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**14 Loci and Transformations
**

Additional section to be used before Section 14.6.

**14.5A Straight Edge and Compasses Constructions
**

In this section we consider how to draw some shapes and specific angles using only a straight edge and compasses. We begin by drawing the key constructions.

**Construction of a Perpendicular at a Point on a Line Worked Example 1
**

Construct a perpendicular at a point, O, on a line.

O

Solution

Use compasses to mark points A and B on the line that are at equal distances from the given point O.

A O B

C

Draw arcs centred at A and B. These two arcs intersect at C and D. Then the required perpendicular line can be drawn through the points C and D.

A

O

B

D

**Construction of the Perpendicular Bisector of a Line Segment Worked Example 2
**

Construct the perpendicular bisector of the line AB. Then label the midpoint of AB, M.

A B

1

Construction of the Perpendicular to a Line from a Point not on the Line C Worked Example 3 The diagram shows the line AB and the point C. This line is the perpendicular bisector of AB. A B 2 . We begin by drawing arcs of equal radius. Perpendicular bisector A M B The point where the perpendicular bisector intersects AB can then be labelled M. centred on the points A and B.14. as shown in the diagram. M is the midpoint of AB. 3 4 Then draw a line through the intersection points of the two arcs. The radius of these arcs should be A B 2 3 roughly to of the length AB. Draw a line through C that is perpendicular to AB.5A Solution MEP Pupil Text 13-19. Additional Material There are many lines that cut AB exactly in half. We have to construct the one that is perpendicular to AB.

14. using the points where the arc intersects the lines as the centres.5A Solution Using C as the centre. O 3 . C A B Construction of the Bisector of an Angle Worked Example 4 Bisect this angle. First draw an arc using O as the centre. O Solution To bisect an angle you need to draw a line that cuts the angle in half. draw two further arcs with radii of equal length. The perpendicular line can then be drawn from C through the point where these two new arcs cross. The bisector can then be drawn from O through the point where these two new arcs cross. O Then draw two further arcs of equal radius. draw an arc as shown. MEP Pupil Text 13-19. Additional Material C A B Then using the intersection points of this arc with the line AB as centres.

Then join O to B to complete the angle First draw an angle of 60 ° using the previous construction. as shown above.5A MEP Pupil Text 13-19. Construction 2: To draw an angle of 60 ° Join the ends of the line to the intersection of the arcs to complete the triangle B O A O A If the angle of 60 ° is to be drawn at O. Construction 3: To draw an angle of 30 ° Draw a second arc. with radius the same as the length of the first side of the triangle. of the same radius. one from each end of this side. Then draw two arcs. Additional Material Uses of these constructions Construction 1: To draw an equilateral triangle Draw one side. with the compass point at A.14. crossing the drawn side at A. with the compass point at O. then bisect that angle using the method described in Worked Example 4 earlier in this section. draw a line through O that will form one side of the angle. intersecting the first arc at B. Then draw an arc. A A C O B 4 O B .

5A MEP Pupil Text 13-19. A A C O B O B Worked Example 5 Construct a triangle ABC with AB = 8 cm. Additional Material Construction 4: To draw an angle of 45° Start by constructing a 90 ° angle using one of the methods described in Worked Examples 1.14. Then bisect that angle using the method described earlier in Worked Example 4. 5 . A B Extend the line AB and draw the line through B perpendicular to AB. Then construct an angle of 60 ° at the end A as shown below (see construction 2 above). Then measure (a) (b) (c) BC AC the angle ACB. Solution First draw a line of length 8 cm and label it AB. the angle BAC = 60 ° and ABC = 45 ° . 2 and 3. using the method described in Worked Example 1.

this right angle can now be bisected to give the 45° angle that is required.9 cm 6 (c) ∠ ACB = 75 ° . This is shown in the following diagram and completes the triangle.2 cm (b) AC = 5.14. Additional Material A B Using the method described in Worked Example 4. C A B The triangle is a shown below: C A 60˚ 8 cm 45˚ B (a) BC = 7.5A MEP Pupil Text 13-19.

and then construct perpendicular lines through P and Q using the method described in Worked Example 1. Measure 7 cm along the perpendicular through Q and mark in the point R.5A Worked Example 6 R 60˚ S MEP Pupil Text 13-19. using the method described in Construction 2. with length 5 cm. 7 cm Then measure (a) (b) RS PS the angle PSR. construct a 60 ° angle at R to complete the shape. R P Q Now.14. 7 . P 5 cm Q (c) Solution First draw the line PQ. Additional Material Use a ruler and compasses to construct the shape PQRS as shown opposite.

