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BOTANICAL NAME Abroma augusta Abrus precatorius Acorus calamus Aegle marmelos Allium sativum Aloe barbadensis Alstonia scholaris Anacardium occidentale Andrographis paniculata Areca catechu Asparagus racemosus Bacopa monnieri Butea monosperma Catharanthus roseus Curcuma longa Dillenia indica Emblica officinalis Gmelina arborea Gloriosa superb Holarrhena antidysenterica
FAMILY Sterculiaceae Papilionaceae Araceae Rutaceae Liliaceae Liliaceae Apocynaceae
LOCAL NAME Bon kopashi Latuwani Boch Bel Naharu Chalkunwari Chatiar Kaju badam
Acanthaceae Arecaceae Liliaceae Scrophulariaceae Fabaceae Apocynaceae Zingiberaceae Dilleniaceae Euphorbiaceae Verbenaceae Liliaceae Apocynaceae
Sirata Tambul Shatamul Barmi shak Palash Nayantara Halodhi Outenga Amluki Gomari Agnisikha Dudkhuri, kutuj
English name: Devil's cotton. Vernacular names: Asm : Bon kopashi; Hin and Ben: Ulat kambal; Tam: Sivapputtutti. Trade name: Ulat kambal. Traditional use: Seed: yields fatty oil, rich in linoleic acid and lowers cholesterol level in blood. HOMOEOPATHY : used to control mind, different ailments of head, heart, eyes, ears, nose, face, mouth, throat, stomach, abdomen, urinary organs, male and female sexual organs, respiratory organs, neck, back and limbs, skin diseases, fever; to regulate appetite and sleep. Modern use: Fresh and dried root-bark: used as uterine tonic and emmenagogue; regulates menstrual flow; Fresh juice from root- bark: useful in congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, urinary trouble, bronchitis, broncho-pneumonia, carbuncles and poisonous boils; Leaf: used in diabetes, rheumatic pain and sinusitis. Distribution: Widely distributed in hotter parts of India up to 1500 m; Bangladesh, Pakistan and the adjacent countries. Ecology and cultivation: Plant prefers hot and moist climate; sometimes planted, occasionally found as an escape. Chemical contents: Plant: fixed oil, a little resinous matter, alkaloid (minute quantity) and watersoluble bases.
Distribution: Occurring throughout greater parts of India. Vernacular names: Asm : Latuwani.abrin is considered to be intensely poisonous. abrusquinone A. Kunch. Paste of seeds: applied locally in sciatica. Kan : Gurgunn. encase the pills in molasses and eat the same to treat night-blindedness. Ecology and cultivation: Naturalised in tropical countries. precatorius can enhance the span of a man's life. . 5 B-cholanic acid. Mal: Kunnikkura. Kunch. a seed contains hypaphorine. abricin. alkaloid (abrin). Seed: poisonous. Poultice of seeds: as suppository to bring about abortion. Pharmacologically.Abrus precatorius English names: Indian liquorice. ascending the outer Himalaya up to 1200 m. B & C. a fat-splitting enzyme. Ori : Kaincha. to treat white-coloured urine they drink a mixture made by grinding roots. abrol. Crab's eye. Trade names: Rati. principal constituents being 'abrin'. Decoction of roots and leaves: for cough. Ben: Rati. Tam: Kunthamani. occasionally planted in gardens. aphrodisiac. isoflavanquinones. stigmasterol. Seeds: purgative. Hin and Pun: Rati. Gunja. leaves taste sweet and roots less so.-sitosterol. abrasine and precasine. Traditional use: Grind the roots. Besides abrin. if it is eaten with marine salt and some other plants Modern use: Roots: emetic and alexiteric. Chemical contents: Root and Leaf: glycyrrhizin. stiffness of shoulder joints and in paralysis. roots also contain precol. make a plaster by grinding the roots of white-fruited variety and apply the plaster on the painful part of inflammated sections of the gum. a glucoside (abralin) and a small quantity of fatty oil have also been isolated from seed. urease. two steroidsone oily and the other crystalline. tonic. destroys all intestinal worms. cholesterol. emetic. cold and colic. Glycyrrhiza glabra and marine salt daily in the morning enhances memory of young boys. Gulaganji. haemaagglutinin. used in nervous disorder and cattle poisoning. abridin. lectins and toxic proteins. make small pills. Tel: Gumginja. Guj: Gumchi.
cold and cough. dry cough. the substance thus obtained should be administered to the patient. abdominal pain. small quantities of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenes alcohols. hysteria. epilepsy and other mental ailments. loss of memory. carminative. malaria and cancer. Aerial parts: lutcolin-6. as soon as the fit comes on. acoradin. emetic. found from the coast to 1200 m. (iii) also use in the treatment of asthma. Root as massage. Adulterants: The powdered drug has been adulterated with siliceous earth. bitter. (ii) drinking the decoction of this plant Modern use: Rhizome: aromatic. chemical constituents vary in ecotypes and polyploides. Distribution: Throughout India. good for oral diseases. calamus together.5% of a yellow aromatic volatile oil-calamus oil. (ii) for the treatment of indigestion. Sri Lanka. rat bite and worms in ear. wild and cultivated. cloves.5-di-MeO-benzoquinone. Chemical contents: Dry rhizome :1.26%). useful in dyspepsia. root of Carissa carandus lo along with little of the rootstock of A. carminative. ascending the Himalaya up to 2000 m.4. epilepsy.5-3. calamus lo. hysteria. calameone. Trade name: Boch. they take pills made by grinding 100 black peppers. Gui : Godavaj. haemoptysis. the oil contains -asarone. little amount of ginger and the root of A. in bronchitis. epilepsy. stomachic.Acorus calamus English name: The sweet flag. this plant should be boiled with Costus speciosus. laxative. For treatment of epilepsy. indigestion. bitter. . in fever. galangin. phthisis. colic. confined to marshy areas. teething trouble of children. Traditional use: Use the plant in the following ways: (i) they mix and grind black pepper. 2. Vekhand. bronchitis. nerve tonic. healing. isoacolamone. pain in neck. then stir the same in pure mustard oil-the emulsion. along with the juice of Bacopa monnieri . bronchitis.8c-diglucoside. acolamone. 2. emetic. diuretic. Vernacular names: Asm. dysentery. gregarious herb from a stout horizontal rhizome. Ben and Hin : Boch. flavone. ground marsh mallow root and cereal flowers. improves voice and appetite. Ecology and cultivation: Probably introduced. a few drops of this emulsion should be poured into the nose of the patient. remittent fevers. often near village wells and along watercourses. stimulant. glandular and abdominal tumours and in snake bite.5-tri-MeObenzaldehyde. Pakistan and Bangladesh. epoxyisoacoragermacrone. BIRHOR : Rhizome in alopecia. shankhapushpi. thus prepared is anointed daily over the whole body of the patient suffering form epilepsy with foaming and groaning. Rhizome: also contains choline (0.
