Action Research Title “ An Action Research on What Teaching Method is Effective as Perceived by the students on How to Improve the

Financial Statement Analysis Skills of the Financial Management Students of Arellano University Manila School of Business Administration” 1. Statement of the problem , question, goal, or issue--a paragraph or so. Statement of the Problem“ What Teaching Method is effective to Improve the Financial Statement Analysis Skills of the Financial Management Students or Arellano University Manila School of Business Administration”. 2. Rationale: This study aims to improve the Financial Statement Analysis Skills of the 3 rd year students of Arellano University Manila School of Business Administration. These students are currently enrolled in the Finance 16 Class of Professor John Evan C. Miguel MBA., for the 1 st term of the school year 2011-2012. The proponents have been teaching for the past 5 years in the School of Business and Administration of Arellano University Manila. During the 1st semester of the school year 20112012 he was given a teaching load of Finance 16 a subject entitled Financial Analysis. The students enrolled in their classes are composed of 3rd year students under the Financial Management Program of Arellano University. The proponent was concerned that most of the students were not that skilled on formulating financial statements. Most of the students were not that knowledgeable of preparing the basic financial statements like the income statement, balance sheet and cash flow statements. This was a serious concern for the proponents because the students were already in their third year of studies. It was presumed that third year Financial Management students should have developed the competency in formulating the basic financial statements. Also, the competency in formulating financial statements is crucial for the students to get hired for the job and for them to accomplish the tasked assigned to them as financial managers.

Why did you select this problem (question, goal, issue)? What is the origin or basis of the problem (where did it come from or what gave you the idea)? Why is this important problem? 3. Context of the project The respondents of the action research are the students of Arellano University Manila School

specifically experiential learning. andany other relevant contextual information. Piaget. and possibly engage in large or small group discussions is frequently visualized when learners are asked about formal learning settings. 1971). University of Idaho/ Marilyn Cross Bischoff. ask questions. have been supported by a . classroom. 1951. and challenges). "Experiential Methods for Teaching Financial Management to Youth" Chris Koehler. The age of the students are between 17-22 years old. The student respondents are in the 3rd year level of the Financial Management program of the said University. students' previous experiences.resources. Review of Related Literature The proponent was able to obtain the following literature to aid him in his study. other forms of teaching. This image of teachers up front and learners in rows of chairs persists both in reality and in people's minds. even though using the learner's experience to expand the knowledge base has been promoted in education for decades (Dewey. subject area (if appropriate). However. limitations. The image of teachers imparting knowledge to "students" as they take notes. Some of the students are working students but majority are professional students. Lewin. materials. The class is composed of 18 students comprising 4 males and 14 females. 4. 1958. Most of the students belong to the classes C and D of the society.of Business Administration. University of Idaho “ Classroom teaching has often been equated with information given by instructors. : Describe the respondents (age. Washington State University/ Mary Ann Lawroski. abilities.

connect. infer. Kolb (1984). through reflective observation to formulate abstract conceptualizations (see figure 1). 1994). Research shows that active learning improves students' understanding and retention of information and can be very effective in developing higher order cognitive skills such as problem solving and critical thinking. In this model.Experiential learning is an approach to education that focuses on . I forget.merlot. the learner moves from a concrete experience. educators will be required to re-conceive their tasks. Kolb suggests that the learning experience includes four activities: concrete I remember.number of authors.Critical thinking is a collection of mental activities that include the ability to intuit. It brings these activities together and enables the student to question what knowledge exists. When planning for experience-based teaching. Keogh. and Boud. the learner engages in four distinct activities in the learning process.Cooperative and collaborative learning are instructional approaches in which students work together in small groups to accomplish a common learning goal. These conceptualizations are then tested through active experimentation. Some kind of experiencebased training and practice is necessary. • Critical Thinking . •Collaborative/Cooperative Learning . Requiring learners to simply engage in games or simulations is not enough. If I see. learners tend to emphasize certain of these activities and under emphasize others. • Discussion Strategies . Confucius us reputed to have said:If I hear.Clickers enable instructors to rapidly collect and summarize student responses to multiple-choice questions they ask of students in class. clarify. reflect.Engaging students in discussion deepens their learning and motivation by propelling them to develop their own views and hear their own voices.They need to be carefully planned and executed. These authors include concrete learning experiences as an important part of their models for learning. “ Teaching Strategies Merlot Pedagogy a program of California State University Source: http://pedagogy. abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. but they don't require permanently formed groups. reflective observation. The links below will show you some ways to make your classes more engaging.html There are a variety of teaching strategies that instructors can use to improve student learning. In experiential learning the role of the teacher is as a facilitator. Traditional educators are likely to be ill-equipped for the facilitative role and to be uncomfortable in it (Byrne. •Clicker Use in Class . As facilitators in learning rather than conveyors of knowledge and evaluators of performance. Experiences must be processed through reflections and debriefing in order to maximize their value (Lewis & Williams. and Walker (1985) are among the prominent writers who have challenged the way knowledge is imparted. A good environment for interaction is the first step in encouraging students to talk. Thus. Learning by doing is by no means a new idea. and judge. •Experiential Learning . If I do. it is essential that educators clearly understand and accept this new role and prepare themselves for the tasks required. 1980). I understand. representing a preferred learning style. which creates new concrete experiences. Individually.Active Learning is anything that students do in a classroom other than merely passively listening to an instructor's lecture. •Active Learning .

