
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
1 200 1 000 800 600 400 200 0
g) Data on emigrants -Stat. Committee of Tajikistan , data on immigrants - Stat. Committee of Kyrgyzstan
Immigrnts from Tajikistan Emigrants to Kyrgyzstan
300 250 200 150 100 50 0
h) Data on emigrants -Stat. Agency of Kyrgyzstan, data on immigrants Stat.Committee of Tajikistan
Emigrants to Tajikistan Immigrants from Kyrgyzstan
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Source: Data provided by National Statistical Institutes
The best results were demonstrated by the data collected in the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, (chart 2a); the Kyrgyzstan measured more emigrants and a greater net emigration than was measured in the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan (charts 2b and 2f respectively). The comparison of flows was most successful (the curves were rather close) in the case of immigration from Kazakhstan to the Russian Federation and from Kyrgyzstan to Tajikistan, while the number of emigrants to the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan counted in the Kyrgyz Republic was much greater than the number of immigrants counted in the receiving countries (charts 3c and 3f). Since 2007 Tajikistan has counted many more emigrants to Kyrgyzstan than immigrants registered in Kyrgyzstan (chart 3g). Since 2006-2007, the Russian Federation has been counting considerably greater volumes of net immigration in the exchange with Azerbaijan, Tajikistan and several other countries not included in the research. In 2007-2008, the net migration in the Russian Federation's exchange with Tajikistan, according to the Russian Federation data, amounted to 16.4 and 20.0 thousand, while Tajik statistics counted -8.4 and -7.0 thousand respectively. For Azerbaijan, these differences were more significant (and have been observed since 2001); in 2008 net migration in Russia's exchange with Azerbaijan amounted to over 20,000 persons, while in Azerbaijan it was estimated at nearly zero (-4 persons). Underestimation of emigration in sending countries (chart 3 (a) and (b)) is not the only explanation of such differences. They could be explained partially, but mostly have to do with a possible double count of the same immigrants from these states in the Russian Federation. Before 2010, the majority of foreign immigrants were included in immigration statistics only upon acquiring the Russian Federation citizenship. However, some were permitted to register at a new place of residence (as residence) before obtaining the citizenship of the Russian Federation. A very short period of pending made it possible to get a Russian passport within one year or even earlier. Upon being registered as a national, the same person could be counted as an immigrant once again – this time as a citizen of the Russian Federation. The possibility of such a practice seems to be very realistic for nationals of all countries except Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Belarus. In accordance with a special agreement with the Russian Federation (1999) they do not need an intermediate status (i.e. a residence permit) in order to submit an application for russian citizenship and could be registered as residents only once (after obtaining russian citizenship). Thus, statistics would never have counted them as foreigners. A double count is therefore not possible in this case. The charts prove this hypothesis (chart 3 (d)), since data from the Russian Federation, when compared with Kazakhstan's statistics, do not demonstrate such an enormous excess. A surge in registered net migration in Kazakhstan's exchange with Tajikistan (and immigration to Kazakhstan from Tajikistan and other migrantsending countries) in 2006 could partly be explained by a regularization campaign that took place in the country. The data sharing and comparison exercise appears to be promising. It allows one to see differences and stimulates the search for the reasons behind these discrepancies so that their effects could be eliminated. Besides, it is also a strong stimulus for the exchange of information both on developments in the methodologies of data collection, and on the political context which may influence trends in migration management and the naturalization process in the countries that make up a migration system. Since the UNECE activity was undertaken in 2007, all the selected countries have conducted their 2010 population censuses and developed the module of migration questions, including the question on the place of residence one year prior to the census (Russian Federation, Tajikistan), and on experience of residence abroad for a period of 1 year or longer (RK). Kyrgyzstan has included a module on temporarily absent population in the census questionnaire. 10
II. A review of the statistical system for migration and of strategies in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan
The main agencies producing (or at least collecting data) statistics on international migration are as follows: • • • • • • • State Statistical Committee; State Migration Service; Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Population (Department of Migration); Border Service; State Agency for Refugees and Forced Migrants; Ministry of Education; Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan produces annual data on internal and international migration flows. The statistics are partially published in demographic yearbooks and are available upon request (for the list of variables see Annex, table D). Data are processed quarterly by a short list of variables, and annually by the full list. They are available for individual regions and urban settlements of the country. The main problem concerning data quality is an underestimation of emigration as many migrants do not declare their departure and due to lack of mechanisms of efficient control, there is no realistic way to improve these data. The decennial census is the main source of data on the foreign and foreign-born population. The census questionnaires include both core and optional questions related to migration (table 4). Some of the questions were included into the programme because of the importance of the issue concerned (for instance, forced migration to Azerbaijan was considerable in the 1990s). Due to budgetary considerations, data on migrant citizenship and place of birth collected in the previous census (1999) were not processed. This time, the results of the latest census are expected to be available by all variables. The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan, in collaboration with the Migration Service and the Border Service, and within a special programme, conducted a large-scale sample survey at the borders of Azerbaijan. The questionnaire contained 17 questions, including questions on country of birth, citizenship, reasons for entry or exit etc. Over 15,000 respondents were involved in the survey (both on entry and exit). The State Migration Service is the main producer of administrative data on migrants. One of its responsibilities of the migration service is to set up a joint, computer-aided system of migration control. The purpose of this system is to accumulate information for the purposes of analysis, forecasting and monitoring of migration processes11. The following categories of migrationrelated events are registered in the Joint System: procedures dealing with issuance of residence permits (and status granting), issues of citizenship, issuance and extension of work permits,
activities undertaken to cope with irregular migration etc. Information available on the Migration Service web site of includes only a handful of aggregated indicators related to applications to the Migration Service, detected cases of violation of administrative rules, the number of foreigners who have regularized their status after paying penalties, deportations etc.
Table 4 Migration-related questions in the censuses of 1999 and 2009, Azerbaijan
Place (country of birth) Citizenship Ethnicity Mother tongue Other languages -
+ + + + + For temporarily absent population (<12 months) indicate place (country) of stay, duration of absence (in months) and purpose of the departure Continuity of residence at the place of residence (since birth, not since birth) If not – specify the year of arrival and previous place of residence Whether the person had resided on the territory of Azerbaijan (specify the place) or not (specify the country and reason for moving to Azerbaijan – employment, education, family reasons, return to the previous place of residence, other)
Whether the place of enumeration (at the moment of the census) is the place of permanent residence. If not – indicate the place of permanent residence For a person that has changed his or her place of residence: specify if he/she is a refugee or forced migrant. Specify the year since which s/he has been residing at the place of residence and the place of previous residence
Other statistics are not available for public use, but could be provided to other governmental agencies of Azerbaijan, including the Statistical Committee, upon request. In 2010, as part of a data collecting activity undertaken by UNECE and UN DESA, the State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan provided information it had received from the Migration Service on residence permit holders and citizenship acquisition by country of the migrant’s nationality. The Border Service collects data and provides a “1-Border” statistical report, On the Number of Persons Entering Azerbaijan and Leaving the Country. The report is sent to the Statistical Committee twice a year and the data are then published in statistical yearbook “Tourism in Azerbaijan”. The Department of Migration of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Population collects data on foreign migrant workers employed in Azerbaijan and on Azerbaijan nationals employed abroad on the basis of personal permits. According to information provided by experts at the State Statistical Committee, these data are published in periodicals. Statistics on forced migration are collected by the State Committee on Refugees and Forced Migrants. They are provided upon request to governmental agencies and other users (researchers, etc.). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs could potentially be a producer of statistics on procedures carried out at consulates (visa issuance, citizenship acquisition, registration of nationals residing abroad),
but the data are not available so far. The Ministry of Education provides highly aggregated data on foreign students attending institutions of tertiary professional education12. Azerbaijan (Ministry of Justice) began to establish a population register; in the future, it may become the main source of information for official migration statistics based on electronic arrays of information that would replace paper forms. Azerbaijan's migration policy as well as its scope of interest in statistics of migration, is focused on a better estimation of temporary labour migration. A Framework for Regulation of Labour Migration was adopted in 2004. It showed that the scale, share in the total migration flows, and importance of labour migration was increasing. “However, there are no accurate statistics on these flows, as official reports on migrant workers employed at foreign private enterprises do not provide complete information on the participation of foreigners on the local labour market. In any case, the number of foreigners working in Azerbaijan is several times larger than the officially reported figures”13. According to information provided by experts at the State Statistical Committee, data exchange is organized at the national level (a) between the Department of Demographic and Social Statistics and the Ministry of Interior (including the State Migration Service) and (b) between the Department of Labour Statistics and the Department of Migration of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Population. Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan also provides data for international organizations: CIS Stat, UN, IOM, ILO and a number of other agencies and organizations. The main problems in migration statistics are related to: • • • • insufficient coverage of temporary labour in- and out-migration; underestimation of emigration; lack of public access to the majority of administrative data produced by the Migration Service; absence of large-scale sample surveys.
