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NGO Management Training for West Africa Civil Society Forum (WACSOF)

December 4-6, 2007 WACSI Secretariat, Accra Ghana

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Introduction
1.1 Background


Managing Different Types of Organizations Program and Project Management People Management Organization Management Strategic Management Financial Management Corporate Governance Community Management

5 6 8 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

10.0 Image and Advocacy 11.0 Evaluation and Research 12.0 Conclusion Appendix One: Training Program Appendix Two: Training Participants Appendix Three: Topics

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)

1. O Introduction
NGO institutional capacity building is critical. The thrust of a capacity building program is to strengthen NGO competencies in different aspects of development work through training and institutional development. WACSI organised a training workshop on NGO management for WACSOF. This training was in response to a request made by WACSOF for WACSI to help it in its restructuring and repositioning process. During a working session between WACSI and WACSOF in October, WACSOF requested that WACSI provide assistance and capacity to deal with two main challenges facing the institution: 1) Uncertainty over the role in its structure, particularly between Executive committee and General Secretariat leading to conflicting relations; 2) The need to strength the technical capacity of the secretariat in areas of project management and accountability.

WACSI and WACSOF have a unique and mutually beneficial relationship within the ECOWAS sub-region. It has become imperative that WACSI facilitates the process of WACSOF achieving its objectives. This report articulates the concepts, discussions and comments articulated at the Training workshop. The workshop was held at the West African Civil Society Institute (WACSI) in Accra, Ghana from the 4th to the 6th of December 2007.

The objectives of the training workshop were to: Create Awareness Of Management Challenges Non Governmental

Organizations (NGOs) Face In The ECOWAS Sub-Region. Help Create A Dynamic And Sustainable WACSOF Leadership That Leads To Significant Community Impact. Highlight On Preferred Donor-Driven NGO Management Structures And Processes Which Make Fund Accessibility Successful. Focus on Reinventing the Future of NGO Management Processes and Conventions within the sub-region.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)

The facilitators for the duration of the program were Dr. Bill Pupulampu, Chief Executive Officer of PsychonHR, Professor John Aheto, Chairman of the Board (PsychonHR) and Professor Ken Attafuah from the Justice and Human Rights Institute. Approximately 20 people attended the training program. Participants were Executive Members of WACSOF within the ECOWAS sub-region. The training philosophy and approach was underpinned by discussions, interactions and group exercises.



Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) are the most important catalyst for West Africans to experience improvement in the quality of life. They are at the forefront of the quest to build enlightened and progressive societies through the promotion of good governance, accountability and transparency among others. They are the representatives of interest groups within society and have gained acceptance.

CSOs are supported by donors, national governments, international agencies, citizens among others. The involvement of CSOs in the processes of defining development strategies and results is important and effective in West Africa. They participate in the various processes to develop poverty reduction strategies. They are involved as members of thematic groups responsible for diagnosis, and for defining objectives and desired results. They also participate in public discussions of poverty.

However, these organizations are faced with severe challenges that prevent them from fully achieving their goals. The lack of credibility, transparency, and professionalism in their own operations and management are some of their weaknesses. One of the most critical challenges in CSOs environment in West Africa is to address these gaps through a capacity building mechanism that could elevate these organizations for the benefit of the people of West Africa.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)

2.0 Managing Different Types of Organizations

There are clear differences between Public Agencies, Private Companies and NGOs. Public agencies have the following features including, political pressure on activities of public agency and appointments are according to law and political consideration. In addition, public agencies are structured, operate and are determined by law and usually present life-long employment opportunities for public servants.

Private companies are characterized by profit maximization as premium priority and accountability to shareholders and the board of the company. Appointments are made by the owner or board or management. Tasks are easily carried out due to the control nature of these organizations. However, NGOs are created by individuals with an ideological, personal and/or religious agenda. This presents a potential for the clash of ideas. Financing is most often a critical problem. Voluntarism makes hiring and firing difficult because there are a lack of structures and systems.

