THE P.C.S.

DARKROOM
FORMULARY
Photo Chemicall Supplies
CON TEN l' S
INTRODUCTION
US INC TilE FORJ-IULAE
BI..ACK AND WIIlTE FILM PROCESSING 4
Composition of Negative Developers 4
Black and White Developer· Formulae 6
1. General purpose 6
2. Fine gr·ain developers 7
). Super fine grain developers 7
4. Acutance (High Definition) developers 9
5. Speed increasing developer for push-processing 9
6. High Contrast (lith) developers 10
7. Honobaths 11
Ektachrome E-6 process 2)
Processing colour negative films (plus XP-l snd
APPENDIX) Anhydrous and Hydrated forms of Salts )1
APPENDIX 6 References and Further Reading ])
Acknowledgements )4
Stop Baths 11
Fixers 12
Reversal Processing of B & W film 13
MODIFYING THE PROCESSED NEGATIVE 14
14
Reduction 15
B & W PRINT PROCESSES 16
Print developers 16
Stop baths 17
Print fixers 17
Wash aids for paper prints 17
Hypo el imina tor II
Print toning 17
Print reducers 19
COLOUR PROCESSING 20
Processing colour reversal films (for colour slides) 20
Agfachrome 41 process 21
Vario XL B & W films) 25
Agfacolor N process 25
Flexicolor C-41 process 27
APPENDIX 1 Chemical Names and Synonyms 29
APPENDIX 2 Colour Developing Agents 30
APPENDIX 4 Sodium versus Potassium Salts 32
APPENDIX 5 Weights and Heasures 32
------
Introduction
Brew it yourse..!.!
Phot"gropilers have alway!; liked to m.lke up their own processing solutions.
Originally there were few mixturE's avaiLlble and the photographer'
had little choice but to :oake up his own. The raw chemicals w(' reeasily
av:lilable and the formulae were \/idely pubtished. L,1ter, "hen the fil",
mam:factuu!l:S begtln marketing their O·.1n developE'rs, fixers etc. many photo­
graphers continut'd to brew their own, chiefly because it was so mllch cheaper
tharl the pre-packed chemicals. Today there has been a resurgence of i.nterest'
in do-it-yourself processing and I will outline som€' of the [(';Isons for this below.
ECONOHY
The savings to bt' made in compounding your own processing solutions arc
considerable, especially with the colour procesues. In colour processing we arc
attempcinr: to match the r",sutts obtained from the manufacturers O''''" chel"ical s
rather than trying to create "specia! effects" of our own. Economy is thlls the
.'
main rea sun for making up our own colour chemicals. An i"'l'urtunt extension of
this is that \n<lny of the solutions (such as tlevelopers) which det()riol·"te through
atmospheric oxidatioll c<:n be made l!P in t\o,'O or more parts 'Jhich will
kee p for very long periods. These lHay simply bE' mixed, in the quantity required,
illllil ed-iately before use thus elimi nating ·... oste. The econbr:1Lc of com­
pounding "standard" black and wllitt! chc"licals should not 012 ovC!rlookc tl either.
For exarllplc the cost of the actual chemicals required to ll13ke up :1 high aClltance
negative developer which will yield three litres o[ working strength developer
i s less than 5 pence. The equivalent commercial pack costs aroulld (1.00.
FLEXIBILITY
Most formulations of processing solutions, within each group, usc basically
the same chemicals in varyi.ng proportions. Consequently, wi.th a 511",11 stock
of chemicals it is possible to make up a wide variety of developers, soy, each
, ;i. t h B different (unctio". I\ s <:in eXlll1lpl", YOll mig\It not "i.sh to 1T)' 0' 5 li. rr
k it: of Lith developers just f or one or L'. o films but thl' de vci ope.r Call be !':1 s i ly
and cheaply made up in any quantity from standard cheillicals.
CREATIVITY
There are many formulae available for creating special effects <It ('very
st3ge in black and white processing. The re are special developers t\J;lt give
h igh contrast, low contrast, high acu t allce, fine grain, CO'lrse p,r;Jin etc. There
are chemicals to modify the negative after development such os reduc tion and
intensification which can be used to maintain, reduce or increosc the contrast
in the developed image. Reversal processing of block and white film can yield
very transparencies with a tonol gradation not pussible in prints.
The developed black and wllite print can also be modified tucreate special
effects. These may include local reduction, chromogenic redevelopment, sepia
toning, metallic toning, dye toning anti archival processing.
Using the Formulae

It is important to use chemicals that conform to the standards specified [or
- 1 ­
. I'
photographic chemicals. These standnrds $pecify m.1ximum limits for impurities
that are important photogrnphicaUy, as wet! as a minimum assay. All chemicills
supplied by Photo ChemiCill Supplies conform to the appropriate British Standards,
or where there is none, to the American Standards specifications.
S<.fety
. ---Although the n1<1jority of chemicals used in photographic proces'ling are
completely harmless in not' nla! use there arc a few which present special hnzards.
Some. of the developing i1gents, especially metol and the colour developer
derivatives of p-phenylencdiaminc can cause a form of dermatitis as the ski n
becomes sens itised hy repented exposure . With modern colour print processing
drums and daylight tanks for films it is not necessary to come into contac t >4 i th
processing solutions. Corrosive substances cove r both acids and strong al k a l is .
Avoi d ing direct skin contact is simplest Dod safest but should spillage
flush wi. th clean water.
dilute sulphuric acid is re<]uired for use, remember that concentra ted
sulphu ric acid reacts violent;.y to water and the acid sh ould be addr.o d drop by
drop nt first to the water. Never add water to the acid as this causes
"bumping" and s p itting. It is best to bu)' mineral acids as 10% v/v solutio'-L; as
these safe to handle and you simpl y us e 10 times the volume specified f or
the conce ntrated acid .
Norm.1l laboratory hygiene should be observed, that is, immediately wipe up
any spillages of powd e rs or liquids and keep the working area clear. All bo t tles
of m<1d e up 50 lutionR should be cle.lrly labelled with the contents and proc ;:o._
alll] s h ou ld
Al che
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Cleanliness
A clea'r, uncluttered working environment is essential in the successful
compounding of solutions. Mixing vessels and utensils should be of glass or
plastic and should be easy to clean. Certain typeg of contamination arc more
serious than others, such as contamination of developers hy chemicals used as
fixers. Some c ompounds should not be used in the darkroom at all (such as the
and thiourea which are powerful foggants used in sepia toning) and
should not be s tored near sensitised materials .
I' e .il;hing Out
Not chemicals require the same degree of accuracy in weighJng out but
for consistency and reproducibility the I"eighing should be as accurate as
pos s ible. A balance snch as that sold hy Photo Chemical Supplies is ideal as
it offers accuracy down to O.Olg at a ver)' reasonable price. Some chemicals
sllch :)s Phenidone (a developer) which are required in small, accurately measured
quantities, yet which would deteriorate in solution, can be weighf.'d out directly
into small in the n'<]uired quantities. The outer plastic con'. !Iiners for
35mm film cassettes are useful for this as moH types are airtight.
U$ ing St ock Sullltiol1s
It i D s ometimE'S easier to store chemicals as stock solutions of known
concentr.'Ili.on which can then he dispensed by volume rather than by weighing.
The m.lln tlisadvantnge is that most chemica19 in solution deteriorate with time
and they do this at different rates. Some chemicals are best stored as stock
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solutions such as the mineral acids mentioned earlier, souium thiocY;lOate, which
is very deliquescent (keeps best as a 20% solution) and potassium iodide which
is only used in very small quantities as a restrainer and is most conveniently
kept as a O.lZ solution (lg/litre). .
It is a simple matter to calculate the quantity of a concentrated stock
solution required to make up any desired volume of more dilute working sol,ttion.
The fo11o\·ing formula
C-req x V-final
V-req
C-stock
IOhere C-req the desired concentration
(r.)
C-stock the concentration oE stock solution (Z)
V- final the final total volume desired
V-req the volume of concentrated stock required
gives the volume of concentrated stock solution required (V-req) for diluting
up to the final volume desired (V-final) to yield a solution of the required
concentration (C-req).
QLl::<lity 0': Water
Water is the main ingredient in all photogr aphic processing solutions anu
it is probably the most variable component. The only solutions in which water
qua lity need be into account are the develupers for Eilu!s anu in the final
..,::;B h for films.
Very soEt water can cause swelling of the film emulsion, tlsunlly wh(>n used .
a wash in high temperature colour process es such as C-41 nnu E-6 at JSuC/IOOoF.
In f act, in areas with very soft IOGter it is advisllble to nn ific Lnlly h<lnl en
water in the was h cycles of colour processes by arldini', sal ts such ;IS
1l.;Jg "'esi wTi or sodium s ul phate (ordinary Eps(,rn salts or Glauhe r 's s il lts) ;It .1
r a t e or approximately 20g per litre.
Very hard water is more troublesome. It is the l'IOluble magnesium and
e ll cium salts which are the main cause of water hardness . Wh en developer's are .
m de up thes e metals form insol uble salts with some of th e common i ngredient s of
"' e lopers such as 5ulphites, carbo!12tes , phosphates <lnJ bo r a t e s . Til . s e i ns oluble
preci pitates can adhere to the film surface. Other nletal ions such as coprer and
ir an can Lccelerate the rate of aerial oxidation of uevelopers by acting os
catalysts anu in higher concentration can cause sl icltt for,c:ing of the fillft. The
.. e. . ence oE i ron in the wat er can also cause staining of film and p<lpel·s.
The procedure i s t o se di s ti lled or de-iunised wate r (suell as
"P(!r ified Water D.P." so l a by (l oots) for mak ing up develope rs. This is an
add itional expense which is not always required, especially if sequestering
ag nts are used, but is particularly rer:ommended when rn<lking U[) cOllcentr<lt ed
s t ock developer solutions which are later diluted for one-shot use. This improves
the keeping qualities of the concentrate and or dinary tap ,,'ater can be used for
the dilution. A sequestering agent can be incorporated into either the t<lp wa ter
or the concentrate.
As hard water dries it leaves a scaly dl?posit which can be very difficult to
::er: f rom ... i lms and it car. a ffect the printing quality of nega tives. A useful
pract ice i ., to use one or t'-'o chang.es of a small quantity of distilled wat e r, to
"'hic h a drop or two of wetting agent may be adued, as the final .... ash.
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B&W Film Processing
WHITE NEGATIVE DEVELOPERS
Deve lopers generally h.1ve the following components:
a) Developing agent(s)
b)
c) Alkali
d) Restrainer
There may be other additions such as sequestering agents, organic antifoggants and
wetting agents.
The Developing Agents
The most commonly used developing agents are hydroquinone and Pher'.idone.
There are many compounds which act as developers but most are now only of histo::icaL
interest as various combinations of the above three compounds can create almost any
type of developer. There are a [ew developing agentS' in commercial usc which have
special properties such as grc;)t solubility which permits the formulation of highly
concentrated developers. These developing agents are of little interest to the
.1I11,1teur who makes up his own developers and certainly oEfer no advantages.
[orl1lulae in tllis booklet are mainly using metol, hydroquinone and Phenidona.
}fetol and Phenidone have similar properties in that they are fast working
developers yielding 1010 contrast images. lIydroquinone is a slow, contrasty developer.
TIley arc seldom used a ione, however, but as metol/hydroquinone (MQ) or Phenidone/
hycicoquinone (PQ) combinations. Tllese mixtures show "superaddi.tivity", that i" the
activity of the mixture is greater than the sum of the activities of the developers
when lIsed separately. lIytlroquinone is used on its own in high contrast developers
where its action is .:Jccelerated by the use of caustic alkalis (e.g. sooium hydroxide).
TIle properties of a developer are determined by its overall composition rather than
by the choice of develoring .:Jgent alone. Most developing agents, including the
three mentioned .:Jbove, arc only active in alkaline sollJtions. The pH and the nature
oE the alkali are of prime import<Jtlce in determining the properties of the working
developer.
The Preserv.:ltive
The function of the preservative is co protect the developer from aerial
oxidation. Tile compound almost univerRally used is sodium sulphite although potassium
sulphite and the corresponding metabisulphites may also be used. The s'Jlphite has
other ['Inctions in the developer and an importRnt one of these is its action as a
silver halide solvent. Thi6 effect is made use of in fine-grain developers where
the sulphite. reduces the actual gr.:Jin size by dissolving some of the silver halide.
A concentration of .:Jround IOOg/litre is required for this to be significant.
In some colour developers, where the sulphite concentration is J..1W, other
antioxid.:Jnts SUCII as hydroxylamine are used as preservatives.
The Alkali
---- The a 1ka 1i is somet imes re [erred to as acce lera tor because mos t deve lopers
arc only efficient in alk.1line solutions. The three commonly used types of alkali
arc a) tile c.1uHtic alkalis (sodium and potassium hydroxide) b) the carbonates Bnd
c) the mild alknlis and alkaline buffers.
The callstic alkalis give rise to high developers, usually with poor
keeping qualicies. The carbonates are less aggressive in their nction and are very
- 4 ­
widely us(!d. The mild alkalis such as bor-ax (sodium tetraborate), Kod.1lk (sodium
P1o t aborate) (lnu the alkaline buffer mixtures are extensively used in mooern fine­
gr ain developers.
The Restrainer
The most commonly used restrainer is potassiulII bromide . Tile effect of uromicle
is to reuuce fog formation (the development of unexposed parts of the emulsion)
and to slow down the rnte of development. Potassium iodioe has a similar nction
but much lower concentrations must be used (approximately one thousandth of the
quantity Df bromide). Too much restrainer results in a lowering of the image
contrast 3nd should be avoided.
Other Con.ponents
Sequestering agents are added to developers tu overcome problems caused by
impurltles in the water used to make up developers (sec page 3). The mos t
commonly used compounds are the cmnplex phosphates, notably sodiulll hexame tnphosphate
(Calgon), and ethylenedinn.inetetraacetic acid (E . D.T.A.) nnd its derivatives.
Calgon is ellenp and very effective at sequcstel' ing calcium ano magne s ium ions.
The disadvantages are firstly that it is not very effective <lgaillst other
ions and secondly the complex phosphates break down in alkaline solutions so are
\ nsu.,itabll! for use in concentrated stock developers. The di s advant:Jges of E.D.T.A.
and related compounds are firstly cost :Jnd secondly they can accelerate <leri ul
ox i dation of the developer in certain
Some developers require aoditional restr(Jiners in the form of organic anti­
£aggants. This is particul a rl y true of Phenid one .1nd its derivative s <lnd some
deve l opers. The mo s t common l y used is benzotriazole but 6-nitroben zimi­
dazol e, whi.ch is about 100 times more potent, is also encountered.
Host modern develop2:cs contain a wetting agent to en s ure the event
:) f the film and the el imination of air bubbles . The <lmount used slt oulo not e xceed
I' proxima':eiy 0 . 5g per Litre othel'wise fODming \Iwy C<lus e pr oblems.
up Solutions
The chemicals should be dissolved in about two thirds of the fillal volume
of wat er sh loi n, IN TilE ORDER. IN WHICH THEY APPEAR IN TilE FORNULA, and then the
s nl ution made up to the f i nal volume with water. It is i mpo rtU!lt that eAch
cit ' mi cal added is completely di ssolved before the neKt is introducc;d.
Hixing vessels and ut ensi l s should be of glass or plastic "nd shoulo be
t"E'Z'. erved for photographic use. I-lhen mAking up a series of so luti ons fo1' Any
pit t i c ul<l r process it is good practice to make lip the soluti olls i.n the O['oer in
", 'l;ch t hey lITe to be us ad a s t his ,eu!!. ces tit e ffects of c.:l ( rY-O Vl' r cont;lIl1ination.
Host chemic als di ssolve more readily in war m W<l[ e r but this s hou ld never
ey.ce ecl SOoC (120
0
F). The s ol ut i on can then be made up to final volume with
('o ld water.
I t is a useful prac t ice t o m<lke up developers as concentrated stock solutions.
These have be t ter keep ing qU<llit i es and are easier to s tor e . A typical developer
would hav" t he developing agent(s) and sulphite in one solutiun And the <llkali,
restraine:-s etc. in the other. Since sodium sulphite is distinctlY<llkalinc in
solution the aerial o)(idation of the developing agents Ciln be further inhibited
by substi t uting s odium metnbisulphite [or all or part of the sodi um sulphite.
The met a b.'.su l phi t e ha a greo1t "::' solubil i ty t han su lphite, is ;In c; lficicnt preser­
'ilt ive and is acid in re<lctiou so thJt the developerr. are complet c; ly inhibited.
Of course, the alkali content of the other solution must be incre:1Scd pr oportion<Jtely
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111 order to make the working developer alkAline.
BLl\CK AND l'lHITE DEVELOPER FORMULAE
In all the formulae in this booklet the quant1t1es are given in grams for
solids and millilitres (ml) for liquids. Development times are approximate bLC it
is R simple matter to determine experimentally the development times which sui
your particular film stock and which yield the contrast and density tau desi r t- o
The chromoGcnic black ;llId white films XP-l (llfard) and Vario XI.(i\gfa)
have been desir,ned for the Flexicolor C-41 process (see page 2n.
1. Gene ral rurpose Developers
These Crable 1) do not use the silver halide solvent effect a nd
s o are not true "fine-grain" developers. However modern films have such inher ently
fine r,rain that true fine grain developers are less important today than they were
a fel' years ago.
Tnble 1. CellP-ral Purpose Devel opers
No. 1 No.2 No . 3 No.4 No. 5
So ft Normal Normal Contrast Cont r .! ;;
NQ PQ PQ
(DI65) (D61a) (ID62 ) (ID2) (IDn)
t o 1 6 3 2
Sodl !!m s ulphit e , anhyd . 25 90 50 75 7:..
lI yJ r0'111 i n_'_ · _e _ _ _ b 12 8 _8_ Jn ____________________ ________
Sodi.um cnrbonate, anhyd. 37 11 60 37.5 48
Phenid onc 0.5 C 22

