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PVC-u Technical Specifications

Reference Issue Date: Version: Library: November 1997 001


1. INTRODUCTION .........................................................1 2. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 2.1 General ...........................................................2 2.2 Standards of Manufacture and Quality Control.....2 2.3 Pipe Dimensions...............................................3 2.4 Other Pipe Standards ........................................6 2.5 Metric and Imperial Sizes ..................................6 2.6 Pipe Length......................................................6 2.7 Pipe Colour ......................................................6 2.8 Pipe Marking Details .........................................7 2.9 Joint Descriptions .............................................8 3. APPLICATIONS ........................................................11 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF PVC-U PIPE 4.1 Potable Water.................................................12 4.2 Weather Resistance ........................................12 4.3 Properties of PVC-u ........................................12 4.4 Working Pressure and Pressure Ratings ............13 4.5 Temperature Derating......................................13 4.6 Flow Characteristics and Head Loss..................14 4.7 Thermal Expansion..........................................16 4.8 Chemical Resistance.......................................17 4.9 Lightweight.....................................................20 4.10 Electrical Characteristics..................................20 4.11 Notch Sensitivity.............................................20 4.12 Impermeability to Gas .....................................21 4.13 Electrolytic Reaction........................................21 4.14 Behaviour in Fire ............................................21 4.15 Abrasion Resistance........................................21 4.16 Impact Strength .............................................22 4.17 Biotic Resistance ............................................22 5. WORKING CHARACTERISTICS 5.1 General .........................................................22 5.2 Handling Storage and Transport .......................22 5.3 Shipping Information .......................................24 5.4 Hazardous Shipping Details .............................24 6. JOINTING 6.1 General .........................................................26 6.2 Cutting & Chamfering ......................................26 6.3 Solvent Cement Jointing..................................26 6.4 Ring Seal Jointing ...........................................29 6.5 Threaded Joints ..............................................31 6.6 Saddle Joints .................................................31 6.7 Flange Jointing ...............................................31 7. WATER HAMMER/PRESSURE SURGES. 7.1 General .........................................................33 8. PIPE 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 INSTALLATION General .........................................................34 Temperature...................................................34 Trench Excavation ...........................................34 Trench Widths ................................................34 Trench Depth - Depth of cover .........................34 Bedding .........................................................35 Sidefill, Backfill and Compaction ......................35 Test for suitability of soil Material for surrounding Buried PVC-u Pipe ........................36 8.9 Pipe Deformation............................................37 8.10 Contaminated Ground .....................................37 8.11 Pipe Bending Radii .........................................37 8.12 Trenchless Laying............................................38 8.13 Thrusting and Anchorage .................................38 8.14 Above Ground Installation ................................39 8.15 Thermal Movement Compensation-Expansion Requirements.................................................40 8.16 Vibration ........................................................41 8.17 Effects Of Sunlight ..........................................41 8.18 Protection After Installation..............................41 8.19 Pipeline Testing ..............................................41 8.20 Water Authorities Association Guidelines ...........44 8.21 Local Authority Regulations..............................44 8.22 Technical Services ..........................................44

APPENDICES 1. Quality Standards ...........................................45 2. Abbreviations..................................................47 3. Water Authorities Association Guidelines ...........48

The information provided in this Technical Specification is given in good faith by Dyka. It is intended as a guide to the design and installation of pipeline systems using DYKA pipe, fittings and related products. The user should check that the product is suitable for the application and purpose for which it is intended and ensure compliance with Health and Safety requirements. DYKA has a policy of continual improvement of products and practices and therefore reserves the right to change specifications contained in this guide without obligation. No part of this Technical Specification may be reproduced or copied in any form without the prior permission of Dyka.