There are similarities between private business and NGOs. An important similarity is the fact that private companies are set-up to make profit; NGOs are set-up to improve lives and communities. Another interesting similarity is that whilst in private companies it takes qualified and result oriented managers and staff to achieve the vision, in NGOs it takes discipline and qualified managers and staff to achieve the vision. The three different types of organizations have distinct human resource competency needs. Public sector management needs educated professionals that are political savvy. Private sector management needs profit-minded entrepreneurs that are assertive. NGO sector management needs idealists that are political savvy and assertive.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)

3.0 Program and Project Management

Projects, programs and policy contextually differ in form and purpose. NGOs thrive and work in a projects setting. However, projects dont sit alone. They reside in programs. Programs emanate from policy. Policies are areas of thematic focus that an NGO will devote itself. The policy may be derived from community problems, thrust of the NGO and social, political and economic issues in the country or region. A policy should address challenges in a systematic manner through effective articulation, documentation and a long-term framework.

NGOs should differentiate programs and projects. An NGO may have more than one program or thematic area. A program is a set of interrelated ideas and activities organized around a core theme and running within a short to medium term period. However, a project is a set of interrelated tasks which are directed to achieve a particular limited objective within a short period. A program may have many projects within it. The features of projects encompass the fact that it emanates from programs and is time-bound. Projects need a multiplicity of people, skills and time management. Projects must be delivered to time, to specification and to budget.

NGOs should be aware of the concept of the critical path and the importance of the logical framework. The critical path is a situation where key activities must necessarily happen before an NGO can achieve a project. Other activities are subsidiaries. NGOs have to stick to the logical framework (log frame) and reporting parameters of donors in order to attract necessary funding. A log frame is a document that sets out a philosophy, an agenda, costs, geographic delivery patterns, interrelated tasks, when, why, delivery dates, proposal concepts and monitoring and evaluation standards. Many donors ask for a log frame at the proposal stage or as a mid-term evaluation tool or at both the beginning and end of a program.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)

The value of the log frame encapsulates a monitoring and evaluation tool and a blue print for program management. The log frame is also a tool for project audits and a basis for sourcing funds. The components of the log frame include: Narrative Summary which is defined as the goal, purpose, outputs and activities of the project as described in the left-hand column of the logical framework. Goal is defined as the ultimate result to which your project is contributing-the impact of the project Purpose is defined as the change that occurs if the project outputs are achieved- the effect of the project. Outputs is characterized as the specific intended results of the project activities- used as milestones of what has been accomplished at various stages during the life of the project. Activities are defined as the actual tasks required producing the desired outputs. Indicators are measurable or objectively verifiable indicators, qualitative and quantitative ways of measuring progress and whether projects outputs; purpose and goal have been achieved. Means of Verification is the information or data required to assess progress against indicators and their sources. Assumptions are factors external to the project which are likely to influence the work of the project management has little control, and which need to exist to permit progress to the next level in the log frame. Super Goal is the long-term results of continued achievement of the goal of the project. Inputs are defined as the materials, equipment, financial and human resources needed to carry out the activities of the project.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)

4.0 People Management

NGOs are encouraged to manage their staff by using the entry-maintenanceexist framework. Entry into a NGO should be done professionally by NGOs themselves or they should hire consultants or recruitment agencies to do it right. NGOs are encouraged to move away from familiarity and a voluntary mind-set. It is imperative for NGOs to clearly define skills, knowledge, and competencies required for each job.

NGOs are encouraged to undertake interviews that assess technical, managerial and interpersonal skills of candidates. They should select candidates who would best fit into the job and the organization and issue appointment letters where probation plus confirmation periods are clearly stated. Another important entry process is induction and orientation which would help new employees imbibe the organizations culture and values. In addition, it also helps employees to attach some level of importance and seriousness to the induction or orientation process.

NGOs are advised to implement a Performance Management and Appraisal System (PMPA). This system should include: monitoring of tasks, the range of core competencies, task execution processes, targets and professional standards. It is important for supervisors to understand the PMPA which aims to identify performance gaps and provide remedies and assist, reward and progress management. Training and development and compensation management are very important for the growth of NGOs. If there is no money for training and development, what should NGOs do? This is an issue for NGOs to reflect on.