,.
rotnssium bromi de 2 2 2

Iknzotri azo le 1% 20 10
SodiJJm metabi s ulphite 2
Wa ter to 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000
Dilution 1+3 l ·q 1+3 1+2 None
(5t,ock + I,ater) 1+3 1+7 1+5
Appr oximate development 10 6-7 3-4 5 5
time at 20° C 12-14 6-7 9

The soft working developer (No.1) is useful for with an extended
brightness range recorded on slow, contrllsty film such as Pan F. The ilorm<11
contrast developers (Nos. 2 .1nd 3) nre eminently practical developers wide
application, especially f O'r rol1filO1, sheetfilm and plates. Formulae :105. 4 and
5 are contrasty developers suitnb1e for ordinary films and pllltes .111d can be
us ed wiLhout dilution (or lille films such as pes Ortholith 35mm lith film. When
u';l'd U1Hli.lllted No. (, is very similar to D19b and IDl9 X-ray film developers.
m.1Y be IISpJ ill these formul;te and should be added before all other
Use up to 3g!litre in hard water areas.
- 6 ­
2 . Fine Developers
TI,('se we ll established fine grain developers (sec Table 2) are particularly
suit.nble for miniature films (J5mm or sm31Ier).
1'Llble 2. Fine Grain Develop.E..!!
No. 6
Fi.ne Grain MQ
D76
No. 7
Fine Grain
D76d
MQ
No. 8
Fine Grain PQ
Hetol 2 2
Sodium sulphite, anhyd. 100 100 100
Hyci r-oqui none 5 5 5
Borax 2 8 3
BorIc acid 8 3.5
Potas sium bromide
Phenldone 0.2
to 1000 1000 1000
Approximate development time 6-10 12-15 10 .
Formula No.6 represents the standard develope r against "hiell all otlle r
developers are judged. Formula No.7 is a buffered version o f No.6 and yields
morc consistent results but since the pH is slightly 10,""e1' the developnie nt time s
will be longe r. Formula No. 8 is a PQ developer with characteristics simil:lr to
No.7.
All the above formulae can be diluted either 1+1 or 1+3 Lo r olle-shet
prC.'ccSStng, yielding enh:lllced acutancc, but developmcnt tillll'S should be approx­
imately doubled (1+1) or trebled (1+3).
3. Super Fine Grain Developers
These developers (see table 3) usc colour developing agents which are
derivatives of ,,-phenylenediallline, the classic fine grain developer. p-phcnyl­
enediallline irself Iws too lIIany unpleasant char"ct c ristics to be of any use •
nowadays. These colour deve lope rs a S low work j ng and r,l yc ill ali<I hydcoqu ino ne
have been included ill formulae 9 and 10 t o nccelcratc developlIIC'lIt. In [annul.,
No. II sodium carbolwte is the accelerntor. The :lulphite cOllcclltrntion is
relatively high to make use of the solv(,llt effect. Sulphite c annot be u:lcd in
such high concentrntion in colour develol'llIC'lIt of (;OIOllf lTIall',-inl1l :IS iL inhibits
the ('01 ollr coup I ing rene t ion.
- 7 ­
Table 3. Super fine Grain Developers
No. 9 No. 10 No. 11
FocDl fXIO Kod Dk
-­.--_.-------------_.
Gcnocllrome 20 6
in
20
!..!ydroqui.nolle 6
Nydochrome (CD 3)
5
Sodillm sulphite, anhyrl. 100 100 30
Sodium carbonate, anhyd. 30
Borax 20 4
Boric acid 4
lola ter to 1000 1000 1000
Dilution (Stock + \;3ter) 1+7 None None
development time
at 20 C 12-15 8 20
4. t\cutallce or IIiI'll Developers
----The · dZutance· dt2vclopecs arc gencrnlly very dilute and require onl y suffic
ngitation to prevent the' [ormatLon of streamers. The effect of this is twofold.
Firr;tly, the developer becomes exh;llIsted in areas of heavy exposure yet remains
active in the shadow areas. This results in good shadow detail (resulting in an
incre.1se in effective emulsion speed) yet the highlight areas do not become blocked
liP. This type of development yields reduced macro-contrast but the
result is not the same <IS that acheived by ordinary soft-working developers siOlce
important highlight und shado.. • contrast is good and the gradation of the less
important is compressed. The second effect of the high dilutfonl
minimum agitation techniqlle is the forl1l3tion of lines which enhlllce apparent
imGgc sharpness at the boundaries between lightly and heavily exposed .1re35. This
is due to fresh developer on the lightly exposed side of the boundary diffusing
across and deve l opment in the adjacent, heavily exposed emulsion.
Bromide, a product of the reaction, diffuses in the revcrs' di.rection
and retilrds development in the lightly exposed en:1l1sion adjacent to the boundary.
The net effect is an in the apparent of the boundary.
Developers of this type arc not "fine grain" developers and it is essential
that they be used .,ith slower film8 (bdo'N 150 I\SI\) which have fine grain emulsionr;.
These slo'Ner films have a thin emulsion and are n3turally contrasty wi:h good
acutillicc. 1·lith the fast films which normally yield a soft, grainy ne<;ative, the
reduction in macro-contrast produces a dull, flat image which cannot b! improved
by printing on hard parer due to the grain. In addition. the thick emulflion of
these films docs no t lend itself to the development of Mackie lines.
I'nnlula No. 12 (nr" Table LI), the Llclltance fonu\Jla, can be made \Jp
in two parts, the IlIrtol and sulphite in one solution and the carborl;Jte in the
s e cond solution. Forll1"lae Nos. 14 and 15 can be made up as concentr:Jted stock
solucions and 3f,.1in t h (o: alkali (soni.um 'or potassium carbonate) is kept as a
SCp.1!'ilt e solution. Wi t h ¥ormu!:J rio. 15 the Pinacryptol Yellow solution shoul.:'. not.
be included in the concentrated stock solution but added just before \lIe. Pinacryptol
Yel101Y is {l desensi.cising dye which is decomposed by sulphite. When preparing
- 8 ­
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f o r mulae Nos. 14 alld IS as concentrated stock soluti u llS it is aclvisable tu make
up the solutions (except the carbon'lt", solution,;) in 10% iS0pruf'yl a lcohul, (1
part isopropyl alcohol + 9 parts "'<Iter) as this helps d issulve thp.
agents and improves the keeping q ua lities. All these forlllui<l (, give ';; tu one stop
increase in effective emulsion speed.
Formula 1;0. 14 (FXlh) is a modification of iln.)thcr (UrJlluln (FXl) where the
sodium sulphite concentrat ion is only 5g per litre inste·ad o[ <'0& pe r 1 itrc. This
low sulphite furmula yields very high definition negatives b,Jt is more critical as
to t!Kposure. Development times are as [ornlula 1;0. 15 (FX2)
Table 4. High Definition (Acutance)

No. 12 Nu.
l)
No. 14 No. 15
Beutler \.Jindisch HIll FX2
Crawl('l' 1 e j'
tu 1 5 0.5 0.2:>
.0ycin 0.75
I :
Catechol (Pyrocatechin) 12.5
5(ld i urn

anhyd. 25 80 1,0
3.5
Sodium J an!!,1d. 25 2.5
Pot3ssium carbonate 7.S
Po tas sium iodide
0.001% solll. 5
Pynacryptol yellow
1:2000 solli. 3. 5

1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution 1+10 25ml stock Nunc None
+l5ml pot­
assium
hydroxide
10k, water
to 10001111
[)c v·d pmcnt t i. llle 7-1 0 15 - 20 8- J0 12- 15
at 20
c
i:;
5 . Speed increasing developer f or push-processing
Thi s fine-grain I'Q developcrrlO(iS) gives :Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of
a bou t one stop in normi!1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by
cKtC!nding the development tillle. \.Jlth film slich :IS 111'5 this dol':> not lead to
excessive or grain. This developer may aiso be' used [or dillllC, 011(>­
shot procesfiing for enhanccd <Icutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wi.lII cxt e nLil,J
dcvc'lopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 1:0 Olll' stop incrcase in slwecl. 'l'hi;: developer
is in .1 11 respects to 11[onl "<ll<.:rol'l1",,".
- 9 ­
Formula No. 16. Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)
Sodium sulphite, 85.0g
llydroquinone 5.0g
Borax 7.0g
Boric acid 2.0g
Phenidone 0.13g
Potassium bromi.de LOg
I·JaCer to 1000 ml
Dllution Time (111'5)
None 6··9
1+1 11-16
1+3 22-30
Usc undi.luted for the indic.lted time to give the following
speed increases on 111[' 5 :
800llSA (1 stop) 8-') mins
l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins
(3 stops) 16-18mins
6. nigh Contrast Developers
These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin
emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes
from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies. The first is the classic "Caustic-hydroquinone"
developer and the s('cond is the s cand a;-d "Iniectious development" low :"ulphitic
developer. T1:e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI:
yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and dot
screening. Lith film may also be successfully developed using Nos. 4 and 5
(undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe.
contrast.
No. 17. "CauGtic-llydro'1uinone" High Concrast Developer
SOLUTION A
llydroquinone 25g
, ;
Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l.5
b
)
PotassiUM bromide 25p, (or Sodium bromide 2l.5g)
\-I,1ter to 1000ml
SOLUTlOCl B
Sodi.llm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g)
\-IGter to lOOOml
Usc eqllJI P.1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes. The quantity of alkllli in
Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast, but devrlopment time
should be extended sli!;htly. The two solutions keep indefinitely separately
but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed. Use an acid stop bath before
fixing to avoid staining.
N<). 18. "Infectious" Lith Developer
SOLUTl ON A
Sodium sulphite, anhyd 1
- 10 ­
Parafonnaldehyde 15
Po tassi'l:il metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulplti t e 'I. Jg)
Water to 500ml
SOLUTiON Il
Sodium sulphite, anhyd. 60
Tloric acid 15
Ilydroquinone 45
Potassium bromide J
Water tJ 1500ml

Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes. (Mix
well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m.) The tl<'O
sol\ltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed.
Both these high contrast developers should be r.l ixed fresh [ o r each film [or
best rf:!9ults. pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [ollov/ed
under a red safelight.
7. HOlloba lils
--TI,,,se are solutions ill which development ;1nd fixation t a ke place in the same
bath. In addition to the convenience of being" single operation, oth<er advantages
arc that the process is not dependent on critic:ll tilllill!>, telllperatu("e o r agit:Jtion.
lmage cont.rast cannot be altered by extending or c urtailing d('vel o p: ne nt but is
"built-into" the mOllobath formula. This can be set when m;-Iki.ng up the 1II01l0bath
pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent, (sodium thios u ll'hate) include d.
The more fixing agent added, the softer the contrast. III addition, the a moun t or
act ivi ty of the developing agent c.an infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the ("esult ill g ne gati ve.
Tab le 5. Monobath formulae
No. 19 No. 20
Socl i.-.lm sylphi.te, anhyd. 50 50
12 12
4
Sodiuln thiosulphate, anhyd. 70 (55-90) 60 (/15-80)
Sod i \l m h ydro ____________-,-_ 4 10
Wat er to 1000 1000
Pr oc <"!ss i ng time 5 mi ns
+
- mi n 5 llI ins-
+
mi n
i ll(! degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro", f i 1m ype t o allo thl' t· and
the qua ntity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe("imentally
I
for yo ur favourite film stock. If a higher contrast than that given by using the
lowe st quantity of thiosulphate is required, the hydroquinone concentration can be I
increa s e d by about 25-30%. Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls
or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent. CInL'identa lly, a [ew
minutes in a.1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm). Films an' pl:ocessed
for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed :Jnd dri e d nortll"lly.
pTO _ ®':J1!§.
It is always good practice t.o use n stop bath betwee n the developing and
fixing baths. An acid stop b,1th not only halts develol'"Il'llt .1lld millilliis 's cont3mi­
nation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed L.y developer s nnd prevents
- 11 ­
st.1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr.
Table 6. Stop bath formulac
No. 21 No. 22 No. 2) No . 24
Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening
Bath ' Stor Bath 2
Sodium Acctate
)1l20
))
Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 6.5
Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15
Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000
A few drops of stop hatt> indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical
Supplies lllay be added. The indicator ch.111ges from pale ycllow to blue '19 soon as
the 1'/1 rilles above 7.0 (neutral). Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are "sed after
high temperature development. Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths
for print processing.
yrxrms
Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion.
lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion. Hardening is essential for
films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for
bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed. Typical fixers are shown in Table 7.
Table 7. Fixll'g [laths
No. 25 No. 26 No. 27 No . 28
Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered
Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden •.ng
Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer
Sod i urn t h io!' 11 ]_'--pt:..:.'.::.a.::.t-=e2.,-=a:..:.n:..:.h:.t.y:..:.d::.; !:....._ _ ____-=-::...::.._____________.______ 160 150
(or Sodium thinsulphate
cryst.) (50) (240 )
Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200
Sodium sulphite, anhyd. 15 25 15
Sodium metabisulphite 25
Acetic acid, glacial IS 10 15
Bodc acid 7.5 10 7.5
Potassium alum 15 15
Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000
All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers. The
buffered havf' a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid
fixer (No . 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such. ,1S 11fospeed.
- 12 ­
REVERSl\L PROCESSING OF D&_ W FILM
Ilevers;}l processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with
Il beautiful tonal gradation. As with all reversal processes exposure and first
development must be very carefully controlled .beciluse density variatiolls cannot
be compensated (or in printing. The process involves the developmellt of Lile
negative image ("first developer"), dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU ("bleach
bath"), cle,;ring and re-exposure to white light ("reversal exposure") and develor­
ment of the silver halide thus re-exposed ("second development"). The film is then
fixed and washed in the normal way. I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the
quality of the final image. It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide
solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosull'ilate or sodi.ulll thiocyanate
are usually used for this. The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to
completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer. In the
procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second
deve lopment.
Revr rsal processing solutions
No. 29. Reversal developer (stock solution)
Netol 3g
Sodium sulphite, anhyd. SOg
lIydroquinone l2g
Sodium carbonate, anhyd. 6()g
Potassium bromide 4g
Water to lOOOml
Dilution (stock + water) 1+1
To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate, at the
following rale per litre)
PAN F FP4 llPS
Sodium thiosulphate, anhyd. 5 7.5 5
Sodium
cryst.) (8) (12) (8)
AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used, diluted 1+1,
'",ith thio.oulpilate .:dded as above.
No . 30. Blcach (two part stock solutions)
SOLUTI ON A
Potassium permanganate 2g
Water to SOOml
SOLUTION B
Sulphuric acid 10% v/v lOOml
Water t.o SOOml
These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed.
For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film. Potassium dichromate
(lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A.
No. 31. Clearing Bath
Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g
Water to 1000ml
Fixer
---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used.
- 13 ­
The hardening fixers given enrl ier «(onnube Nos. 26 and 28) are ideal.
Procedure
1. First developel' 12 mins at 20
0
e for all llford films with an inversion every
15 seconds . Keep the developer for use in the second
development.
2. Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes
3. llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation. Roar.• lights may be
switched on after two minutes in the bleach
4. 2 mins with frequent chnnges
5. Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath
6. I'ash 2 mins wi.th changes
7. Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches
from a 100 watt bulb. This is best done underwater in a
clear gl"s9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper. Rotate
the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even
illumination.
8. Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20
0
C in the developer solution
retained from the first development. Development time is
not critical but should go to completion
9. Rin s e
10. Fix Fix in acid h.:trdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No. 2¢ ) or
4 mins (formula No. 28)
It. Final \\'''5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual.
Modifying the Processed Negative
Th e silver im:Jge obtained after development and fixation may be either l. r! cen­
sified or r educ ed. TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or
both.

The following for muL.:t has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is
simple, effective. e.:tsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative. The
basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers.
No. 32. Chromium Intensifier
STOCK SOLUTION A
Potassium dichromate 12 . 5g
l.Jnter to 200 ml
STOCK SOLUTION II
Hydrochloric acid 10% v/v (3.6% w/w) 30ml
( or I1ydrochloric acid 10 :1, w/w) (L Iml)
(or Hydrochloric acid cone.) (]ml)
W,Jter to 200ml
For use 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n.
The negative should be properly fixed and well washed. Old negatives should be
sO.,kcd in water for a few minutes. The negative is immersed in the intensifier
[or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour).
It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed. The intensified image
is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb, 1 minute each
side at 18 inches) in .:l nOli-solvent type developer . This may be a print developer
or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No.3 or any "universal, j
developer. An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be
'repe a ted s.everal times, with an increase in intensification each time as the image
- 14 ­
is built up.

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the
negative in different ways.
The 'subtral:tive reducers" remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows
and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed. This is
uscful for :Jver-€'xposed negatives which tend to be flat.
The "peoporti')!lal reducers" remove silver in proportion to the density so that
the contrast grildient is maintained. This type of reducer is suitable for those
negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure
with over-development.
The ""uper-proportional reducers"attack the Ill'Dvy silver depositll more than
[he li.ghtly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density. Dense,
contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development.
No. 33. Farmer's Reducer (Subtractive)
STOCK SOLUTION A
Sodium thiosulphate, anhyd. 32g
(or Sodium thiosulphate, cryst.) (SOg)
Water to 500ml
STOCK SOLUTION B
Potassium ferricyanide 109
Water to 100ml
Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and 1 pa["t B.
The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppc,d at nny time
by flooding wi th wn ter. The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reduce.r may be n 1te ["cd by va ry ing the
qunutity of Soltltion II added. [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and
vice versa. The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu,; .3
short life.
No. 34. Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)
STOCK SOLUTION A
Potassium permanganate 1% solution lZ . 5ml
Sulphuric acid 10% wlw 6.5ml
Water to 500ml
STOCK SOLUTLON II
Ammonium persulphate 25g
Water to 1000mi
Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions. for use take one
part A, two ports distilled water and two parts B. A slower acting mixture is I
part A, 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control. A[ter reduction
the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a
1-2% solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite. The negative should he
thoroughly waMhed before being dried.
No. 35. Pel:slliphate Reducer (Super-proportional)
Ammonium persulphate 12.5g
Sulphuric acid, lOr. w/w 5m1
Distilled water to 500101
- 15 ­
,.
The ne);a t i ve shou1d be fu lly wn shed. The l'educ t ion mus t be wa tC'1ed close ly as
the rate varies with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed
it iR not effective ;]t all. to. 12-157. solution of sodium Ilulphite, anhyd.
can be Ilseu as ;] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash.
B&W Print Processes
['1") N'I.'._I2EV RS
Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers
and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqu£
for prints. The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers
but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide,
chlorobromide or chloride).
Table 8. Standard Print Developers
No. 36 No. 37 No. 38 No. 39
D163 ID62 ID20 "New
PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester"
to 1 2.2 3 3.5
Sodium sulphite, anhyd. 75 50 50 35
i WJlle 17 12 12 8.6
Socli\11Tl
-----­
carbollate, <1nilyd. 65 60 60 63
l'hellidolle 0.5
Potassium bromide 2.8 2 4 l.9
I3cn7.otriazole 1% 15-25 20 37
Wettinr, agent 10 10 10 10
Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000
Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2
Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre.
If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution, development iR more rlpid. The
benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng
fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black. The
"New \·Iinchester" formula (No. 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black
tonc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers.
Table 9. Warm-tone Print DClTelopers
No. !+O . 41
\I i nonc.. _________..:::.:'-- 25 --'- 8 _ ___
Sodi.um Dulphite, anhyd. 60 60
Sad i IIll! carboIl.He, anhyd. 90 90

25
Potassium oronlidc 2
to 1000 1000
- 16 ­
Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2
Time 2-3 mins mins
Formula No. 41 has a warmer tone tllan No. 40 but both arc best used on
warm-tone papers.
STQ..-' [lA.THS FOR
The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop b:lths given carlier (Nos . 21 and 22) arc suitable f 0 r
prints as is a 47. soluti.on oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite /\.
good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl, (as above) to
two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath. When the stop batll shows
exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op
bath. This double use of fixing solution "Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer
bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on
ensures that no staining occurs.
PRIN'i' FIXERS
Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fixe rs
suitat'le for papers (formulae 25-28). The rapid fixers have a much grentcr c.Jp:tc ity
than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd
Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in .1
hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28). Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke
up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc
acidity when required. All may be used diluted 1+1. It is advisable not to U 5C the
some solution for fixing both films and pape rs, even if the same formula is used,
but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles.
F9H. PAPER PInNT..§.
The fibre base of normal printing p.l pe rs retains acid chemi.cals from the fj xing
bath which are di.fficul.t to remove by '-", as hing alone. If, after a brief rin:;e, 1.:1C
print is in a 2-5% solution o f s od ium carbonate, anhyd. for 2-] minutes,
the subsequent nonn"l wash ensures that: all the hypo and hYPo/!lilver camplexes
a t:" c removed. This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of
the print, such as toning, is to be carried out .
!:LYPO
'11C following solution (formula No. 42) serves to oxidise the thi.osulphate t o
which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper.
Elimin_ator
Hydrogen peroltide solution 3% (10 volume) 125ml
\or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6% (20 volume) 63mU
Ammonia solution 0.B80s.g. 10ml
Hater to 1000ml
immerse the prints in the above soluti.on, after a normill W8!lh in running
for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute!:. This hypo­
elim:'nator is made up of volatile compOIwnts so that there is_ no risk of elin:in,llor
salts remaining in the p.1per-base after drying .
PRINT TONING
Pri.nts may be toned a vari.ety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very
pleasing results. All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints
- 17 ­
be soaked water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion.
'1) Sepia Toning
Th", follow(ng method yields perm:1nl'nt prints with a good brown tone. In fact
prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the
l,,,·Llwd i.s USL,d ill 3rchival processinl!,. The print is first bleached ill a ferri­
q'"nidc/broHiide bleach until the partH of the image tire a raint straw
LU lour. 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111<1 the sepia image quickly reappears.
Nu. (d. Ferricyanidc/Dromi de Bleach
Potassium [erricyanide 40g
Potassium bromide 251',
\.Jater to 1000mi
Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or
l!l a d,nk bottle. It may be re-used until exhausted. h[ter bleaching the print
washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution:
Uu. 44. Sepia Toning BGth
-Thiol;re:1
109
Potassium bromide 40g
Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g
W,Jter to 1000mi
The of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to
yi.eld the desired tone colour. This toning bath is preferable to the traditional
suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium
sulphide solutions. Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in
lilt: dGrkroom or near sensitised materials.
bJ !lllie Toner
This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly
"-' ,,s hed a[te1' fixation, The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bp­
tOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be.
Nu , 45. Dlue Toning Bath
SOLUTION A
Potassium ferricyanide Ig
Sulphuric acid 10% w/w 30ml
Wnter to 500ml
SUI,UTI.ON 13
Alliinonilim ferric citrate
(green) Ig
Sulphuric acid 10% w/w 30ml
Water to 5001111
Mi" e<[uGI parts hand B immediately before use. The wet print is immersed
ullti.l the desired tone is reached and then washed. Excessive wns h ing will ble a ch
lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow !'tain should be
!:lven. This bleaching i.s largely eliminated if the print is \/;lshed in water con­
[;lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre).
c) Red TOiler
is il traditi.onal red tOller using copper sulphate. hg;lin, no
b I each is l'l''luircd.
- IB ­
No. 46 Red Bath
SOLUTION A
Cupric (511 °) 12 . 5g
2
Sodium citrate 50.0g
(or Potassium citrate) (55g)
Water to SCOml
SOLUTION B
Potassium ferricyanide 109
Sodium citrate 50g
(or Potassium citrate) (SSg)
Water to SCOml
Use equal volumes of II. and B mixed just before use. The image colour changes
through warm black, then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by
flushing with water. The print is wa s hed and dried normally.
PRINT nEDUCERS
Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of
iarge prints, for generally brightening dense, flat prints or for removing fiilvcr
completely from unwanted areas. Farmer's Reducer (formula No. 33) is the most
commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df' t. sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control
of the reduction process. Use scr,1p . dnts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions.
using Farmer's Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent
yellow staining may occur. Farmer's Reduce r, used very dilute, is ideal for
brightening dense flat prints. It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright high­
lights a nd increased contrast.
heavy deposits of silver have ::0 i.> e removed completely, such as that
cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves, Fa nna r' s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of
the possibility of staining. The followin g formula (No. 47) is an iodine re ducer
which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver.
No . 47. Iodine Reduce r
Potas sium iodide 1.Sg
Iodine crystals 0.5g
Water to lOOml
This reducer is applied to the mOl, s t ',\lot print with a swab or brush and
the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15% solution of sodium thiosulphate,
Illlhyd . (or 25% sodium thiosulphate, cryst. ) after a rinse in water. The print
should then be thoroughly rinsed.
- 19
Colour Processing
Besides offering real economy, brew-it-yourself colour processing is
satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered 'by ln3ny commercial pro­
houses. All that is required ilre careful working methods and attt'ntion to
d<'lails. Tlte I',crwrill instruction!! relating to monochrome should be
in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing. It should be emphasised
that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers, who
do not publish their formulae, but have been worked out to yield results comparable
with the manufacturers recommended processing.
Time and Temperature
'ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard
to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can
yield shifts in colour bal;rnce \ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing. With
reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature
of the first development is crucial as thi,; largely determines the quality of the
ftnal transparency. In the C;(j process the processing temperature is rather h.i.gh
(3a
o
C) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dt'velopment. There is
slightly more leeway the other but these should kept within the limite
shown. The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again
the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC). The times given
in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to for draining the tank.
up the Solutions
As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in
tire order given. Some of the colour dev e lo ping agents, while extremely solub}' :?
i \I wa te r, tend to separn te out in the a 1 ka 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions. It!'a aov isab le
to dis.solve the colour developing agen t . together with the hydroxylamine (hydro­
cldoride or sulphnte) where pr e sent, se pa r a te ly i n part of the total volume of
water alld add this slowly :0 the rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use .
rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite con­
cl'ntr.:ltion hCls eO be low. Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions
ill the pr sence of sequestering agents of the EDTA type, so Cnlgon should be used i n
water rather than EDTA .
. FILM.,s_U'0R COLOUR SLIDES)
There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing
(excluding Kodachrome). The first is the 41 process covering all Agfa
r-t.JVersal fi 1m (except I\gfachrotnc [(IOOS Prof e ssional - proce S!l E6), olhether sold
process paid or not. The!'£! are few, if any, other makes o f [i Tm available in
Britain ,ohich use this process. The second ir. the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process
"hich covers IllOSt of the rCIll.,ining colour films. There are a few fil:ns
Idlich <Ire still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms 'ohich are proc e s sed
by an old process Rnd some speci.:llised Ko dak films such as Ektachrome Inf rared
Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process.
There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old
process.
Kodak films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible.
Keversal Exposures
- Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging
is not used) after the first development. Because the emulsion is very much less
sensitive at this stage than normal film this ex.posure mtlst be rather intense. It
- 20 ­
is best to remove the film from the spin.l and SCC-SDW it through plain w.,ter below
a Photo flood lamp. Ilowever, a wet, delicate film is difficult to reload into the
spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld
extend the exposure time. With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at
doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10
fold . When the film is not removed for the exposure, place the spiral in a white
001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on :J wl .ite surface) and place the lamp above it.
During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about
so that the exposure is more even. Watc r and don't mix so care is needed
and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed . Don't skimp on the reversal expo­
sure - it is easy to underexpose but diff ic ul t to overexpose. For the Ektachrome
E-6 pr- ocess a reversal bath, which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal
exposure unnecessary , i s available from Pbc; to Chemical Supplies .
The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss
Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal £ll n;s (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional
available in 120 size and sheet film only).
- Agfachrome 41
No . 48. First Developer
Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g
·1e to 1 3g
Sodium sulphite. anhyd. SOg
Hydroquinone 6g
Sodium carbonate, anhyd. 40g
Potassium thiocyanate 2.5g
Potassium bromide 2g
'otassium iodide 0 . 1% Solution 6ml
wate" to 10001'1.1
No . 49 . Stop Bath
Ac etic aci d , glac iol 10",1
Sodium acetate, (3H 0) 'lO g
2
Water to 10001111
No. 50. Colour Developer
PART I\.
Sodium sulphit e , anhyd. 3. 5g
Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t;
Potassium bromide 19
Colour Developing Agent see below
Ethylenediamine (50% v/v Soln) 16ml
(or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml)
\-later to 300ml
PART B
I'
Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g
carbonate, anhyd. 62g
Water to 500ml
- 21 ­
c,) lour ,.iPVf: loping age nts [0[" Part lI.
Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 2.8g
or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloI"i.de) ( CIH) 2,2g
or Cenochroll\c 2 . 5g
or Dt'oxych rome 3,2g
lOOt' usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with ,;tirring and make up to a total volume
o f 10U0Il1I.
No. 51. [!leach
tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc
80g
Potassium bromide 30g
Sodium acetate, (J1l 0) 50g
2
!lor ic .:Jeid 5g
Potnssiwa nl"l11 30g
Water to 10001111
N.>. 52. Fixcr
I ph a te, anhyd .
l25g
(or Sodium thiosulphate, cryst,) (200g)
Sodiul1l s ulphi te, 'lnhyd. lag
I·later to 1000ml
Th " pit of this fixer is approximately neutral. Do not use an acid fixer because
it \Jill blcnch the dyes.
Nu. 53. Stnbiliser
- --- We t age'lt -
Im1
Forlllaide hyde ',0% 5ml
I-/.:Jte r to IOOOml
(lCes:';lng Pr ocedure lIr,fachrome 41
At 20
0
C (minutes) At 24°C (minutes )
1. First Developer 18 - zr-----­

