Express estimation of crude oil TBP curves only from the viscosity of the crude oil
G. Argirov, S. Ivanov, G. Cholakov
Bulgaria, 8104 Bourgas, Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas AD, Heavy Residue Upgrading ComplexProject, email: Argirov.Georgi.S@neftochim.bg
Key words: crude oil, distillation, TBP prediction, viscosity.
Abstract
Crude oil TBP curves are well recognized as an important characteristic, needed to determine the potential of fractions obtained by distillation, to monitor distillation units, to verify the identity of crude oil samples, etc. They can be obtained experimentally or calculated by a variety of methods, which have different precision. The precision of the particular method determines the applicability of the obtained TBP data. Riazi’s twoparameter distribution model and experimental crude assay data for 117 crudes from all over the world have been used to derive a model for prediction of true boiling point (TBP) curves from the kinematic viscosity of the samples at 37,8 ^{o} C. The model was tested by prediction of the cumulative mass fractions of all studied crude samples. It was found that the TBP distribution for fractions boiling up to 340 ^{o} C could be predicted with an average relative deviation of the order of 6 %. This is higher than the respective deviation of previously proposed models, e.g.  Riazi’s model, with an average deviation of 3.3 %. However, these models require experimental data for several properties, while in practical terms the precision of our model is sufficient to detect any significant upsets in the operation of refinery crude distillation units (CDUs), so its computerized procedure may be used as a quick tool for monitoring of the CDU operation.
INTRODUCTION
For modern refineries frequent crude oil switching and disturbances in crude distillation unit (CDU) operations often propagate into bigger issues downstream. Managing the change of crudes and diminishing disturbances require regulatory control of the daily performance necessary to respond quickly and adequately to setpoint changes. The quality and value of a crude
oil significantly depend on its TBP (“true” boiling point) distillation curve. Unfortunately, the experimental determination of TBP curves is costly and time consuming, so it is impractical to use them as a tool for daily monitoring
of CDUs. This calls for the development of TBP calculation methods, requiring
a minimum of experimental data, but having sufficient precision for daily
monitoring of CDU operations. Riazi developed a threeparameter distribution model, which is widely used for estimation of the boiling points and other properties of C _{7} + fractions of petroleum fluids [1, 2]. It predicts TBP distributions with high precision, when at least three experimental points of the TBP curve of the crude are available [3]. Moreover, it can be used for predictions of the rest of the distillation curves, needed in petroleum processing (ASTM D 86, EFV, CD, etc.)
If distillation data are not available, the values of at least three crude oil
properties (molecular mass, density and refraction index) have to be known. Riazi’s method can not be used directly for daily monitoring of CDU operations, because of the need of significant amount of tests, but it gives the general lines along which this can be achieved. Stratiev et al. [4, 5] developed further Riazi’s ideas and showed that the boiling temperature and other
property distributions can be calculated when experimental density and distillation data up to 300 ^{o} C are an available. The Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas AD (LNB) refinery has developed a data base of potential feedstocks  117 crude oil assays, characterized by TBP curves, density, sulphur, viscosity, metals, Conradson carbon, and asphalthene content of crude oils and TBP cuts. The crude oils originate from different parts of the world .
The aim of this work is to use the LNB database and Riazi’s ideas, for development of a model for crude oil TBP curve prediction from one routine measurement – the crude oil’s kinematic viscosity at 37.8 ^{o} C.
EXPERIMENTAL
The TBP distillation of all 117 investigated crude oil samples has been carried out in the AUTODEST 800 Fisher column apparatus, according to АSTMD 2892  for the atmospheric part of the test, and according to АSTMD 5236  for the vacuum one. The TBP distillation has been performed in the AUTODEST 800 Fisher column at pressure drop
from 760 to 2 mm Hg and in the AUTODEST 860 Fisher column from 1 to 0. 2
mm 
Hg. 
The 
sulphur content has been analyzed according to АSTMD 4294. Density 
at 20 ^{o} C has been determined according to АSTMD 1298. The viscosity has been measured according to АSTMD 445. Table I characterizies the range of variation of the properties of the crude oils.
Table I. Characterization of the properties of the crude oils in the database.
Property or TBP range
Number of crude samples in group/range of values in group
I
II
III
IV
Total sulfur, % 
64/≤ 0.5 
44/0.51 – 2.0 
4/2.01 – 2.5 
5/>2.5 
Specific gravity @15 ^{0} C range per group 
0.78830.8886 
0.80950.8970 
0.86850.9047 
0.85810.9024 
Viscosity, 37.8 ^{o} C, mm ^{2} /s 
88/≤ 10.00 
17/10.01 – 20.0 
7/20.01 – 30.00 
5/30.01 – 40.00 
TBP yields, % 
I 
II 
III 
IV 