8 cm PS = 4.1 cm ∠ PSR = 120 ° 8 .5A MEP Pupil Text 13-19.14. Additional Material R S P Q The shape PQRS is shown below: R 60˚ S 7 cm P 5 cm Q (a) (b) (c) RS = 5.

(a) (b) (c) 5. (It is called the orthocentre of ∆ PQR . 6 cm 30˚ 10 cm 7. YZ and ZX.5A MEP Pupil Text 13-19. QT and RU all meet at a single point. and the perpendicular from R to PQ meeting it at U. Measure ∠ ACB . ∠ KLJ and ∠ LJK . Draw the triangle. Show that there are two possible solutions. Construct an angle of 135° . Construct the angle bisectors of ∠ JKL . centre I. Label the point of intersection. Additional Material Exercises 1. 9. Use a ruler and compasses to construct this parallelogram. Measure AC and BC.) Using straight edge and compasses: (a) construct a regular hexagon. W. such that this circle just touches all three sides of the triangle. 8. 3.14. (b) construct a regular octagon. D. radius WX. Show that this circle passes through all three vertices of the triangle. Show that these meet at a single point. Set your compasses to length BC and draw an arc centred on A. Take any triangle XYZ. Construct the perpendicular bisectors of XY. the perpendicular from Q to PR meeting it at T. 4. 10. Draw the circle. Explain why this construction produces the line through A parallel to BC and the line through C parallel to BA. Now set your compasses to length AB and draw an arc centred on C. Construct an angle of 75° .) 9 . ∠ LMN = 30 ° and LN = 7 cm. Draw the circle. I. Show that the lines PS. Construct the perpendicular from P to QR meeting it at S. A triangle ABC is such that AB = 10 cm. ∠ ABC = 30 ° and ∠ BAC = 60 ° . 6. Take any triangle ABC.) Take any triangle JKL. Join D to A and C. Draw triangle LMN with LM = 9 cm. (Hint: 135 ° = 90 ° + 45 ° ) Construct an angle of 15° . Show that these meet at a single point. (It is called the inscribed circle of ∆ JKL . 11. centre W. Take any triangle PQR. 2. (It is called the circumscribed circle of ∆ XYZ.

) 10 . BG and CH. 3 BM = 2 BG 3 CM = 2 CH 3 (M is called the centroid of ∆ ABC . by measuring. If you cut ∆ ABC out of card then M would be the centre of mass of ∆ ABC .5A 12. Additional Material Take any triangle ABC.14. M. Show. Construct the perpendicular bisector of BC to obtain the midpoint F of BC. that AM = 2 AF . Show that these meet at a single point. MEP Pupil Text 13-19. in the same way. Join AF. and the midpoint H of AB. Construct the midpoint G of CA.

Having done it this way. Additional Material Answers 14.MEP Pupil Text 13-19. 1. Teachers will need to check pupils' constructions on an individual basis.5A Straight Edge and Compasses Constructions Teachers will need to set appropriate accuracy levels for their pupils when they attempt these constructions. AC = 5 cm BC = 8. point out that the angle of 135° could also have been constructed using 180 ° − 45 ° . The hint leads pupils to construct and combine two separate angles of 90 ° and 45 ° . 3. Depending on the number of steps required to complete a given construction. accuracy levels of ± 1 mm or ± 2 mm . and ± 1° or ± 2 ° should be demanded. 11 . An angle of 15° can be constructed using 45 ° − 30 ° or as 60 ° − 45 ° . 4. An angle of 75° can be constructed using 45 ° + 30 ° or as 180 ° − 45 ° − 60 ° . which would require the construction of only one angle. (a) (b) (c) Diagram C 2.7 cm ∠ ACB = 90 ° B A N 5. N L M L M 6.

D C A B X 8. Additional Material Answers The figure drawn is a parallelogram. J I L 12 K .14. W Z Y 9.5A 7. MEP Pupil Text 13-19.

60˚ 60˚ 60˚ 60˚ 60˚ (b) To construct a regular octagon requires repetition 7 times of the following two steps: • measure the length of the edge • at one end of the edge. There are equally acceptable variations on these two constructions. 11.5A 10.B.14. measure an angle of 45° . 45˚ 45˚ 45˚ 45˚ 45˚ 45˚ N. P 45˚ 45˚ T U R S Q 13 . Additional Material Answers 60˚ To construct a regular hexagon requires repetition 5 times of the following two steps: • measure the length of the edge • at one end of the edge. measure an angle of 60 ° . (a) MEP Pupil Text 13-19.

Additional Material Answers A G M H C F B 14 .14.5A 12. MEP Pupil Text 13-19.

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