Class X~Evolution Q & A | Genetics | Earth & Life Sciences

Biology X : Evolution Q & A

NCERT INTEXT QUESTIONS – Q1. If a trait A exists in 10% of a population of an asexually reproducing species and a trait B exists in 60% of the same population, which trait is likely to have arisen earlier? Ans – Trait B. To explain the reason, it is mentioned that there occurs no reshuffling of traits in asexually reproducing individuals of a population. Appearance of very few new traits in the population is due to small inaccuracies during DNA copying. These very few new traits will be in very small proportion than the traits already present. Thus, trait B which exists in 60% of population must have arisen earlier than trait A which occurs only in 10% of the population. Q2. How does the creation of variations in a species ensure survival? Ans – Variations in a species arise either due to errors in DNA copying or during sexual reproduction. Force of natural selection selects individuals with useful variations in the prevailing environment so as to ensure their survival. The individuals with useful variations then increase in numbers trough differential reproduction in the population. Q3. How do Mendel experiments show that traits may be dominant or recessive? Ans – When Mendel cross pollinated a pure male tall pea plant with pure female dwarf pea plant, he got only tall plants in F1 generation. When F1 tall plants were self pollinated, Mendel got both tall and dwarf plants in F2 generation in approximately 3 : 1 ratio. The trait of dwarfness was present in F 1 generation but it was not expressed and only trait of tallness was expressed. The character which gets expressed in the presence of its contrasting form is termed dominant trait. The trait which remains unexpressed in the presence of its contrasting form is termed recessive trait. Mendel called tall character as dominant and dwarf character as recessive. Q4. How do Mendel’s experiments show that traits are inherited independently?

Ans – Mendel discovered that when crossing white flower and purple flower plants, the result is not a blend. Rather than being a mix of the two, the offspring was purple flowered. He then conceived the idea of heredity units, which he called "factors", one of which is a recessive characteristic and the other dominant. Mendel said that factors, later called genes, normally occur in pairs in ordinary body cells, yet segregate during the formation of sex cells. Each member of the pair becomes part of the separate sex cell. The dominant gene, such as the purple flower in Mendel's plants, will hide the recessive gene, the white flower. After Mendel self-fertilized the F1 generation and obtained the 3:1 ratio, he correctly theorized that genes can be paired in three different ways for each trait: AA, aa, and Aa. The capital "A" represents the dominant factor and lowercase "a" represents the recessive. (The last combination listed above, Aa, will occur roughly twice as often as each of the other two, as it can be made in two different ways, Aa or aA.) Mendel stated that each individual has two factors for each trait, one from each parent. The two factors may or may not contain the same information. If the two factors are identical, the individual is called homozygous for the trait. If the two factors have different information, the individual is called heterozygous. The alternative forms of a factor are called alleles. The genotype of an individual is made up of the many allele it possesses. An individual's physical appearance, or phenotype, is determined by its alleles as well as by its environment. An individual possesses two alleles for each trait; one allele is given by the female parent and the other by the male parent. They are passed on when an individual matures and produces gametes: egg and sperm. When gametes form, the paired alleles separate randomly so that each gamete receives a copy of one of the two alleles. The presence of an allele doesn't promise that the trait will be expressed in the individual that

