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25.08.2009

Introduction

Hardening Soil (HS) and Hardening Soil-small (HS-small) models are designed to reproduce basic phenomena exhibited by soils:

densication stiness stress dependency plastic yielding dilatancy strong stiness variation with growing shear strain amplitude in the regime of small strains ( = 106 to = 103 ) this phenomenon plays a crucial role for modeling deep excavations and soil-structure interaction problems

Introduction

HS model was initially formulated by Schanz, Vermeer and Bonnier (1998, 1999) and then enhanced by Benz (2006) Current implementation is slightly modied with respect to the theory given by Benz:

simplied treatment of dilatancy for the small strain version (HS-small) modied hardening law for preconsolidation pressure modied form of the cap yield surface (2009)

This model seems to be one of the simplest in the class of models designed to handle small strain stiness It consists of the two plastic mechanisms, shear and volumetric Small strain stiness is incorporated by means of nonlinear elasticity which includes hysteretic eects

Initial stiness modulus Eo Unloading-reloading modulus Eur Secant stiness modulus at 50 % of the ultimate deviatoric stress qf

250

Eo

200 150 100 50 0 0 0.05 0.1

0.15 EPS-1 [-] 0.2

qun

q [kpa]

1 1 q50

0.25

Remark: All classical soil models require specication of Eur modulus (Cam-Clay, Cap etc..)

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

G - current secant shear modulus Go - shear modulus for very small strains

Atkinson 1991

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

G () curve an additional Go characteristic point is needed To describe the shape of It is common to specify the shear strain 0.7 at which ratio G = 0.7 Go

0.7

07

Cohesionless soils

Cohesive soils

1

Results for PI < 30 are conrmed by other researchers while these for PI > 30 should be used with a special care (Benz) Stokoe proposed linear interpolation for 0.7 0.7 = 104 for PI = 0 to 0.7 = 6 104 for PI = 100

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

Relation between static Young modulus Es , obtained from standard triaxial test at axial strain 1 103 , and dynamic Young modulus (the one at very small strains) Ed = Eo is shown in diagram published by Alpan (1970) (after Benz)

100

Ed Es

10

co h es i ve so i ls

Ro ck

gran

u l ar

soil

1 1000

Es [kPa]

10000 100000 1000000

p pref emax 1.1 1.5

m

Go = A f (e)OCR Soil Clean sands Undisturbed clayey soils and crushed sand Undisturbed cohesive soils Loess emin 0.5 0.6

Hardin and Black (1978) A [kPa] 57 33 f (e) m 2 (2.17 e) 0.4 1+e 2 (2.97 e) 0.5 1+e Ref. Iwasaki Hardin and Black Kim Kim

0.6 1.4

1.5 4.0

16 1.4

Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

Poisson ratio varies in the range = 0.1..0.3 in small strain domain Its value in further derivations will be kept constant (by default = 0.25)

Double hardening elasto-plastic model (Schanz, Vermeer, Benz) Nonlinear elasticity for stress paths penetrating the interior of the elastic domain

600 500 400 q [kPa] 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 p [kPa] 300 400 500

Cap surface

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

Duncan-Chang model as the origin for shear mechanism

250

qf 200

q [kPa] 150 100 50

M-C limit

E50 1

qf 1

0.01 0.02

Eur

0 0

0.03 eps-1

0.04

0.05

700 600 500 q [kPa] 400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200

M-C

=0.1=const.

=0.01=const.

=0.001=const. =0.0001=const.

300 p [kPa] 400 500 600

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

1 3 1 + 3 sin m 2 2 sin m sin cs sin m = 1 sin m sin cs 1 3 sin m = 1 + 3 + 2c cot g1 =

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.5 0

sin psi_m

Domain of contractancy

10 20

Domain of dilatancy

30

phi_m [deg]

40

50

60

d PS = d1

g1 g1 g1 1 2 3

= d1

Cap mechanism

q2 2 + p 2 pc M 2 r 2 () r () is dened via van Ekelens formula (like in Cam-Clay model q2 Plastic potential: g2 = 2 + p 2 M pc + c cot m Hardening law: d pc = d2 2H p ref + c cot Yield condition: f2 = Remarks:

1

NC M and H parameters can be estimated for assumed Ko and tangent Eoed modulus set up at a given vertical stress