The main agencies collecting data on migration in Kazakhstan are as follows: • Agency on Statistics (NSI of RK); • Ministry of Interior (especially the Department of Migration Police); • Ministry of Justice (up to 2010); • Ministry of Labour and Social Protection; • Border Service; • Ministry of Foreign Affairs (potentially); • Ministry of Education. Although formally Kazakhstan does not have a population register, for the last few years it has been running a foreign population database of sorts. It is based on the Berkut Information and Security System software. It includes several “modules” belonging to different governmental
http://www.edu.gov.az/view.php?lang=ru&menu=134 Adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers on 13 July 2004 , Act No. 94
agencies14. The system mainly belongs to the National Security Service (the border guard is one of its branches). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Interior have access to the system. An initial record is created in the system at the moment of a foreigner’s application for a visa or at the moment of entry (in case of visa-free entry). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for information dealing with visa issuance, the border guard for registration of entries and control of exits, while the Ministry of Interior performs registration of foreigners in the country. Individual records are updated after every transaction made by an officer at any of the three above-mentioned governmental agencies. Registration at a place of stay is compulsory within 5 days after arrival, whereupon a special record is added to the initial one. If a person did not manage (or did not want to) register their temporary stay in the country, thus violating the rules, they may be subject to administrative prosecution at the border at the moment of exit, as the border guard officer can see if the foreigner had been registered at a place of stay or not. Theoretically, such a system is very well suited for the purposes of statistics production. However, any evidence of statistical reports based on such data is impossible to find. It seems that the spirit of secrecy that is dominating over the system has an impact on data processing and further publication. Agency on Statistics. Data on different types of territorial mobility of population are collected by different departments of the Agency on Statistics. With the exception of censuses and nationwide sample surveys, information on migrant movements comes to the statistical agency from administrative sources. The Department of Demographic Statistics is responsible for censuses and produces statistics on long-term migration flows (both internal and international). The Department of Statistics of Tourism receives information from the border guard service on a regular basis concerning entries to and exits from Kazakhstan. The Department of Social Statistics collects information on international students. Data on flows (in hard copy) come to the Agency on Statistics from the Ministry of Interior. For a relatively short period (2004-2011), national population registration was the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice, which collected primary data on national migrants, while the Ministry of Interior continued to be in charge of migration count and registration of foreigners. This was due to changes in Kazakhstan's passport system, whereby internal passports were replaced with identity cards issued to nationals. It was decided that the Ministry of Justice would perform these functions, but in 2010 it was decided to return these functions to the Ministry of Interior. Similar to the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan has two types of registration: at a place of residence and at a place of stay. Although the duration of stay may exceed 12 months, a statistical form is not filled in, thus leaving these immigrants uncounted. Statisticians noted that the primary cards (forms) are very often filled in inaccurately, making the information unreadable15. Population census programmes in Kazakhstan include migration-related questions (table 6). The new question dealt with estimation of ever international migrants that had resided at least for one year abroad.
The software produced by a Belarus IT company, Todes, can be provided in two versions –a National electronic system of control over border crossings and stay of foreigners in a country (Berkut- the Border) and a National electronic system of ID issuance and population register (Berkut – Passport). Insofar as we have managed to find out , Kazakhstan only runs the first variant of the software. 15 Presentation made by a representative of the North-Kazakhstan regional statistical office . UNFPA Training course on statistics of migration. Almaty, December 2009.
Table 5 Migration-related questions in the 1999 and 2009 census programmes
Place of birth Citizenship Ethnicity Language (official and other) Continuity of residence (since birth or not) at the place of permanent residence (region); if not, specify the year since which the person has been residing here. If moved between 1989-1999 - specify the previous place (country) of residence and type of the settlement (rural / urban) Specify whether the person is a refugee or a forcibly displaced person Indication of temporary residence or absence
+ + + + (mother tongue and other)
Specify whether the person is an ‘oralman’ Have you resided in another country for 1 year or longer? Religious denomination
Kazakhstan was the first country (among those which have already conducted censuses of the current round) to publish provisional data on foreign population stock (table 7). The census demonstrated that the stock of foreign population had increased by 86% (i.e. almost doubled) and in 2009 made up about 1% of the total resident population (while in 1999 it was only 0.6%).
Table 6 Stock of foreign resident population in Kazakhstan
1999 2009 Population 2009 : 1999
Armenia Azerbaijan Kyrgyzstan Russian Federation Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan Other Total foreign population (incl. stateless)* Total resident population
624 1 194 1 677 43 995 639 255 1 790 3 089 31 942 85205 14 953 126
993 3 153 9 143 38 609 1 823 1 774 2 449 26 886 74 088 158 918 16 009 597
1.6 2.6 5.5 0.9 2.9 7.0 1.4 8.7 2.3 1.9 1.1
* in 2009 the stock of stateless persons amounted to 57,300 Source: Agency on Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan
It should be noted that Kazakhstan has experience in implementing a “migration module” in the national living standards sample survey. It seems that the impressive number and good formulations of questions (see annex p. 45) were not put to efficient use. The module was only implemented once, in the first quarter of 2008, and only 12,000 respondents participated in the 15
survey. The results were processed only partially. In our opinion, sustained implementation of a migration module in a migrant-receiving country can guarantee an inflow of very useful and upto-date statistical information. Ministry of Interior. The majority of functions related to migration and stay of foreigners in Kazakhstan are carried out by the Department of Migration Police of the Ministry of Interior. This includes registration of foreigners, issuance of residence permits, issues of citizenship acquisition, 16 registration of refugees , and issuance of quotas for migrant workers. The Migration Police also issues migration cards, which must be filled in by every foreigner entering the country. However, this resource is not used for statistical purposes. Similar to the situation with data collected by the Berkut system, it was not possible to find any evidence that the information collected was put to practical use for producing statistical reports, with the exception of data on entries and exits disaggregated by country and purpose of the trip. The Ministry of Interior runs a centralized state database of physical persons that was established under the “electronic Government project”. It will be the core part of the population register that is planned on being established in the country. As of now, it contains over 15 million records. Since different administrative databases (social insurance, pension, and taxation) use different IDs for the same persons, it was decided to use a unique identification code to facilitate the establishment of the population register. In the future, the population register will be the main source of migration statistics. The Ministry of Justice has for several years been registering internal and international migration of nationals. The procedure of data collection for the Agency on Statistics is the same: paper forms are filled in at the moment of a migrant’s registration at a place of new residence or deregistration from the previous one. In its administrative work, the Ministry of Interior uses a form of another type (the so-called “address form of arrival (departure)”). In the future it is planned to join the interests of the national statistical agency and the agency responsible for population registration (when these functions are returned to the Ministry of Interior) and use the same form for both administrative and statistical purposes. The list of variables ought to be carefully discussed as the administrative form has a very short list of a migrant’s characteristics. (The Statistical Committee of Ukraine has been using the Ministry of Interior’s forms for several years, and the coverage became better, while the list of available variables appeared to be rather poor). The Ministry of Labour and Social Protection collects data on labour in-migrants (foreigners) and out-migrants (nationals moving abroad). Statistics of in-migration are based on reports of employers that have a licence to hire foreign workers or to export national labour force abroad. An aggregated statistical report (“Form 1-IR”) is sent to the Agency on Statistics of Kazakhstan. However, national experts point out that these data do not reflect the actual scale of labour inmigration. Many migrant workers, especially from Uzbekistan, work without permits and are hired regardless of the quotas established by the government. Statistics of registered out-migration of nationals recruited through licensed agencies is also incomplete because the majority of migrants move abroad through other channels.
Before January 2010, refugees were registered by the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, and earlier, by the Agency for Demographics and Migration.
Chart 4 A comparison of border statistics collected in Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation on the same flows of travelers
a) Exits of Kazakhstan citizens to Russia (RK Border service data) and entries to Russia (RF BS data) , thousand
3100 2900 2700 2500 2300 2100 1900 1700 1500 2007 2008 2009 Data of Kazakhstan Data of the RF 3 100 2 900 2 700 2 500 2 300 2 100 1 900 1 700 1 500 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Data of Kazakhstan Data of the RF
b) Exits of Russian citizens to Kazakhstan (RF Border service data) and entries to Kazakhstan (RK BS data), thousand
Source: Statistical yearbooks of The Russian Federation and Republic of Kazakhstan based on data collected by the border services.