IBP – 70 ^{o} C 
9/1  2 incl. 62/3  5 incl. 16/6  8 incl. 1/9  10 incl. 
9/1  2 incl. 8/3  5 incl. 
2/1  2 incl. 5/3  5 incl. 
4/1  2 incl. 

1/3 

70  100 ^{o} C 
5/1  2 incl. 73/3  5 incl. 10/6  8 incl. 
8/1  2 incl. 9/3  5 incl. 
2/1  2 incl. 5/3  5 incl. 
5/1  2 incl. 

100 
– 150 ^{o} C 
23/5  7 incl. 50/8  10 incl. 15/1113 incl. 
7/3  5 incl. 10/6  7 incl. 
4/3  5 incl. 
5/4  5 incl. 
3/6 

150 
– 190 ^{o} C 
47/5  7 incl. 38/8  10 incl. 3/10  12 incl. 
1/3 
7/4  6 incl. 
5/3  4 incl. 
16/5  6 incl. 

190 
– 235 ^{o} C 
42/6  8 incl. 42/9  11 incl. 4/12  14 incl. 
1/4 
7/6  7 incl. 
5/4  6 incl. 
16/6  8 incl. 

235 
 280 ^{o} C 
62/7  9 incl. 17/1012 incl. 6/1315 incl. 3/1617 incl. 
14/6  8 incl. 
1/5 
1/5 
3/9 
6/6  7 incl. 
4/6  7 incl. 

1/8 

280 
– 343 ^{o} C 
54/10 12 incl. 20/13 15 incl. 6/16 18 incl. 4/19 21 incl. 2/22 23 incl. 1/26 
14/10  12 incl. 
6/911 incl. 
1/7 
2/13 
1/12 
4/911 incl. 

1/15 

343 
– 565 ^{o} C 
1/20 
6/30 – 33 incl. 10/35 – 41 incl. 
6/25 – 35 incl. 
5/33 – 40 incl. 
4/21  23 incl. 7/25  27 incl. 25/28 30 incl. 33/31 33 incl. 10/34 36 incl. 4/37 39 incl. 1/40 
1/41 

1/50 

2/41 

1/48 

Above 565 ^{o} C 
37/1 – 10 incl. 44/11 –20 incl. 7/21 –24 incl. 
12/13 – 23 incl. 12/13 – 23 incl. 
6/24 – 30 incl. 
4/30 – 31 incl. 

1/35 
1/34 
As would be shown later, we needed data also for the volume average boiling points (VABP) and the viscosities at 38 ^{o} C of the discrete fractions of the crude oils, presented in Table I. Some of these data were measured experimentally, others had to be calculated or approximated to known values. Table II summarizes the origin of the data.
Table II. Estimation of the volume average boiling points (VABP) and data for the viscosity at 38 ^{o} C (V _{3}_{8} ) of the crude oil cuts.
TBP range,
^{o}
C
VABP,
K
V 38 ,
mm
^{2} /s
Viscosity at 38 ^{o} C, mm ^{2} /s
IBP  70 
326.15* 
0.32 
estimated as decribed in [6] 

70  100 
358.15 
0.46 
estimated as decribed in [6] 