HOMOEOPATHY: Destroys phlegm and a good remedy in fevers associated with catarrhal symptoms. oilcake of Bassia latifolia. often planted. Bael tree. the fruits of Randia dumetorum and Nigella indica. Traditional use: Leaves of this plant along with many other plant materials for the treatment of continuous fever. aegelenine. Trade names: Bel. the molasses and fruits of Gryllus monostrosus for the treatment of diseases without premonitory symptoms. marmesinin. wild in the sub-Himalayan tract. Bel. antipyretic. Leaves: -sitosterol. Adulterants: Umonia acidissima Correa. Garcinia mangostina L. and Puilica granatum L. furanocoumarin. are used as substitute of Aegle marmelos Correa. often planted. anthelmintic. It is also antidiuretic. lupeol. marmin. Terminalia tomentosa. bleeding piles. the fruits of Nigella indica and black pepper to treat a patient of convulsions. digestive and used in diarrhoea. aegeline. umbelliforone. salt and Carum ajowan for treatment of constipation with meteorismus. marmesin. Stem: yields a good gum. . Modern use: Fruits: chiefly used in (i) chronic diarrhoea and dysentery. Guj: Biliva phal. -sitosterol. carminative. Vernacular names: Asm and Ben: Bel. Chemical contents: Bark of root and stem: umbelliferone. lupeol.Aegle marmelos English names: Wood apple. (ii) as a good laxative. and the sherbet prepared from the pulp is good for bacillary dysentery. Half-ripe fruit: astringent. the bark of the following plants Pterocarpus marsupium. dysentery. salt and Carum ajowan to treat watery diarrhea. -sitosterol. two unidentified alkaloids and two unknown compounds-their proportion varies with the age of the bark. scoparone. tonic. BiI. also good for dropsy./dictamine. Hin : Shriphal. glucoside and essential oil. Shriphal. Ecology and cultivation: Wild. skimmin and -sitosterol glucoside. sitosterol. scopoletin. diarrhoea. bowel complaints and is a good laxative. Heartwood: a ferro-quinoline alkaloid. other coumarins. marmelide. Ripe fruits: xanthotoxol. rutin. Bauhinia vahlii. Distribution: Found in the plains and submontane regions of India. aurapten. marmasin and -sitosterol. Dalbergia latifolia and fried rice for treatment of chronic stomachache and the bark of Odina wodier. Spatholobus roxburghii. aegelinol. Fruits: psoralen. the leaves of Melia azadirac hta and the seeds of Semecarpus ana cardium to treat nausea. -sitosterol and essential oil.
03%. cholesterol. as an eyedrop and in earache. and also Cu-peptides. harvested during February to April. Mahausada. iliacus and erosion of old diseases at the adimanic stage. Raw garlic: decreases glucose. . Shunam. polysaccharides. carbohydrate 29%. It grows as a late irrigated crop. gangrene of the lung and whooping cough. Yields good results. allays pain in otorrhoea. relieves earache. preparation have been given to pulmonary phthisis. sterols. catarrhal conditions. Ecology and cultivation: It favours a richer soil and higher elevation (1000-1300 m). in South India. useful in dyspepsia. flatulence and colic. scordinines A & B. swelling of glands. vitamin C 13 mg/100 g. headache. internally given with common salt in nervous diseases. Essential oil: the bulbs. Garlic juice: good for treatment of laryngeal tuberculosis. Fe 1. yield 0. triglycerides. applied externally as resolvent to indolent tumours. Hin : Lashun. Distribution: Cultivated throughout India since ancient days. dyspepsia. Juice: applied to bruises and sprain. cryptococcal meningitis. also cultivated in Pakistan. ginger and Moringa oleifera is helpful for eye and also as eardrop. a good remedy for cough and cold. Traditional use : Good for health. Liniment: beneficial in infantile convulsion and other spasmodic affections. Bangladesh and almost in all tropical countries. Modern use: Bulb: antidiabetic. diallyl disulphide and two sulphur containing compounds. well-drained. 2 mercapto-L-cysteins. Trade names: Rasun.Allium sativum English name: Garlic. if treated with farmyard manure and top-dressing of ammonium sulphate mixed with superphosphate. Ben: Rasun.1 % of an essential oil containing allyl-propyl-disulphide. Guj : Lasan.06-0. on distillation. phospholipids. fat 0. in skin diseases. rickettsia. an ingredient of 'Seer (Lahsan)'. takes 4-5 months to mature. moderately clayey loam is best suited for cultivation. allinase. Vernacular names Asm : Naharu. effective in rheumatism. glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin.3 mg/100 g. anticancer. Chemical contents: Garlic: protein 6. Rason. a mixture of this plant. alliin (nonvolatile sulpher amino acid).3%. Ca 0.1 %. hydrocarbons. Sanskrit names: Arishta. sativin I & II. the juice is used as a rubifacient. pain in the chest. Inhalation of fresh garlic juice: useful in pulmonary tuberculosis. it is rotated with ragi. lupus and duodenal ulcer. HOMOEOPATHY: Mother tincture. requires a cool. in external application. moist period during growth and a relatively dry period during maturing of the crop. antiinflammatory. bronchitis. anthocyanins. psoas. Lashuna. Lashun.