The Border Service collects data based on passport control and regularly transfers it to the Agency on Statistics for publication in the statistical yearbook Tourism in Kazakhstan17 . A comparison of data collected by the border services of two countries may help to see which agency’s statistics are more complete (Chart 8). For instance, the count of exits and entries of Kazakh citizens is rather good on both sides (the residual in 2007-2009 does not exceed 7%), whereas entries of Russian citizens to Kazakhstan seem to be registered by the Kazakh Border Service incompletely (the residual in 2007-2009 is about 14%, and about 18% for the whole period). In accordance with the national methodology, statistics of entries to Kazakhstan do not include those who arrived for residence. However, this flow is statistically insignificant. In 2007-2009 number of Russian Federation citizens who declared residence as the purpose of entry to Kazakhstan were as follows: 1,737; 649; and 292 persons respectively (Rosstat data). Besides, entries of the citizens of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are artificially reduced by 55% in order to exclude the influence of visits of seasonal and short-term workers18. Therefore, statistics collected at the borders of Kazakhstan should be treated with caution. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs also has its own databases on visa issuance and the stock of Kazakh nationals residing abroad and registered at consulates, as well as applications for an “oralman” status. However, this information is not available for publication as a statistical report. Data on the stock of Kazakhstan nationals residing abroad should be reliable, given that registration is compulsory. If a Kazakh citizen residing abroad does not register at the consulate, in 3 years they may lose Kazakh citizenship19. As already mentioned, the MFA database on visa issuance should be connected with the Berkut security system, but it seems to be used for searching for individual information rather than for producing statistics. The Ministry of Education has a special database on students who have moved abroad under the governmental Bolashak programme. As of now, the stock of students from Kazakhstan staying abroad is about 3,000 persons. Information on international students in Kazakhstan is collected by
http://www.stat.kz/publishing/2010/tourism_2005-2009_новый.pdf Information was provided, with reference to the International recommendations on statistics of tourism , by the Head of the Department of Statistics of Tourism Mrs. Sarah Nukusheva, Agency on Statistics of Kazakhstan. 19 see the website of the MFA of Kazakhstan http://portal.mfa.kz/portal/page/portal/mfa/ru/content/consular_info/memo
the national statistical agency directly from tertiary and secondary professional education 20 21 institutions. The information can be found on the website of the statistical agency . However, as is also the case in the Russian Federation, data on student enrolment, stock and graduation is disaggregated only by country of nationality. The main problems in data collection and availability in Kazakhstan are as follows: • an underestimation of the number of long-term immigrants. Registration at a place of stay (‘temporary registration”) may last for quite a long period of time, but according to the rules, the primary forms dealing with these migrants are not collected. Many of them are participants in the governmental programme of repatriation for ethnic Kazakhs (“Oralmans”). According to the Agency on Statistics of Kazakhstan, the recent census demonstrated that there are about 400,000 persons (most of them Oralmans) who have not been registered as immigrants. Formerly they were registered by the Migration Committee • (Ministry of Labour and Social Protection), but are not included in official statistics of immigration; • an underestimation of labour in-migration (because of a considerable irregular component) • very limited availability of administrative data. Statistics on citizenship acquisition, residence permit issuance etc., are not available even to the NSI and are not published by the migration authority; • sample surveys are not conducted in the country, which could help better estimate labour in- and out-migration, although there was a promising experience of implementing a migration module in the national living standards survey of 2008.
National experts in Kyrgyzstan express a rather pessimistic view of the availability and quality of migration data in the country. The target group of migration policy – labour out-migration of nationals – is not counted systematically and the available data are incomplete. In 2007 the Government adopted the State programme of regulation of migration processes for the years 2007-2010. The programme particularly noted that “the absence of reliable and complete data on the volumes and composition of migration flows is an obstacle to working out the optimal decisions in migration management. It is necessary to develop interactions between agencies, use the most advanced methods of migrant registration, and furnish the responsible agencies with the necessary equipment”. The programme envisioned better equipment of border-crossing points (with assistance from IOM) and a number of other measures to improve registration of migrants. The main governmental agencies responsible for migration management and/or data collection are as follows: • • • •
National Statistical Committee Ministry of Interior Ministry of Labour, Employment and Migration State Registration Service (Department of Population Registration)
There are many similarities in the methodology and format of data collection in Kazakhstan and Russia. Even the titles of statistical reports had been the same (3-NK and 2-NK), until Russia recently introduced new ones. 21 http://www.stat.kz/publishing/Pages/Cocyalnaya_sfera%202010.aspx
• • • •
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (entry and exit visas (the latter for residence), consular registration etc.) State Committee for National Security Border Service Ministry of Education
The National Statistical Committee collects data on migration flows (both internal and international migration), conducts decennial population censuses and large-scale sample surveys. Data on immigration and emigration are published in statistical yearbooks and are available online22. Kyrgyzstan is one of the CIS countries that started conducting regular sample surveys and included a module of questions related to temporarily absent population.
Table 7 Migration related questions in population census programmes in Kyrgyzstan (1999 and 2009) 1999 Place of birth Ethnicity Mother tongue Has been continuously residing since birth at the place of residence If not: year of arrival Place of previous residence Whether a refugee or displaced person + + + + + + + Reasons for moving – economic, social, ecology (climate), other 2009
The population census is the main source of data on foreign-born and foreign population, although sample surveys of households’ budgets also provide information on foreigners residing in the country. Compared to the 1999 census, the main questionnaire (form No.2) contained a new question on reasons for moving. In 2009, the census was used to collect information on temporarily absent population, specifying the duration of absence, place of stay and reasons for moving23. National emigrants who had been absent for more that 12 months (a total of 225,000) but intended to return to the country were treated as temporary absentees and included in the resident population. As national experts noted, the collection of data on absent population was the most problematic part of the census and other sources were used to fill the inevitable gaps if an entire household was absent. The NSI is going to publish a set of tables based on the census data related to migration by age, sex, ethnicity, reasons for moving or absence, and educational attainment.
http://www.stat.kg/stat.files/tematika/демограф/Кыргызстан%20в%20цифрах/демо10.pdf Information on temporarily absent or resident population was collected through the census form No.1, List of persons residing in the dwelling
The surveys of households help better estimate actual outflows of temporary labour migrants. The National Statistical Committee conducted the following surveys with questions related to migration (mainly labour migration): - since 2002: an annual labour force survey - 2006: a non-recurring Employment and unemployment survey - October 2010: a survey of labour migration.
Table 8 Temporarily absent migrant-workers as measured by emigration module questions in surveys and censuses in Kyrgyzstan24
(thousands) Annual integrated households survey One-time employment survey, 2006 Employment and unemployment, (in collaboration with the Ministry of 2006 Labour) Census, 2009 Other sources and estimates
224.7 – stay abroad 43 – stay in another region of the country (internal migrants )
350 000 to 1 000 000
The State Registration Service (SRS) was established in 2009 and consolidated all registration functions, including population registration. The SRS is responsible for filling in and collecting primary forms of migrants registered at a new place of residence (or de-registered from the previous one). These forms are forwarded to the National Statistical Committee for further processing and producing of statistics on migration flows. Besides, the SRS is authorized to process applications for citizenship acquisition or renunciation (formerly a function of the Ministry of Interior), issues exit permits for emigrants, issues residence permits and extends visas for foreigners staying or residing in the country25. However, such data are not published and are not available so far. The Ministry of Interior, similarly to that of Kazakhstan, is responsible for most of the functions related to long-term migration of foreigners.26 Information collected deals with the issuance of residence permits, citizenship acquisition, etc. The Ministry of Labour, Employment and Migration is responsible for statistics of labour migration (although the inflows are insignificant (just several thousand migrants) as Kyrgyzstan is mainly a migrant-sending country). Twice a year, the agency prepares a report containing aggregated information. The Ministry also registers forced migrants and refugees (although this category of migrants is very small – in 2009 there were only 209 persons). The Border Service provides statistical reports to the NSI (Department of International Economic Cooperation) which are published in an aggregated form (not by country) in statistical yearbooks and online27. Statistics include the total number of exits of Kyrgyz nationals (to CIS and other countries as a sum total) and on entries of foreigners to Kyrgyzstan. Migration cards are not used
Source: T. Abubakirova. Implementation of migration module questions in household surveys of Kyrgyz republic. Presentation at the UNECE Regional Workshop “Strengthening National Capacities to Improve Migration Data”. Bishkek, 15-17 February 2010. 25 The functions of the SRS are described online(in Russian) at http://srs.kg/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=115&Itemid=74 26 For information on the basic migration-related services provided by the MOI of the Kyrgyz Republic, see the official website at http://www.mvd.kg/index.php?option=com_fjrelated&view=fjrelated&layout=blog&id=203&Itemid=339&lang=ru 27 http://www.stat.kg/stat.files/din.files/ved/5080005.pdf
in Kyrgyzstan, although the necessity of introducing this instrument of migration control has been discussed for several years. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for visa issuance and registration of nationals at consulates abroad. Data are not published but should be collected. According to the Law every national should be registered at a consulate if they stay abroad for 3 months or longer. However, registration appears to be voluntary; there is no control over it. Thus data from consulates should be incomplete. MFA statistics are not published. Kyrgyzstan plans to work out a new framework of migration regulation for the period of 2011-2015. Issues of data collection will likely be among the most important ones.28 The basic problems related to data quality were summarized by national experts under the OSCE/IOM project: • incompleteness of consular statistics, as registration at consulates is voluntary; • absence of migration cards; • inefficient control of exits of nationals and entries of foreigners and an impossibility to estimate labour out-migration as well as temporary in-migration; • unavailability of data on acquisition of foreign citizenship by Kyrgyz Republic nationals; • recommendations: to make relevant amendments to the legal base and introduce new systems of data collection (migration cards), and to establish a compulsory procedure of registration at consulates; • technical and financial limitations to the development of a Joint Migration Information System (EMIS); • unsatisfactory (or almost non-existent) information exchange between the agencies collecting data on migrants of different types; • insufficient exchange of information between different countries of the region. International organizations assist Kyrgyzstan in capacity-building: the IOM supported a project on establishing of a regional database and information exchange between different agencies within the Central Asian Regional Migration Programme (supported by DFID).