What determines the grounds for sanctions and terminations (Exit Strategy)? There should be rules and regulations that should be clearly spelt out and made known to employees. Sanctions should be based on the rules and in conformity with the labour law and not on emotions. Nonetheless, the notice period for exit should be known to employees and employees should have a social security policy.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)

5.0 Organization Management

Stakeholders are encouraging NGOs to move from voluntarism to a formal organization in order to be sustainable. Voluntarism is good and NGOs must maintain a spirit of volunteer work. However, within a year or two NGOs must create procedures to cover their existence. Stakeholders have advised NGOs to register with appropriate authorities, set up documents for entry and exit of staff.

They should have a functional organizational structure and a functioning advisory board. In addition, NGOs should not expect free service and they should seek expert help if they are not competent to undertake the specific task. NGOs must find suitable organizational structures that fit their objectives and vision. They could opt for a hierarchical or coordination structure. Choosing a hierarchical structure or coordination structure depends on the practical situation of the specific NGO. NGOs must be run well and its leaders must be accountable to a board, stakeholders and donors.

6.0 Strategic Management

The strategic management process encompasses strategy formulation and strategy implementation. In order for NGOs to remain sustainable, there is a need for them to formulate strategic plans. A strategy is an organizations approach to achieving its various objectives and intentions in the short, medium and long-term. A strategic plan will highlight a NGOs comparative advantage and its position with respect to others and its focus on what it should do or be doing. The plan contains specific detailed activities geared towards a strategic action. The impact or end-result is the most important factor. There is a need for NGOs to formulate visions and continually re-vision. The vision will sustain the organization because it represents a compelling, ideological and philosophical thrust of the organization.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)

The formulation process includes the SWOT analysis and the development of corporate and functional or departmental strategies. Strategy implementation involves the implementation of the strategy and monitoring and evaluation. Most often, strategic plans are formulated but not implemented effectively.

Researchers have argued that it takes a focused and determined leadership and an inspired set of followers to undertake strategy implementation effectively.

7.0 Financial Management

Financial management encompasses budgeting, internal controls and auditing. Budgeting is a scientific process of systematically allocating scarce resources to unlimited demands and uses. Internal controls are processes by which an entity obtains a reasonable assurance as to the achievement of specified objectives. Auditing is a systematic process of objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence regarding assertions about economic actions and events, to ascertain the degree of correspondence between the assertions and established criteria and communicating the results to interested users.

A budget is a financial aspect of a strategic plan. A budget contains information about types and amounts of proposed expenditures, the purposes for which they are to be made, and the proposed means of financing them. The four main budgetary phases and functions are planning, control, monitoring and evaluation, reporting and feedback. Cost and a minimum level of quality should be taken into account in the process of budgeting.

Control activities involve policies and procedures that ensure that management directives are carried out. There is a technical difference between the internal and external auditor. An internal auditor helps to check anomalies. His auditing outcome helps NGOs to be alert to financial inconsistencies and subsequently enshrine preventive measures. People who perform control procedures are not infallible. Electronic data processing helps to reduce the incidence of temporary breakdowns since staff functions are programmed and assigned to computers.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)


The requirements for an effective audit are having evidence gathering and evaluation knowledge and the knowledge of how evidence is evaluated. Competent sufficient evidence to support the audit opinion on financial statements is an important requirement. There is also the need for reasonable assurance from material errors or financial misstatements. Collaboration between the internal auditor and external auditor is imperative for prudent financial management.

8.0 Corporate Governance

NGOs should create dynamic partnerships and foster the mobilization of people. Governance structures of NGOs are to be examples to national governments. Rogue NGOs exploit the vulnerability of the poor and the generosity of the rich. Civil society should bring civility to public discourse. The foundational pillars of good governance are accountability, adherence to rules and regulations, effective communication, leadership by example, vision sharing, clear-cut policies and adherence to specific guidelines.