100 
 150 
398.39 
0.64 
estimated as decribed in [6] 
150 
 190 
442.57 
0.96 
estimated as decribed in [6] 
190 
 235 
485.85 
1.47 
measured at 38 ^{o} C 
235 
 280 
529.96 
2.47 
measured at 38 ^{o} C 
280 
 343 
584.29 
5.11 
measured at 38 ^{o} C 
343 
 565 
716.67 
52.83 
measured at 38 ^{o} C 
565 + 
949.47** 
1.2x10 ^{9} 
measured at 60 and 99 ^{o} C; converted to viscosity at 38 ^{o} C as described in [7] 
*The initial boiling point, IBP was assumed to be 36 ^{o} C (the boiling point of npentane). **For calculation of the 565 ^{0} C+ range, the mass average boiling points were calculated by Riazi’s two parameter method [3], and the VABP of the cuts was assumed to be approximately equal to the mass one.
Methodology
Riazi’s threeparameter distribution model for the absolute boiling points can be presented in the following form [3]:
−
T
o
+
T
T
o
⎡
⎢
= ⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
⎛
A log ⎜
⎝
1
1 − x
⎞ ⎤
⎟
⎠
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
B
1
B
(1),
in which T is the temperature on the distillation curve in kelvin and x is the cumulative volume or mass part of the respective distillate, obtained up to that temperature. In order to distinguish cumulative concentrations of distillates in the crude oil from discrete concentrations, we shall further denote the former as “x _{C} ”, and the latter – as “x _{D} ”.
A, B, and T _{o} are the three parameters, which have to be determined by regression of available distillation data. For atmospheric and vacuum residues the parameter B can be considered a constant with a value of 1.5.
T _{o} is the initial boiling point (IBP, T at x _{C} = 0). However, it should be lower than the experimentally determined IBP and can be determined by regression of experimental distillation data for x _{C} > 0 and iterations for its value [3]. Alternatively, as shown by Stratiev et al. [5], T _{o} might successfully be replaced by the normal boiling point of isobutane (11.6 0C), the lowestboiling component in the crude.
For our calculations it is convenient to transform equation (1) into:
U =
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
1
1 − x
C
⎟
⎟
⎞ ⎤
⎥
⎠
⎥
⎥
⎦
⎥
⎥
A log
B
1
B
(2),
in which U is a normalized temperature, defined by:
−
T
o
+
T
T
o
= U
(3)
Solving equation (2) for x _{C} (the cumulative mass fraction distilled up to temperature T, CDM) leads to the following relationship:
x
c
[
A B U
,
,
]
= 1 −
e
−
BU
B
A
(4)
For a complex continuous mixture, such as a crude oil, equation (4) can be represented as:
x
C
[A
,
U
∫
B U =
,
][x
D
0
A , B , U ]dU
(5),
where the function x _{D} [A, B, U] represents the mass of a pseudocomponent, distilled within a certain infinitely small temperature range (dU).
The function x _{C} [A, B, 0] is equal to zero for T _{o} = T, and Riazi’s twoparameter model can be differentiated in terms of the normalized temperature U:
x
D
[A
_,
B U ]
_,
= ∂
U
x [A B U ]
C
,
,
(6)
The output of (6) gives a relation between the concentration of a discrete pseudocomponent, distilled within a narrow temperature range (which for
practical purposes can be represented by its average boiling point) and the parameters of Riazi’s equation:
x
D
[
]
A , B , U =
2
B e
−
BU
B
A
U −+ 1 B
A
(7)