(z00-O . 50C) (2l.
0
-0,2SoC)
2. Ri.n sc
\
3. St op bath 4 3
4 . 1,'[151, 10 7
S . Reve r sni Exposure See be ,', *
6. Colour developer 14 (20
0
-0.SoC) 11 (z4
0
:0.2SoC)
7. \-/ ,1 5 h 20 14
8. Ill eacll
9. I-/[lsh
5 '"
4
lll. Fix 5 4
ll . Wash 10 7
12 . Stabil iser 1 1
1] . Dry (30
D
e) mox
*.:, One minute each si.de with film r emo ved from spiral, 2 minuteR each end rf clear
sl ,c rlll "lid 5-10 minutes ench end of tt:anslucent nylon spirill frolll a No.2 Photoflood
a l I 'lie t re () f l!e t) .
Thp t Cll 'peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within
til " limits shown, For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20\lC or
21 - 2
l
l"C. The third wash (Htol!.'.e n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is
'l< lL shorte",!d. In soft watcr ilH'ilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slo'cll
Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately ,J(tcr the colour developer can
be given to prevent excessive swelling, This is a 2% solution of either sodium
- 22 ­
sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers' salts or Epsom Salts). If the intermediate
bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes. In the two developer
baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two inver­
sions every half minute for the rest of the period.
As usual it is the developer which deteriorate first. The remalnlng
solutions (stop hath, bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers.
Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be
extended by 30 seconds at 20°C (or 20 at 24
o
C) after the first two films
anQ after each subsequent two films. '; hi:; applies to both the first and colour
deve lopers .
rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess
1 am indebted to Mr. Derek Wa tkl ' 9 permission to reproduce this formula
wh i ch first appe.1red in the March 198 1 i s,> ,lc of the magazine "SLR Camera" (Haym:nket
Publi t hing Ltd., 38-42 Hampton Road , TC'': dingcon, Middlcsex).
There are a lot of films from man; sold under a wide variety of
brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process. Even Agfa make an E-6
compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional).
FormuL ae - E-6
i-lo:-54--:-first Deve 1upe r
Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g
Sodium sulphite, anhyd. J9g
Potassium carbonate, anhyd. 14g
Sodium bicarbonate 12g
Pheni done O. 6g
Itydro'luinone 6g
Sodium bromide 2.2g
Sodium thiocyanate Ig
Sodium hydroxide 3.3g
iodide (0.1% 50ln.) 4.5ml
Water to
pH 9. 6-0.05
No. Stop Bath 1
------S0dium acetate, anhyd. 30g
(or Sodium acetate, 3"20) (50g)
Acetic acid, glacial 6ml
Water to
pit 5.5-0.2
No. 56. Colour Develoger
Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g
tri-50dium orthophosphate, 12"20 36g
Sodium hydroxide 3g
Sodium anhyd. 4 . 5g
!3::>dium bromide 0.65g
Potassium iodide (0.1% Soln.) 30ml
Sodium thiocyanate 1. 3g
Citrazinic acid 1. 25g
CD-3 l1g
to 1000mi +
pH 11.65-0.05
• 23 ­
S LOp !lath 2
Same as Stop !lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them
No. 57. ll l e ach
l'otassiulil (erricyanide 80g
Potassium bromide
20g
Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphatt!,nnhyd. 12g
(or di-Sodium hydrogen ol'thophosphnte
1211
2
°)
(JOg)
Acetic acid, glacial 5ml
Hater to IOOOrot
plt
5.5-0.2
No . 58 . Fixe r
.- - Snd.i-u;;-t:hiosulphate, Mlhyo . 125g
(or SodiulTl thiosulp;\ilte, cryst . ) (200g)
SodiuJ'J sulphite, anhyd. 5g
Sodium me tabisulphite O.5g
Water to lOOOlllt
1'1\
7.2-0.2
ing .JgCllt lmL
\'" L" r to
lOOOml
Time
l. First development 6'r
J8-U57 -­
;,>. Stop iJath 1 2 33-J'!oC
J. I,,\,;h 2 3J-J90C
4. Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed
froro spiral, 5 minutes each side of
clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of
nylon spiral with No. 2 PhotofLoud at
(Or HeveJ: s31 Jl.:Jth) (Obtain.:Jhle 12 inches
frolll Photo Ch","ical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C
5. Col o ur u('ve [o[JllIC'nt G
JS!lOC
6. St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-:l,)°C
7. 1-/,,,;1. 2
])-J9()C
g. 11 [e.. ,·h 5 JJ-:l9"C
l). Rins e 3J-390C
[0. fix 5
3J-390C
II. Wnsh 6 33-J90C
I S tid, il ; s c 1 3J-390C
n. Dry (Fillll on drying)
r, uTES
,,) As wilh all revl!rsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines t.he
o[ the final transl'nrency .:Jntl the! rcconllllt!nJeu time anJ
.;hlHJ1J be 'Iuhl!rcu to.
b) Agit.:Jtion i. n ,,11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser
- - - - - - - ------------
wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two
inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute. With the reversal bath and
stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is
required.
cl The conditioner b.,th in the offici;)l process is lwl required in the pL'OceJllre
given hel'e as this useR ., ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl('ach.
d) The two Rtop h"th!! "re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrch.,lIi;r:cl
due tu carry-over contomination .
e) The cap:lcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll p"r litre (36 exposure - 35",," or
120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15
after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl'
the last two films).
f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature,
not in the refrigerator. The first developer will keep for two months unused
or for four weeks once used. The colo·.i. developer will keep for 3 months unused or
2 partly used :;nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur
longer. Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve
to moke up. Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used " ith
a (('esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek
life 0f the original first developer . .
g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60
0
C and all EktachrOllle films only clc:lr
when nearly dry.
For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and
Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to "The Focal Guide to Colour Film
by Derek I.JAtkins (published by the Focal Press, norough Green, SevE:no<)ks, Kent
TNlS 8PB). This excellent book also gives ,,11. the background information you may
require. Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost,
temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system. This book
also covers colour negative film processing .
PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL
__________ _ ____ ______ __ __
As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of
and Kodak, each have tlieir own fi lms and processing system.y [or cololJr
Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodak's
C-lfl prccens.
Processing negative film is very much eaGier tl'an reversal processing for two
reasons. Firstly, there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no
E:XpOSlln! required and secondly, there ill a little more latitude wi.th tlte processing
since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing stage. HOI_e ver, cons i."L e nt
good resutts depend on consistent processing. Attention to detail proce8s i ng
a film can save a lot of time later on.
Agfacolor N Negative Process
---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film. (CNS, CNS2 ann
80S excludi.ng AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film. This l"tter is
designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l
Kodak's Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a 's chromogenic 131ack and film Vor l " XL.
The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is ;11101-11'.(
to continue in the lowl>r layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi.1t e bath wll icll
immediately follows the colour developer.
- 25 ­
Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N
i /u . 59:- Col',ur-
SULUTION A
Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g
PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc, atlhyd. 75p,
Potassium bromide 2.5p,
Wat e r Lo 500ml
Il
lIydroxylamine hydroc;hloride
19
(or Hydroxylami.ne sulphate) 0. 2g)
Sodium sulphite, anhyd. 3.5g
Colour Dcvcloppr 1 2.8g
(or Colour Developer 1 (chloride» C2.2g)
(or Cenocilrome) (2.5g)
(0 t" Droxych rome) (J.2g)
\.)" t e r; to SOOml
I\ l: d B tlJ A with stirring before use
Nu. 60. Intermediate Bath
sulpil.1te--===-
JOg
Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n. 30ml
1000011
No . 61. Bleach
(Cnlgon) 5g
Potassiulll fcrricY.1nide 42g
Potassium brolllidp 12g
1'0[<l8siu", dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g
di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte,
nll Jil yd. Sg
Water to 10001'11
N.l. 62. Fixer
-------sz;-dG;-;;;---U;·ios ul phn te, nnhyd.
125g
(01' Socii um thiosulphntc, cryst.) (200g)
SodiulIl sulphitc, anhyd. 109
Wnter to 1000ml
Procedure, Agfacolollr N
Time (mins)
Te'l'pernture °c
-S----­
1. Colour developer 20-0.2
2. Intermediate bath 4 20:!:0.5
J. \-IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20
4. IHench 6 20:!:0.5
5. Hash 6 15-20
6. FLx 6 18-20
7 . \-I:lsh 10 15-20
fl. lllg agent bath 15-20

Agit.1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1:st minute followed by o ue
j "version of Lhc LIl!l( ('very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter.
llevcl{)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied bet\"ccn 7 - 9 minutes. Increase ueve10pment to 9
'''''llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and the time to 7 minutes (or softer results.
- 26 ­
The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and
temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases
with time.
All the solutions , including the col our developer solutions (separately) shoilid
keep for at least 4 months. Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate
bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks.
The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o 'C 120) per litre but the development tt,ne
s houl d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer
e xhaustion . The c apa c ity of the co lour d vet oper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y
al f of so lutions /I a nd B and proceSS inf( 4 i ilms in e ach ha lf. In this cas e
prolong the development time by one mi nut e a f ter eacll film.
Flexi color C-41
T'lis process was developed by Kod <1 i< [or the mach i ne of their
colour negative films, Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II. The majorit y of colour films
from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the process. In
addition there are the two "chromogenic" bl ack and white films, liford's XPI and
AgEal s Vario XL, whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing . /l gfa's fast colour
nega t i ve film, CNS400, should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals.
Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the
processing t emperature is rather hi gh (IOOor, 3S
o
C) . As with the E-6
precess, these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short
development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed
Tha t t hes e problems are e asi l y ove rcome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of
amac eurs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in
o
C-4! chemicals at 3S C.
The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a
traditional ferricyanide bleach.
"i' he substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om "The Focalguide to Colour Film
Proces sing" by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r:.. ;' ssion from the Focal Press .
Formu11e C- 4l
No. 63 Colour Developer
Sodi.um hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g
Potassium carbonate, anhyd. 38g
Sodium sulphite, anhyd. 5g
Potassium iodide, 0.1% Soln. 2ml
Potassium bromide 1. 5g
lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g
CD-4 5g
W:lter to 1000ml
No. 64. Stop Bath
A. :e tic acid, glacial 20011
Sodium acet.1te, 311 0 2.5g
2
Water to 1000ml
- 27 ­
-----
- ----------------