The power of the board of directors is determined by the duties it must perform. The duties of directors entail managing, directing and supervising. This does not mean that directors are required to manage the day-to-day activities of a company or to act in the role of an Executive Director or Chief Executive Officer. The conflict areas between the Board and the Executive Director include funding and spending powers, media opportunities, speaking engagements,

appointments among others. The role of Executive Director presents itself with certain leadership challenges. The bullying boss syndrome, tokenism and sexual harassment environment. are recurring issues that occur within the organizational

Directors are vested with all the powers that are reasonably,

necessary and incidental to their primary tasks. Within their exclusive spheres of authority, directors are sovereign.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)


Directors are not agents for shareholders but agents of the company. Directors are the embodiment of corporate power. They are required to use their best endeavors to preserve the companys assets, further the companys business and promote the companys purposes. Directors are servants of the entity and not servants of the components. Directors are enjoined to consider the interest of employees, members and creditors. The organizations fiduciary duty carries with it a broad and unbending obligation of loyalty and fidelity. Directors have a duty to administer the affairs of the organization for the sole benefit of the organization. This duty also extends to management, employees and other officials of the organization. Directors must administer with honesty, prudence, best care, best skill and best judgment.

Directors have an obligation to avoid conflict of interest. Conflict of interest can be described as an interest, direct or indirect with any third party that has the potential to impair the exclusive benefit of the organization. Conflict of interest scenarios can be overcome by formulating and adhering to strict conflict of interest policies and guidelines. An upper ceiling should be established with respect to quantum or monetary value of gifts that may be accepted by a director or other officers of the organization. In such situations, any gift is disapproved except gifts of a value less than US$50, which could not be refused without discourtesy. No professional gift of money is ever to be accepted. Interestingly, sexual harassment and sexual exploitation and abuse are classified as conflict of interest situations.

9.0 Community Management

It is important for NGOs to understand the concept of the community. A community may be defined as a group of people who live in a particular geographical area for example a village, town, district or country. It may also be defined as a group of people who share a common history and a common set of social challenges.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)


The overall objective of NGO work is to bring about community development and social change and assist people to experience better or true self-determination. An NGO that is truly engaged in community development deploys a process aimed at promoting citizen awareness of problems by enabling them to define their needs in relation to the total environment. NGOs must assist communities to be socially and economically viable in order to support individual and family growth to enhance the quality of life. Community development interventions require a program, a methodology and a process. It deals with balancing community needs against NGO needs. It is important to ensure a strategic fit between the needs of both parties. Where the needs dont match the communities may not participate and benefit to the maximum. NGOs may not achieve their vision or may deviate from their mission.

Opinion leaders and the grass root constituent should be the first point of call for NGOs before program implementation. Prior information about the community and possible areas of resistance by such leaders is important. It is important to determine what such leaders like or dislike and their history, culture, language, traditions of community. Program officers should develop healthy relationship with the grass root people. Project staff should not betray the trust reposed in them by local people. There should be a feedback mechanism for hearing the voices of the local people through durbars on the implementation challenges, the impact of the project on the community and areas that require remedies among others.

10.0 Image and Advocacy

The image of an NGO within the community, amongst donors and amongst volunteers is crucial in their quest to achieve their goals. NGOs should shed the not-serious image of NGOs by building systems and structures for delivering quality service, by demanding professionalism from all staff and the need to stop employing relatives after the initial year or so.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)


Donors do not want to deal with an organization that is not professionally managed. Donors are particular about results hence sponsor organizations that are serious. Continuous inflow of funds from donors is tied to the seriousness attached to the timeliness and accuracy of reports. There is a need for NGOs to market and advocate extensively. This can be done by exploring other communities who need their service apart from the current ones. Marketing is important because it secures donor sustained interest in a particular project and ensures a long-term survival of the NGO. It also helps the NGO survive the different forms of competition from civil society space and donor support.

Advocacy issues may be tackled by submitting reports to district authorities and by networking with other NGOs to engage central government to influence policy initiation or implementation. In addition, NGOs should participate in policy matters within their scope at the early stages of policy formulation. NGOs are encouraged to respond positively to questions and feedback from donors. If it is an internal anomaly, its imperative the NGO communicates and helps the staff deal with it. If it is external, there is a need to device an appropriate strategy to prevent, manage or minimize its impact.