The parameters of (7) can be calculated from experimental data for discrete fractions (pseudocomponents) by an algorithm, described in [3], if the temperatures in U (T _{o} and T) are defined for the respective discrete yields of distillate (x _{D} ). However, for achieving the aim of this article, namely  development of a model for crude oil TBP prediction from crude viscosity, a combined approach including (7) and other suitable correlations needs to be developed.
Development 
of 
a 
correlation 
between 
average 
boiling 
point 
and 
viscosity 
A basic concept of the proposed model is that the properties of a petroleum
mixture are builtup by a linear or nonlinear (depending on the particular
property) contribution of the pseudocomponents, contained in that mixture.
The viscosity contribution of a pseudocomponent can be expressed by its viscosity blending number (VBN), thereby applying the equation of Refutas [6]. According to this equation the crude oil viscosity could be calculated, knowing the viscosity of its constituent hydrocarbon fractions. The calculations are carried out in three steps:
1. Calculation of the VBN of each pseudocomponent (discrete fraction) of the
crude oil at the same temperature by:
VBN _{D}_{i} = 14.534 x _{D}_{i} ln [ln (v _{D}_{i} +0.8)]+10.975
(8),
where v _{D}_{i} is the kinematic viscosity of the crude oil pseudocomponent in mm ^{2} /s, and x _{D}_{i} – its mass %.
2. Additive calculation of the viscosity number of the crude oil, VBN _{c}_{r}_{u}_{d}_{e} by:
VBN _{c}_{r}_{u}_{d}_{e} = (x _{D}_{1} VBN _{D}_{1} ) + (x _{D}_{2} VBN _{D}_{2} ) +…+ (x _{D}_{n} VBN _{D}_{n} )
(9),
where x _{D}_{i} is the percentage mass part of each hydrocarbon fraction of the crude oil.
3. Once the viscosity blending number of a crude oil is obtained from equation
(9), the viscosity of the crude oil, v _{c}_{r}_{u}_{d}_{e} , can be determined by using the invert
of equation (8):
VBN crude − 10.975
v
crude
=
e
e
14.534
− 0.8
(10)
where VBN _{c}_{r}_{u}_{d}_{e} is the viscosity blending number of the crude oil, determined by (9).
Our next task was to develop a correlation for prediction of viscosity blending numbers of the discrete fractions of the crudes from their volume average boiling points. For this purpose the data, presented in Table II were used. For our next steps in the algorithm, it was convenient to present the VABPs of the discrete cuts (Table II) as normalized temperatures (U), calculated by eq. (2) above. Like in [4], the Riazi’s IBP of the crude  T _{o} , was assumed to be equal of the isobutane boiling point (261 K) – the lowestboiling component in the crude.
The viscosities at 38 ^{o} C, determined as described in Table II, were used to calculate the VBNs of the respective discrete fractions of each of the 117 crude oil samples. Then the desired correlation, giving the dependence of pseudocomponent’s VBN from its normalized boiling point, was obtained by regression of the VBN and U data, in the following form:
VBN _{D}_{i} [U]=14.8567 (0.919903U+ln(0.919903U))
(11)
Table III summarizes the data for the volume average boiling points (VABPs, their transformation into normalized temperatures (U) and the viscosity blending numbers of the discrete fractions (VBN), calculated by (11).
Table III. Volume average boiling points, normalized temperatures (U) and viscosity blending numbers of the discrete fractions.
Discrete 
Discrete 
VABP, K 
U, 
VBNcalc 