No. 65. Bleach
Potassium nitrate
2SB
Potassium ferricyanide 30g
Potassium bromide 12g
Boric acid 5g
Sodium tetraborate (Borax)
19
Water to 1000ml
No . 66. Fixer
Sodium thio:;ulphate, anhyd. 1;25g
(or Sodium thiosulphate, cryst.) (ZOOg)
Sodium metabisulphite 20g
Water to LOOOtnl
No. 53. Stabiliser
Wetting 1m1
Formaldehyde 40% 511 )1
to lOOOm1
f ! ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with bleach)
Time Temperature °c
l. Colour development
31;-
2. Stop bath 35-40
J. Wash 35-40
4. Bleach 35-40
5. 35-40
6. Fix 35-40
7. 35-40
8 . Stabiliser 35 -40
9 . Dry
Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed
by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter. In the remaining
solutions the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO inver sions every half minute after
tilE, init i a l )0 seconds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath.
TIll:! capacity of the so lut ions is a ppl"C))limately twelve films per litre, if the
developer is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion.
The development time should be extended by .. minute after the f irst two films and
by · a further i; minute aft er t he second 1:'''<.1 fi .ms. A comb i. ned b1each/ f ix bath may be
in this proc"ss bt: t o[ cours " Lilis call.lu t be a f e rr i c Yll!1ido ball ed bleach. A
sllitable formula can be found in t he Br i .i sh J our nal of Phot ography Annual.
PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS
For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for
colour print processing. The f onnulae and pr ocedur e s are quit e and
lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual. Photocopies of the relevant
pnues may be obtained, for a nominal sum, from the publishers. This applies to
editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out
(u s ually April or Hay). The address to ., ' 0 i s:
Tlte Ed i tor,
Ilritish Journal of Photography Ann· qL,
Henry Greenwood (" Co. Ltu.,
28 Creat James Street,
London WeI
Telephone: 01-404 4202
- 28 ­
APPENDIX I Chemical Names
\Seeals-; Appendix 2 for Colour Developing
Adurol
Amidol
Amidosulphonic acid
Ammonium alum
Ammonium hydroxide
l,2-B('nzenediol
1,4-Benzenediol
Bor.1cic acid
Borax
Calgon
Chlorchydroquinone
Chrcm<: alum
Copper sulphate
Copper chloride
l,2-Diaminoethane
2,4- Diaminophenol hydrochloride
Digol
l,2-Dihydroxybenzene
l,4-Dihydroxybenzene
2,6-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid
Elo!'!
Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts
glycol
ammonium citrate
Formalin
p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine
Iron perch loride
Iron trichloride
Kcdalk
p-Ht'Lhylaminophenol sulphate
Nethyl p.1raaminophenol sulphate
!·Ionoch 10 rhyd rO'luinone
1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazolidone
Potasnium alum
Potassium bichromate
Potassium bisulphite
Potassium chrome alum
Propan-2-01
Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol)
Pyrogall ic acid
Quino:
Sodium bisulphite
Sodium hydrosulphite
Thiocarbamide
I, 2, 3-Trihydroxybenzene
and Synonyms
Agent")
Chloroquinol
2,4-Diaminophenol hydrochloride
Sulphamic acid
Aluminium ammonium sulphate
Aoononia solution
Catechol (Pyrocatechol, Pyrocatechin)
Hydroquinone
Boric acid
Sodium tetraborate
Sodium hexametaphosphate
Chloroquinol (Adurol)
Chromium potassium sulphate
Cupric sulphate
Cupric chloride
Ethylenediamine
Amidol
Diethylene glycol
Catechol
Hydroquinone
Citrazinic acid
Hetol
EDTA acid and salts
Ethanediol
Ammonium ferric citrate
Formaldehyde solution
Glycin
Ferric chloride
Ferric chloride
Sodium metaborate
Hetol
Hetol
Chloroquinol
Phenidone
Aluminium potnssium sulphate
Potassium dichromate
Potassium metabisulphite
Chromium potassium sulphate
Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol)
Catechol
Pyroglillol
Ilydroquinone
Sodium metabisulphite
Sodium dithionite
Thiourea
Pyrogallol
- 29 ­
2
There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour
developing agents. This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds
helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor.
L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemi.cal
nOlllcnclature system used. The following is a list of the chemical names and
synonyms of the common colour developing agents. All of them are derivatives of
para-phenylenediamine, the classic fine grain black and white developer, and they
sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material. They
should be handled with care and' skin contact or inhalation of dust should be
avoided. llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they
arc interchangeable to some extent, the differences being pl'incipally differcncf's
ill activity and solubility. Differences in solubility can cause slight colour
cil:mges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour
films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration
in printing. The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times,
or exposure, will have to be determined by experiment. The names underlined are
those used by Photo Chemical Supplies.
Colour Developer I (Sulphate)
- Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt,1'S<mi}--­
= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate
=N,N-Diethyl-l,4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate
C
lO
II
16
N
Z
.H
2
S0
4
Hol.h't:. -, 262.32
Colour Developer 1 (Chloride)
;;­ ·COi"\Kodak) .
Di.e til y1- p-pheny lened.l. alnine hydroch loride
= N,N-Di.ethyl-l,4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride
Mol.Wt. = 200.70
[}t> vel:?r:.er '}
CD 2
Activol 2 (Johnsons)
'[olochrome (M & ll)
N,N-Diethyl-2-methyl-l,4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride
4-Alllino-N,N-diethyl-m-toluidine hydrochlo r ide
214. i3
Colour Developer 3
ak)
Activol 3 (Johnsons)
i'lyJoch rome (M & ll)
N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te,
monohydrate
!, - Am lllO - N - e thy1- N - (;i me thanesu ll'honalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e ,
monohydrate
Hol.\Jt: . 436.52
- 30 ­
Colour 4
CD4 (Kod:ik)
= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi}-2-methyl-l,4-phenylenediamine sulphate
c 292.35
CllH18N20.112S04
Droxychrome (M & B)
Activol 8 (Johnsons)
Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck)
T32 (Orwo)
N-Ethyl-N-{2-hydroxyethyl)-l,4-phenylenediamine sulphate, monohydrate
Wt. 296.34
CIOH16N20·1l2S04·JI20
tiO. '"
Ac60 (Agfa)
Colour Developer 60 (Merck)

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u
C
l4
i 24
N
2
0
3
S Hol.iVt. '" 300.42
Gcnochrome (M & B)
- 1 (Johnsons)
S 28 OM)
N,N-Diethyl-l,4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2
sulphite
Mol. \ot t . 237.34
The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Devel ope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)
APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydr.ncd Forms of Sal ts
Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc
either in anhydrous forms or in one or mor e states of hydration. If these oiffc l-ent
forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active
ingredient is constant. For example s odi um carbonate is available as the anhydrous
powder (Molecular weight 105 . 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 .10I1 0, molecular
2 3 2
weight 21l6.l4). The ratio of their molecular weights is 1:2.70 so for every gram
of anhydrous sodium carbonate required, 2.70 grams of the decahydrate would have to
be used. It is important to remember thill point whe)'. compa r ing prices of chemicals
because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be
actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required.
The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n
different degrees of hydration. showing their molecular weights and the ratios in
which they should be used. Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by
Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual, most economic or most stable
form of the chemical concerned.
Cupric chloride CUCI =134.45
Use 1:1.27
Z
Cupric sulphate CuS0 =159.6l _+511 °=2[1').68 Use 1: 1. 56
4 2
Ferric chloride FeC13c162.2l +611 °=270.30 Use 1:1.67
2
Magnesium sulphate 39 .:!:Z..!!.20=246.47 Use 1: 1. 78
Potassium carbonate
Use 1:1.19
di-Potassium hydrogen
+3H 0=228.22 Usc 1: 1. 31
2
orthophosphate
- 31 ­
-- --
Jiunt C!l COONa = 82.03 U:;e 1:1.66

3
:;o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =120.06

Use 1:1.15
4
99
.14 Use 1:2.70
.' ;,)«( ium d i hyd rogp n
orthophosphate +211 0=156.01 Use 1:1.30

d l-S<)(Ji,\Jnl hydror,en
orlhophosphate Na
2
11P0
4
=141.96
+.!..21122..=} Use 1: 1 . 25: 2.52
sulph/lte +]011 0=322.19 lise 1:2.:17

2
suiphite
!'i:2 S03= 04
+711 °=252.15 Use 1:2.00
2
So diulIl tliiocY':lOate N3SCN=81.07
+2H
Z
2.:':..!...l.2.JQ
Use 1:1.4/-1
( I\l'st stor.ed as 20% solutions)
S" dilllll thiosu1phalc
Use 1:1.57
Stannous chloride ,:211
2
9=225.63 Use 1:1.19
l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp ,:mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable
due to alkalinity of the crystalline form contains
appl:ox. sodium hydroxide
1\ i' I' END I X LI versus Potilssium Salts
-- -- - r;,111(, l!Iajority of sodiulU salts lIIay be
S" d"ltituted [or pntas»iullI s .'1lts. n", sodium sa.lts are genentlly diE;aper
c·"l'eciall.)' since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is t"equired to giVE! the same molecular
' ··' iuivalent. In the C.:lse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium
,; ;; lts an! 1,!s:J deliquescent than the potassium salls and .1r.e therefor easier to
sL ore alld hnl\lJle. The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater
s o luui lil: y I"h e n highly concentrated solutions are made up. lleCRuse of the slightly
hi ,: her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed
1-111 '11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer For this reuson
L1 ,,, uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here. The (ollowing is a list of the ratios
in which sorne of the CC>lnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the
I IiU (ecular equiv.11cnts.
Pilt: assiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100:86.5
Putassi.ulTI c;Irbonnte, nnhyd. Sodium carbonate, Ilnhyd. 100:76.5
l'Jt:lssium
l\)l".1,t;S tUIlI
citr3LIO' 011
2
°)
hydroxide
Sodium citrate (211
2
°)
SodiulII hyel ,'ox ide '
100:90.5
100:71.0
l' u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100: 85.5
f' o t:l!3S iunl I'crslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100: 88.0
Potassium sulphite, anhyd. Sodium sulphite, anhyd. 100 : 79.5
ArPENDIX 5 and Measures
There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae, 11 lot of which
al ' e still v.11id todilY. In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois
ulli t:; ;.rud the following tnbles 0I.1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric
sf ' : tem.
Avoi rdup'Jis

16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 .6gra1ll8 (g)
1 'Juncc (llZ) 16 tJr.:ll1ls (drm) 437.5 grains (grs) 28.35 grams (g)
dram (drill) 27.34 grHins (grs) 1.77 grams (g)
(15.43 grains (grs) 1.0 gL1n1 (g) )
- 32 ­
Liquid Hea,;ures (Ilriti.sh alld Netdc )
1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Fl.oz) 1. 136 1 it re (I)
pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl . nz) 568 millilitres (m1)
fluid (Fl.oz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28.lllml
fluid drachm 60 minims 3.55ml
(1 minilll = 1 drop)
Temperature conve rsion
Fahr,'nheit to Cel sius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC
<)
Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU
C
x 9) + 32 = xOF
5
APPl':NlllX 6 Ref"rences and Funher Reading
The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find
useful (or further informatiun.
1. Jacobson C*1. and Jacob!lun R. E. (1976) "Developing" 18th Edit ion,
Focal Press (see below)
2. Jacobson C.l. a nd Hannheim L.A. (1975) "Elllarging" 22nd Edition Futal Press
*
J. Jacobson R.E . , Ray S.F., Attridge G.G* and Axford N.R. (1978) "Hanual of
Photography" 7th Edition, Focal Press *
I, • Langfo rd H. J . (1980) "Advanced Photogl-aphy" 4th F.dition Focal Press
S. Hason L.F.A_ ( 1975) "Photographic Processing Chemistry" 2nd Editioll Focil Press'"
6. Wat k ins D. (19 78) "The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing" Focal Press
7. Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982, Henry Greenwood [, Co_ Ltd. 28 Great
James London WCl
* The Focal Press, Butterworth [, Co., (Pllblishers) Ltd., Ilorough Green, Sevenoaks,
Kent TN15 flPH
Books 1, 2 and] are all standard refere nc e w rks on photographic processing.
Ilook 4 is a ve r y useft.l sout' ce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography, but
particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials. The bouk
by L.F.A_ Hasun (S) is [or those wishing to devise formulations of their
own, especially co loul' formulations, but the reader shoulJ have some chemical know­
ledge. Book No. 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and desc.ribe>!
th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bub!ltitute formulae
[or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts.
The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of
formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls. The formulae cover all
aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing.
NOTE
The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of
photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers who s e ek a greater under­
standi.ng of the medium. The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith, but
because results are de pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept
l iability for any processing [aults, or to pet'solls or property, that might
ari9 howsoever callsed. Becau>!e o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the
r e spons ibility of the user to Elace rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or
process i.n relation to hi8 mat e r ials, e quipment and objectives. Any suggestions from
I' a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be
welcome _
- 3:J ­
II c knuw l edgcmcnts
Til e author wO!lld l ike to thank the f,,11 owing f o r pc n nisRi.Oll to us e m.1terial for
inclusion in this book let:
Kod a k te\. for details of thf'ir formuln p (morwc hrome) <lnd for addi t ional h e lpflll
info rmati o n.
IHo rd Ltd. for to reproduce their pllb lishe d formula e .
Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd. for informat ion o n their p rod uc ts and proc eRRinr,.
The Fo c al P I'f) 9S, who publish a wiel e r ange oC b oks u n for permisAion
t o US" Ilel('cted m.1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlic:ltions (R(' e Appendix (,).
/)(' rek Watkins for pe rmission t o r e pr udu c (' his slIbstitute 1.\-6 proc "1""ing
prnee- dur(' whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine "SLH.
G, W. Crawley. f'ditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography. for p"rmis9ion
l<l rf'prodl.lcE' SOIll(' of his FX sprif's ,-,f d('vclop('rs.
Th E' ah"v(' p"rsons or organis,nion9 (· .1nnot 'Iccept .1ny liabil i t y arisin!', from the
n'prodnct inn of their lIIal:(,['ial in I..hi" hooklet.
Writtf'n by R. C. Potts and publishe d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES
21 LODGE CLOSE
COWL EY
MIDDLE: SEX
UBB 2ES
- 34 ­
No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document.
This is a scan of the original document.
Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk.
Intended for personal and educational use only.