11.0 Evaluation and Research

Social problems need sound data to inform strategy for intervention. It is important for NGOs to design the research instrument carefully and use appropriate analyses tools. If NGOs cannot undertake research, they must access academic papers, books among others. There a various approaches to evaluation. They can be categorized as goal evaluation, proves evaluation and impact assessment. The evaluation process begins with the need to clearly define what an NGO is intending to achieve with the intervention and concludes with ascertaining whether the society has changed, whether the problem has improved and whether lives have changed.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)


12.0 Conclusion
Training is essential for NGOs. It is important for WACSOF to build its institutional capacity. WACSI will play an important role in this process. WACSOF platform can be used to augment the research and documentation work of WACSI. WACSI can help facilitate WACSOF advocacy programs. WACSI will organize thematic dialogue through reflection sessions for WACSOF.

The following recommendations were made at the WACSOF training workshop:

Organizational Development It is important for NGOs to understand that merit and capacity are not priorities in a public agency. This is because appointments are determined by political lobbying and other political considerations. Theoretically many NGOs link merit and capacity but in practice it is rare. There is a need for NGOs to move beyond voluntarism to a structured organization. It is imperative for networks to determine the criteria for qualification as an NGO in order to reduce the number of illegitimate NGOs.

WACSOF has to solve its coordination and articulation problems between the
sub-regional level and national level.

There is a need for WACSOF national platform institutional capacity building

for progressive revenue drive and effective coordination.

Program and Project Management There is a need for NGOs to make a distinction between programs and projects. NGOs often muddle the two concepts. Programs being determined by funding agencies which makes it difficult for NGOs to create community-specific projects must be discouraged.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)


People Management NGOs should engage in barter trade with foundations that offer human resource training support. NGOs should be more creative by using internal staff who can train colleagues in their areas of competence. NGO staff should make use of information on the internet and library sources.

Organizational Management Autocracy is quite necessary within a certain context. However, there must be a balance. The overbearing nature of a charismatic Executive Director who sustains the NGO but when he or she leaves or passes on the NGO finds it difficult to survive is an issue that must be tackled. The biggest problem with NGOs is the lack of transparency and coordination.

Strategic Management When formulating the strategic plan there is a need for NGOs to be sincere, honest truthful, factual, open, committed, determined, fair, objective, transparent, and passionate. There is a need for NGOs to determine their comparative advantage. That particular activity they undertake very well.

Financial Management There is a need to cost activities within a project properly and avoid miscellaneous expenses or contingency. Every activity must have a personnel cost dimension. Networks such as WACSOF can become a conduit for supplementary top-up funding for NGOs NGOs should invest their funds by making use of investment funds in between the time of receipt and implementation. This process requires a good internal auditing system that tracks the monetary transfers.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)


NGOs should find innovative ways of raising money and find mechanisms to be entrepreneurial to overcome the lean season. Profit-making ventures can be created by NGOs through their subsidiaries but this depends on the legal environment the NGO is situated in. NGOs should seek supplementary grants from research institutions.

Community Management NGOs must identify prominent community leaders and work through them. There is a need to be aware of the hierarchy in a community. There is a need for NGOs to be aware of local sensitivities as they undertake their work in communities.

Image and Advocacy NGOs should remodel their image away from family-owned outfits. The image of NGOs can be more acceptable if they fall within civil society work and not other areas which are not really about community development. WACSOF has to deliberate on the criteria for inclusion and exclusion in order to protect the image of NGOs within the sub-region. NGOs are encouraged to treat all actors with impartiality except when a particular group of actors are becoming exploitative by trampling the human rights of people. It is imperative for NGOs to understand that they are political. It is just that they are not carrying cards. This will help them engage with political actors to influence public policy formulation and implementation. NGOs within the sub-region have to explore local generosity or philanthropy for funding. Donors have to be made to be concerned about the real problems of the populace. West African NGOs have to move towards financial independence in order to minimize the overbearing influence of donors.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)


NGOs can solve their financial problems by using professional fund raisers who can get funding from the private sector.

Evaluation and Research NGOs must specialize on research and use the outputs to achieve positive outcomes. In order to make alternative proposals, research must be consistently undertaken. Research should not be a commercial activity but it should be at the service of the citizenry. There is a need for NGOs to have quality databases and a center of documentation. Information is paramount for every NGOs agenda. WACSOF should establish a decent office complex with a resource center and related facilities. WACSOF must embark on research and documentation activities.