fraction 
fraction 
(normalized 

boundaries, boundaries, 
VABP) 

TBP range, TBP 
range, 

0C 
normalized 

temperature 

IBP  70 70  100 
0.0003 – 0.314 0.314 – 0.429 
326.15 
0.25 
20.04 

358.15 
0.37 
10.25 

100 
 150 
0.429 – 0.621 
398.39 
0.52 
3.58 

150 
 190 
0.621 – 0.774 
442.57 
0.70 
2.76 

190 
 235 
0.774 – 0.946 
485.85 
0.86 
8.17 

235 
 280 
0.946 – 1.119 
529.96 
1.03 
13.48 

280 
 343 
1.119 – 1.360 
584.29 
1.24 
19.41 

343 
 565 
1.360 – 2.211 
716.67 
1.75 
30.90 

565 
+ 
2.211 – 3.887 
949.47 
2.64 
49.05 
The average absolute deviation of the resulting model was an acceptable 2,69%, and the R ^{2} correlation coefficient was higher than 0.999.
The right hand side of (11) can be decomposed as:
VBN _{D}_{i} 1[U]=14.8567x0.919903U= 13.6667U 
(12) 
VBN _{D}_{i} 2[U]=14.8567(ln(0.919903U)) = 14.8567ln(0.919903U) 
(13) 
In continuation of our study, we used Riazi’s twoparameter model (with T _{o} fixed at 261 K), as transformed above for for discrete pseudocomponents, distilled up within a certain temperature range, eq. (7) and eq. (9) – for the linear calculation of the VBN of a blend, with the aim to define a dependence necessary for evaluation of Riazi’s model parameters A _{T} (A) и B _{T} (B). The mathematical notation is as follows:
VBN
Di
[A
,
B a b
,
,
]
=
b
∫
a
x
Di
[A
,
b
∫
B U ]VBN 1 []U dU + x
,
Di
a
Di
[A
,
B , U ]VBN 2 []U dU
Di
(14),
where a, b are temperature boundaries of the discrete fraction distilled up within temperature range, expressed by normalized temperatures.
The definite integral output gave the following expression for VBN of a discrete pseudocomponent, VBN _{D}_{i} in (9) :
14.8567
⎡
⎢ B
⎜
⎣
⎜
⎢
⎛
⎝
−
0.0834867
e
−
_{B}_{a} B
A
+
ln(
−
a ) e
Ba
A
B
+
0.0834867
e
−
Bb
A
B
−
ln(
−
b ) e
Bb
A
B
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
−
⎛
Ei ⎜
⎜
⎝
−
a B ⎞ ⎟ +
B
A
⎟
⎠
⎛
Ei ⎜
⎜
⎝
−
b B ⎞ ⎟
⎟
⎠
B
A
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎦
B
+ 13.6667
⎛ ⎜ A ⎞ ⎟ ⎡ ⎢ Γ ⎛ ⎜ 1 +
⎣
⎝
1
B
B
⎠
⎜
⎝
1
B
,
a
B
A
B ⎞ ⎟ −
⎟
⎠
1.
Γ
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
1
+
1
B
,
b B ⎞ ⎤
⎥
⎠ ⎦
B
A
⎟
⎟
(15),
where Γ is Riazi’s gamma function and Ei is ExpIntegral – gives the exponential integral function Ei (z).
However, in the definite integral output (15), both parameters A and B are unknown. Therefore, we used the relation obtained for a VBN of fraction (VBN _{D}_{i} ) with A _{T} (A) and B _{T} (B) originating from Riazi’s model and the pseudocomponent’s boiling temperature range (expressed as VABP) to form a system of two equations:
VBN _{D}_{i} [A, B, 0.000001, 3.877394]=VBN _{c}_{r}_{u}_{d}_{e} 
(16) 
VBN _{D}_{i} [A, B, 0.000001, 1.360153]=2.905 
(17) 
The first equation (16) is in fact equation (9) applied to equalize the VBN of the whole crude to the VBN of a pseudocomponent, obtained within the boiling range from IBP to 1000 ^{o} C (0 to 3.87, expressed as normalized temperature, U), which covers the crude distillation range up to T _{9}_{8}_{%} , as suggested in [4, 5]. The second equation (17) does the same, equalizing to the constant 2.905, the VBN of a fraction distilled up to 343 ^{o} C (1.36 expressed as normalized temperature).
The above system empirically allows for the determination of Riazi’s coefficient. The fraction distilled up to 343 ^{o} C for equation (17) was chosen because it provided best agreement of the model with the available experimental data. Hence, with the known values of A and B, the prediction of
a crude TBP yields for discrete pseudocomponets expressed with normalized VABPs, as shown in Table III mathematically is as follows:
FractionsTemperatureBoundaries={0.0003,0.314,0.429,0.621,0.774,0.946,1.119,1.360,2.211,3.877}
FractionMass[A,B,n]=X _{C} [A,B,FractionsTemperatureBoundaries[[n+1]]]–X _{C} [A,B, FractionsTemperatureBoundaries[[n]]]
(18)
(19),
where an equation (18) defines the discrete fraction temperature boundaries in normalized temperature (U) while an equation (19) gives the mass of each discrete fraction. n is equal of the sum of the boundaries covering each discrete fractions (in this case n equals of 9 and it varies between 1 and 9).
Further, the obtained mass concentrations of the discrete fractions (i.e., in ^{o} С):
IBP  70; 70  100; 100  150; 150  190; 190  235; 235  280; 280  343; 343  565; 565+, can be readily summed up for cumulative fractions: IBP  70; IBP  100; IBP  150; IBP  190; IBP – 235, etc.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In order to test the validity and accuracy of the new proposed model (15), its predictions for discrete fractions were recalculated into predictions for the TBP yields of cumulative fractions of the 117 crude oil assays in the data base. They were compared with the measured TBP yields and with those predicted by Riazi’s model. The results are summarized in Table IV.
Table IV. Comparison of absolute deviations
TBP 
Average absolute deviation of the TBP yields (%) from the 117 crudes, estimated by New model and Riazi’s model per group crude sample 

