When a disaster occurs it is very important to grasp the situation as soon as possible. But it is very difficult to get the information from the ground because there are a lot of things which prevent us from getting such important data such as clouds and volcanic eruptions. While using an optical sensor, large amount of data is shut out by such barriers. In such cases, Synthetic Aperture Radar or SAR is a very useful means to collect data even if the observation area is covered with obstacles or an
observation is made at night at night time because SAR uses microwaves and these are radiated by the sensor itself. The SAR sensor can be installed in some satellite and the surface of the earth can be observed.
To support the scientific applications utilizing space-borne imaging radar systems, a set of radar technologies have been developed which can dramatically lower the weight, volume, power and data rates of the radar systems. These smaller and lighter SAR systems can be readily accommodated in small spacecraft and launch vehicles enabling significantly reduced total mission cost.
Specific areas of radar technology development include the antenna, RF electronics, digital electronics and data processing. A radar technology development plan is recommended to develop and demonstrate these technologies and integrate them into the radar missions in a timely manner. It is envisioned that these technology advances can revolutionize the approach to SAR missions leading to higher performance systems at significantly reduced mission costs.
The SAR systems are placed on satellites for the imaging process. Microwave satellites register images in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Two mode of microwave sensors exit- the active and the passive modes. SAR is an active sensor which carry on –board an instrument that sends a microwave pulse to the surface of the earth and register the reflections from the surface of the earth.
One way of collecting images from the space under darkness or closed cover is to install the SAR on a satellite . As the satellite moves along its orbit, the SAR looks out sideways from the direction of travel, acquiring and storing the radar echoes which return from a strip of earth's surface that was under observation.
The raw data collected by SAR are severely unfocussed and considerable processing is required to generate a focused image. The processing has traditionally been done on ground and a downlink with a high data rate is required. This is a time consuming process as well. The high data rate of the downlink can be reduced by using a SAR instrument with on-board processing.
X-BAND SAR INSTRUMENT DEMONSTRATOR
The X-band SAR instrument demonstrator forms the standardized part or basis for a future Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument with active front. Different sensor use different bands in the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum for collecting data. SAR is an active sensor. panel power conditioner. The panel is flight representative in form. In the X-band SAR instrument. fit and function to lower the development risk for future SAR instrument
.101seminartopics. panel control electronics. the central electronics and the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE). distribution network and the calibration network. the X-band is used for collecting data. X – band SAR instrument demonstrator
The demonstrator embraces the active front-end panel.end. Active sensors carry on-board an instrument that sends a microwave pulse to the surface of the earth and register the reflections from the surface of the earth.1.The active front-end panel consist of the radiators.
Fig. the T/R modules.
The T/R modules are connected to a RF ground support equipment.
There are two panel control electronics (PCE) and only one is active during operation. There is a power converter in the central electronics which converts a spacecraft voltage of 28V dc to 115V ac and supplies the panel. The radiators transmit these waves to the ground. The other parts of the EGSE are the digital ground support equipment and the master controller. The master controller will be a computer system which will control and coordinate the whole processes of the system. The PCE generates commands for the T/R modules on the basis of pre-programmed configuration tables. The DCE has a timing generator for generating timing signals for the active array. the ac voltage will be conditioned for the panel control electronics and the T/R modules. On the panel. The DCE forms the part of the central electronics.101seminartopics. The system shall be capable to change the radar beam within every pulse interval The planar antenna consist of 30 dual polarized waveguide radiator subarrays which are fed by the transmit/receive modules. It also provides for interfacing to the spacecraft. The function of the T/R modules is to generate frequency modulated microwave pulses . The PCE acquires the data received by the T/R modules and sends them to the digital control electronics (DCE).com
. The T/R modules perform coherent detection of received signals (analog in form) and transmit the two channel video signals ( I and Q) to the signal processor.
A single subarray has two waveguide one for horizontal polarisation and another for vertical polarisation.
Fig. PCE and the RF fed networks are seen . By using a waveguide the no power is lost.There is a cross -stiffener for providing
mechanical strength to the whole panel. A waveguide is a hollow metallic tube of a rectangular or a circular shape used to guide an electromagnetic wave. The heat generated by the T/R modules is radiated by the radiator.The PPC. The cooling loop shown in the picture is only required for continuous operation on ground.2. 3 show a single subarray The fig.4 shows the rear view of a radiator .101seminartopics.com
Fig. Connecting the T/R modules and the waveguides is a thermal plate. At the rear side of the waveguide is the T/R modules.
. shows a radiator with the 30 radiator subarrays. thus maintaining a good thermal stability over the operational temperature range of -20oC to 60oC.