Lectures are the way most instructors today learned in classes.Mobile Learning is any type of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed location. •Learning Communities .With the inquiry method of instruction. all participants take responsibility for achieving the learning goals. Students today have grown up playing games and using interactive tools such as the Internet.Problem-based Learning (PBL) is an instructional method that challenges students to "learn to learn. there are important considerations that are different from traditional courses. The student assumes the responsibility for learning while the instructor is responsible for facilitating the learning.Instructors today encounter a diverse population in their courses and many times need assistance in knowing how to deal with them. • Games/Experiments/Simulations . Most important. Within a learning community. phones. The learning is structured and supervised and enables the student to reflect on what has taken place. •Teaching with Cases .Case studies present students with real-life problems and enable them to apply what they have learned in the classroom to real life situations. This method encourages students to build research skills that can be used throughout their educational experiences. •Interdisciplinary Teaching . The role of the educator is to design "direct experiences" that include preparatory and reflective exercises. and will help prefer students for their careers. discovery. and the generation of knowledge. Communication with students becomes extremely important." on the participant's subjective experience. if used in teams.Communities bring people together for shared learning.Games. •Mobile Learning .Online and hybrid courses require careful planning and organization. •Online/Hybrid Courses .Using humor in the classroom can enhance student learning by improving understanding and retention. Cases also encourage students to develop logical problem solving skills and. However. learning communities are the process by which individuals come together to achieve learning goals. •Problem-Based Learning . while faculty members also have a better appreciation of their own discipline content. •Social Networking Tools . once the course is implemented. •Inquiry-Guided Learning . even though they are a means of conveying information to students. •Learner-Centered Teaching . However. •Teaching Diverse Students ." working in groups to seek solutions to real world problems.Interdisciplinary teaching involves combining two different topics into one class. • Lecture Strategies .Service learning is a type of teaching that combines academic content with civic responsibility in some community project. lecturing does not hold their attention for very long. students arrive at an understanding of concepts by themselves and the responsibility for learning rests with them.Social networking tools enable faculty to engage students in new and different means of communication. • Service Learning . Thus. with today’s students. group . and other appliances."learning by doing. experiments and simulations can be rich learning environments for students. the power in the classroom shifts to the student.Learner-Centered teaching means the student is at the center of learning. • Humor in the Classroom . The process replicates the commonly used systemic approach to resolving problems or meeting challenges that are encountered in life. Games and simulations enable students to solve real-world problems in a safe environment and enjoy themselves while doing so. Instructors who participate in interdisciplinary teaching find that students approach the material differently.

Classroom experiments differ from classroom demonstrations because the students are involved in collecting data or observations. as well a series of questions that lead to discovery-based learning. to exploit their natural curiosity about economic affairs.carleton. data simulation tools or a decision making environment. analyze possible alternative actions and provide solutions with a rationale for their choices. What are Classroom Experiments? Classroom experiments are activities where any number of students work in groups on carefully designed guided inquiry questions. 1999. The instructor's role is to act as facilitator. Lecturing to sleepy students who want to "go over" material that they have already highlighted in their textbooks so that they can remember the "key ideas" until the midterm. All experiments involve collecting observations or observing actions to try to answer a . and to get them to ponder the questions before we tried to give them answers. Pedagogy in Action Science Education Resouce Center Carleton College Classroom Experiments Source: http://serc. •Team-Based Learning . During the experiment itself.At its best.interaction skills. students involved in classroom experiments can be asked to make predictions and to reflect upon their observations. A welldesigned experiment targets common misconceptions. We wanted to engage our students in active learning. •Team Teaching . with discussions before. collect data or observations.Team-based learning (TBL) is a fairly new approach to teaching in which students rely on each other for their own learning and are held accountable for coming to class prepared.Writing assignments for class can provide an opportunity for them to apply critical thinking skills as well as help them to learn course content. focusing on major ideas that students will need to understand correctly in order to support deep learning. Research has found that students are more responsible and more engaged when team-based learning is implemented. Materials provide students with the means of collecting data through interaction with typical laboratory materials. Students define problems. However. In most cases both faculty members are present during each class and can provide different styles of interaction as well as different viewpoints. We found that conducting experiments in class. • Writing Assignments . The major difference in TBL and normal group activities is that the groups are permanent and most of the class time is devoted to the group meeting. --Bergstrom and Miller. asking leading questions and drawing attention to interesting results. just as in an interactive classroom demonstration. and after the experiments is an effective and enjoyable way of moving from passive to active We got tired of it. during. team teaching allows students and faculty to benefit from the healthy exchange of ideas in a setting defined by mutual respect and a shared interest in a topic.