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)


Appendix One: Training Program

8.00 9.00am 9.00 10.00am REGISTRATION TOPIC 1: Managing Different Organizations o NGO, o Public Agency and o Private Company? Exercise 1: TEA BREAK TOPIC 2: o o o TOPIC 3: o o o Programme & Project Management Nature of programs Nature of projects Logical frameworks Light Bulb Moment People Management Entry Maintenance Exit LUNCH Exercise 2: Design a Project, create its management framework; report it using a Log Frame; Report back 3-3.30 TOPIC 4: Organization Management o o o 4.30 - 5.15pm From voluntarism to formal organization Structure Governance & the moral imperative


10.00 - 10.30am 10.30 - 11am 11.00 - 12.00pm

12.00 - 12.15pm 12.15 - 1.00pm

1.0 0 - 1.45pm 2.00 3.00pm

3.30 - 4.30pm

Tea Break/Exercise 3: Based on the learning so far in People & Organization Management, discuss and list some specific things you are going to do, change or introduce in your NGO on this matter: Report back

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)




9.00 - 10.30am

TOPIC 5: Strategy o o o o o Who are we? The NGOs Focus The strategy process Ownership, deployment and monitoring of strategy Reviewing your strategy TEA BREAK EXERCISE 4 on designing the Strategy of your NGO NGOs must be thematically grouped for this exercise (e.g. those in HIV/Health; Community Development; Political Action/Democracy Advocacy etc)

10.30 - 11.30am

11.30 - 12.30pm 12.30 - 1.30pm 1.30 - 5.30pm

Report back on Strategy of each set of NGOs LUNCH TOPIC 6: Financial Management o Budgeting o Internal controls o Programme, project and corporate level Auditing

7.00- 9.00

TOPIC 7: Corporate Governance

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)


TIME 9.00 - 10.30pm

DAY 3 TOPIC 7: Community Management o Understanding the concept of the community o Rural and urban communities o Community needs against NGO needs o Opinion leaders and the grass roots Tea Break TOPIC 8: Image and Advocacy o o o o Shedding the not-serious image Behavior of NGO officials Marketing and an advocacy program Donor management

10.30 - 11.00pm 11.00 - 11.45pm

11.45 - 12.30pm

TOPIC 9: Evaluation & Research

12.30 - 1.30pm


Appendix Two: Seminar Participants

NB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 NAME Ms. Gertrude Adu Yebo Prof. Paul Kuruk Akpo Teleshpore Muua Vandu-Chikolo Mr. Wilberforce Okoli Ms. Caroline Bowah Dr. Mariam Maiga Ms. Nathalie Kone Mr. Malcolm Joseph Mr. laoual Sayabou Mr. Koku Ahianyo Ama Esso Abah,Hgozi Helen COUNTRY Ghana Atlanta USA Benin Nigeria Nigeria Liberia Mail CoteD Iovire Niger Niger Togo Togo Nigeria ORGANISATION WACSOF WACSOF WACSOF WACSOF WACSOF FOHRD/LANSA WACSOF WACSOF Nigeria WACSOF FOSCAO FOSCAO FOSCAO WACSOF EMAIL ADDRESS ngozabah1@yahoo.cim PHONE UNMBER 0243-060221 0246-748362 02299-7484804 234803070405 2348033114906 231-6532820 233-9069291 225-22411722 231-6514357 00228-96963458 00228-9303056 228-9013967 243-807631293

WACSI Policy Advocacy Series (No. 2) 29


Ms Edel Barbosa Almeida

Cape Verde



15 16 17 18 19

Ms. Iyesha Josiah Prof. Oumar Ndongo Mr. Dele Sonubi Rev. Kaine Nwashilli Ms. Suzanne Traore

Sierra Leone Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria


232-76711342 070-33009456

234-8023035193 234-8062178743

WACSI NGO Training Series (WACSOF)


Appendix Three: Topics

1. Managing Different Types of Organizations 2. Program and Project Management 3. People Management 4. Organization Management 5. Strategic Management 6. Financial Management 7. Corporate Governance 8. Community Management 9. Image and Advocacy 10. Evaluation and Research

WACSI Policy Advocacy Series (No. 2) 29