A Group Tessenderlo Company

1. Introduction
Dyka have produced this PVC-u Technical Publication to assist engineers, pipeline operators and contractors in the design and installation of pressure pipelines. We believe this manual contains the best technical information available and according to our knowledge and research it is correct in all details. All information is provided in good faith and entirely without prejudice to Dyka. The use of unplasticised polyvinylchloride (PVC-u) is firmly established as the preferred material for pressure pipelines and water supply installations. Its many advantages over traditional materials have resulted in these being progressively substituted by PVC-u pipelines. Dyka are a leading manufacturer of plastic pipe systems and have pioneered many of the developments in production technology. This continuing development together with the introduction of the latest techniques and equipment ensures that Dyka products are produced to a high standard in excess of the exacting requirements of many European quality assurance organisations, including the BSI. Strict quality control through all stages of production is maintained by Dykas in house, BSI monitored laboratory. The production facility is certified to ISO9002/BS5750 (2). Dyka hold BSI kitemark licences and other approvals in relevant to the many products manufactured. Dyka are part of a European manufacturing group owned by Limburgse Vinyl Maatschapij NV (LVM), one of Europes largest PVC polymer producers. This provides Dyka with a guaranteed supply of the principle raw material at a competitive price. LVM are owned by the Belgium based multi-national company Tessenderlo Chemie NV.

2. Product Description
2.1 General
Plastics are synthetic macromolecular materials which, by processing acquire their specific functions. They are produced by chemical processes, the principle raw material being oil. The macromolecular structure of plastics is achieved by polymerisation of individual molecules or monomers into chain molecules that are between 1,000 and 100,000 times larger than those naturally occurring in water or salt. This macro molecular composition forms a spatial net-like structure with numerous internal chemical bonds. Plastics can be divided into two main groups. Thermoplastic materials which, upon heating, soften and melt and can be reheated and reformed. Thermosetting materials which soften and melt with the initial heating but then set permanently in their final shape. Polyvinylchloride or PVC-u is one of the most widely used thermoplastic materials, due to its flexibility of usage and competitive price. It is manufactured by the petrochemical industry who produce a dichloride from ethane and chloride and apply pyrolisis above 400C to cause splitting into vinylchloride and hydrochloric acid. The basic polymer is mixed with additives such as colour, filler, lubricants and stabilisers in accordance with a recipe determined by the properties of the finished product. The mix of compound is transported to either extruders or injection moulding machines to be converted into the end product. Dyka PVC-u pipe is a high quality pipe suitable for pressure pipeline systems for cold water services. It is available in imperial and metric dimensions that are produced in accordance with appropriate national and international standards. Dyka PVC-u pipe is supplied plain ended, with integral solvent weld socket or integral ring seal joint. Refer to section 6 of this catalogue for further jointing details.

2.2 Standards of Manufacture and Quality Control

Dyka produce PVC-u pressure pipe in accordance with all the principal European quality standards. All Dyka manufacturing facilities are accredited to either ISO 9001 or 9002 (EN 29001/2 1987, BS5750 Parts 1 and 2). This defines the quality management system under which the manufacturing and support departments operate. It provides the overall framework within which production of pipes to a particular specification, such as BS 3505, can take place. Dyka manufactured PVC-u products are specifically certified against the requirements of: WRC KIWA NV DS DVGW SMG DIN SECO See Appendix UK Holland Denmark Germany Germany Germany France 1 for full list of standards applicable to Dyka PVC-u pressure pipe.

Product Description
2.2.1 Production Standards
All imperial pressure pipe within the Dyka pipe system is manufactured in accordance with the requirements of BS 3505 specification for Unplasticised PVC pipe for cold water services 1986 - as amended. Dyka are permitted to affix the British Standards Institute Kitemark to these products under B.S.I. Licence numbers 8017 and 8018. Where specified Dyka, blue metric pipework is manufactured in accordance with the requirements of the water industry specification WIS 4.31.06. Unless otherwise specified, all Dyka, standard metric pipework is manufactured to the Dutch water industry standard KIWA 49 (revision 1). Dykapipe is certified to this standard by the KIWA quality organisation. Dyka have the capability to manufacture to a number of the European standards and in many cases hold quality approvals against these. Details of these and copies of all certificates are available on request.

2.2.2 Quality Control

All quality control testing for conformity with the various production standards is carried out by the Dyka in house laboratory. All laboratory operations are monitored by the British Standards Institute, The Dutch KIWA Quality Organisation and others.