Official statistics on both international and internal migration in the Russian Federation is produced by the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation (Rosstat). For several decades, Rosstat has been responsible for decennial population censuses and annual statistics on migration flows. Regular household-based national labour force surveys conducted by Rosstat are not used for the purposes of migration research. The remaining part of statistics (and migration-related concerns) is collected and produced by administrative bodies. The main ones are the following: • The Federal Migration Service collects data on: – issued residence permits and permit holders; – labour migration (issuance of work permits, invitations for workers from visa countries, notifications received from employers hiring migrant workers);
– – – – – •
statistics of registration at a place of residence29 and stay (both foreigners and nationals) data on citizenship acquisition; statistics on asylum; data on penalties and control functions; data on migration cards is issued and collected, etc.;
The Border Service collects and annually transfers to Rosstat information on entries to and exits from the Russian Federation by country, purpose of entry/exit and type of transport; The Ministry of Foreign Affairs provides information, upon request, on citizenship granted through consulates and registration of Russian nationals residing abroad; data on applications for entry visas is not available so far30.
Statistics on foreign students are collected directly by the regional agencies of Rosstat from institutions of tertiary and secondary professional education and are available in statistical yearbooks as well as online. Some of the administrative agencies regularily send part of the collected data to Rosstat, in the form of aggregated statistical reports. Part of these data is included in statistical yearbooks and published (namely data on labour migration, international students, and forced migrants). The statistics collected and produced by all of the above bodies are very uneven in terms of availability (which is improving) and quality. Official statistics of flows of long-term migration are based on the processing of primary arrival and departure forms obtained from territorial bodies of the Federal Migration Service, which are filled in during population registration or deregistration at places of residence31. The definition of a place of permanent or usual residence does not imply a time threshold of any length or a period of daily night rest as recommended by the United Nations standards. According to legislation, it is “a place where a person permanently or usually resides being an owner, or under the terms of a tenancy contract, etc. – a house, flat, hostel, sheltered housing etc.” A similar definition was used in Soviet legislation and was later inherited by many of the post-Soviet countries. Registration of migration events and collection of primary data on paper forms is an anachronism, being a laborious and costly process. Rosstat and Federal Migration Service recently agreed to try to transmit files with individual data on foreigners to Rosstat. The information was extracted from the Central Data Bank of Foreign Population (a kind of alien population register). The analysis of the small fragments of information was disappointing. Due to mistakes in input and plenty of fields left blank32, the data could not be used for statistical purposes as of yet. Rosstat continues the dialogue with the Federal Migration Service in an attempt to influence the practices of data input and improve its accuracy. However, it does not seem that the massive amount of manual work will be replaced with electronic forms of data communication anytime soon.
Not all cases of registration are connected with migration. Newborn children are included in registration statistics; persons who have exchanged their passports for various reasons also have to re-register. That is why Federal Migration Service data could only partially be used in monitoring migration. 30 However, the situation does not seem to be hopeless; a representative of the Consular department emphasized in a phone conversation that the MFA had merely never been asked to provide these statistics. 31 http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/B09_16/IssWWW.exe/Stg/7-00.htm 32 As a rule, this happens to variables that are not necessary for administrative purposes – such as educational attainment, occupation etc.
Quality statistics on migration flows. Self-declaration of arrival and departure, and an absence of efficient control over registration have a negative impact on coverage. In addition, data quality has decreased due to the changes in procedures and rules of registration that have taken place during the last two decades. These modifications have led to some groups of migrants being excluded from or, conversely, included in the statistics collection process. Data on immigration. The new Law on freedom of movement (1993) introduced two types of registration: permanent, at a place of residence (migration is counted) and temporary, at a place of stay (migration is not counted)33. These changes led to a considerable underestimation of the numbers of both internal and international long-term migrants who registered at a place of stay, as there was no time limit to the stay and it could last for years. In 2000 special regulations prohibited registration of foreigners without a residence permit. It led to a further decrease in registered inflows of immigration because it was difficult to obtain this status and migrants had no choice but to register at a place of stay. In 2008 this rule was upheld in the Administrative regulations on population registration34 and the situation became somewhat better. Between 2002 and 2007 there was no legal base for data collection. The new law on the legal status of foreigners in the Russian Federation (2002) made no reference to the gathering of migration statistics for the needs of Rosstat. The staff of Federal Migration Service agencies, as a rule, continued to fill in the forms for statistical registration only for foreigners with permanent residence permits35 although most of the resident foreign population had temporary residence permits. However, in some regions police officers stopped collecting data on foreign immigrants for Rosstat as it was no longer compulsory. For example, judging by Rosstat data, in 2002-2003 there were no foreigners at all among immigrants to Moscow, while the Federal Migration Service issued thousands of residence permits. Further analysis proved that the majority of foreign immigrants were in fact registered and counted but with a short time lag. Since 2003, when naturalization legislation was liberalized, almost all immigrants from the former USSR got a chance to obtain Russian citizenship through a simplified procedure. In a few months they obtained passports of the Russian Federation and were then registered at a place of residence as Russian citizens who had arrived from abroad. Official statistics showed “return” migration of Russians that in fact resulted from a quick status change. In 2006 the new law on the registration of migrants allowed the Federal Migration Service to register holders of temporary residence permits at a place of residence. The Federal Migration Service issues over 200,000 temporary residence permits every year. Experts and specialists from Rosstat expected the percentage of foreigners among immigrants to increase, as well as the size of the total inflow36. Data demonstrated an increase, although not as large as it could have been – from 186,000 in 2006 to 287,000 in 2007. The percentage of foreigners increased from 9% to 24% (Charts 5-6). Only 67,000 of immigrants had foreign
Meaning that the Form for Statistical Registration of arrival had to be filled in only in the case of registration at a place of residence, not of stay. 34 Rosstat receives around 300 thousand forms filled in for long-term migrants (RF nationals) with temporary registration per year. The data is not included in the population balance equation but used for estimations of population size. In 2009, the officially registered net migration was 247 thousand, while after corrections the estimate was greater by 12 thousand: 259 thousand. (Statistical yearbook Population and Migration 2009 table1-03 and table 2-01) 35 Only residence permit holders were allowed to register at a place of residence. 36 because registration at a place of residence constitutes a reason to fill in the Form for Statistical Registration of Arrival.
citizenship, the rest being Russian nationals. It was unclear why the remaining temporary residence permit holders were not included in the statistics as foreign immigrants. Analysis shows that until 2010, the majority of foreign immigrants were included in immigration statistics only upon acquiring Russian citizenship. An increase in immigration since 2007 may be the result of double count if the same person was counted before and after citizenship acquisition (as a foreigner and as a national). The possibility of such a practice seems to be very realistic. It has an impact on the quality of data in terms of both coverage and composition of immigrants by nationality.
Chart 5 Increase of immigration in Russia as a result of new rules of data collection Chart 6 Composition of immigration flows by citizenship, Russian Federation
350 000 300 000 250 000 200 000 Non-nationals total 150 000 100 000 50 000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 RF nationals
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 9,9 0 2002 2003 2004 15,8
76,1 89,2 91,8 91,3
23,9 10,8 8,2 2005 8,7 2006 2007
Source: Rosstat data
Source: Rosstat data
Partial information on the actual composition of immigrants by citizenship could be obtained from statistics on temporary residence permits. However, there are numerous immigrants from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Belarus37 who do not need a residence permit to submit an application for Russian citizenship. Thus statistics never count them as foreigners. Emigration from the Russian Federation is considerably underestimated. Many emigrants do not declare their departure if there is no need to sell their place of residence. Some people move abroad on temporary employment contracts that are extended or renewed. In some cases, Federal Migration Service officers forget to fill in the statistical form and send it to Rosstat. According to a Federal Migration Service administrative report, in 2009 the agency de-registered from the place of residence about 42,000 persons who were going to emigrate, while Rosstat received only 32,000 forms for statistical registration of emigration (departure). Comparison of statistics of emigration with the data collected in the main countries of destination showed an underestimation of emigration from the Russian Federation of 20% at the very least (Denisenko, 2002). For instance, in the case of emigration to Finland in 1992-2009, Rosstat counted only about 40% of persons who were registered as immigrants in Finland within the same period (a total of 14,748 and 40,36238 persons respectively). The Population Census is the main source of data on migrant stocks. Although administrative data on residence permit holders partially provide information on long-term foreign residents, the
in accordance with the international agreement of 1999. Source: Statistics Finland, immigrants from the Russian Federation , all age groups 1992-2009
census is the only source of data on “foreign-born”. Two successive censuses of the Russian Federation (2002 and 2010) collected information on resident population (both foreign and national) and on foreign population temporarily staying in the Russian Federation for less than 12 months. Separate questionnaires were used.