The former may be reduced by careful system design and latter is determined by system consideration like the chosen
In contrast to images taken by classical visible and infra-red camera-like sensors.the SAR looks out sideways from the directions of travel . As the satellite moves along its orbit . of echoes per second acquired by SAR . This processing has traditionally been done on ground and a downlink with a high data rate is required .101seminartopics.acquiring and storing the radar echoes which return from a strip of the earth's surface which is under observation. raw data collected by a SAR are severely unfocussed and considerable processing is required to generate a focused image. Rear view of radiator
ON-BOARD PROCESSING FOR SPACE SAR
Rationale for on-board processing
Image from space under darkness or cloud cover can be obtained by flying a synthetic aperture radar on a satellite. The data rate of a SAR depends on the product of the no. A high resolution SAR instrument combined with one on-board processing unit reduces the data rate of the downlink.4.com
This is the
orbit and physical length of antenna and can only be reduced by data processing. The main function of the processing and storage subsystem is to process and store the information obtained from the SAR instrument. The processing stages involves1. Effective processing is achieved by using full data set to
produce several medium resolution images. Off-line image processing and compression of the buffered SAR data 3.
In conclusion .101seminartopics. a low data rate combined with reduced noise is only possible if image is generated onboard. This is the maximum data rate which must be handled by the input of the subsystem. Buffering of the SAR raw data stream in real-time 2. which are then averaged to reduced numbers. The input data comes in bursts.88Gbps for a SAR instrument with 150MHz bandwidth. The maximum receive duty cycle of the instrument is required to be upto 70%.016Gbps in the worse case.
PROCESSING AND STORAGE SUBSYSTEM
The image formation from the radar echo of the SAR instrument involves a highly sophisticated processing effort. Mass memory data management and organisation 4. which corresponds to the receive echoes of the radar system. Reformatting and output of compressed data at downlink rate
Raw data buffering : The digital input data stream fed to the processing and storage subsystem will have a peak data rate of 2. This technique is called multi-looking.which is realised in the data sorter is upto 2. The continuous data stream after the range extension buffer .
The off-line SAR data compression or processing shall be completed during this time. There are three different types of data compression-
-Data volume reduction of the over sampled data The SAR instrument is required to operate with a bandwidth adjusted to the range resolution.
-SAR image processing and compression The highest compression of SAR data can be achieved when they are processed to SAR images.com
range of data which is required to be written into the solid state mass memory continuously. when the instrument is switched off.101seminartopics. This means that the instrument is switched off 90% of the time and another 5% is reserved for downlink of the downlink of the data . The solid state mass memory is organised in memory modules. If this technique is used on data in a transform domain. The necessary number of memory modules is
determined by the maximum input data rate of each memory module and by the required total mass memory capacity. This effect is used for lossy data reduction. This compression operates lossless and reduces the data volume according to the actual useful data rate.
Off-line SAR data compression: The average orbit duty cycle for the SAR instrument is specified to be less than 5%. Compared to this the instantaneous range is considerably less. This technique can be combined with the data volume reduction of the over sampled data.
-Raw data compression with a BAQ type algorithm The total range of data is target dependent and very high. the properties of the instrument and the SAR processor can be used to achieve even better compression ratios. Multilooking and very efficient conventional image compression processes like wavelet compression can be applied.
Reformatting and output of compressed data at downlink rate: The SAR raw data and the SAR header data have to be read out from the mass memory.
. packetised and transferred to the data transmission subsystem.101seminartopics. sampled at a rate which is higher than (20%)the chirp bandwidth. The digitised raw data enters the subsystem from the left. In this case. Hence it is assumed that the basebanding. Digital demodulation could also be performed within the subsystem. the compressed output exits the subsystem at the right .
PROCESSING AND STORAGE ARCHITECTURE
The architecture of the processing and storage subsystem is shown in fig 5. demodulation and digitisation have taken place externally to this subsystem. In the figure. encrypted.com
Mass memory data management and organisation: The allocation of the SAR data resulting from different data takes and the header data for each data set has to be managed. through a number of t parallel channels. The
data is assumed to consist of 16 bit complex samples.with twice the sampling rate as before. the input would consist of 8 bit real samples .
The agents generally are the multiprocessor systems (MPS) whose function is execution of compression algorithms. shown as the left most agent here. located above the switch.
Fig. They may be implemented in the event that the memory capacity of the system is to upscaled.5.Generic architecture for P and S subsystem
The various architecture parameters are:
p=no: of input parameters q=no: of processing elements in the first MPS r=no: of processing elements in the second MPS
At the centre of the diagram is located a switch which connects either the input data lines or one of the agents .