spleen disorder. strangury. Modern use: Aloe: in menstrual diseases. useful in eye diseases. asthma. nervous imbalance. Aloe compound: in treatment of women sterility. Flowers: anthelmintic. sterility in women. Leaf-mucilage: mild laxative. Mucilage: painful inflammation. Trade names: Ghritakumari. fever. Sanskrit name: Ghritakumari. piles. Curacas aloe. stomach pain. aloe-emodin and resins. Aloe mixture with other plant extracts: for treating obstruction of lymphatic system. propagated by suckers. Hin : Ghee kunvar. tumours. vomiting. also cultivated in pots and gardens. biliousness. Jafarabad aloe. Adulterant: Aloe candelabrum Berger is used as substitute for Aloe barbadensis Miller. many varieties are found in a semi-wild state in all parts of India. Distribution: A native of North Africa. skin diseases. bitter. Canary Islands and Spain. Guj : Kumarpathu. tonic. cooling. naturalised in India. Kunvar. AYURVEDA: alternative. Indian aloe. anthelmintic.Aloe barbadensis English names: Barbados aloe. high fever. tonic after pregnancy. Chemical contents: Plant: aloin. Traditional use: TRIBAL: Leaf-pulp: in liver troubles. liver troubles. jaundice. Pulp: menstrual suppressions. Ecology and cultivation: Xerophyte. Ghee kunvar. purgative. uterine disorders. rheumatism. . gonorrhoea. Vernacular names: Asm : Chalkunwari. to cure hardening of breast tissues. Root: colic pain. leprosy. Ben: Ghritakumari. dysmenorrhoea. enlargement of spleen. in insect stings. sweet. ulcer. jaundice.
gout. Chemical contents: Root and Root-bark: echitamine chloride. nareline. betulin. ragging fever. Vishamachhda. . venenata R. and some other diseases. lupeol-OAc. two isomeric lactones. respiratory troubles. akuammidine. (iii) Flower: asthma. tetrahydroalstonine. phenolic acids. campesterol. palmitic acid. hiccup. Plant: used in the treatment of leprosy. Dita bark. Distribution: Throughout moist regions of India. akuammigine. Ecology and cultivation: Also grown as an ornamental. Vernacular names: Asm : Chatiar. -akummicine. -sitosterol. pyorrhoea. flavonoids. Saptaparni. sores. anaemia. Twig: hung in the room of the newly confined woman to lessen the activities of evil spirit on the new born. also found in Bangladesh and Pakistan. A YURVEDA : the following uses are recommended: (i) Bark: dermal so"res. Trade names: Chatiyan. in the Himalaya it ascends up to 1000 m. febrifuge and astringent.Alstonia scholaris English names: Devil's tree. especially in West Coast forests. Sarada. Ayugmaparna. -sitosterol. Leaf: picrinine. echitamidine. Stem-bark: hydrochloride of echitamine. n-hexacosane. lupeol. -amyrin. picralinal. cold congestion. Kan : Saptaparna. scholaris. Flower: picrinine. Vishalalvaka. amyrin. Planted in the gardens. stigmasterol. strictamine. discharge of sperm with urine. alkamicine-its Nb-oxide and Nb-metttiodide. Adulterants: Alstonia macrophylla Wall. Hin : Chatian. SaIni chatian. are used as substitute for A. a glyceride of venotarpine. Shaitan wood. pimple. tubotaiwine. Modern use: Bark: known in commerce as Dita bark and is used in medicine as bitter. Traditional use: Bark: in colic pain. sterols. Br. Saptaparna. diarrhoea and in snake bite. Latex: caoutchouc and resins. dyspepsia. chronic dysentery. indigestion. ATHARVA VEDA: preventive and curative of diseases caused by change of season. and A. Sanskrit names: Saptaparni. scholarine. ursolic acid. Ben: Chhatim. Nb-di-Meechitamine. (ii) Latex: caries. insufficiency in breast milk. general debility and other stomach ailments. in treatment of malarial fever. Milky juice: applied to ulcers. good for headache. HOMOEOPATHY: Malarial fever. ursolic acid.
Ecology and cultivation: Introduced. HOMOEOPATHY : for boils.Anacardium occidentale English name: Cashew nut. corns. . sexual debility. Cashew shell: yields gum. Hin. especially towards the coast. Defatted nutshell: naringenin. used in folk medicine for treatment of hookworm. Trade names: Cashew nut. prunin-6"-O-p-coumarate. caffeic acid. Chemical contents: Bark: exudes gum. Liquid-free nutshell: syringic and gallic acids. nervous prostration following seminal emission. quinic acid. naturalised in the hotter sea-shores of India. Pakistan. morning sickness in pregnancy. used sometimes in case of leprosy. galocatechin. Ben: Hijli badam. Traditional use: Cashew nut shell-oil: mild purgative. gallic acid. very occasionally ascending up to 1200 m. Modern use: Cashew nut: used in mental derangement. Vernacular names: Asm : Kaju badam. Kaju. Liquor made from fruit: diuretic. Flower: polyphenols. Cashew apple liquor: vitamin C. Kernel: good for week patients suffering from I incessant and chronic vomiting. Kaju badam. grows in plains. Reddish brown testa: Dcatechin. Bangladesh and Malaysia. warts. Kernel-oil: antidote for irritant poisons. loss of memory as a sequel to small pox. rheumatic percarditis. bioflavone. Mar and Pun: Kaju. wounds and different types of cracks in legs. palpitation of heart. being extensively planted by clearing scrub jungles in the plains. polyphenols. oil and liquid (CNSL). cracks on soles of feet. Distribution: Native to tropical America. leporus sores. Guj. warts. vitamin E.