Reduction B & W PRINT PROCESSES Print developers Stop baths Print fixers Wash aids for paper prints Hypo el imina tor Print toning Print reducers COLOUR PROCESSING Processing colour reversal films (for colour slides) Agfachrome 41 process Ektachrome E-6 process Processing colour negative films (plus XP-l snd
Vario XL B & W films) Agfacolor N process Flexicolor C-41 process APPENDIX 1 Chemical Names and Synonyms APPENDIX 2 Colour Developing Agents APPENDIX) Anhydrous and Hydrated forms of Salts APP ENDIX 4 Sodium versus Potassium Salts APP ENDIX 5 Weights and Heasures APPENDIX 6 References and Further Reading Acknowledgements

15
16
16
17
17
17
II
17
19
20
20
21
2)
25
25
27
29
30
)1
32
32
])
)4

this is that \n<lny of the solutions (such as tlevelopers) which det()riol·"te through atmospheric oxidatioll c<:n be made l!P in t\o,'O or more parts 'Jhich scpar~ILely will k ee p for very long periods. These lH a y simply bE' mixed, in the quantity required, illllil ed-iately before use thus elim i nating ·...oste. The econ b r:1Lc adv o nt.~ge s of com­ pounding "standard" black and wllitt! chc"licals should not 012 ovC!rlook c tl either. For exarllplc the cost of the actual chemicals required to ll13ke up :1 high aClltance negative developer which will yield three litres o[ working strength developer i s less than 5 pence. The equivalent commercial pack costs aroulld (1.00.
FL EXIBILITY Most formulations of processing solutions, within each group, usc basically the same chemicals in varyi.ng proportions. Consequently, wi.th a 511",11 stock of chemicals it is possible to make up a wide variety of developers, soy, each , ;i. t h B different (unctio". I\ s <:in e Xlll1lpl", Y Oll mig\It not "i.sh to 1 T)' 0' 5 li. rr k it: of Lith developers just f or one or L'. o films but thl' d e vci op e.r Call be !':1 s i ly and cheaply made up in any quantity from standard cheillicals.

CREATIVITY There are many formulae available for creating special effects <It ('very st3ge in black and white processing. The re are special developers t\J;lt give h ig h contrast, low contrast, high acu t allce, fine grain, CO'lrse p,r;Jin etc. There are chemicals to modify the negative after development such os redu c tion and intensification which can be used to maintain, reduce or increosc the contrast in the developed image. Reversal processing of block and white film can yield very ple~sing transparencies with a tonol gradation not pussible in prints. The developed black and wllite print can also be modified tucreate special effects. These may include local reduction, chromogenic redevelopment, sepia toning, metallic toning, dye toning anti archival processing.

Using the Formulae

-----It is

Ch'~micals

important to use chemicals that conform to the standards specified [or

- 1 ­

Olg at a ver)' reasonable price.the conc e ntrated acid .2 ­ .a rd inf o rmation w here appro priate in acco rdance with latest EEC proposa~s.l rly labelled with the contents and proc . U$ ing St o ck Sullltiol1s It i D s ometi mE'S easier to store chemicals as stock solutions of known concentr. All bo t tles of m<1d e up 50 lutio n R sh o uld be cle . Mixing vessels and utensils should be of glass or plastic and should be easy to clean.:o. accurately measured quantities._ alll] s h o u ld be s co red o u t of rea ch of children . A balance snch as that sold hy Photo Chemical Supplies is ideal as it offers accuracy down to O. I' . that is. Some chemicals sllch :)s Phenidone (a developer) which are required in small. such as contamination of developers hy chemicals used as fixers.i l. So me c ompounds should not be used in the darkroom at all (such as the sul~lides and thiourea which are powerful foggants used in sepia toning) and should not be s tored near sensitised materials .. l laboratory hygiene sh o uld be observed. I'e .mi c als Suppl i es are labelle<1 with . The m. Norm. Al che t cals SIl Pp ied by Ph oto C' lp. can be weighf. !Iiners for 35mm film cassettes are useful for this as moH types are airtight.hing Out Not ~ll chemicals require the same degree of accuracy in weighJng out but for consistency and reproducibility the I"eighing should be as accurate as pos s ible.'d out directly into small vial~ in the n'<]uired quantities. yet which would deteriorate in solution. immediately wipe up 1 any spillages of powd e rs or liquids and keep the working area clear.lln tlisadvantnge is that most chemica19 in solution deteriorate with time and they do this at different rates. The outer plastic con'. Cleanliness A clea'r .on which can then he dispensed by volume rather than by weighing. Certain typeg of contamination arc more serious than others. uncluttered working environment is essential in the successful compounding of solutions. Some chemicals are best stored as stock .'Ili.

s e i ns olub le pre ci pitates can adhere to the film surface..It .'ater can be used for the dilution.. This improves the keeping qualities of the concentrate and o r dinary tap . It is the l'IOluble magnesium and e ll cium salts which are the main cause of water hardn ess . Other nletal ions such as coprer and ir a n can Lccelerate the rate of aerial oxidation of uevelopers by acting os catalysts anu in higher concentration can cause sl icltt for. Til .. tlsunlly wh(>n used . e. in areas with very soft IOGter it is advisllble to nn ific Lnlly h<lnl en ti.. a~ a wash in high temperature colour process e s such as C-41 nnu E-6 at JSuC/IOOoF.ash.. In f act.es of a small quantity of distilled wat e r. i lms and it c ar. to "'hic h a drop or two of wetting agent may be adued.~ water u~ed in the was h cycles of colour processes by arldini'.3 ­ . sal ts such . The ..::. m de up thes e metals form insol uble salts with some o f th e c ommon i ngredient s o f "' e lopers such as 5ulphites.IS 1l.rn salts or Glau he r 's s il lts) . as the final . Very soEt water can cause swelling of the film emulsion. As hard water dries it leaves a scaly dl?posit which can be very difficult to ::er: v ~ f rom . A useful pra ct ice i . but is particularly rer:ommended when rn<lking U[) cOllcentr<lt e d s t ock developer solutions which are later diluted for one-shot use. a ff ect the printing quality of ne ga tives. . to use one or t'-'o chang.Water is the main ingredient in all photog r aphic processing solutions anu The only solutions in which water qu a lity need be t~ken into account are the develupers for Eilu!s anu in the final . This is an add itional expense which is not always required.Jg "'esi wTi or sodium s ul phate (ordinary Eps(.c:ing of the fillft.." so l a by (l oots) for mak ing up develop e rs. phosphates <lnJ bo r a t e s ... Very hard water is more troublesome. The ~ arest procedure i s t o se di s ti lled or de-iunis ed wate r (suell as "P(!r ified Water D. carbo!1 2tes .. ..P. especially if sequestering ag nts are used.B h for films.1 r a t e or approximately 20g per litre. Wh e n de veloper's are . it is probably the most variable component. ence oE i ron in the wat er can also cause stainin g of film and p<lpel·s. A sequestering agent can be incorporated into either the t<lp wa ter or the concentrate.

The a 1ka 1i is somet imes re [erred to as th~ acce lera tor because mos t deve lopers arc only efficient in alk.:Jbove. Tllese mixtures show "superaddi. that i" the activity of the mixture is greater than the sum of the activities of the developers when lIsed separately.4 ­ . usually with poor keeping qualicies.:Jgent alone..:Jnts SUCII as hydroxylamine are used as preservatives. The Preserv.tivity". The Alkali . other antioxid..1uHtic alkalis (sodium and potassium hydroxide) b) the carbonates Bnd c) the mild alknlis and alkaline buffers. but as metol/hydroquinone (MQ) or Phenidone/ hycicoquinone (PQ) combinations. A concentration of . The three commonly used types of alkali arc a) tile c. lIytlroquinone is used on its own in high contrast developers where its action is . }fetol and Phenidone have similar properties in that they are fast working developers yielding 1010 contrast images.:Jin size by dissolving some of the silver halide. The s'Jlphite has other ['Inctions in the developer and an importRnt one of these is its action as a silver halide solvent. Most developing agents. lIydroquinone is a slow. Thi6 effect is made use of in fine-grain developers where the sulphite. TIle properties of a developer are determined by its overall composition rather than by the choice of develoring . hydroquinone and Phenidona. arc only active in alkaline sollJtions. TIley arc seldom used a ione. The callstic alkalis give rise to high eneq~y developers.g. however.:Jccelerated by the use of caustic alkalis (e.. reduces the actual gr. sooium hydroxide). where the sulphite concentration is J. In some colour developers.:Jround IOOg/litre is required for this to be significant. Tile compound almost univerRally used is sodium sulphite although potassium sulphite and the corresponding metabisulphites may also be used. including the three mentioned .1W.1line solutions. contrasty developer. The carbonates are less aggressive in their nction and are very . The pH and the nature oE the alkali are of prime import<Jtlce in determining the properties of the working developer.:ltive The function of the preservative is co protect the developer from aerial oxidation..[orl1lulae in tllis booklet are mainly tho~e using metol.

IN WHICH THEY APPE AR IN TilE FORNULA.5 ­ . restraine:-s etc. ly inhibited. a nd then the s nl ution made up to th e f i nal volu me with water. Hixing vessels and ut e nsi l s sho u ld be of glass or plastic "nd shoulo be t"E'Z'.lIl1ination. IN TilE ORDER.ch is about 100 times more potent.a nd related compounds are firstly cost :Jnd secondly they can accelerate <leri u l ox i dation of the developer in certain circu~st an ces. whi.In c. The s ol u t i on can then be made up to final volume with ('o ld water. It is i mpo rtU!lt that eAch c it 'mi cal add e d is completely di ssolved before the neKt is introducc.1nd its derivative s <lnd some ~o l o ur deve l opers. up Solutions The chemicals should be dissolved in about two thirds of the fillal volume of wat e r sh loin. The <lmount used slt oulo not e xc eed I' proxima':eiy 0 . e rved for photographic use. is also encountered. The met a b. lficicnt preser­ 'ilt ive and is acid in re<lctiou so thJt the developerr.'. 5g per Litre othel'wise fODming \Iwy C<lus e p r o ble ms. 'l. I-lhen mAking up a series of so luti o ns fo1' Any pit t i c ul<l r proc ess it is good practice to make lip the soluti olls i.n the O['oer in ". the alkali content of the other solution must be incre:1Scd pr oportion<Jtely ~~k l ng . Some developers require aoditional restr(Jiners in the form of organic anti ­ £aggants. is . Host ch emic als di ssolve more readily in war m W<l[ e r but this s hou ld never 0 ey. This is partic ul a rl y true of Phenid one . in the other. Since sodium sulphite is distinctlY<llkalinc in solution the aerial o)(idation of the developing agents Ciln be further inhibited by substi t uting s odium metnbisulphite [or all or part of the sodi um sulphite. Host modern develop2:cs contain a wetting agent to en s ure the event wetti[\~ :) f the film and the el imination of air bubbles . The mo s t common l y used is benzotriazole but 6-nitrob en zimi­ daz ol e. I t is a useful prac t ice t o m<lke up developers as concentrated stock solutions. are complet c.c h t hey lITe to be us ad a s t his . ces tit e ffects of c.:l ( rY-O Vl' r cont. The se ha ve be t ter ke ep ing qU<llit i es and are easier to s tor e .d.su l phi t e h a a greo1t "::' solubil i ty t han su lphite. Of course.ce ecl SOoC (120 F).eu !!. A typical de veloper would hav" t h e developing agent(s) and sulphite in one solutiun And the <llkali.

6 ­ . b 12 48 C 22 ~~----------.ock + I. 2 . 4 and ' 5 are contrasty developers suitnb1e for ordinary films and pllltes ..5 2 75 37.. especially f Or rol1filO1. (.--------------------------~~~~------------~= ~--------------~--------~----~~------~--------- 2 .1Y be IISpJ ill these formul.111d can be us ed wiLhout dilution (or lille films such as pes Ortholith 35mm lith film. anh yd. lI yJ r0'111 i n_'__e _ _ _ ____________________~~~~________v. is very similar to D19b and IDl9 X-ray film developers. a nh yd ..um cnrbonate. contrllsty film such as Pan F.lllted No. Formulae :105. sheetfilm and plates.l'd U1Hli.~lQ NQ PQ (ID62 ) 3 90 11 ~IQ PQ (IDn) (DI65) ~Ie t (D61a) (ID2) 2 o1 6 Sodl !!m s ulphit e . Cal~oll m.:. When u'. The ilorm<11 contrast developers (Nos.te and should be added before all other ingredie u t~.1) is useful for ~ubjects with an extended brightness range recorded on slow. .ater) Appr oximate development time at 20 ° C 25 37 50 60 0. 20 2 1000 1+3 10 1000 l ·q 1+3 6-7 12-14 1000 1+3 1+7 3-4 6-7 1000 1+2 1+5 5 9 10 1000 None 5 ----------------------------------------------------------~--------------- The soft working developer (No. Use up to 3g!litre in hard water areas.~ith wide application.1nd 3) nre eminently practical developers .5 2 7:. Sodi.__8_ ·Jn 8 ~ . Phenid onc rotnssium bromi de Iknzotri azo le 1% SodiJJm metabi s ulphite W ter to a Dilution (5t.

p-phcnyl­ enediallline irself Iws too lIIany unplea sa nt char"ct c ristics to be of any use • nowadays. All the above formulae can be diluted either 1+1 or 1+3 Lo r olle-shet prC. II sodium carbolwte is the accelerntor. Formula No. The :lulphite cOllcclltrntion is relatively high to make use of the solv(..BorIc acid Pota s sium bromide Phenldone Hat~r 8 3.7 is a buffered version o f No. Sulphite c annot be u:lcd in such high concentrntion in colour develol'llIC'lIt of (. Super Fine Grain Developers These developers (see table 3) usc colour developing agents which are derivatives of . Formula No.6 and yields morc consistent results but since the pH is slightly 10. These colour deve lope rs a n~ S low work j ng and r.l yc ill ali<I hydcoqu in o ne hav e been included ill formulae 9 and 10 t o nccelcratc developlIIC'lIt.-phenylenediallline.llt effect. In [annul.'ccSStng. .-inl1l :IS iL inhibits the ('01 ollr coup I ing rene t ion. 3. but developmcnt tillll'S should be approx­ imately doubled (1+1) or trebled (1+3).5 0.""e1' th e developnie nt time s will be long e r..OIOllf lTIall'. the classic fine grain developer.2 1000 6-10 1000 12-15 1000 10 . yielding enh:lllced acutancc.7. to Approximate development time Formula No. 8 is a PQ developer with characteristics simil:lr to No. No.6 represents the standard develop e r against "hiell all otlle r developers are judged.7 ­ .