Table 9 Migration related questions in the All-Russia population censuses 2002 and 2010 2002 Place of birth Citizenship Ethnicity Continuity of residence at a specific place (urban / rural area) : since birth, not since birth If not, specify the year of arrival , if moved between 1989 and 2002 ; specify the place of residence in January 1989 (*time of the previous census) (country, region, rural or urban area) Knowledge of the Russian language (yes/no) Knowledge of other languages + + + Continuity of residence: specify the year since which the person has been residing at the place or residence (since birth, not since birth): If not, specify the place of residence 1 year prior to the census (in October 2009): country, region, rural or urban area + + Mother tongue 2010
In October 2002, the total resident population of the Russian Federation was about 145.2 million; about 12 million (8.3%) were foreign-born, 96% of them born in the countries of the former USSR and only 466,000 in other countries39. Over 1.6 million respondents did not specify their country of birth. The stock of foreign population was not significant – 1.03 million foreigners and 423,000 stateless persons. 1.3 million respondents did not provide information on citizenship. The short questionnaire for foreigners temporarily staying in the Russian Federation included questions on age, sex, country of birth, country of permanent residence, citizenship and purpose of arrival in the Russian Federation (work, education, tourism/ recreation, treatment, transit, other). In 2010, a question concerning duration of stay (in months) was added, while the question on ethnicity was removed. Only 239,000 of foreigners answered the questions in the short questionnaire in 2002; among these 156,000 stated that they had arrived in the Russian Federation to work. It is thought not to be the largest part of the stock of temporary migrants, and the majority of migrant workers did not participate in the census. The same problem is expected to be encountered in the 2010 census. Migrants who live in private households may not want or be able to answer the questions. In 2010 the stock of temporary foreign population was not much larger, amounting to only 285,000 persons. Labour-force surveys have been conducted in the Russian Federation since 1992: once a year in 1992-1994 and 1997-1998, twice in 1995, quarterly between January 1999 and August 2009, and monthly since September 2009. Over 69,000 of respondents residing in private households and aged 15-72 are involved in each survey. The questionnaire contains 83 questions, including a question on citizenship (albeit with only 3 options of answer – Russian, other, double) and a question about workers who may be employed at the respondent’s household. The following
Information on parents’ birthplaces is not collected in either the census or the Federal Migration Service administrative records. This means that statistics on second-generation immigrants are not available.
question deals with this worker's citizenship and type of job performed. Per the methodology of the survey, the information gathered ought to deal with the resident population. Thus respondents with foreign citizenship are treated as persons on a temporary stay, and the information gathered is excluded from processing. The unique information on household-employed migrants was deemed unsatisfactory (from Rosstat's point of view) and also excluded from processing (Ryzhikova, 2010). In fact, the survey conducted in the first quarter of 2010 showed that there were about 80,000 foreigners employed in private households. These figures seem to be sufficient for working with these statistics further. (According to Federal Migration Service data, the stock of foreigners legally employed in private households at the end of 2009 was about 99,000). The Federal Migration Service is the main agency in the Russian Federation to collect and produce administrative data on different categories of foreigners and migration-related events. The Russian Federation does not have a national population register so far. A kind of aliens’ register (Central Data Bank of Foreign Population) was established five years ago and is now in the process of developing its capacity. More and more information is available based on this resource. Theoretically, the Central Data Bank of foreigners provides an opportunity to measure flows of long-term and short-term migrants and to obtain information on the stock of migrants at any moment. The main problem now is to control the accuracy and completeness of data input to make the produced statistics meaningful and correct. Data on residence permits are not sufficient to measure migration, because the largest part of immigrants from Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan (around 25% of annual inflows of immigrants) are not included in this data. Nationals of these countries (and Belarus) may apply for citizenship directly after arrival, skipping the intermediate status of a residence permit holder. Statistics of labour migration are produced in two forms: the Federal Migration Service quarterly prepares a set of aggregated tables to be sent to Rosstat. These tables constitute an official statistical report on international labour migration. Rosstat publishes the aggregated data in statistical yearbooks40 while more detailed information is available upon request at the Federal Migration Service. The official report consists of two parts: 1-T - RF nationals employed abroad and 2-T – foreigners employed in the Russian Federation. The official statistics of outflows of the Russian Federation migrant-workers are based on information coming from authorized (FMSlicensed) recruiting agencies. The data show how many contracts were signed by Russian nationals, and what their composition was by age, sex, education, sector of employment and duration of contract. However, this channel of recruitment provides workers to very few types of employment – mainly in maritime professions (80%), and holiday work for students (about 20%). The data could hardly be used to describe or analyse labour out-migration from the Russian Federation as the majority of Russians find jobs through other, independent channels. Statistics of labour in-migration provide information on the stock at the beginning of the year, inflows and outflows of foreign workers, and the stock at the end of the year. Data on inflows of ‘hired’ foreign workers from visa-free and visa-regime countries are based on different sources. To measure the inflow of visa-free workers, the Federal Migration Service uses notifications from employers with confirmation of hiring, and for workers with visas, it uses administrative information on issued work permits. Until 2007 as it was employer-sponsored migration work, permits were counted for both categories of migrants. It was presumed that all work permits were
activated given that employment had been guaranteed. Since 2007, migrants from visa-free countries are allowed to apply for a work permit themselves, without a preliminary contract with an employer. In order to have more accurate data on those actually employed, it was decided to calculate the inflows of such migrants through confirmations of employment. Outflows of migrant workers are estimated on the basis of the duration of the contract mentioned in the hiring notification (for visa-free workers) or work permit expiry date (for workers with visas). In the case of an early termination of a contract, an employer must send a notification to the regional or local agency of the Federal Migration Service. Data on asylum is collected by the Federal Migration Service and based on standard procedures. Reports on asylum seekers, refugees and forcibly displaced persons are sent to Rosstat on a regular basis for publication in a statistical yearbook. For inexplicable reasons, figures differ between Rosstat and Federal Migration Service reports. Besides, the Federal Migration Service recently started collecting data on persons granted temporary asylum. This category includes applicants who were refused refugee status. Out of humanitarian considerations, the government of the Russian Federation gives these people a chance to remain in Russia for a while until a suitable solution is found. Migration cards collected at the borders by the Federal Migration Service are a potential source of useful information. One part of the card is collected at the moment of entry (passport control) and the other on exit. Officers of the Border Service store the cards and later pass them to representatives of Federal Migration Service Immigration Control officers. Statistics based on migration cards are not produced on a regular basis. The published data present the number of distributed and collected cards, but not disaggregated by country or any other variable. In the future, such data could complement the statistics collected by the border service and make them more comprehensive. Statistics on citizenship acquisition are available upon request and have been produced since 1992. Data are only disaggregated by country of previous citizenship or residence (for stateless persons). Analysis of these data should be complemented with statistics of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, since a certain part of applications is processed at consulates. For instance, since 1992 about 7.4 million persons were granted Russian citizenship, among them 5.3 million through the Federal Migration Service and 2.1 million thorough consulates. Integrated statistical report by the Federal Migration Service. In 2007, the Federal Migration Service introduced a new form of administrative statistical report - Form 1-RD, which integrated information about all types of procedures carried out by the Federal Migration Service41. This form replaced over 60 separate reports that departments of the Service had to prepare monthly. It is an electronic form (in Excel or HTML format), regularly updated and published online at the Federal Migration Service website. It has about 700 indicators, some of which have several variables. Online information is available for the whole country and, upon request, for each of the administrative regions (oblasts) of the Russian Federation. Information is provided in 13 sections: • • •
Administrative practices (penalties etc) Control functions (inspections, deportations, migration cards) Visa42 and registration work (for foreigners)
http://www.fms.gov.ru/about/statistics/data/ The Federal Migration Service has a mandate to extend the period of validity of working and educational visas;, the procedure is reported in statistics as the issuance of a multi-entry visa, but as a rule the Federal Migration Service cannot change the type of visa (educational for working etc.).
• • • • • • • • • •
Passport and registration work (for the nationals of the Russian Federation) Forced resettlement (IDPs) International labour migration Citizenship Asylum Compatriots’ resettlement Fingerprint registration Readmission Strict accounting of expenditures for forms (blanks)43 Highly-qualified specialists and patents for labour migrants.