Mohr-Coulomb yield condition 1 sin 2c cos 3 =0 1 + sin 1 + sin Mohr-Coulomb plastic ow rule f1 = 1

g1 = g1

NB. Here same plastic ow rule is used as for the shear mechanism f1 Rankine yield condition (tensile cut-o) f3 = 1 ft = 0 where: ft is the assumed tensile strength (default is ft = 0) Rankine plastic ow rule(associated ow rule is used) g3 = f3

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

3 + c cot

Remarks

1

To extend standard HS model to the range of small strain Benz introduced few modications:

1

Strain dependency is added to the stress-strain relation, for stress paths penetrating the elastic domain The modied Hardin-Drnevich relationship is used to relate current secant shear modulus G and equivalent monotonic shear strain hist Reversal points are detected with aid of deviatoric strain history second order tensor Hij ; in addition the current equivalent shear strain hist is computed by using this tensor Hardening laws for PS and pc are modied by introducing hi factor; this factor for very small strains is much larger than 1.0 and decreases to 1.0 once the shear strain hist exceeds certains strain amplitude c Certain constractancy is allowed in the plastic ow rule for shear mechanism

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

N N-1 N+1

plot from paper by Ishihara 1986 At step N : histN1 = 8 105 histN = 104 At step N + 1 : histN = 0 histN+1 = 2 105 max Primary loading: histN+1 > hist max Unloading/reloading: histN+1 hist Go Hardin-Drnevich law: G = hist (secant modulus) 1+a 0.7

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

G

Gur

c

c = 0.7 a Go 1 Gur

Modications: Dilatancy

10 5 0

20 15 10

0 10 20 30 40

PSI_m [deg]

PSI_m [deg]

5 0 -5 0 -10 -15

10 20 30 40

PHI_m [deg]

Rowes dilatancy

PHI_m [deg]

600 500 400 q [kPa] 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 p [kPa] 300 400 500

Shear mechanism

Cap surface

SR

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

600 500 400 q [kPa] 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 p [kPa] 300 400 500

Shear mechanism

Cap surface

SR

Procedure:

PS For given SR state compute o from plastic condition f1 = 0

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

Remarks

1

SR NC Ko = Ko 1 sin() in the standard applications (approximate Jakys formula) SR Ko = 1 for case of isotropic consolidation (used in triaxial testing for instance)

For sands notion of preconsolidation pressure is not as meaningful as for cohesive soils hence one may assume OCR=1 and eect of density will be embedded in H and M parameters

p* q*

Eoed

1

ref oed

Assumptions: 1 At a given ref vertical stress both shear and volumetric oed mechanisms are active NC 1 + 2Ko ref NC ref 2 p = oed while q = (1 Ko )oed 3 3 A strain driven program is applied with vertical strain amplitude = 105 and resulting tangent oedometric modulus is computed as Eoed = 4 The two conditions must be fulled: K coecient generated o by the model must be equal to the one set by the user (using Jakys formula for instance Ko = 1 sin ) and tangent oedometric modulus generated by the model must be equal to the value given by the user 5 If we take the data from the experiment we must be sure that the given oedometric modulus corresponds to the primary loading branch of curve

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

Material properties

Parameter ref Eur ref E50 ref m ur Rf c emax ft D M H OCR/q POP ref Eo 0.7 Unit [kPa] [kPa] [kPa] [] [] [] [kPa] [o ] [o ] [] [kPa] [] [] [kPa] [/kPa] [kPa] [] HS-standard yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no no HS-small yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes

User interface

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services

Advanced

Remarks

1

Advanced checkbox is

ref Eur is the unloading/reloading Young modulus given at the reference stress ref

ur is the unloading/reloading Poisson coecient; it varies from 0.15 to 0.3, hence for sands it is recommended to assume ur = 0.2..0.25 and for clays ur = 0.25..0.3 m is the exponent in stress dependency power law; it varies from m = 0.4 to m = 0..6; it is smaller for dense sands and larger for clays L is the minimum allowed reference stress value used for evaluation of stiness moduli

Remarks

1

The HS-small model requires two additional parameters: ref Young modulus at very low strains Eo at the reference stress ref and threshold shear strain 0.7

ref In case of lack of information on Eo one may try to estimate ref based on Alpans diagram assuming E = E Eo s ur

