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Kian Cook 1/19/12 Mr.

Whisonant Chemistry Honors Block 5

Title: Diffusion of Gases Purpose: To determine the rates of diffusion of hydrochloric acid and ammonium hydroxide Materials: y y Concentrated HCL (aq) NH4OH (l)

Equipment: y y y y y y y y y y y Gloves Goggles Apron Expo markers Meter stick Cotton balls Glass tube Tube cleaner Calculator Beaker Stop watch

Variables: I.V.: Hydrochloric acid and ammonium hydroxide D.V.: The distance and time it took for the HCl and NH4OH to create a ring in the glass tube C: Constant temperature Balanced chemical equation of reaction: HCl (g) + Nh3 (g) Procedure: NH4Cl (s)

1. Wear safety clothing 2. Gather materials 3. Clean the glass tube with the tube cleaner 4. Gather two fresh cotton balls 5. Pour HCl on one and NH$OH on the other 6. Put the two cotton balls so they enclose the glass tube 7. Start the stop watch 8. Observe the tube until a whitish ring forms around the tube 9. Mark the ring with the expo marker 10. Stop the stopwatch 11. Measure the distance of the ring from both chemicals 12. Record data 13. Clean the tube 14. Repeat steps 1-11 3 times 15. Neutralize and clean the lab table 16. Discard gloves and chemicals properly 17. Put away materials Data: 1. 2. 3. 4. Distance (cm) traveled by NH3 Distance (cm) traveled by HCl Experimental ratio of NH3 distance to HCl Distance (NH3: HCl) 5. Theoretical ratio of NH3 rate to HCl rate (NH3: HCl) 6. The amount of error (Difference between the experimental ratio and the theoretical ratio) 7. The percent error (Amount of error divided by the theoretical ratio times 100) 2.17% 16.667% 9.42% .0217 .166667 .0942 3:2 3:2 3:2 Trial 1 35 23 1.52 Trial 2 35 21 1.6666 Average 35 22 1.5933

Calculations: Formulas: R =D/T % Error = (y-x)/y X 100 Theororetical ratio = square root o MmHcl/ MmNH Amount of Error: 3/2 35/23 = .0217 3/2 5/3 = .166667 Rate: 35/67 = 1.52 23/67 35/72 = 1.66666 21/72 Square root of 37.7/ 17.3 = 3:2 Percent Error: .0217 X 100 = 2.17% 5/3 .16667 X 100 = 16.6667 % 5/3

Analyze: Each of the chemicals diffused at a different rate due to the molar mass. The HCl weighs 37.7 grams while NH3 only weighs 17.3 grams. Thus the NH3 travels at a higher velocity then the HCl. The NH3 traveled at .5 cm/s while the HCl traveled at .32 cm/s.

Conclusion: Although there is a low percent error, most of the scientist operating this experiment failed due to tube length, gas quantity, and perhaps a leak in the tube. This experiment needs to be redone multiple times to ensure the accuracy of the data. The group in which I operated in failed to observe the ring all three times. On the other hand,

a neighboring group was successful two out of the three times. Next time, the group will obtain a smaller tube and apply more of the NH3 and HCl to the cotton balls.