The Russian Federation’s migration service appears to have been the first among the partner agencies in other CIS countries to begin an online and up-to-date publication of numerous statistical indicators. At the moment most of the data have not been disaggregated by country of migrant’s origin (nationality). At the end of 2010, Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation introduced a new statistical report - Form 2-RD - where the main indicators of migration-related events are provided by country of migrant’s citizenship. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs provides data on citizenship acquisition through consulates and on the stock of Russian citizens residing abroad. According to information provided by the Consular Department of the Ministry, in 2009 about 1.6 million Russian citizens were permanently residing abroad and had been registered at consulates. These data are very incomplete since registration is not compulsory. However, in some cases they can illustrate political ‘dimensions’ of the situation in the region. For example, the governmental agencies of Republic of Moldova do not have information on the situation in the area of the left bank of the river Dniester, where a considerable part of the population has obtained Russian citizenship through consulates. The population register of the Republic of Moldova reported that by the end of 2009 the stock of Russian citizens residing in the Republic of Moldova was about one thousand persons, while the Ministry of Foreign Affairs reported that the stock of Russian citizens registered at the consulates of the Russian Federation in Republic of Moldova was about 180 thousand persons. Although visa statistics are not yet available on a regular basis, some fragmentary information could be found in annual reports on diplomatic and consular activities on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs website44. According a recent report, due to the global financial crisis and an overall decline in people's mobility the number of visas issued to foreign citizens by Russian consular institutions abroad decreased (by 16%) from 2.9 million in 2008 to 2.42 million in 2009 (Chart 6).45
Information on printed and used blanks of new passports, working and residence permits etc. http://www.mid.ru/dks.nsf/5f8c1354c8a43e0143256caa003fe24a/f5e70c7863d424fec32570f500366175?OpenDocument 45 The Foreign Policy and Diplomatic activities of the Russian Federation in 2009. Review of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs , Russia http://www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/itogi/5837BBE2727D8C3DC32576E9003AD888
Chart 7 Issuance of visas in Russian consulates and entries of visa holders in Russia
10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0
Entry visas issued in Russian consulates Entries of foreigners from visa regime countries 666.4 8223.7
Source: reports of the MFA and Border Service data
The MFA deals with issues of citizenship acquisition if the application is submitted in a foreign country. Applicants from South Ossetia and Abkhazia could submit documents for RUSSIAN FEDERATION citizenship to Russian consular offices on the Russian territory until consulates were established directly in these countries. As of now, the MFA has a database with records dealing with about 2 million people who changed their citizenship via Russian consulates abroad (Pavlovsky, 2008). When comparing these figures to Border Service statistics (on entries from visa-regime countries), one may notice that the number of entries is much greater than the number of visas issued. If the figures are correct (which seems unlikely for 1999, when the difference was too great), this means that, on average, a visa holder entered the Russian Federation at least three times with a single visa.
Chart 8 Border Service data on entries to the Russian Federation from some of the CIS countries
1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 1200 1000 800 600 400 200
Moldova Uzbekistan Tajikistan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan
Georgia Azerbaijan Armenia
1998 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Source: Border Service data (Rosstat publication)
The Border Service data deals with exits and entries of foreigners by citizenship, purpose of entry and type of transport. Statistics on Russian citizens are available by country of destination, purpose of exit and means of transport. Data is sent to Rosstat annually and published in statistical yearbooks (Russia in Figures, Tourism in Russia, Population and Migration in Russia) and online application at the Rosstat website. Although border statistics register trips rather than persons, they also could partly illustrate the economic or political context. For instance, the economic crisis of 2009 caused a considerable decrease in inflows of migrant-workers from the main migrant-sending countries. (Chart 7a). Political discord between the Russian Federation and Georgia since the beginning of the 2000s led to a dramatic decrease in the number of entries from Georgia to the Russian Federation (chart 7b) Statistics of international students are collected by institutions of tertiary and secondary professional education (of the federal and municipal forms of property) and sent directly to regional agencies of Rosstat for further aggregation and publication in official reports46. Institutions under jurisdiction of the Ministry of Science and Education also provide statistical reports to the Ministry. Data collection is regulated by the Order of Rosstat and is based on standard reports. Data is available by country of citizenship, stocks and flows (enrollment and graduation)47 . Rosstat provides access to statistics to international organizations, national governmental and non-governmental agencies and individual users. Most of the information is published online. The Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation shares data with national agencies as well as with corresponding agencies and ministries in the CIS countries (in accordance with the decision reached by the Council of Directors of Migration Services of the CIS countries in 2009) The main problems concerning the quality and availability of data on migration can be outlined as follows: • • • • • absence of representative sample surveys with questions related to migration absence of access to microdata from censuses insufficient coverage of emigration flows very slow development of interaction between Rosstat and the Federal Migration Service from the perspective of data collection in electronic format (instead of paper forms) absence of access to civil records dealing with vital events occurring to migrants (foreign, foreign-born or permanently residing abroad).
Besides the Agency on Statistics under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, several other agencies collect data on migration-related events: • • Migration Service (registration of migration based on migration cards for foreigners arriving in the country, cards received from the Border Service) Border Service (registration based on border cards (departure) for nationals leaving the country)
http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b10_13/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d2/07-85.htm See table 2.10: http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=105930;fld=134;dst=100525
• • •
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (registration of labour migrants in the Russian Federation (from non-CIS countries) State Agency for Social Protection, Employment and Migration of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection (licensing of worker-recruiting agencies, registration of refugees and ecological migrants) Ministry of Interior (passport and visa bureau: registration of arrivals and departures for the purposes of internal statistics).
The Agency on Statistics – collection of primary statistical forms from the passport registration bureau of the Ministry of Interior. The Agency on Statistics produces general data on internal and international migrants registered in or deregistered from the place of residence. The Agency on Statistics also conducts household sample surveys and population censuses. The census in Tajikistan collected information on core and non-core topics related to migration. However, data collected in 1999 were not processed in a proper way for budgetary considerations; namely, the stock of foreign population was not identified.
Table 10 Migration-related questions in the censuses of 2000 and 2009, Tajikistan 2000 Place (country) of birth Ethnicity Mother tongue Other languages (fluent) Citizenship Continuity of residence at the specific place of residence: since birth, not since birth, If not since birth: for those who migrated between 1990 and 1999, specify the year since which the person has been residing continuously at this place of residence and - place of the previous residence. - Type of settlement (rural/urban) Whether a refugee or displaced (forced) migrant + + + + + Continuity of residence in the place of residence: since birth, not since birth, If not – place of residence 1 year prior to the census Place (country) of previous residence Type of settlement (urban or rural) 2010
Not long ago, Tajikistan started conducting sample surveys to fill the gap in information collected through administrative systems. The main surveys and the results of the estimation of outmigration are as follows: • Labour force survey (2004, 2009, 2010). In 2004 the survey reported 317,900 outmigrants, in 2009 (provisional data) – over 500,00048. • Survey of migration (2005) – 371,000, only 30% legally employed49 • Survey supported by the Asian Development Bank (2007) – 700,000 (98% in the Russian Federation)50 • Survey conducted by the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection (2008) – 430,000.
S.Kurbonov. “Methods of Estimation of Labour Migration in Tajikistan”. Presentation at the UNECE Regional Workshop, Strengthening National Capacities to Improve Migration Data. Bishkek, 15-17 February 2010 49 Mughal Abdul-Ghaffar , Migration, Remittances, and Living Standards in Tajikistan. A Report Based on Khatlon Remittances and Living Standards Measurement Survey (KLSS 2005). IOM, September 2007 50 Олимова С., Таджикистан: от вынужденной к трудовой миграции. В кн.: Постсоветские трансформации: отражение в миграциях. Под ред. Ж.Зайончковской и Г.Витковской. М., 2010. С. 391.
The current estimations of the size of outflows are highly contradictory both in the countries of origin and of destination. Simultaneous surveys are necessary in the countries of destination (Russian Federation) in order to verify the data collected in the countries of origin. The Border Service's statistics are not available, although passport control information has been collected by purpose of entry and country of traveller’s nationality. During the country trip to Tajikistan (OSCE/IOM project) we were not allowed to obtain any interviews with representatives of the Border Service, which would have allowed us to ascertain whether they operate any kind of an electronic system of passport control. As of now, it seems that migration cards are the only data collected at the borders, but this resource belongs to the Migration Service.
Chart 9 Comparison of data on labour migration from Tajkistan to Russia
800 700 609.3 600 500 412.1 400 300 200 100 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 60.4 195.1 213.0 171.2 RF data on stock of officially employed migrant - workers from Tajikistan (end of the year) RF data on inflow of officially employed migrant-workers Tajikistan 574.0 Tajkistan data on outflow of workers to the RF (statitics based on migration cards) 677.4 646.3
Source: Data of Rosstat and Migration service of Tajikistan
The Migration Service51 is responsible for most of the procedures concerning the stay of foreigners in the country, naturalization issues and issuance of migration cards for both nationals and foreigners (see Annex). Consultations with specialists at the migration service showed that most of the procedures are carried out not in electronic databases but in special logs (and cards). A migration policy focused on labour out-migration, and the relatively small amount of foreigners staying in Tajikistan (including labour migrants), do not stimulate the creation of modern electronic systems of data collection and processing. Statistics are not produced on a regular basis, but the aggregated reports are provided upon request. Tajikistan is one of quite a few countries actively using migration cards to produce some types of statistics. The card, containing as it does a limited number of variables (see Annex) is entirely suitable for describing the scale of outflows from the country, even though exits are counted rather than persons. Since 2010, these cards are also distributed among citizens of Tajikistan on arrival. Migration cards for foreigners have a slightly different design (see Annex). However, the potential of this resource is not utilized well due to financial and organizational difficulties. Consultations with Migration Service specialists have shown that the information collected is not entered into a computer and therefore not processed. Migration cards are counted daily, and the migrants' sex is the only variable available in statistical records, which are filled manually in a special diary.