By SK Chaudhary (9530019282) – B-4/10 Patel Nagar Bikaner

SCIENCE X NOTES

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Biology X : Evolution Q & A possessesit. (iii) Reproductive isolation Q11. However. sex of the child is determined depending upon which kind of male gametes (sperm) fertilizes the female gamete (egg or ovum). The blood group O in daughter can appear only when both the recessive and alleles occur together in mother and father has one alleles of A and other of O blood group. Q9. Ist Possibility – Blood group A is dominant and blood group O is recessive. If male gamete carrying X chromosome fertilizes the ovum. the sex of the child will be male. What are the different ways in which individuals with a particular trait may increase in a population? Ans – (i) Natural Selection (ii) Genetic Drift (iii) Abundance of food Q8. asexual reproduction involves single parent and a natural barrier can occur between different organisms. The information provided is not enough to tell us whether the trait of blood group A or blood group O is dominant. Q10. Q13. Q6. if male gamete carrying Y chromosome fertilizes the egg. What factors could lead to the rise of a new species? Ans – (i) Genetic variations. (ii) Natural selection. Why are small numbers of surviving tigers a cause of worry from the point of view of genetics? Ans – Tigers are surviving in limited numbers. IInd Possibility – Blood group O is dominant and blood group A is recessive. Q7. father must carry both alleles of blood group A while the mother may be having either both alleles of O blood group or one of A blood group and other of O blood group. there are two possibilities. the sex of the child will be female. Is this information enough to tell you which of the traits blood group A or O is dominant? Why or why not? Ans – No. In this case. Will geographical isolation be a major factor in the speciation of an organism that reproduce asexually? Why or why not? Ans – Geographical isolation will not be a major factor for the speciation of an organism that reprocess asexually because. How is the sex of the child determined in human beings? Ans – In human beings. they will suddenly become extinct as per genetic drift phenomenon. in fact. Give an example of characteristics being used to determine how close two species are in evolutionary terms? By SK Chaudhary (9530019282) – B-4/10 Patel Nagar Bikaner SCIENCE X NOTES Page 2 . Either can be possible because each individual carries two alleles. is passed through germ cells to the next generation. In heterozygous individuals the only allele that is expressed is the dominant. A man with blood group A marries a woman with blood group O and their daughter has blood group O. Why are traits acquired during the life time of an individual not inherited? Ans – It is so because acquired characters involve changes in the non-reproductive tissues only and do not bring any change in the DNA. In this possibility. Will geographical isolation be a major factor in the speciation of a self pollinating plant species? Why or why not? Ans – Geographical isolation will not be a major factor for the speciation of a self-pollinating plant species because the pollination is occurring on the same plant and a natural barrier can occur between different organisms. The recessive allele is present but its expression is hidden. Recessive trait will appear only when the two alleles are similar. Q12. If some natural calamity kills this small population of tigers. Any alteration in the DNA. Q5.

Why are human beings who look so different from each other in terms of size. Q15. What are fossils? What do they tell us about the process of evolution? Ans – Fossils are the remains or impressions of the dead animals and plants that lived in the remote part. During the course of evolution. The most detailed reconstructions have been performed on the basis of the mitochondrial genomes shared by all eukaryotic organisms. especially when done using slowly evolving protein sequences. In other words. The superficial similarity of these organs is due to adaptation of flying rather than to inheritance from a common ancestor. they are used for flying in the air. Q17. It is so because the wings of a butterfly (insect) and a wing of a bat (mammal) perform similar functions. the broadest reconstructions have been performed either using the sequences of a few very ancient proteins or by using ribosomal RNA sequence. However. i. they are very different in fundamental structure and embryonic origin. In evolutionary terms. The simplest and most powerful evidence is provided by phylogenetic reconstruction. producing several lines of evidence that confirm Darwin's original hypothesis of common descent. i. They are the direct evidences in support of organic evolution and help in determining evolutionary relationships between organisms. which are short and easy to sequence. colour and looks said to belong to the same species? Ans – One of the strongest evidences for common descent comes from the study of gene sequences.. These reconstructed phylogenies recapitulate the relationships established through morphological and biochemical studies.Biology X : Evolution Q & A Ans – A thorn of Bougainvillea plant and a tendril of Passiflora plant are homologous organs. and mutations in protein-coding sequences that do not result in changes in amino-acid sequence.e. both are modified branches. If the hypothesis of common descent is true. can we say which among bacteria.. spiders. transposons. By SK Chaudhary (9530019282) – B-4/10 Patel Nagar Bikaner SCIENCE X NOTES Page 3 . Comparative sequence analysis examines the relationship between the DNA sequences of different species. pseudogenes. in aggregate they demonstrate that identity must be the product of common descent rather than common function. Such reconstructions. fish and chimpanzees have a `better’ body design? Why or why not? Ans – Bacteria have a `better’ body design because they can survive in extreme cold or hot environmental conditions. Both these perform different functions but have similar basic structural designs. Phylogenetic relationships also extend to a wide variety of non-functional sequence elements. More closely related species will have a greater fraction of identical sequence and will have shared substitutions when compared to more distantly related species. including repeats.e. Q16. then species that share a common ancestor will have inherited that ancestor's DNA sequence. Can the wing of a butterfly and the wind of a bat be considered homologous organs? Why or why not? Ans – No. they are analogous organs. these two species evolved from common ancestor having fundamental structural design that developed subsequently into thorn in one species and tendril in other species to perform different functions. Q14. While a minority of these elements might later be found to harbor function. are often quite robust and can be used to reconstruct a great deal of the evolutionary history of modern organisms. They will have inherited mutations unique to that ancestor.