How to Teach with Classroom Experiments Conducting a classroom experiment is easy to do. Why Teach Classroom Experiments Experiments can be used either to introduce new ideas or to clarify puzzling aspects of topics with which students typically struggle. there will typically be "instructor's notes" containing detailed instructions for conducting the experiment. it is probably a good idea to use an experiment that someone else has prepared. Note that some classroom experiments. In addition to checking that the conceptual focus of the experiment has been understood correctly. What exactly will you do? The proponent will also conduct different types of teaching methodologies and strategies to measure which methodology will be most effective for the students to learn. assessments can push students to describe a follow-up experiment or to extend the concept to another application. In the classroom. Research experiments generally involve both control and treatment groups in order to facilitate comparison." but rather to "active learning" environments.question or solve a problem. Classroom Experiments keep learners engaged because they get a hands-on experience. In a published experiment. 5. . If the result of an experiment is surprising yet convincing. such as those that involve observing chemical behavior. require safety precautions and may need to take place in a laboratory. Classroom experiments do this as part of a class to help students learn more about the material they are studying. Classroom Experiments help instructors achieve a variety of classroom goals related to: Student Learning Outcomes Instructor Satisfaction With Teaching Grades Attendance Student Retention in Course and Major Teaching Evaluation Scores The pedagogy is built on research on learning that shows that most students do not respond best to pure "chalk and talk. In this case the hypothesis to be tested will generally be derived from material contained in a textbook or other course materials. The first time you try one. The proponent will also try to identify different kinds of technological tools to make learning more effective and efficient for the students. students are in the position to build ownership of the new idea and use it to scaffold learning. an observational experiment where students "see what happens" can also be useful.

Data The proponent will use observation. The proponent shall give a diagnostic exam to evaluate the level of competency that the students have with regard to formulating financial statements. participation. Game: Used to bring competition. . exchanging points of view while working through a problem-solving b. drills. survey and individual interview as his methodology in gathering data. Demonstration: Performing an activity so that learners can observe how it is done in order to help prepare learner to transfer theory to practical application. Computer Simulation: Use of computer aided technology in learning activities and lectures. The researcher will make use of this questionnaire in his survey to obtain relevant information from his student respondents.GANTT CHART Activity Observation Individual Interviews Survey Questionnaire Validation and Analysis of Data Person Responsible Time frame Key Results 6. SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Name (optional) Age: Gender: High School Attended: Are you a working student? If yes please indicate you position and company Awards and Honors received during High School: What is you average grade for the past 2 years: Are you living with your parents? Please rate from 1 to 9 which of the following teaching strategies is most effective for you to learn Finance Subjects: a. and feedback into the learning experience as a motivator and opportunity for application of principles d. c. Case-Based Small-Group Discussion: Small groups of 5-10 address case-based tasks.

usually to a large group and often with the use of audiovisual aids to transmit information.examine student work. Learning activity is typically done entirely by the individual learner (or group of learners) using resource materials. acts. interview. answered the question.merlot.G. i. *** Reference of teaching strategies in the questionnaire: Wehrli. f.“ Teaching Strategies” Merlot Pedagogy a program of California State University Source: http://pedagogy. h. reacts. use journals. University of Idaho/ Marilyn Cross Bischoff. solved the problem. University of Idaho . AABB Conference How will you gather relevant information about your project? What are your sources of data and how will you keep records."Experiential Methods for Teaching Financial Management to Youth" Chris Koehler. What information will you need to determine if you havemet your goals. oruse other ways to understand the situation and the changes that follow from your project? 7. Independent Study: Designed to enhance and support other instructional activities. Washington State University/ Mary Ann Lawroski. use traditional or other testing. Self-Awareness Exercise/Test: Provide insight into how the learner Nyquist. or “scores” regarding a particular topic.Pedagogy in Action . Analysis and Recommendations: How will you use the information you gather? What will you do with it after you collect it? How will you pull it together to address question I above? 8. Creating an Educational Curriculum for Learners at Any Level. Resources and References: . or addressed the issue in question Iabove? Will you observe.e. Large Group Discussion/ Question & Answer: Employs the art of seeking information and stimulating thinking and elaboration at all levels of human reasoning to achieve a given objective g. note activity patterns. Role Play: One or more participants adopt a specified role and try to behave in ways characteristics of a person in that role. videotape or audiotape.html . May be done using computer/web-based technology. J. (2003).. develop portfolios. G. Lecture/Presentation: Primarily didactic presentation of information. do sociograms.

.edu/sp .carleton.. J. Nyquist. (2003).G.” AABB Conference by Wehrli.“Creating an Educational Curriculum for Learners at Any Level.Science Education Resouce Center Carleton College Classroom Experiments Source: http://serc. G. List at least four empirical references from refereed journals that you used in designing and thinking about your project.

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