Formerly a division within the Ministry of Labour, reorganized and attached to the Ministry of Interior in 2007. Since January 2011 it has the status of a separate governmental agency.
Due to the radically different nature of the information, comparisons of data collected with the aid of migration cards with other types of statistics ought to be made with care. For instance, we cannot be sure that the inflow of irregular migrant- workers from Tajikistan to the Russian Federation is three times greater than the inflow of legal ones (chart 8 shows the issued work permits (Russian Federal Migration Service data) and the amount of migration cards collected at the Tajik border). Work permits mainly deal with physical persons, while the use of migration cards results in a double count of persons who have crossed the borders of Tajikistan more than once. Tajikistan's migration policy mainly deals with labour out-migration and statistics on these flows are of chief importance. The fundamental legal acts regulating international migration –the Migration Policy Framework (2001) and the Programme of Regulation of Labour Migration from Tajikistan (2006)52 contain paragraphs directly dedicated to the issues of migrant count. The Ministry of Labour and Social Protection collects data on labour in- and out-migrants recruited via licensed agencies. Although Tajikistan is a migrant-sending state, there are several thousand foreign migrant workers in the country (9,000 as of 2004). Regular data about nationals of Tajikistan recruited via intermediary licensed agencies (whose total number is about 20) is very incomplete. In 2001 and 2002, only 3,343 and 12,182 Tajik migrants, respectively, were employed in the Russian Federation53 through this channel, while the total outflow was estimated by experts at 600,00054. In 2006 the number of labour out-migrants exceeded 460,00055. In 2006, only about 2,000 migrants left Tajikistan to work abroad, while the total outflow was estimated a) by sample surveys - at a level of 200,000 to 300,000, and by migration card data, at 500,000 to 600,000 persons. The Russian Federation is the main country of destination for migrant workers from Tajikistan. By comparing data from the Russian Federation on Tajik workers legally employed in the Russian Federation with the data obtained from migration cards, one could estimate the scale of illegal employment of Tajik nationals in the Russian Federation (Chart 8). MFA data on visas and consular registration is not available. Registration at consulates seems not to be controlled. Visa statistics also cannot be a relevant source of data as Tajikistan has a visafree regime with more than 80 countries of the world. The main problems concerning migration statistics in Tajikistan are as follows: • • • • Incomplete registration of temporary labour out-migration Impossibility to estimate seasonal fluctuations in migration outflows Insufficient data exchange with receiving countries Unavailability of administrative statistics (making it impossible to check its completeness and quality) (As IOM experts have elaborated further, there are problems in free exchange and dissemination of information at the national level, between the different governmental agencies in Tajikistan (Sharing Data: Where to Start. 2006)).
http://migratsiya.tj/rus/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=10&Itemid=5 http://migratsiya.tj/rus/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=10&Itemid=5 54 Olimova S., Bosk I. Labour Migration from Tajikistan. IOM, Dushanbe, 2003. С.21. 55 Olimova S., Kuddusov D. Families of Migrants in Tajikistan: Problems and Ways of Their Solution. Analytical Survey Report. Dushanbe, Irfon, 2007, p. 30.
III. Recommendations on improving migration statistics in the region
• Revise the legal base in the sphere of collection and dissemination of migration-related data both by national statistical agencies and by other administrative bodies in the selected countries; • Organize large-scale specialized sample surveys on migration; including migration modules in existing household surveys (labour force and budgets), especially in migrant-receiving countries such as Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan; • Put to better use of statistics collected in destination countries to measure out-migration – both temporary labour migration and long-term migration for residence; • Provide access to microdata of censuses and sample surveys;
• Develop electronic systems of population registration, establish population registers, and produce population / migration statistics on the basis of electronic arrays of individual information instead of paper forms; • Put to better use the administrative data. Proliferation of the Russian Federation Federal Migration Service's experience in establishing a central data bank on alien population. Prepare integrated statistical reports on migration-related events under the responsibility of migration authorities. Prepare administrative statistics disaggregated by the main variables necessary for the analysis of migration (sex, age, reason for moving, citizenship, etc.); • Have a comprehensive discussion of the usefulness of migration cards, as these often duplicate the functions of data collected by border guards through passport-control procedures. If the introduction of migration cards appears to be useful, it would be worth while to organize data input and processing for statistical purposes; • Make use of civil records to produce statistics outlining the impact of migrants on vital events (births, deaths, marriages) in order to better understand and predict the short- and long-term demographic consequences of migration; • Disseminate information on the sources and types of statistics of international migration, as well as the main peculiarities of data interpretation among policymakers and other specialists in migration studies, through training courses and publication of comprehensive descriptive and methodological materials; • Have more active discussion of the availability and quality of statistics and data needs at a national level between data producers and data users (ministries, parliaments, researchers and massmedia representatives); • Conduct capacity-building in the sphere of data collection and statistics production in every agency responsible for migration management in the country ; • Exchange data more actively at both the national and the international level. Participate in the formation of national and international databases on migration; regularly revise of definitions and assessment of produced statistics through international, regional and national seminars, workshops and conferences. 34
Abubakirova T. (2010). Implementation of Migration Module Questions in Household Surveys of Kyrgyz Republic. Presentation at the UNECE Regional Workshop “Strengthening National Capacities to Improve Migration Data”, 15-17 February 2010, Bishkek. Denisenko M. (2002). Emigration from Russia from the Perspective of Foreign Statistics. Demoscope-weekly. No 65-66. Денисенко М., (2002). Эмиграция из России по данным зарубежной статистики. Демоскоп-weekly, № 65-66 (in Russian). [URL:http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/2002/065/tema02.php] Jamangulov K. (2010). Allover Review of Sources of Data on International Migration and Statistics in Kazakhstan. Джамангулов Кайратбек (2010). Всесторонний обзор доступных источников данных о международной миграции и статистики в Казахстане. ILO / EU project Astana. Khakimov P. Collection of Data on Labour Migration and Statistical System in the Republic of Tajikistan: an Overview of Sources and Methodology of data Collection. (Consultancy for ILO Tajikistan) Парвиз Хакимов. Сбор данных относительно трудовой миграции и статистическая система в Республики Таджикистан: обзор источников и методологии сбора данных (Проект МОТ) Таджикистан. Kurbonov S. (2010). Methods of Estimation of Labour Migration in Tajikistan. Presentation at the UNECE Regional Workshop “Strengthening National Capacities to Improve Migration Data”, 1517 February 2010, Bishkek. Manke M., Folden C., Mortensen T. (2006). Sharing Data: Where to Start. International Organization for Migration. Mughal Abdul-Ghaffar. (2005). Migration, Remittances, and Living Standards in Tajikistan. A Report Based on Khatlon Remittances and Living Standards Measurement Survey (KLSS). International Organisation for Migration, September 2007. Olimova S., Kuddusov J. (2007). Migrants’ families in Tajikistan: Problems and Solutions. Irfon, Dushanbe. Олимова С., Куддусов Д. (2007). Семьи мигрантов в Таджикистане: проблемы и способы их решения. Аналитический отчет по исследованию, Ирфон, Душанбе . Olimova S. (2010). Tajikistan: from Forced to Labour Migration. Post-Soviet Transformation: Reflection in migration. Edited by Zaionchkovskaya Zh. And Vitkovskaya G. C391. Олимова С. (2010). Таджикистан: от вынужденной к трудовой миграции. В кн.: Постсоветские трансформации: отражение в миграциях. Под ред. Ж.Зайончковской и Г.Витковской. М.,С. 391. Pavlovsky V. A. (2008, May 15). [Interview with the Director of Consular department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) of Russia]. The Consular Service of Russia Helps Forced Migrants and Counteracts Illegal Immigration. Rossiiskaya Gazeta. (in Russian). Павловский В.А., (2008, 15 мая). [Интервью с директором Консульского департамента МИД России] Консульская служба России помогает переселенцам и противодействует нелегальной иммиграции. Российская газета (in Russian). Taipova T. (2009). Population and Housing Census in the Kyrgyz Republic. Presentation at the UNECE Regional Workshop “Strengthening National Capacities to Improve Migration Data”, 1517 February 2010, Bishkek. Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of population RT. Labour Policy in Tajikistan. (2010). Analytical Report. Irfon. Dushanbe. Политика труда в Таджикистане (2010) Ирфон, Душанбе (in Russian). [URL: http://www.labour.tj/Final%20research%20labour%20policy_Rus.pdf]
Table A Definitions of immigrants and emigrants in selected CIS countries used in statistics of flows
DEFINITIONS Table 1. Persons who immigrated to your country by country of previous residence, by sex (years 20002006) Nationals and foreigners registered in a place of permanent residence , foreigners must have a residence permit if intends to stay over 1 year. Nationals and foreigners that arrived from abroad for residence in RK for 6 month and longer, and were registered in a place of permanent residence . Foreigners must have a residence permit if intend to stay 6 months and longer. Immigrants -nationals and foreigners registered in the place of residence if intend to stay 6 months and longer. Foreigners must have a residence permit. Persons registered in the new place of residence. Foreigners - must have a residence permit (temporary or permanent) (** TRP holders registered in the place of residence since January 2007) No time criterion. Persons registered in the new place of residence. For foreigners residence permit is not obligatory (the new rules are to be adopted in future) No time criterion. Table 3. Persons who emigrated from your country by country of next residence, by sex (years 2000-2006) Nationals and foreigners leaving for abroad and deregistered from a place of residence. Nationals and foreigners leaving for abroad and deregistered from the place of residence
Emigrants, nationals and foreigners , leaving for abroad and deregistered from the place of residence in Kyrgyzstan. Nationals and foreigners leaving for abroad and deregistered from the place of residence.