Kirayat. throat. household medicine known as 'Kalmegh'. diabetes.Andrographis paniculata English names: The great king of bitters. Chemical contents: Plant: kalmeghin. mind. urine. Vernacular names: Ass: Sirata Ben: Kalmegh. tongue. consumption. . febrifuge. Modern use: Drug constitute stem. bitterness is due to nonbasic principle. HOEMOEPATHY: used for treatment of different ailments of head. anthelmintic. Sanskrit names: Bhunimba. influenza. all South East Asian and SAARC countries. leaf and inflorescence: as a tonic and in the treatment of fevers. Decoction: used for sluggishness of liver and in jaundice. Traditional use: Plant:. abdomen. eyes. it is reported that it has some antityphoid and antibiotic activity. Pakistan. dysentery and also beneficial to liver and digestive ailments. Cultivated as an ornamental. bronchitis. itches and piles. and is a substitute for quinine. alterative. bitter principle andrographolide. Bangladesh. Trade names: Kalmegh. stool. useful in debility. made from leaves. Distribution: Throughout India in the plains and hills. in Bengal. Kirata. nose. anodyne. Adulterants: It is used as adulterants for Chirata. Hin: Kirayat. mouth. fever and other modalities. worms. the creat. Guj : Kariyatu. Ecology and cultivation: Common in stony lines in forests and in wastelands. is given to the children suffering from stomach complaints.
Gua. Aqueous extract of nut: exhibits vascoconstriction and adrenalin p. in treatment of worms. Sri Lanka. Supari. Supari. dysentery. small pox and for fractured bones. TRIBALS also use this plant in rhagadas. light and sandy soil are not suitable for it. it being a good source of fluoride prevents tooth decay. syphilis. There are over 150 trade types. It is a shade-loving plant. Ben: Supari. . AYURVEDA : various preparations of unripe and ripe nuts are useful in toothache. if properly irrigated. Areca nut. Bangladesh. gum diseases. Ecology and cultivation: This palm requires a moist tropical climate with heavy (500 cm/year) rainfall provided with good drainage. Guj : Supaari. beneficial in the diseases caused by phlegm. The betel nuts are sown in October/November with a distance of 10-15 em between two nuts. an ointment for chancre and syphilis is made by pestling areca nut with the root of Gymnema hirsutus. are substitutes for Areca catechu L. arecaidine.Qtentiation in rats. Distribution: Cultivated in the coastal regions of India. sesame oil in which extract of unripe fruit has been boiled should be used. guvacine and isoguvacine. The second transplantation takes place when the first have come into bearing. It grows on a variety of soils. but constant use might cause oral carcinoma. pyorrhea. In a fully planted grove. a distance of about 2 m each way is kept between the betel nut tree. and Areca nagensis Griff. Extract of leaf and fruit: spasmogenic. It is generally cultivated as a mixed crop with coconut and plantain or along with Erythrina indica. Myanmar and other tropical and subtropical countries. a mixture for biliary colic is prepared with areca nut as a constituent. Extract of unripe fruit: useful in small pox.Areca catechu English names: Areca palm. occasionally after 3 or 4 years. Traditional use: A patient of small pox is given to eat the areca nut when the pustules subside. leaf of Piper betel and then cooking the same in mustard oil or butter. shows antimicrobial activities. but overuse of this may distort voice of a man. especially in the earlier stages and is very sensitive to drought. Trade names: Areca nut. venereal sores. Transplantation is done in July in the highlands and from February to April in lowlands. Pinang palm. Betel nut. Hin : Kasaili. Chemical contents: Nut: alkaloids-arecoline. Adulterants: Fruits of Areca triandra Roxb. but saline or alkaline soil. Fruit: useful in the diseases caused by bile. Betel nut. while extract of young leaf mixed with mustard oil is useful as liniment in rheumatism. Paste of unripe fruit: may be used as liniment. Vernacular names: Asm : Tambul. Pakistan. Transplanting is normally done after two years. It can be grown in drier areas (rainfall 50 cm/year). cholera. but slightly saline sandy soil is good. Modern use: Nut: chewing facilitates salivation.
Shatamuli. Ben: Shatamuli. Traditional use: SOME TRIBES OF INDIA: Root: refrigerant. azoospermea.Asparagus racemosus English name: Asparagus. diuretic. alterative and galactogogue. Guj : Satawari. Chemical contents: Leaf: quercetin-3-glucoronide. stigmasterol-B-D-glucoside. . cultivated as ornamentals. Modern use: Root: used as demulcent. Ecology and cultivation: Common in scrub jungles and in forests. Sanskrit names: Shatavari. urinary calculi. in impotency. Trade names: Shatamuli. Powder of root (boiled with milk) : for treatment of night blindness. antidysenteric. sito-sterol D-glucoside. rub the root of the plant in different diseases of urinary organs. aphrodisiac. Distribution: Throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the country. Shatamuli. Vernacular names: Asm : Shatamul. Sada bori. powder boiled with milk and sugar has been used in different types of neurological disorders. sitosterol. sarsasapogenin. Hin : Shakakul. . two sirostanolic and two furostandic saponins. used for the treatment of colon syndrome. AYURVEDA : useful in different types of cardiac abnormality. beneficial for intelligence as well as on memory modulatory. Satwar. stigmasterol. antiseptic. Asparagus. Powder of leaf: enhances breast milk. roots form a constituent of medicinal oils used for nervous and rheumatic complaints.
it has been proved to be tranquilizer. Plant-juice: good for epilepsy. diabetes. Plant: poison-killer. Traditional use: ATHARVA VEDA: strengthens body. sugar and bark extract of Moringa oleifera) : to children in stomach disorder. Vernacular names: Ass: Barmi shak. nicotine. on the banks of ponds and canals. saponin. diuretic. Trade name: Brahmi. anxiety neurosis. in nervous weakness. luteoline and its glucosides. improves quality of semen. invigorating. Plant: bitter. sitosterol. anticancer. betulinic acid. Chemical contents: Plant: Becoside A & B. Bangladesh. . life sustaining. musculature relaxant. Leaves (fried in ghee) : as a brain tonic. betulic acid. antispasmodic. stigmastanol. for anaemia. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. rat and dog. dermatitis. in the crop fields. Distribution: Marshes throughout India. blood-purifier. UNANI: invigorating and good for cold and cough. Powdered dried leaf: satisfactory results obtained in man in cases of asthenia. ascending up to 1300 m. and other low adynamic conditions. increases memory and lifespan. Sanskrit names: Brahmi. Modern use: Plant-extract: In experiments with mice. Plant-extract: used in purification of blood.Bacopa monnieri English name: Thyme leaved gratiola. hersaponin. Nira brahmi. Ecology and cultivation: Grows in damp or marshy areas. filaria. monnierin. Hin : Barambhi. nervous breakdown. stigmasterol. Brahmi. hysteria. Plant-juice (along with ginger. and to sharpen dull memory. insanity. epilepsy. invigorates sex. Safed chammi. d-mannitol.