One MPS is baseline . others are optional. with one of the mass memory banks located below the switch.101seminartopics.
the input data channel consisting of p parallel subchannels is connected to one of the memory banks.
During output mode.6. which has been compressed. the output formatter is connected to one of the memory banks. The function of the output formatter is to read data . each agent is connected to either one or two memory banks.101seminartopics. If multiple agents and multiple mass memories are present . If p is a
. from memory. Switching stages corresponding to different operational modes of a P and S subsystem
There are three different modes of operation :
input mode processing mode output mode
During input mode. to generate source packets of the required format and to output these packets over t parallel lines. the agents may process their respective data simultaneously. Specifically.
During processing mode.com
Fig. an agent can be connected to one memory bank for data input and to another or the same for data output. Each memory bank has p input ports which are used simultaneously.
that is a new architecture with different values of these parameters can be built without redesign of these modules. r..101seminartopics.com
multiple of t . This is done in such a way that each memory port is connected to one of the output lines once and only once.
Most of the modules in this architecture are easily scalable with respect to different values of p. the t channels of the output formatter are reconnected to the p channels of a memory bank k times . q.
This corresponds to about 24 seconds of raw data intake time .7.which is sufficient for demonstration purposes. The compression ratio is user-specified. only one module of CWIC is required.101seminartopics.This application specific hardware unit is employed to compress processed SAR images at high data rate. Architecture as scaled as in TOPAS
Each memory module in the demonstrator has a capacity of 4Gbits. increasing the processing speed of the system accordingly. In TOPAS
architecture there are two agents-a multiprocessor system and a CWIC (constant rate wavelet based image compressor).
TOPAS stands for the Technology Development of a Space-borne On-Board SAR-Processor and Storage Demonstrator. Due to the high throughput of this unit.
Fig. the MPS can be scaled to include 6 to 12 processing elements.
In more powerful versions of TOPAS architecture for 15MHz bandwidth.
2. 3. Has own source of illumination 4. Image distortion 2. Operational under all weather conditions with the capabilities for sensing the earth day and night.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
After the processing and compression of the data obtained by the SAR on-board. Cloud and fog cover are not a problem.
.101seminartopics. Provides description of surface texture. Vegetation and subsurface penetration capabilities. Coarse resolution 3. the data is send to the ground station and distributed to the customers and interpreting organisations.
1. 5. Extensive shadowing of areas characterised with relief.
Observation of vegetarian growth. Monitoring of ocean currents and traveling icebergs.com
SAR Systems has a wide range of applications such as:
. 3. 4.101seminartopics. Observation of volcanic activities and flood disasters. Land and sea monitoring. 2. 5. Detection of oil spills in oceans.
land and polar regions. both with airborne systems for surveillance and non-cooperative target identification purposes.101seminartopics.
. and with space-borne systems for geophysical
remote sensing applications over the oceans.com
Synthetic Aperture Radar is now a well established part of radar art. The capability to operate under all weather conditions make it an efficient sensor.
1.97-103.Keyedel. June 2003.vol.
2.Zahn. R. August 1999. H.150. pp. "Perspectives and visions for future SAR systems "IEE Proceedings-Radar Sonar Navigation.Braumann . vol."Innnovative technologies for space-based radars" IEE
Proceedings-Radar Sonar Navigation. June 2003. No:3.Zahn.
3. pp.101seminartopics.150. "Status of the X-band SAR instrument demonstrator development". CEOS 99.104-111.
On -board processing and compression of data obtained from the SAR is vital for image formation .
Synthetic Aperture Radar or SAR is an imaging radar system that sends a microwave pulse to the surface of the earth and register the
reflections from the earth's surface .The development of enabling technologies for space-borne SAR instruments have been a major focus of research and development during the last few years . At present the SAR systems provides only images and in future it will have to deliver dedicated information to each special user.
4. 5. 10. 6. 2.101seminartopics. INTRODUCTION X-BAND SAR INSTRUMENT DEMONSTRATOR ON-BOARD PROCESSING FOR SPACE SAR PROCESSING AND STORAGE SUBSYSTEM PROCESSING AND STORAGE ARCHITECTURE TOPAS ARCHITECTURE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES APPLICATIONS CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 3 6 7 9 12 13 14 15 16
. 9. 8. 7.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS
P. Biji Paul for their kind co-operation and guidance for preparing and presenting this seminar. Muhammed Kutty our group tutor and also to our staff advisor Ms.101seminartopics.com
I extend my sincere gratitude towards Prof.Sukumaran Head of Department for giving us his invaluable knowledge and wonderful technical guidance.
I express my thanks to Mr.
I also thank all the other faculty members of AEI department and my friends for their help and support.