Q8. Had the light eye colour been a dominant trait. the recessive dark eye colour might have appeared in some of the children. A study found that children with light-coloured eyes are likely to have parents with light coloured eyes. These characteristics of organisms also form the basis for the classification of organisms. What evidence do we have for the origin of life from inanimate matter? Ans – Miller and Urey experiment. we can work out the evolutionary relationships of the species that we see around us. can we say anything about whether the light eye colour traits is dominant or recessive? Why or why not? Ans – No. Explain the terms analogous and homologous organs with examples? Ans – Analogous Organs – The organs which are quite different in fundamental structure and embryonic origin but perform same function and may superficially look alike in entirely different species are called analogous organs. Similarities or dissimilarities are determined on the basis of presence or absence of characteristics in the organisms. Homologous organs – The organs which perform different functions in different species but have similar basic structure and similar embryonic origin are called homologous organs. How are the areas of study-evolution and classification interlinked? Ans – Classification refers to the arrangement of organisms into groups. Q7. Q6. They include ancestral and derived characteristics. we cannot say with certainty whether light eye colour is dominant or recessive. we have more in common with (a) a Chinese school boy (b) a chimpanzee (c) a spider (d) a bacterium Ans – (a) Q4. Q9. (a) (c) Ans – An example of homologous organ is our arm and a dog’s fore-leg potato and runner’s of grass (d) (b) (d) our teeth and an elephant’s tusks all of the above Q3. sub-groups on the basis of similarities/dissimilarities and placing them in a hierarchy that reveals their relationships. By SK Chaudhary (9530019282) – B-4/10 Patel Nagar Bikaner SCIENCE X NOTES Page 4 . A Mendelian experiment consisted of breeding tall pea plants bearing violet flowers with short pea plants bearing white flowers.Biology X : Evolution Q & A NCERT EXERCISE QUESTIONS – Q1. The progeny all bore violet flowers but almost half of them were short. since both children and their parents have light eye colour. However. From the given statement. Characteristics of organisms refer to the details of external and internal appearance or behaviour that distinguish them from one another. the possibility is that light eye colour is a recessive trait. By identifying hierarchies of characteristics between species. In evolutionary terms. On this basis. This suggested that the generic make-up of the tall plant can be depicted as (a) TTWW (b) TTWw (c) TtWW (d) TtWw Ans – (c) Q2. All these evidences support the view that the present day diverse forms of living organisms have evolved from common ancestors. Explain the importance of fossils in deciding evolutionary relationships? Ans – Enormous types of organisms that exist on the earth at present and also the fossils have large number of common features which provide evidences in favour of organic evolution and help us in tracing evolutionary relationships. Q5. Outline a project which aims to find the dominant coat colour in dogs? Ans – Can be left out from the chapter as it is a question of discussion forum and need not to be attempted.

How does this affect the evolution of those organisms that reproduce sexually? Ans – Variations do appear during reproduction whether organisms multiply asexually or sexually. After one week. Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not? Ans – No. It is so because certain variations may not give any advantage to an individual organism in particular environmental conditions. the resultant two individuals again after sometime reproduce to form four individuals. When a single individual reproduces asexually. which are the building blocks of proteins. far more than five originally discovered. Asexual reproduction involves single parent. A recent reanalysis of the saved vials containing the original extracts that resulted in the Miller and Urey experiments. The underlying hypothesis held by Oparin and Haldane was that conditions on the primeval Earth favoured chemical reactions that synthesized organic compounds from inorganic precursors. it was found that about 10% to 15% of the carbon in the system was now in the form of organic compounds. Q10. By SK Chaudhary (9530019282) – B-4/10 Patel Nagar Bikaner SCIENCE X NOTES Page 5 . Only variations that confer an advantage to an individual organism will survive in a population. Heredity involves inheritance of basic body design as well as subtle changes in it from one generation to the next generation. using current and more advanced analytical equipment and technology. in the Miller-Urey experiment. One of the more important findings was 23 amino acids. How is the equal genetic contribution of male and female parents ensured in the progeny? Ans – Q12. large number of individuals are formed after many generations. hydrogen. methane. In this way. and ammonia was cycled through an apparatus that delivered electrical sparks to the mixture. a mixture of water. including amino acids. These still persist and may confer an advantage to the individual in changed environmental conditions. Explain how sexual reproduction gives rise to more viable variations than asexual reproduction.Sexual reproduction Q11.Biology X : Evolution Q & A In 1952. has uncovered more biochemical’s than originally discovered in the 1950s.

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