Alcohol extract of bark : inhibitory against E. coriopsin. piles. palastrin. fever. tumours and dropsy. sex stimulant. finely powdered along with Acorus calamus rhizome or mixed with juice of Cyperus rotundus rhizome: cures delirium. Hin : Dhak. GARHWALI: Leaf: in boil. FlolYer: effective in leprosy. sulphurein. gastroenteritis. glucosides. useful in intestinal worms. Ecology and cultivation: Mesophyte. Vernacular names: Asm and Ben: Palash. Seed: effective against intestinal worms. gastroenteritis and menorrhagia. dysentery. useful in elephantiasis. dysentery. Seed: useful against intestinal worms. Distribution: Plains of India. Parrot tree. Seed: as vermifuge. useful in gastroenteritis. Seed and Kernel: in Palac Modern use: Plant (alcoholic extract: produces persistent vasodepression in cats. Flower: diuretic. coli and Micrococcus pyogenes var. gout. pimples. ascending up to 1300 m. Hot alcoholic extract: anti-implantation and antiovulatory in animals. Root (bark) : aphrodisiac. Chemical contents: Plant: flavonoids. Flower: butrin. TRIBES OF VARANASI (Uttar Pradesh) : Leaf: in boils. Saline extract: agglutinates erythrocytes of animals. Myanmar. Dhak. sex stimulant. Gum: astringent. EtOH (50%) extract of leaf: spasmogenic. Extract (in vitro) : anthelmintic against Asacridia galli worms. Seed: palasonin. Flower: in diarrhoea. menorrhagia. TRIBES OF MIRZAPUR (Uttar Pradesh) : Bark: in dysentery. aureus. BHOXA: Bark: in bone fracture. wounds in mouth/throat. Guj : Khakar. ulcers. TRIBES OF PURULIA (West Bengal) : Seed: in ascaris. useful in diseases caused by vayu (wind). Seed: as cooling agent. tuberculosis. Gum: solution applied to check conception. Seed (freshly powdered) : effective against Ascaris. TRIBES OF SANTAL PARGANAS (Bihar) : Root: in tuberculosis. analgesic. Seed oil: d-Iactone of nheneicosanoic acid. THARU: Gum: as diuretic. pimples. butrin. TRIBES OF MA YURBHANJA (Orissa) : Seed: as contraceptive. Traditional use: KHASI and GARO : Leaf: in delirium. Gum: in diarrhoea. applied in sprue. wild. dyspepsia. indigestion. Alcoholic extract: antiestrogenic in mice. helps menstruation. Gum: in piles. beneficial to children and women. A YURVEDA : Bark: useful against snake venom. chalcones. wounds.Butea monosperma English names: Flame of the forest. Leaf: astringent. inflammation. butin. Trade names Palasha. monospermine. isobutrin. . Seed: as anthelmintic. Flower-juice: used in preparation of the medicine Murukkam. BHAT: Seed: as abortifacient. monospermoside. Bark: insecticide against house flies. Sanskrit name Palasha. shows activity against earthworms. Stem-extract: useful in leprosy. Aqueous extract: anti-implantation in rats. piles. anthelmintic. along with Hygrophila auriculata leaf and root taken with milk to cure leucorrhoea. TRIBES OF SIWALIK (Uttar Pradesh) : Gum: as tonic. piles. urinary complaints. Extract of stem: beneficial for sperms and helps securing conception. new phytolectin.
Old maid. alstonine. vinamidine. tetrahydroalstonine. in wastelands. oleanolic acid. Bangladesh and Pakistan.Catharanthus roseus English names: Madagascar periwinkle. (ii) Seed-powder (with decoction of black pepper) : in epilepsy. lochnerine. fallow fields. catharanthine. ursolic acid. (iii) Leaf-juice: in blood dysentery. Root: vinblastine or vinleukoblastine (VLB). Modern use: Plant-extract: antimitotic.. Vernacular names: Ass: Nayantara Ben: Nayantara. commonly grown in gardens throughout India. ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF EAST GODAVARI DISTRICT: Root: in cancerous wounds. roseoside. Root (alkaloids) : in cancer. (ii ) Leaf: in menorrhagia. Distribution: A native of West Indies. Leaf: leurosine. Chemical contents : Root-bark: vincaline I & II. ajmalicine. essential oil. vincoline. less on the hills 8001400 m. Red periwinkle. vincristine or vinleurocristine (VCR). sedative and antiviral. vincubine. vindoline. tabersonine. diabetes. Stem: vinca rodine. Trade name: Nayantara.leurocolombine. vincedicine. SANTAL : (i) Latex: in scabies. and as emetic. Traditional use: BODO: (i) Plant: in cancer. LODHA : (i) Rootpaste: in septic wounds. vincathicine. (iv) Leaf-decoction: to babies in gripping pain. hypotensive. (ii) Root-decoction (with paste of long peppers) : in fever. . Hin : Sada sawagon. also widely cultivated. Seed: vincedine. Ecology and cultivation: Plains from the coasts.