These slo'Ner films have a thin emulsion and are n3turally contrasty wi:h good acutillicc.. Firr. the ori/.um 'or potassium carbonate) is kept as a SCp. can be made \Jp in two parts.8 ­ . 15 the Pinacryptol Yellow solution shoul.cising dye which is decomposed by sulphite..• contrast is good and the gradation of the less important ~id-tone9 is compressed. Developers of this type arc not "fine grain" developers and it is essential that they be used . The second effect of the high dilutfonl minimum agitation techniqlle is the forl1l3tion of ~Iackie lines which enhlllce apparent imGgc sharpness at the boundaries between lightly and heavily exposed .rection and retilrds development in the lightly exposed en:1l1sion adjacent to the boundary. 1·lith the fast films which normally yield a soft. t\cutallce or IIiI'll D(~finiti(1n Developers ----The · dZutance· dt2vclopecs arc gencrnlly very dilute and require onl y suffic u~nt ngitation to prevent the' [ormatLon of streamers. heavily exposed emulsion. Pinacryptol Yel101Y is {l desensi. This is due to fresh developer on the lightly exposed side of the boundary diffusing across and acceleratill~ deve l opment in the adjacent. Bromide. I'nnlula No.:'.1se in effective emulsion speed) yet the highlight areas do not become blocked liP. This results in good shadow detail (resulting in an incre.1!'ilt e solution. be included in the concentrated stock solution but added just before \lIe.Jte in the s e cond solution.tly. Forll1"lae Nos.1in t h (o: alkali (soni. not. the reduction in macro-contrast produces a dull. grainy ne<. When preparing .1re35.llIsted in areas of heavy exposure yet remains active in the shadow areas. This type of cornp~nsRting development yields reduced macro-contrast but the result is not the same <IS that acheived by ordinary soft-working developers siOlce t!l(~ important highlight und shado . flat image which cannot b! improved by printing on hard parer due to the grain. Wi t h ¥ormu!:J rio. 12 (nr" Table LI). The effect of this is twofold.. In addition. the IlIrtol and sulphite in one solution and the carborl. the thick emulflion of these [~ut films docs n o t lend itself to the development of Mackie lines. 14 and 15 can be made up as concentr:Jted stock solucion s and 3f.~l Llclltance fonu\Jla. diffuses in the revcrs' di.J\ppr(l~irnnte development time 12-15 at 20 C 8 20 4.ative.in. a product of the developm~nt reaction. the developer becomes exh..ith slower film8 (bdo'N 150 I\SI\) which have fine grain emulsionr. The net effect is an incn~ase in the apparent sharpne~s of the boundary.

15 Speed increasing developer f or push-processin g Thi s fine-grain I'Q developcrrlO(iS) gives :Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of a bou t one stop in normi!1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by cKtC!nding the development tillle. Sodium carbon. This developer may aiso be' used [or dillllC. 7 -1 0 15 .9 ­ .1 11 respects to 11[onl "<ll<.: developer is ~i rnilar in .0 2.-----------------------------------------------------~---- Pynacryptol yellow 1:2000 solli. llle c at 20 i:.J 0 12. 25 Pot3ssium carbonate Po tas sium iodide 0.5 3.lII cxt e nLil.~~.J dcvc'lopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 1:0 Olll' stop incrcase in slwecl. --------------------------1000 1000 25ml stock +l5ml pot­ assium hydroxide 10k.5(ld i urn sulphi. . 5 1000 Nunc ----~--------------- 100 0 Dilution None [)c v·d pmcnt t i.5 an!!.itf~ J 25 80 1. 'l'hi. anhyd.".S 5 -------- ----------. 7. 011(>­ shot procesfiing for enhanccd <Icutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wi. water to 10001111 1+10 3.20 8.Jlth film slich :IS 111'5 this dol':> not lead to excessive contra~t or grain. \.001% solll. 5.1d..:rol'l1".

-d "Iniectious development" low :"ulphitic developer. The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast. anhyd . contrast. .htly. SOLUTION A llydroquinone Potassium mctabisulphite PotassiUM bromide \-I.1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes.5g) 1000ml 6.5 b ) 25p. 17. . but devrlopment time should be extended sli!. (or Sodium bromide 2l. The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed. 18. T1:e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI: yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening. 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe. No.llm hydroxide \-IGter to 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) lOOOml Usc eqllJI P. Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining. Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos. "Infectious" Lith Developer 1 SOLUTl ON A Sodium sulphite.10 ­ .nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies. The first is the classic "Caustic-hydroquinone" developer and the s('con d is the s cand a . N<). "CauGtic-llydro'1uinone" High Concrast Developer 25g 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l.1ter to SOLUTlOCl B Sodi.

y ~o\lle developer s nnd prevents .. No. III addition.1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm). The more fixing agent added. An acid stop b.-_ 4 10 1000 mi n Wat er to P r oc <"!ss i ng time - + 5 llI ins- mi n i ll(! degree of cont ras t pro du c ed will VIH y f ro". This can be set when m.-Iki. pTO _ ®':J1!§.rast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d('vel o p:ne nt but is "built-into" the mOllobath formula.:i:. anhyd.lmage cont.te.o use n stop bath betwee n the developing and fixing baths. (sodium thios u ll'hate) includ e d.an infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the ("esult ill g ne gati ve.ng up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent.-.1lld millilliis 's cont3mi­ nation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed L. the softer the contrast. If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowe st quantity of thiosulphate is required. anhyd.lm sylphi. a [ew minutes in a. the hydroquinone concentration can be increa s e d by about 25-30%.11 ­ . CInL'identa lly. Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent. the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent c.1th not only halts develol'"Il'llt .d:. It is always good practice t. 19 Socl i. Ta b le 5. Monobath formulae No. 20 50 50 12 4 12 60 (/15-80) Sodiuln thiosulphate.e=-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-. on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl' t· and the qu a ntity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe("imentally for y o ur favourite film stock. Films an' pl:ocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed :Jnd dri e d nortll"lly. 70 (55-90) 1000 5 mi ns + S od i \lm h ydro ~:.

:..::. anhyd. lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion.t.) Ammonium thiosulphate Sodium sulphite...-=a:. 160 150 (or Sodium thinsulphate cryst.h:.'._ _ ..a.:.12 ­ . 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such. .._ _ _ _ __ . Sodium metabisulphite Acetic acid. .::.n:. Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed. 27 Buffered Rapid 7ixer No . Table 7.. 28 Buffere d Ilarden •.::.:..d::. 25 Standard Acid Hypo Fix~r No..!:._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.. glacial Bodc acid Potassium alum Water to 25 (50) (240 ) 175 15 25 10 10 1000 200 15 15 7.~____-=-::.. 26 Buffered Hardening Hypo Fixer No.:.y:. Typical fixers are shown in Table 7.:....5 15 1000 1000 All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers. The buffered flxer~ havf' a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No .t-=e2. ng Rapid Fixer Sod i urn t h io!' 11 ]_'--pt:.1S 11fospeed. Fixll'g [laths No.Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion.5 15 1000 IS 7..::.

No .5 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~. lIydroquinone Sodium carbonate. anhyd.:dded as above. 31.) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used. (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A. at the following rale (gram~ per litre) PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate. . Potassium bromide W ater to Dilution (stock + water) SOg l2g 6()g 4g lOOOml 1+1 To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate. 30. 5 7.o a SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed. No.Sodium sulphite. diluted 1+1. anhyd. Blcach (two part stock solutions) 2g SOOml SOLU TI ON A Potassium permanganate W ater to SOLUTION B lOOml Sulphuric acid 10% v/v W ter t. Clearing Bath 25g 1000ml Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite Water to Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used. anhyd.oulpilate . Potassium dichromate For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film. '" . cryst.ith thio.13 ­ .

j developer. The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers. The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour). 32. 5g 200 ml Hydrochloric acid 10% v/v (3.6% w/w) 30ml (L Iml) ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 :1. The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb. Old negatives should be sO . w/w) (]ml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone. effective. The following for muL. 28) Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual.3 or any "universal. INTE ~(UFIC'\TION. Fix Fix in acid h. TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both. Chromium Intensifier STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate l. 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in . An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be 'repe a ted s.) W. Final \\'''5h Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver im:Jge obtained after development and fixation may be either l. This may be a print developer or general purpo se necative developer such as formtJl No.: l nOli-solvent type developer . kcd in water for a few minutes.:tsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative.everal times. The negative should be properly fixed and well washed. No. e.Jnter to STOCK SO LUTION II 12 . It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed.14 ­ . It. 2¢ ) or 4 mins (formula No. r! cen ­ sified or r e duc e d.:trdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No. with an increase in intensification each time as the image .Jter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n..10.:t has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple.

The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reduce. The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu.~dd 1 pa["t B.) Water to STOCK SOLUTION B (SOg) 500ml Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and . .5ml 500ml STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1% solution Sulphuric acid 10% wlw Water to STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g W ater to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions..Persulphate Reducer (Proportional) lZ . 34.r may be n 1te ["cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added.15 ­ . No. lOr. 35..3 short life. No. [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa. for use take one part A. The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppc. cryst. 5ml 6. 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control. A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2% solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite. .d at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter. Pel:slliphate Re ducer (Super-proportional) 12. two ports distilled water and two parts B.(or Sodium thiosulphate. The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried. A slower acting mixture is I part A.5g Ammonium persulphate 5m1 Sulphuric acid. w/w Distilled water to 500101 . Permanganate .

:'--_ ___--'25 60 90 60 90 25 2 Sodi.:::.. <1nilyd. l'hellidolle Potassium bromide I3cn7.otriazole 1% Wettinr.2 75 17 65 50 12 60 0.6 63 Sodium sulphite..5 35 8. 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers. !+O !~'L<!f0'1 \I i ~Jo ._________. The "New \·Iinchester" formula (No. anhyd. 41 8 nonc.9 37 10 1000 Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre. The benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black. anhyd.He.5 2. development iR more rlpid. Table 9.~·!c to 1 2. Warm-tone Print DClTelopers No. anhyd. -'l'L(:~ro(l~1 i WJlle -----­ Socli\11Tl carbollate. Sad i IIll! carboIl. ~}ycin Potassium oronlidc \~ater to 1000 1000 - 16 ­ . agent Wnter to 4 10 1000 l.8 15-25 10 1000 2 20 10 1000 3 50 12 60 3. If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution.um Dulphite.

The fibre base of normal printing p. 1.§. for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute!:.~ID !:LYPO ELI~IN~TOB '11C ~ulphate following solution (formula No. F9H.17 ­ .t to remove by '-". after a normill W8!lh in running W (l :~ er.a s h ing alone. Elimin_ator ~~_~po 125ml Hydrogen peroltide solution 3% (10 volume) \or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6% (20 volume) 63mU 10ml Ammonia solution 0. 42) serves to oxidise the thi.hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28).osulphate t o which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper. It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs.g. even if the same formula is used.e. but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles. PRINT TONING Pri.B80s. This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print.l pe rs retains acid chemi.l lor salts remaining in the p.fficul. after a brief rin:. All may be used diluted 1+1.1per-base after drying .nts may be toned a vari.on. All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints . is to be carried out . If. Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required.ety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very pleasing results. t!.:1C print is i~nersed in a 2-5% solution o f s od ium carbonate. such as toning. This hypo­ elim:'nator is made up of volatile comp OIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elin:in . anhyd. 1000ml Hater to immerse the prints in the above soluti.cals from the fj xing bath which are di.. the subsequent nonn"l wash ensures that: all the hypo and hYPo/!lilver c a mplexes a t:" c removed. PAPER PInNT. for 2-] minutes.

il traditi.onal red tOller using copper sulphate.UTI.. 45.lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre). u Dlue Toning Bath Ig 30ml 500ml SOLUTION A Potassium ferricyanide Sulphuric acid 10% w/w Wnter to SUI. The wet print is immersed ullti.Jter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to yi.s largely eliminated if the print is \/.s hed a[te1' fixation. hg. The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bp­ tOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be. !lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly "-'.IB ­ .ON 13 Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig Sulphuric acid 10% w/w 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi" e<[uGI parts hand B immediately before use. c) Red TOiler Th~TtO\~ing is b I each is l'l''luircd. This bleaching i. Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt: dGrkroom or near sensitised materials.l the desired tone is reached and then washed. Excessive wns h ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow !'tain should be !:lven.lshed in water con ­ [. bJ N .eld the desired tone colour.lin.Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g W. This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions. no .

s t '. 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver.> e remov ed completely. 47. It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright high­ lights a nd increas e d contrast.of the reduction proc e ss. The followin g formula (No. ~len No . such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves. ) after a rinse in water.19 . using Farmer's Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or perman e nt yellow staining may occur. Illlhyd .\lot ~/et) print with a swab or brush and the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15% solution of sodium thiosulphate.1p . (or 25% sodium thiosulphate. used very dilute.5g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl. The print should then be thoroughly rinsed. cryst. . is ideal for brightening dense flat prints.~ . Iodine Reduce r Pota s sium iodide 1. Fa nna r' s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining. Farmer's Reduc e r. ~len heavy deposits of silver ha ve ::0 i. dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions.Sg Iodine crystals 0. Use scr .

other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain . The first is the :~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-t.20 ­ . The!'£! are few. It H~king . Keversal Exposures Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development. while extremely solub }' :? i \I wa te r.solve the colour developing agen t .ohich use this process. tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions. There are a few fil:ns Idlich <Ire still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms 'ohich are proc e s sed by an old I\gf~ process Rnd some speci.proc e S!l E6).ining colour n~ versal films.the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC).I1lLill=VERSAL FILM.formulae in this boo kl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in tire order given.JVersal fi 1m (except I\gfachrotnc [(IOOS Prof e ssional .V!~QCES.. Some of the colour de v e lo p ing agents.:llised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process.. . Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type. There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E " !~ process. to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro ­ cldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent. up the Solutions As wi th all the . Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this ex. The second ir.Q. rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite con­ cl'ntr. olhether sold process paid or not.posure mtlst be rather intense. the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process "hich covers IllOSt of the rCIll.:ltion hCls eO be low. The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo\~ for draining the tank.s_U'0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing (excluding Kodachrome).liING G. Kodak Kod~lchl'ome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible. if any. It!'a aov isab le to dis. so Cnlgon should be u sed i n h~rd water ~~ r e :::s rather than EDTA . se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly :0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some ti me before use .9J~.

Stop Bath 10". Sodium sulphit e . Colour Developer PART I\. 5g I t. Hydroquinone Sodium carbonate.1 No . anhyd. anhyd.21 ­ . Potassium thiocyanate Potassium bromide 'otassium iodide 0 .· e to 1 1 Sodium sulphite. 50.5g 2g 6ml 10001'1. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride Potassium bromide Colour Developing Agent Ethylenediamine (50% v/v Soln) (or 2-phenylethylamine) \-later to PART B Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) S~dium carbonate. 1% Solution wate" to 3g SOg 6g 40g 2. gla c iol c Sodium acetate. anhyd. 49 . anhyd. Water to 3 . (3H 0) 2 Water to No.1 'lO g 10001111 A etic aci d . 19 see below 16ml (3ml) 300ml 2g 62g 500ml I' .