4 5

In the current implementation 0.7 is assumed to be constant In case of lack of information on 0.7 the diagram by Vucetic and Dobry can be used for cohesive soils and diagram by Wichtmann and Triantafyllidis for cohesionless ones

Remarks 1 All material properties collected in group Nonlinear are common for HS and HS-small models 2 In the advanced mode one may activate tensile and dilatancy cut-o conditions, set up the multiplier D for Rowes dilatancy law in the contractant domain (for HS model the default value is D = 0.0 and for HS-small D = 0.25), 3 E ref is the secant Young modulus at 50 % of failure deviatoric 50 stress qf derived from the q 1 curve in drained triaxial test 4 is the friction angle 5 is the dilatancy angle 6 c is the eective cohesion 7 R is the failure ratio (default R = 0.9) f f 8 f is the tensile strength (default f = 0) t t 9 e max is the maximum allowed void ratio; if current void ratio exceeds the emax dilatancy angle is switched to = 0

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

Remarks

1

Cap surface parameter M and hardening parameter H are derived by using a simple calculator which simulates an oedometric test; for given tangent oedometric modulus Eoed ref NC at a given reference vertical stress oed and for assumed Ko parameter (here Jakys formula can be used) values of H and M are evaluated (press button Evaluate M,H ); one may m ref oed + c cot ref assume Eoed = E50 as a default value ref + c cot PS Setting the initial state variables o and pco can be carried out by means of assumed OCR or preoverburden pressure q POP

NC To compute Ko from Jaky formula press button Use Jakys formula for KoNC

Remarks

1

SR SR Pairs Ko and OCR (OCR 1.0) or Ko and q POP are needed to setup the initial position of the cap surface and the initial value of the hardening parameter PS min pco is the minimum allowed value for the initial preconsolidation stress

ref Stiness modulus Eur and cap surface parameters H and M can be estimated by running an inverse analysis of a plane strain problem of a soil layer loaded by a strip loading q

q = 0.5 qult with qult being the approximate ultimate limit load density The template data les for MC and HS model can be found in the CFG directory under names: template-foot-MC and template-foot-HS

1m A q = 0.5 qult

10m

10m

insitu , , , , m, , , c , OCR, K SR , Given: dry , Ko ur ref L o ref ref E50 Eur = .... and ref = .... and Young modulus that user ref E50 Eoed would assume in the simulation with a standard MC model ref Find: Eur

The estimation idea is as follows:

1

We know parameters to be used in the simulation with aid of insitu , , , , c a standard MC model: E , dry , Ko ur Now we want to use HS/HS-small model but we do not know ref on how to estimate Eur , H and M parameters We select a plane-strain problem of a strip loading q applied to a uniform layer of soil as a template problem We assume the additional parameters for HS model: L , m, E ref SR OCR, Ko and the two coecients ur = .... (default is 3) ref E50 ref E and 50 = .... (default is 1.0) ref Eoed

ref We run the optimization procedure which yields the Eur , M and H such that the settlement at point A obtained from MC and standard (!!!) HS model are the same

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

6 5.5 5 SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa] 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 -EPS-Y [-]

20000 0 0.00001 0.0001 G [kPa] 100000 80000 60000 40000 HS-std HS-small 120000

HS-std HS-small

0.001

0.01

0.1

(a) 1 (1 ) (Z Soil) 3

4 3.5 SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa] 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 -EPS-Y [-] HS-std HS-small

(b) G () (Z Soil)

0 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 -EPS-V [-] 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 -0.02 -EPS-Y [-] HS-std HS-small 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

(d) v (1 ) (Z Soil)

6 5.5 5 SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa] 4.5 4 HS-std HS-small

200000 180000 160000 140000 G [kPa] 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

3.5 3

HS-std HS-small

0 0.00001 0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

(a) 1 (1 ) (Z Soil) 3

4 3.5 SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa] 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 EPS-1 [-] HS-std HS-small

(b) G () (Z Soil)

0 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 EPS-V [-] 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 -0.02 EPS-1 [-] HS-std HS-small 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

(d) v (1 ) (Z Soil)

6 5.5 5 SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa] 4.5 HS-std HS-small

300000 250000 200000 G [kPa] 150000 100000 50000 0 0.00001 0.0001 HS-std HS-small