Ecology and cultivation: Tropical plant. Traditional use: ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH AND ASSAM: Rhizome: in migrain. liver complaints. KUMAONI : Rhizome: in cough. chronic scabies. filaria. EtOH (50%) extract of rhizome: antiprotozoal. YAJURVEDA : Rhizome: is a blood-purifier. (iii) Bulb: in drying up of lactation. Central Nervous System depressant. CHARAKA SAMHITA : laxative. Ben: Halud. Vitafix -useful in premature ejaculation. wounds. ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF KURUKSHETRA (Haryana) : Rhizome: in body pain. Modern use: Rhizome: ingredient of 'Geriforte'-effective in senile pruritis. TRIBES OF ARAKU VALLEY (Andhra Pradesh) : Rhizome: as anthelmintic. Sanskrit name: Haridra. fever. headache. intestinal worms. spleen consumption. Rhizome: ingredient of Kappu mancal. insect stings. bronchitis. cough and cold. insect repellent against houseflies. sprain. infantile atrophy. Kan : Arisina Trade name: Haldi. leprosy. SANTALS : (i) Rhizome: in hazy vision. stammering. ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF RANCHI and HAZARIBAGH(Bihar): (i) Leaf: in cold. . insecticide. GARHWALI: Rhizome: in pimples and feckles on face. night blindness. daily consumption of 1 gm raw rhizome helps to fight decaying metabolism and thus prevents cancer. Distribution: Indigenous to Paresnath (Bihar). indigestion. Sri Lanka. AYURVEDA : Rhizome: effective against bacterial infection. widely cultivated in West Bengal and other parts of India. Vernacular names: Asm : Holodhi... Basli rog (pain similar to rheumatism). asthma. (ii) Extract of Rhizome: in rhagades. antibacterial. Rhizome: improves body complexion and apetite. subnormal temperature after fever. improves body complexion. puerperal fever. spasmolytic. lock-jaw. Rosbi (stealth convulsions with indistinct speech). sores in throat. prolapsus ani and fistula ani. useful in leprosyand against contaminuos microbes. hypotensive. wounds. thirst due to phlegm. against leeches. . allergic reactions. sores and curbuncles. anti-inflammatory. SUSHRUTA SAMHITA : digestive. boils.minor ingredient of a drug for malarial fever. Manchal. antifungal. Bangladesh. Hin : Haldi. Chemical contents: Essential oil from rhizome: curcumin. skin diseases. antifungal. syphilis. (iv) Flower: in cholera. cultivated throughout the tropics. Guj : Halada. pneumonia. (v) Dried Flower: in icterus. conjuctivitis. rheumatism due to draught. inflammation of eye.Curcuma longa English name: Turmeric. Essential oil from rhizome: antiarthritic. wounds.
on and around the wound caused by spider bite helps in removing the poison. TRIBES OF TlRAP (Arunachal Pradesh) : Leaf: in dysentery. Central and South India. Wood: betulinic acid. combats weakness. and as a cough syrup. Hin : Chalta. flavonoids. n-hentriacontanol. glucosides. Chemical contents: Stem-bark: betulin. phlegm. MIKIR (Assam) : Fruit: eat to combat weakness. sitosterol. astringent. SUSHRUTA SAMHITA : fruit cardiotonic. Ben: Chalta. dillentin. AYURVEDA: (i) Root (bark extrac_: in food poisoning. MATSYA PURANA : decoction of this plant can be used as universal antidote for poison. TRIBES OF ABUJH MARH RESERVE AREA (Madhya Pradesh) : Fruit: as tonic. Orissa. phlegm. acidic. Seed-extract: antimicrobial. TRIBES OFTEJPUR (Assam) : Plant: in fever. dihydroisorhamnetin. (iv) Fruit-juice : mixed with sugar and water serves as a cooling beverage in fever. B-sitosterol. chronic progredient sores and carbuncle. and as a prophylactic at the cholera season. hot. acidic. Bharija. Sanskrit names: Bhavya. lupeol. containing stem extract. Bihar. and checks loss of hair. astringent. but the ripe fruit is sweet. Vernacular names: Asm : Chalita. Trade name: Chalta. West Bengal. tasteful. Arunachal Pradesh. occasionally grown in gardens. Manipur. cycloartenone. Sri Lanka. removes bile. betulinic acid. RAJANIGHANTU: green fruit is acidic. (ii) Stem-bark: component of medicine for sores caused by mercury poisoning. CHARAKA SAMHITA : the fruit is sweet. increases quantity of semen. appetising and beneficial in colic associated with mucous. betulic acid. Traditional use: MANIPURI : Fruit decoction: for curing dandruff and checking falling of hairs. betulinaldehyde. (iii) Young bark and Leaf: astringent. myricetin. AGNI PURANA : spraying water. pungent. Leaf: betulinic acid. fetid and flatulence. Bangladesh. Modern use: Leaf (50% EtOH extract) : shows antiamphetamine activity. Tripura. external application helps supuration of boil. an ingredient of a medicine for burning sensation in the chest. galactogogue. phlegm. and its unsaponifiable matter antibacterial. sour. AYURVEDA : an important plant. Seed-oil: antifungal. Nepal. UPAVARHANA SAMHITA : the plant is aphrodisiac and prpmotes virility. removes wind. (ii) Root-bark(paste): along with leafpaste applied externally in sprains. Distribution: Sub-Himalayan tract from Garhwal to Assam. (iii) Mucilage: on wounds of burns. removes bile.Dillenia indica English name: Dillenia. -sitosterol. Fruit: an arabinogalactan. TRIBES OF EAST GODAVARI (Andhra Pradesh) : Fleshy calyx: in stomach disorders. . Bsitosterol. Guj : Karambel. Qutenga. SANTAL : (i) Root: as prophylactic at the cholera season. fit. Ecology and cultivation: Plant of tropical forest. flavonoids. lupeol. (v) Ripe fruit-juice: removes flatulence. fetid and flatulence.