2 Photoflood a l I 'lie t re () f l!e t) .Th " pit of this fixer is approximately neutral.2 ll"C. This is a 2% solution of either sodium n .--- Stnbiliser W t ti~ age'lt e g Forlllaid e hyde '. 53.!d. In soft watcr ilH'ilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slo'cll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately .:. it \Jill blcnch th e dyes.:Jte r to !~ Im1 5ml IOOOml At 20 C (minutes) (lC es:'.'. Do not use an acid fixer because Nu.22 ­ . ll .0% I-/. For other stages tlte t e lllperature may rang e from 17-20\lC or 21 . Thp t Cll'peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til " limits shown.e iu raLh e r long and it is im portant that it is 'l< lL shorte". 1] . 8.lng Pr oce dure lIr. 4.de with film r emo ved from spiral. . 1. One minute each si.c rlll "lid 5-10 minutes ench end of tt:anslucent nylon spirill frolll a No.J(tcr the colour developer can b e given to prevent excessive swelling.'. 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl . 50C) zr-----­ 0 At 24°C (minutes ) lJ-l~ (2l.'[151. 2.SoC) 20 11 (z4 0 :0. lll. 7.* Reve r sni Exposure Colour developer \-/ . The third wash (Htol!. S.1 5 h 14 (20 0 -0.n sc St op b ath 1.fachrome 41 First Developer R i. 18 ~ (z00-O . Ill eac ll I-/[lsh Fix Wash Stabil iser D Dry (30 e) mox 5 5 10 1 '4" 4 7 1 *. 4 10 See be l~w . -0. 6.2SoC) 14 9. 12 .2SoC) 0 \ 3 7 3.

(or Sodium acetate.i-lo:-54--:-first Deve 1 upe r Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) Sodium sulphite.2 2g 36g 3g 4 .05 • 23 ­ . Potassium carbonate.5-0. !3::>dium bromide Potassium iodide (0. 5g No.65-0. 5~.3g 4. anhyd.2g Ig 3. Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) tri-50dium orthophosphate.5ml 1000m~ 9 .05 30g No. 25g l1g 1000mi + 11. glacial Water to pit (50g) 6ml 1000m~ 5. Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate.1% 50ln.) Sodium thiocyanate Citrazinic acid CD-3 \~oter to pH 0. Sodium bicarbonate Phen i done Itydro'luinone Sodium bromide Sodium thiocyanate Sodium hydroxide Pot~asium iodide (0. anhyd.) Water to pH 2g J9g 14g 12g O. anhyd.1% Soln. 3g 1. 56. 3"20) Acetic acid.65g 30ml 1. 12"20 Sodium hydroxide Sodium sul~lite. 6-0. anhyd. 6g 6g 2.

St o p Bath 2 7..) ..:Jrs on drying) froro spiral."ical Supplies) 5... fix II.:Jhle frolll Photo Ch"... uTES As wilh all revl!rsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines t.h 4.:Jth) (Obtain. il .~J c tt ing . . b) Agit. 2 PhotofLoud at 12 inches 2 G 2 2 5 .n . 11 [e .t·istic..he o[ the final transl'nrency . S tid.JgCllt \'" L" r to lmL lOOOml First development . I. Stop iJath 1 J.·h l). Rins e [0. Col o ur u('v e [o[JllIC'nt 6. Wnsh I .1.\.~ 5 6 1 JJ-J90C JS!lOC JJ-:l. Dry (Fillll cl<~.:Jtion i... 1-/. s c n. Reversal Exposure l.~ . g.>. 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No. 6'r 2 2 Time ~p e ratut'e J8-U57 -­ 33-J'!oC 3J-J90C Two minutes each side with (ilm removed (Or HeveJ: s31 Jl.:Jntl the! rcconllllt!nJeu time anJ temp~rature ..11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser ehnrilct(.)°C ])-J9()C JJ-:l9"C 3J-390C 3J-390C 33-J90C 3J-390C r.hlHJ1J be 'Iuhl!rcu to.~ .

. HOI_ e ver. This l"tter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Pe o ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodak's Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a 's chromogenic 131ack and \~hite film Vor l " XL.11.g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60 C and all EktachrOllle films only clc:lr when nearly dry. cons i.y [or cololJr negative~."L e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing. Firstly. SevE:no<)ks.11101-11'. there ill a little more latitude wi. there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al E:XpOSlln! required and secondly. Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system. The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmp nt is . For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to "The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~i. Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film.1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer. .JAtkins (published by the Focal Press. Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodak's C-lfl prccens. the background information you may require. norough Green. A ~ [a and Kodak. This book also covers colour negative film processing . (CNS. each have tlieir own fi lms and processing system . PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ __~~__________~ _ M~) ______~______ As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s. Attention to detail ~\ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on. CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excludi.25 ­ - - - - - - - ------------ . Kent TNlS 8PB).ng" by Derek I.th tlte pro ce ssing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge.( to continue in the lowl>r layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi. Processing negative film is very much eaGier tl'an reversal processing for two reasons. This excellent book also gives .ng AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film. Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost.

.<::.5 15-20 20:!:0.5 15-20 18-20 15-20 15-20 N.. anhyd.26 ­ . J. 2. Agfacolollr N 1. Sg Water to 10001'11 125g (200g) 109 1000ml Time (mins) Te'l'pernture 20-0. Bleach 30ml 1000011 --S. 61. nll Jil yd.·ios ul phn te.-dG. 6.-(Tll~eXa". 62.. 7. Increase ueve10 p ment to 9 '''''llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results. cryst.---U. Colour developer Intermediate bath \-IDsh IHench Hash FLx \-I:lsh ~~ett -S----­ °c 4 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 6 6 6 10 lllg agent bath N:)'l'I~S Agit.) SodiulIl sulphitc. dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte..2 20:!:0.: .1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 1'0[<l8siu". 5. j .. llevcl{)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied bet\"ccn 7 . fl. No .eLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g Potassiulll fcrricY.c:.Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n. nnhyd. Fixer -------sz.l.1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1:st minute followed by o ue "version of Lhc LIl!l( ('very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter. (01' Socii um thiosulphntc.9 minutes.-.::~ing Procedure. 4. Wnter to !:'.

Stop Bath A. The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricy anid e bleach. Potassium bromide lIydroxamine hydrochloride CD-4 W:lter to No.1% Soln.Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated c ommercial laboratories the o processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or. anhyd. As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess. 3S C) .27 ­ .5g 1000ml . these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short developme nt times and DE maintaining t hL t e mpe ra ture betwe e n the prescribed limit~. Sodium sulphite. 63 Colour Developer Sodi.. 0.4l No. 64. "i' he substi t ute process is rep rod u c d fr om "The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing" by Derek Wat k i ns with k i nd p2r:. 311 0 2 Water to 2g 38g 5g 2ml 1. glacial Sodium acet. Potassium iodide.:e tic acid. 5g 2g 5g 1000m l 20011 2. . anhyd. Tha t t hes e pro b lems are e asi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat e d by the many thousa nds of amac e u rs who s ucc e ss f ully process t h ei L own pol an d Vari o XL monochrome films in o C-4! chemicals at 3S C.um hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) Po tassium carbonate.' ssion from the Focal Press .1te. Formu11e C.

~ Time Temperature 35-40 35-40 35-40 35-40 35-40 35-40 35 -40 38~~-- °c Fix \~ash Stabiliser Dry Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter min ute thereafter. 5. ' 0 i s: Tlte Ed i tor.. ned b1each/ f ix bath ma y be u~cd in this proc"ss b t: t o[ c ours " Lilis call. from the publishers. The address to . minute aft er t he seco nd 1:'''<. minute after the f irst two films and by · a further i. A comb i. 6. TIll:! capacity of the so lut ions is a ppl"C))limately twelve film s per litre. The f onnulae and pr o c e dur e s are quit e straight~orwar d and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual.l. PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS 7. Henry Greenwood (" Co..1 fi . init i a l )0 sec onds cont in uous agit a tio n e a ch bath. Ilritish Journal of Photography Ann· q L.lu t be a f e rr i c Yll!1ido ball ed bleach. Ltu. for a nominal sum. Colour development Stop bath Wash Bleach \~ash 31. In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE. London WeI Telephone: 01-404 4202 28 ­ ----- ---------------- . 9. Photocopies of the relevan t pnu e s may be obtained. J.. 2. A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i .i sh J ou r nal of Phot ography Annual. For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for colour print processing. Th e development time should be extended by . 28 Creat James Street. This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay).ms. 4. 8. if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films dev el oped in eacll portion.

2.Digol l. 3-Trihydroxybenzene Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol .1raaminophenol sulphate !·Ionoch 10 rhyd rO'luinone 1.3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino: Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I.4-Dihydroxybenzene 2.29 ­ .2-Dihydroxybenzene l.~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-Ht'Lhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p.6-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo!'! Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl.Pheny 1.

3 -me thy 1.l. -. D i..32 Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) . 262.e til y 1.p -pheny lened.e thy 1.1'S<mi}--­ Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =N.4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride Mol.30 ­ .N .h't:.Am lllO .N-Diethyl-l. 436.N-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide ~!ol.\Jt: ..4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-N.Wt.H S0 lO 16 Z 2 4 Hol.70 '} Activol 2 (Johnsons) '[olochrome (M & ll) N..Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt.i me thanesu ll'honalnidoe thy 1) -m. i3 Colour Developer 3 ~. alnine h ydroch lo rid e = N.':. <::. Wt. ~ 214.!~ur [}t> vel:?r:.to 1 uid inc s e s qu is u 1 pha t e .52 .er CD 2 (K od~dd = 200.ethyl-l.N-Diethyl-2-methyl-l.CD3('K.N-Di.4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate = C II N . monohydrate !.(f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te.­ ·COi"\Kodak) .N.N. monoh ydrate Hol. .od a k) Activol 3 (Johnsons) i'lyJoch rome (M & ll) N-E thy 1.(.

56 Use 1:1.S 28 OM) N.l4). 2.34 Sulph a t e and Hydrochloride) bhse is ident i cal to Colour Devel ope r APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydr. For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 .10I1 0.nc d Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc either in anhydrous forms or in one or mor e states of hydration.45 Z CuS0 =159.4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite Mol. 31 39 _+511 °=2[1').21 ~211P04=174. 78 Use 1:1.47 +1~1l20=l65_23 ~2C03=1J8..22 2 . The ratio of their molecular weights is 1:2. If these oiff c l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant.68 2 +611 °=270.20=246. ~20=170. The 237. Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual. molecular 2 3 2 weight 21l6.:!:Z.70 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required.N-Diethyl-l. showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used.67 Use 1: 1. Cupric chloride Cupric sulphate Ferric chloride Magnesium sulphate Potassium carbonate di-Potassium hydrogen orthophosphate CUCI = 134.70 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used. \ot t . compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required.27 Use 1: 1.2l ~lgS04\120=1J8. 99) and as tl e decahydrate (Na C0 . The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration . It is important to remember thill point whe)'. most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned.!!.48 Use 1:1.19 Usc 1: 1.31 ­ .6l 4 FeC13c162.l8 +3H 0=228.30 2 .

5 100:90. l'Jt:lssium citr3LIO' 011 °) 2 l\)l".34 grHins (grs) (15.~d 'TfT~r "--'-- 1 'Juncc (llZ) dram (drill) 16 ounces (oz) 16 tJr. nnhyd.0 100 : 79..77 grams (g) 1. 11 lot of which al ' e still v.)' since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is t"equired to giV E! the same molecular '··' iuivalent.:lse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium .5 100:76.Irbonnte. In the C.43 grains (grs) f153 ... anhyd.. 1\ i' I' END I X LI -. .11cnts.: her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 '11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te!1ls. For this reuson uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here.r.t.5 grains (grs) 27.6gra1ll8 (g) 28.aper c·"l'eciall. sodium sa.5 100:71. The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lil:y I"h e n highly concentrated solutions are made up. Pilt: assiurn bromide Putassi.S tUIlI hydroxide l' u tass ium l1letabisulphite f' o t:l!3S iunl I'crslllphilte Potassium sulphite.5 ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae. citrate (211 °) 2 hyel .35 grams (g) 1. 100:86.0 gL1n1 (g) ) - 32 ­ -- -- .5 100: 8 8..-..!s:J deliquescent than the potassium salls and . n". Avoi rdup'Jis Wl!i~:ilts '~~. lleCRuse of the slightly hi .lts are genentlly diE.. L1 . The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CC>lnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv. Sod iUln Sodium Sodium SodiulII SodiullI Sodillm Sodium bromide carbonate.1r.1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf ' : tem. In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t:.ulTI c. lts an! 1.rud the following tnbles 0I.:ll1ls (drm) 7000 grnins (grs) 437.'ox ide ' metabislliphite persulphate sulphite.11id todilY. anhyd.~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts l!Iajority of phot~g-l-:-aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~'~'s sodiulU salts lIIay be S" d"ltituted [or pntas»iullI s .e therefor easier to sL ore alld hnl\lJle. .1.' 1lts.0 100: 85. Ilnhyd.111(.

(Pllblishers) Ltd. Co_ Ltd. 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and desc.A_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own. London WCl * The Focal Press. Focal Press * Langf o rd H . The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing. Ilorough Green.dition Focal Press S. Co. e quipment and objectives.l sout' ce of inforlUBtion on all asp e cts of photography. J .A_ ( 1975) "Photographic Processing Chemistry" 2nd Editioll Focil Press'" 6. • Photography" 7th Edition. especially co loul' formulations.ribe>! th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bub!ltitute formulae [or brew-it-your self enthusiasts. Kent TN15 flPH Books 1. but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults. (1980) "Advanced Photogl-aphy" 4th F.F. Wat k in s D. The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith. (19 78) "The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing" Focal Press 7. but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials. Becau>!e o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spon s ibility of the user to E e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or lac process i. The bouk by L. Sevenoaks. or inju~y to pet'solls or property. 2 and] are all standard refer e n c e w rks on photographic processing. that might ari9 howsoever callsed. The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls. Book No. Any suggestions from I' a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _ ..n relation to hi8 mat e r ials. NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of photographi c processing solutiuns by th o se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater under ­ standi. Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982. Henry Greenwood [.I.. but the reader shoulJ have some chemical know­ ledge. Ilook 4 is a ve r y useft.3:J ­ .ng of the medium. Butterworth [.F. 28 Great James Stn" ~ t. Hason L.

. from the n'prodnct inn of their lIIal:(.nion9 (· .34 ­ PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE COWL EY MIDDLE: SEX UBB 2ES No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document. and publish e d hy . This is a scan of the original document.1ny liabil i t y arisin!'. Writtf'n by R.. Intended for personal and educational use only.hi" hooklet.['ial in I.1nnot 'Iccept .Sc. Potts ~f. C.Th E' ah"v(' p"rsons or organis. Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk.

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