cumulative fraction, ^{o} C 
I 
II 
III 
IV 

Riazi’s 
New 
Riazi’s 
New 
Riazi’s 
New 
Riazi’s 
New 

model 
model 
model 
model 
model 
model 
model 
model 

IBP  70 
0.39 
1.09 
0.17 
1.00 
0.19 
1.57 
0.11 
0.67 

IBP  100 
0.33 
1.57 
0.16 
1.59 
0.22 
2.72 
0.10 
1.23 

IBP  150 
1.03 
2.29 
0.49 
2.35 
0.46 
4.18 
0.45 
2.27 

IBP  190 
1.02 
2.23 
0.50 
2.74 
0.45 
4.88 
0.18 
2.23 

IBP  235 
0.80 
2.08 
0.56 
2.96 
0.41 
5.14 
0.57 
3.62 

IBP  280 
0.96 
1.95 
0.65 
2.97 
0.63 
4.83 
0.87 
4.10 

IBP  343 
1.63 
2.74 
0.90 
2.80 
0.85 
3.88 
0.90 
4.63 

IBP  565 
1.42 
2.83 
2.06 
1.81 
1.57 
3.32 
2.08 
3.49 
Table IV shows that the average absolute deviations of the yields, predicted by Riazi’s method are several times closer to the experimental values than those estimated by the new method. This not surprising since the parameters of the Riazi model have been calculated from all available TBP data, while the parameters of new model involve estimated data. The calculated average
relative deviation was reasonably well for white oil fractions distilled up to 343 ^{0} С, amounting of 5.95% against 3.30%  calculated through Riazi’s model. On the other hand, the deviations of the obtained by calculation by any method yields cannot be less than those which can be reproduced experimentally. For instance, the reproducibility of experimental yields, obtained by the ASTM D 2892 method is 1.2 % for atmospheric and 1.4 %  for vacuum fractions [9]. So, the deviations of the new method are comparable to the experimental and thus acceptable for its declared practical applications. Moreover, there are possibilities to improve the new method if more experimental data are available and/or other routinely determined properties of the crudes are used.
The adequacy of the model was verified, also for predicting the TBP distribution of a test set of three crude oil samples, not included among the 117 samples used to develop the model. The results obtained are given in Table V.
Table V. Absolute deviations of the predictions with the new method for the test set
Properties
Crude oil
Mellitah 
Western 
REBCO 

Desert 

Visc. at 38 ^{o} C, mm ^{2} /s 
2.07 
2.51 
8.25 
Specific
0
@15 C
gravity
0.8132
0.8200
0.8680
TBP range, ^{o} C 
Absolute deviation, % 

IBP  70 
0.50 
1.64 
0.58 
IBP  100 
3.72 
3.44 
1.04 
IBP  150 
1.42 
4.08 
1.25 
IBP  190 
1.70 
2.87 
1.07 
IBP  235 
0.77 
1.58 
0.34 
IBP  280 
1.68 
1.12 
0.05 
IBP  343 
1.10 
3.62 
0.51 
IBP  565 
5.00 
3.48 
0.96 
The deviations with the test set fall within those for the 117 samples used in the development of the model.
CONCLUSIONS
The main aim of this work was to develop a method for express prediction of crude true boiling point (TBP) curves, that would be suitable for daily monitoring of the operarion of crude oil distillation units (CDUs). The main results achieved in the realization of this aim can be summatrized as follows:
 The developed new model requires only data from the routine laboratory
analysis of the kinematic viscosity of crude oil at 38 ^{o} С. In its development assay data for 117 crude oils from different parts of the world have been used. The precision of the predictions of the new model, though somewhat worse
than those of the original Riazi model, are comparable to the experimental reproducibility of the standard methods for laboratory distillation. The adequacy of the model was verified, also for predicting the TBP distribution of a test set of three crude oil samples, not used in the development of the model. The results of this test showed the consistency of the model predictions.
 In practical terms the reported deviation is sufficient to detect any upsets in
the operation of refinery CDUs. The method requires only data for the viscosity of crude oil at 38 ^{o} С, and uses a computerized calculation algorithm,
easily realized in Excel or other popular statistical software.
 An integral part of the new model is a sub model describing the dependence of the viscosity blending numbers (VBNs) of crude oil pseudocomponents from their average boiling boiling points. The submodel allows for subsequent calculation of other integral parameters for each narrow cut of crude oil, such as: molecular mass, specific gravity and refractive index, including proxy on TBPdistillation curve at known VBNs.
 In terms of mathematics, it can be assumed that Riazi’s model can be
reduced to an essentially oneparameter model, taking into account eq. (17) which allows to estimate its property parameters from only one laboratory measurement. The Riazi’s model, which is originally in integral form, can be subjected to differentiation in order to identify the properties of pseudocomponent.
REFERENCES
[1] Riazi, M., “Distribution Model for Properties of HydrocarbonPlus Fractions”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol.28 (1989), pp.183135.
[2] Riazi, M.,”A Continuous Model for C7+ Fraction Characterization of Petroleum Fluids”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 36 (1997), pp 42994307
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