Amlaki. Bark: on burn. Traditional use: Fruit: antiemitic. a constituent of the medicine SG-1-Switradilepa used against vitiligo. urinary trouble. oedema and is rejuvenating. 3-0-gallated prodelphinidin and tannin. Bangladesh. wounds. D-glucosyl. palania ghao). lupeol. (iv) Infusion of green fruit: in gripe. Leaf: against cold.Emblica officinalis English name: Emblica myrobalan. Nellikka. KHASI and JAINTIA : Fruit: in eye complaint. Amlaka. (ij) Fruit: in constipation. sitosterol. D-mannosyl. ascending up to 1500 m. vomiting. Aqueous extract of fruit: increases cardiac glycogen level and decreases serum GOT. Hin : Amla. predominantly wild. riboflavine. dysentery. nason ghao. MANIPURI: (i) Boiled extract of leaf: in controlling high blood sugar. Pakistan. and of an antibiotic drug Septilin. pachiari ghao. sores (agya ghao. Amlaki. antioxidant. conjunctivitis and dysentery. Fruit: in bronchitis. blood diseases and also as brain and nerve tonic. D-galacturoniaacid. biliary colic. carminative. Fruit-juice: (i) mixed with turmeric powder and honey: cures diabetes insipidus. Fruit: used to revive taste. fistula. . myoinositol. Amritaphala. used in fever. SANTAL: (i) Leaf: in anaemia. Ecology and cultivation: Plant of tropical climate. Modern use: Fruit: pronounced expectorant. hiccup. Trade name: Amla. GPT and LDH in rats. leucorrhoea. (iv) Crushed fruit with fruit of Terminalia citrin a and Terminalia belerica macerated in a tumbler of water in the evening: a very good stomachic and tonic. bleeding gum. the fruit is appetising. (ii) in ghee: used for abdominal and glandular tumours. in diabetes. stomachic. fruit-juice and dried fruit are used to prepare a medicine named Nelli. Fruit: vitamin C. stomach complaint. cultivated in Uttar Pradesh. liver complaint. diarrhoea. procyanidin. madness. D-xylosyl. useful in constipation and flatulence. AYURVEDA : Fruit is useful in acidity. oleanolic acid. L-rhamnosyl. piles. rokoc ghao). sores (bonga khoda. indigestion. D-arabinosyl. Seed: in asthma. dysentery. Aon. Fruit: in constipation. (v) Ripe fruit: in cystitis and diarrhea. Sanskrit names: Adiphala. cooling and light. carotene. Ben: Amla. Madhya Pradesh. \Fruit: in eye complaint. Aonala. fever. SIOOHA : Root-bark. Stem-bark: lelucodel-phinidin. gravel. Fruit: laxative. D-glucose. Vernacular names: Asm : Amluki. . D-fructose. headache. (ii) Juice of fresh fruit and (ii) Infusion of seed: in inflammation of eyes. nicotinic acid. and as diuretic. ETHNIC COMMUNIES OF TIRAP (Arunachal Pradesh) : Fruit: in diabetes. antiemetic and removes fatigue. beneficial in burning sensation caused by deranged bile. Distribution: Common in the mixed deciduous forests of India. fatty acids. phyllemblic acid. (ii) Stem-bark: in cholera. profuse diarrhoea (haga sitka) . Fruit: in constipation. Chemical contents: Root: ellagic acid. D-galactosyl. Fruit: against thirst. cooling. Guj : Amali. NAGA: Fruit: in eye complaint. Stem and Leaf: lupeol. EtOH (50%) extract of fruit: antiviral. vomiting. indigestion. oleanolic aldehyde. mucic acid. Hatha. often cultivated in gardens and homeyards. anticancerous. Dhatri. (i) Fruit: in cough. (iii) Powder of male inflorescence: in nasal haemorrhage. urticaria.
bronchitis. hentriacontanol. Vataha. hyperdisia and stomachalgia. Sharubhadra. dropsy. Vidarini. leaves . ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF DEHRA DUN (Uttar Pradesh): Leaf-paste: on wounds. sour. Bark: in stomach disorder. bitter. stem-bark whitish grey. Bark: bitter. Stem: arboreok. leucorrhoea. fever. seeds hard. gonorrhoea. Guj : Shewan. simple. many-flowered. cholera. SORA (Orissa) : Root: in catarrh of bladder. trichogenous. cluytyl ferulate. gmelanone. bitter. hypoglycaemic. galactogogue. White teak. Vernacular names: Asm : Gomari. astringent. Kakodumbari. ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF ARAKU VALLEY (Andhra Pradesh) : Root: in malarial fever. AYURVEDA : Root: acrid. lignans. Decoction of root: as tonic. quercetin. tomentose at least when young. Coomb teak. blood dysentery. useful in dyspepsia. syphilis. Kassmari. Malay bush beech. . Phytography : Unarmed deciduous tree. hallucination. gummidiol. gmelinol. 15-20 m in height. dyspepsia. haemorrhoids. useful in skin diseases including leprosy. gmelinol. refrigerant. diuretic. Leaf: apigenin. stomachic. n-octacosanol. as antidote to snake bite and some other poisons. panicles terminal. Gambar. tonic. malnutrition of child and embryo. bitter. spleen complaints. glabrous above but stellately hairy beneath. Nandivriksha.5 cm long.0 cm. sitosterol. strangury and wounds. throat swelling. fever. Gambhari. sweet.5 by 15. SANTAL : in anasarca. lamina broadly ovate. Traditional use: MIKIR: Root: as blood purifier. Leaf-extract: good wash for foul ulcer. anthelmintic. Gamari. flowers bucciniform. drupes ±1. young branches covered with fine white soft hairs. usually 22. lignan hemiacetal. tonic. phthisis. Modern use: 50% EtOH extract of bark (and also of stem) : antiviral. Sanskrit names: Ashveta. Ben: Gamar. luteoHn. often 30 cm long. useful in anaemia. colic pain. stomachic. petioles ±7. lenticellate. bromoisoarboreol. tonic. alterant. MUNDA : Bark: to cure wounds. ±3. Flower: acrid. quercetogenin. small pox. hentriacontanol-I. more or less acuminate. Gambhari. leprosy. dyspepsia.8 cm 1000g. Subhadra. Hin: Gamari. Gamari. useful in burning sensation. sweet. Shriparni. Leaf: as carminative. fleshy. oblong. refrigerant. n-hentriacontanol-I. n-octacosanol. Khambheri. diarrhoea. Chemical contents: Root: ceryl alcohol. ovoid. Gumhar. Bahdraparni. orange-yellow when ripe. sore. Trade names: Gamar. Fruits: acrid. -sitosterol. Jugani chukur. aphrodisiac. rheumatism. asthma. astringent. Gandhari. -sitosterol. brownish yellow.opposite. gmelofuran. fever. epilepsy.7 cm long. Katphala.Gmelina arborea English names: Cashmeri tree. Leaf-paste: useful in cephalalgia. ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF GODAVARI (Andhra Pradesh) : Bark-paste: on bone fracture. laxative. constipation. BIRHORE : Leaf: in headache. sesquiterpene. Leaf: in cough. urticaria.