Nationals and foreigners leaving for abroad and deregistered from the place of residence.
Table B Availability of statistics on stocks in selected CIS countries
DATA SOURCES AZERBAIJAN KAZAKHSTAN KYRGYZSTAN RUSSIAN FEDERATION TAJIKISTAN
Stock of foreign population by country of citizenship
NA Сensus 1999, 2009 Census 1999 (data for 2000); for 2003-2006 Household Budgets Survey. Census 2002 Census 2000
Stock of foreign-born resident population by country of birth NA Сensus 1999 Census 1999 (data for 2000); for 2003-2006 Household Budgets Survey. Census 2002 NA
Table C National definitions of place of residence in legislation of selected CIS countries*
Country Armenia Definition of place of residence and place of stay (if applicable) Place of permanent residence is a territory where a person have a right to reside and which is declared as a place of residence. Place pf stay – no exact definition, temporary stay is presumed. Time criterion for registration in a place of residence is 3 months for nationals, while the foreigners (except immediate relatives, including siblings) first must gain an ordinary residence permit whish is available only after 3 years of residence in Armenia. There are 3 other types of residence permit that is valid for one year and could be extended annually. In case of emigration a person must declare the departure if the period of absence lasts for 6 months and longer. Place of residence – is a house, flat , or an official dwelling apartment, hostel, retirement and invalids home, etc. where a competent person resides for a long period of time as a proprietor or by a rent contract. Place of stay is a place where a person resides temporarily –a hotel, sanatorium, tourist centre, hospital etc. or a dwelling (of his/her own, of a relative, acquaintance, etc.) that is not the place of residence Registration in a place of stay is obligatory: for nationals if they stay there for 60 days and longer, and for foreigners if a period of stay does not exceed 30 days. Time criterion for registration in a place of residence is not applied for nationals (not identified in available legislation); for foreigners it is equal to 30 days. A foreigner must have a permit for immigration and confirm his or her a right to reside in a certain dwelling space. After registration a foreigner gains a certificate of registration. Place of residence is a place where a person permanently or predominantly lives as an owner or under the terms of tenancy contract, etc. (house, flat, hostel, sheltered housing, etc.). Time criterion as a rule is not used, however for temporary stay (for the foreigners) it is limited by the visa expiry date or must not exceed 90 days during one year in case if visa is not applied . Place of residence of a person is a place that has been chosen for residence. Minors are registered in the place of residence of their parents or guardians. If a person does not have a dwelling space, he or she is registered without indicating an address (and should visit the registration agency every 6 months). Time criterion - 6 months both for nationals and foreigners. (New legislation on Population Register was adopted in 2004) Place of residence – houses, flats, hostels, hotels, sheltered housing, sanatoriums, hospitals, retirement and invalids home, and official dwelling apartment. Time criterion both for nationals and foreigners: 6 months of residence. Place of permanent residence is a place where a person resides permanently or predominantly, place of stay - a place where a person resides temporarily. Time criterion for registration – in a place of residence – as a rule – 6 months for nationals and obligatorily for foreigners (+residence permit); registration in a place of stay: for nationals – period of stay must exceed 45 days, for visa-free foreigners -over 60 days, Russian Federation citizens and Kazakhstan – 90 days- 6 months (till 6 months). Place of permanent residence is a place where a person lives permanently. As a rule 6 months criteria is applied for nationals, foreigners which intend to stay over 90 days must have a residence permit for registration. Nationals: place of residence – a place where a person permanently of usually resides being an owner, or under the condition of tenancy contract, etc. – (house, flat, hostel, sheltered housing etc.) Place of stay – is a place where a person resides temporarily – a hotel, a sanatorium, a hospital etc. or any dwelling space that is not a place of permanent residence of a person. Foreigners: place of residence of a foreigner or a stateless person in the Russian Federation – is a dwelling space at the address of which the person is registered (permanently); place of stay is a dwelling that is not the place of permanent residence, and any dwelling, official apartment or an institution where a foreigner stays or by an address of which the foreigner must be registered (temporarily). (Since 2007 a foreigner can be temporarily registered at the address of a company, institution etc.) Time criterion is not applied. Both nationals and foreigners – place of residence is an administrative territorial unit where a person resides for 6 months and more within a year; place of stay is an administrative territorial unit where a person resides for less than 6 months within a year. One more definition is also used: place of residence is a place where a person permanently or predominantly lives as an owner or under the terms of tenancy contract, etc. (house, flat, hostel, sheltered housing etc.)
Republic of Moldova Russian Federation
Notes: The table is based on national legislation of the CIS countries and partly on information provided by the experts of the national statistical institutes *Information was not available for Tajikistan.
Table D Available variables in statistics of flows of immigrants and emigrants
Azerbaijan Form is filled in for migrants aged: 15+ 16+ Name and Surname Year and month of birth (age) Place of birth Sex Citizenship Ethnicity Previous place of residence Since what year had been living in the previous place of residence New place of residence (full address) Reason for move: - education - employment - return to the previous place of residence - family reasons - increase in crime - unsatisfactory ecology or climate - aggravation of inter-ethnic conflicts - economic reasons - other reasons Expected duration of residence Place of previous employment and employment In case of non-employment , indication of source of income Educational attainment Marital status If married, arrived with the souse (yes, no) Children that arrived with the adult migrant < 15 years old < 16 years old If a part of the family already has resided in the new place of residence (yes/no) Data of filling in the form Other questions : Profession according to education Place of birth The form (questionnaire) is filled if duration of planned residence is over a c certain period: Migration between all types of settlements is counted6) ♦ ◊ ♦ ○ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ○ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ○ ♦ ○ ♦ ○ ♦ ○ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ○ ◊ ○ ○ ♦ ♦ ♦ ○ ♦ ♦ ○ ◊ ○ ♦ ♦ ○ ♦ ○ ♦ ◊ ◊ ◊5) >6 months ♦ ♦ ◊ ♦ ○ ♦ ◊ ♦ ♦ ○ ○ ♦ ♦ ○ ♦ ○ ○ ○ ♦ ○ ○ ○ ♦ ♦ ○ ♦ ◊ ♦ ◊ ♦ ♦2) ♦ ♦ ◊ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ○ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ○ ◊ ♦ ○ ♦ ♦ ○3) ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ◊ ○ ○ ♦ ♦ ○ ○ ♦ ◊ ♦ ○ ♦ ○ ♦ ♦ ○ ♦ ♦ ♦ ○ ♦ ○ ○ ○ ♦ ◊ ◊ ◊ ♦ ♦ ♦ Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Russia ♦1) Tajikistan
◊4) >12 months ♦
Source of the table: CIS Statistical Committee methodological working paper on migration (2009)
♦ The variable is included in the questionnaire and processed. ◊ The variable is included in the questionnaire but not processed. ○ Variable is not included. 1) Data are collected for migrants of all ages since 2008. Before 2008 information on the children under 14 was included into the form of an adult moving with the child. 2) Variable is processed since 2006. 3) Variable is not processed since 2008. 4) > 12 months 5) > 6 months. 6) The form is filled in all cases of migration except move between rural settlements of the same administrative district.
Migration cards used in selected countries Tajikistan: Migration card for foreigners
Tajikistan: Migration card for nationals (since 2010 used both for exits and entries)
Kazakhstan: Migration card for foreigners
Russian Federation and Belarus: Migration card for foreigners
Kazakhstan: Migration card for nationals Question № 2. Have you been living here since birth? (If ‘Yes” skip to q.6) 3. Date of arrival 4. Country of birth (Kazakhstan, CIS country, other) 5. Have you ever resided abroad? If ‘Yes’, specify country name and period of residence (years) 6. Within the last 10 years you: • Have been continuously living in this place • Have moved within the administrative region (oblast) – Moved from rural to urban area – Moved from urban to total area • Arrived from another region (of the country) – Moved from rural to urban area – Moved from urban to total area • Arrived from abroad – Within the quota for oralmans – As a refugee – As a labour migrant
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