4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 EPS-1 [-]

0.001

0.01

0.1

EPS-1-EPS-3 [-]

(a) 1 (1 ) (Z Soil) 3

4 3.5 SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa] 3

EPS-V [-]

(b) G () (Z Soil)

0 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 HS-std HS-small 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

HS-std HS-small

(d) v (1 ) (Z Soil)

Given 3 drained triaxial test results for 3 conning pressures: 3 = 100 kPa 3 = 300 kPa 3 = 600 kPa

Shear characteristics q 1 Dilatancy characteristics v 1 Stress paths in p q plane Measurements of small strain stiness moduli Eo (3 ) for the assumed conning pressures (through direct measurement of shear wave velocity in the sample)

Estimation of friction angle = cs and cohesion c

q

M* =

1

6 sin 3 sin

c* =

6c cos 3 sin

p

If we know M and c then we can compute and c: 3 M 3 sin = arcsin c = c 6+M 6 cos

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

Estimation of friction angle = cs and cohesion c

3000 2500 2000 q [kPa] 1500 1000 500 0 0 300 600 900 p [kPa] 1200

1386 2358 2358/1386=1.7

1500

1800

Here: = arcsin

c=0

0.06 0.05 0.04

1

EPS-V [-]

0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

EPS-1 = - EPS-3 [-]

Dilatancy cut-off

= arcsin

d 2+d

1 d=0.75

V 0.03

0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 -0.02 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

= arcsin

0.75 2 + 0.75

16o

Analytical formula: Eo =

ref + c cot Measured: shear wave velocity vs at 1 = 106 and at given conning stress 3 Compute : shear modulus Go = vs2 Compute : Young modulus Eo = 2 (1 + ) Go 3 [kPa] 100 300 600 Eo [kPa] 250000 460000 675000

ref Eo

3 + c cot

Analytical formula: Eo =

ref + c cot Measured: shear wave velocity vs at 1 = 106 and at given conning stress 3 Compute : shear modulus Go = vs2 Compute : Young modulus Eo = 2 (1 + ) Go 3 [kPa] 100 300 600 Eo [kPa] 250000 460000 675000

ref Eo

3 + c cot

Plot Eo vs 3

800000 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Eo [kPa]

[kPa]

Reanalyze Eo vs 3 in logarithmic scales 13.1 12.55 Averaged slope yields m; here m = = 0.55 1.0 Find intersection of the line with axis ln Eo at 3 + c cot ln =0 ref + c cot Here the intersection is at 12.43 hence ref Eo = e 12.43 2.71812.43 = 250000 kPa

13.6 13.4 13.2

ln Eo 13

12.8 12.6 12.4 12.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

m 1

12.43

1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

To estimate small strain modulus Go at a certain depth one may use empirical formula by Mayne and Rix: q 0.695 Go = 49.4 t1.13 [MPa] e qt is a corrected tip resistance expressed in MPa e is the void ratio Note: this is very rough estimation Best solution: Perform triaxial testing and project on CPT prole to adjust empirical coecient (49.4) for a given site

2500

1

2000

1 1

1500

f q50 ( 3 = 100)

1000

f q50 ( 3 = 100) 500 f q50 ( 3 = 100)

0 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

Reanalyze E50 vs 3 in logarithmic scales Here we can x m to the one obtained for small strain moduli Find intersection of the line with axis ln E50 at 3 + c cot ln =0 ref + c cot Here the intersection is at 10.30 hence ref E50 e 10.30 2.71810.30 30000 kPa

11.4 11.2 11

ln E50

10.8 10.6 10.4 10.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

10.30

The unloading reloading modulus as well as oedometric moduli are usually not accessible

ref We can use Alpans diagram to deduce Eur once we know ref E ref Eo (default is ur = 3); for cohesive soils like tertiary clays ref Eo this value is larger

For oedometric modulus at the reference stress ref = 100 ref ref kPa we can assume Eoed = E50 0.7 = 0.0001...0.0002 for sands and 0.7 = 0.00005...0.0001 for clays Smaller 0.7 values yield softer soil behavior

Conclusions

Model properly reproduces strong stiness variation with shear strain It can be used in simulations of soil-structure interaction problems Implementation is rather heavy It should properly predict deformations near the excavations Model reduces excessive heavings at the bottom of the excavation

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