becoming yellow and finally scarlet or red. Lanyli. depurative. rejuvenating. . Tuberous root: for abortion. Kalikari. Garbhaghatini. sparingly branched. (i) Tuberous root: for abortion purpose. to facilitate childbirth. bitter. helminthiasis. solitary. alexiteric. Indo-China. digestive. stomachache and as tonic. Plant (50% EtOH extract) : spasmolytic. leaves sessile or nearly so. Tuber : as abortifacient. in intermittent fevers. rheumatism. insect bites. Flower: luterlin and its glucosides. gastrointestinal irritant. Ulatchandal. Root: in gout. (ii) Plant: in spleen complaints. Tuber: in gonorrhoea. flowers axillary. Leaf-juice: piscicide. Seed: colchicine. 2-0H-6MeO benzoic acid. Young leaf: cholidonic acid. opposite or 3-nately whorled. flatulence. Guj : Dudhiovachnay. inflammations. piles. wounds. Hin : Kalihari. capsules nearly 5 cm long. Kulhari. Vishalya. anthelmintic. expectorant. at first greenish. (ii) Leaf: in asthma. Distribution: Throughout tropical India ascending up to 2000 m on the hills. Ailni. dyspepsia. Varhvareli. Malaysia. Ben: Bishalanguli. Utatchandal. antipyretic. tip tendrillar. Tuber: for antifertility purpose. syphilis. Languli. purgative. tonic.Gloriosa superb English names: Malabar glory lily. nearly 10 cm. Kaliari. rootstock tuberous. acrid. Modern use: Root (aq. band t-Iumicolchicine. (iii) leaf-juice effective against lice. in promoting labour pain and expulsion of the placenta. naked. Sanskrit names: Agninukhi. N-formyl-de-Accolchicine. Chemical contents: Root: colchicine. Agnisikha. Vernacular names: Asm : Agnisikha. extract) : ecbolic in humans and other animals. lumicolchicine. thermogenic. wild. stomachic. Ecology and cultivation: Plains from the coast on thickets. highly poisonous. Root: in cholera. Glory lily. stem 3-6 m long. debility. Central Nervous System depressant. tumours. beneficial in vitiated conditions of kapha (phlegm) and vata (wind). emetic. haemorrhoids. AYURVEDA : (i) roots are abortifacient. b-sitosterol and its glucoside. Traditional use: ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF NORTH-EAST INDIA: Root: in gout. (ii) root-paste is effective against paralysis. Phytography : Herbaceous tendril climber. leprosy. snake bite.
stomachache. kurcholessine. Sangrahi. postnatal complaints. ETHNIC COMMUNITIES AROUND GUAHATI: Seed: as anthelmintic. holantosines A. spermatorrhoea.. bronchitis. verminosis. Karra. menorrhagia. also in Africa-mostly in drier regions. cold. epilepsy. Leaf: aminoglycosteroids. B. hypoglycaemic. Kuteswar. Chemical contents: Root-bark: holacetine. 7-a-OH-conessine. febrifuge. Kalingyava. stimulating. Sanskrit names: Girimallika. dihydroisoconessimine. diarrhoea. dry cough. Shakrapadapa. aphrodisiac. dysentery. holadysamine. in bronchitis. Kari. chameleon's bite. piles. Vernacular names: Asm : Dhurkhuri. colic. and to regulate menstruation. dysentery. blood and mucous in bowel excretion. Traditional use: MANIPURI : Bark (boiled extract) : in diarrhoea. haemorrhages. Kalinga(ka). haemorrhoides. intestinal worms. fever. Seed. useful in diarrhoea. rheumatism. bitter. . colic. holadysine. Pravrishya. diarrhoea. Kuda. Easter tree. Mallikapushpa. Dysentery rosebay. sometimes in private gardens. malaria. dysentery and wounds. Leaf: useful in boils. Katuja. Tellichery bark. aminodeoxyglycosteroids. kurchiphyllamine. Ben: Kurchi. Indrayava. 3a-aminoconan-5-ene. dysentery. Conessi bark. E & F. Guj : Dhowda. beneficial in asthma. Hin : Kurchi. Fruit: in anaemia. anthelmintic. gravel. expectorant. hematuria. holonamine. SANTAL : Root: in bite of dog or jackal. C & D. hepatopathy.. Ivory tree. holarosine A. dysentery. in leprosy.Holarrhena antidysenterica English names: Bitter oleander. ASUR (of Bihar) : Bark: in snake bite. Bark-powder: in abdominal and glandular tumours. Vatsika. haemorrhage after childbirth. Stem-bark: L-quebrachitol. febrifuge. Modern use: Bark (50% EtOH extract) : hypotensive. AYURVEDA: Bark and Seed: acrid. piles. Yavaphala. Flower: as appetiser and in intestinal worms. Katuka. Katuraj. urinary troubles. Vrikshaka. diarrhoea. kurchiphylline. Ecology and cultivation: Common in village surroundings. B. Indrajava. constip5ltion. anti protozoa. BODO (of Assam) : Bark: in diarrhoea. Ducikhuri. dropsy. skin diseases. spleen complaints. Bark. GARO : Bark and Leaf: in dysentery. bleeding from nose. MUNDA : Root and Leaf: in diarrhoea. kurchaline. astringent. carminative. Panduradruama. Bangladesh. Mahagandha. vomiting. fever. bronchitis! blood dysentery. fever. Karchi. Fruit (50% EtOH extract) : anticancer. Trade name: Kurchi. astringent. cholera. antiperiodic. intestinal worms. Seed: diarrhoea. Distribution: Major parts of India up to 1500 m in the Himalaya.
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