2.3 Pipe Dimensions

2.3.1 Imperial BS3505
The pipe dimensions are expressed in imperial units that are designated by BS3505. Dykapipe has been fully tested and approved by the Water Research Council (Wrc) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) for use with potable water according to ISO 727. Figure 1 Table of dimensions of pipes to BS3505 Nominal Size Inch
1 3

Outside Diameter Tolerance 21.2/21.5 26.6/26.9 33.4/33.7 42.1/42.4 48.1/48.4 60.2/60.5 88.7/89.1

Class C Min/max

Wall thickness Class D Class E Min/max Min/max 1.7/2.1 1.9/2.5 2.2/2.7 2.2/2.7 2.5/3.0 2.7/3.2 3.1/3.7 3.9/4.5 5.7/6.6 7.3/8.4 9.0/10.4 10.8/12.5 12.6/14.5

Class 7 Min/max 3.7/4.3 3.9/4.5 4.5/5.2 4.8/5.5 5.1/5.9 5.5/6.3

2 4

1 1 4 112 2 3 4 5 6 8

2.5/3.0 3.5/4.1

3.1/3.7 4.6/5.3 6.0/6.9 7.3/8.4 8.8/10.2 10.3/11.9

114.1/114.5 4.5/5.2 140.0/140.4 5.5/6.4 168.0/168.5 6.6/7.6 218.8/219.4 7.8/9.0

Supplied as standard in 6 metre lengths in industrial dark grey colour.

Product Description
2.3.2 Metric KIWA BRL 502/02
A grey metric pipe system is available from Dyka, which is produced in accordance with the Dutch Water Authority Standard KIWA BRL 502/02. This standard is derived from the specifications issued by the International standards Organisation (ISO) references ISO 161/1 and ISO 4065. The Dyka production facility for this pipe system is registered by the Dutch Water Authority and the Dutch quality assurance body KIWA/NEN. All Dyka PVC-u pipe is approved by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for use with potable water. Figure 3 Table of dimensions of pipes to KIWA BRL 502/02

Outside Diameter Size mm 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 75 90 110 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630

Outside Diameter Tolerance 16.0/16.2 20.0/20.2 25.0/25.2 32.0/32.2 40.0/40.2 50.0/50.2 63.0/63.2 75.0/75.3 90.0/90.3

6.3 bar

7.5 bar

Wall thickness 10 bar 12.5 bar 1.5/1.9 1.5/1.9 1.5/1.9 1.6/2.0 1.9/2.3 1.5/1.9 1.5/1.9 2.4/2.9 2.4/2.9 3.0/3.5 3.0/3.5 3.6/4.2 4.3/5.0 5.3/6.1 6.0/6.8 7.7/8.7 9.6/10.8

16 bar 1.5/1.9 1.5/1.9 1.9/2.3 3.0/3.5 3.0/3.5 3.7/4.3 3.8/4.4 4.5/5.2 5.4/6.2 6.6/7.5 7.4/8.4 9.5/10.7 11.9/13.3

1.6/2.0 2.0/2.4 2.0/2.4 2.2/2.7

2.0/2.4 2.0/2.4 2.2/2.7 2.7/3.2 3.2/3.8 3.7/4.3 4.7/5.4 5.9/6.7 7.3/8.3 9.2/10.4

2.4/2.9 2.4/2.9 2.9/3.4 3.5/4.1 4.2/4.9 4.8/5.5 6.2/7.1 7.7/8.7 9.6/10.8 12.1/13.6

110.0/110.4 2.7/3.2 125.0/125.4 3.1/3.7 160.0/160.5 4.0/4.6 200.0/200.6 4.9/5.6 250.0/250.8 6.2/7.1 315.0/316.0 7.7/8.7 400.0/401.0 9.8/11.0

11.9/13.3 14.8/16.5 15.0/16.7 18.7/20.8 19.1/21.3 23.7/26.3 23.9/26.5 29.6/32.8

11.7/13.1 15.3/17.1

500.0/501.0 12.3/13.8 14.6/16.3 19.1/21.3 630.0/631.0 15.4/17.2 18.4/20.5 24.1/26.8

Supplied as standard in 5 metre lengths in grey colour.

Product Description
2.3.3 Metric DIN
A range of Dyka PVC-u pipes can also be supplied which conforms with German DIN standards. Figure 5 Table of dimensions of pipes to DIN Diameter mm 12 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 75 90 110 125 140 160 180 200 225 250 280 315 355 400 450 500 560 630 Nominal size (mm) 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 110 125 150 160 180 200 225 250 300 350 400 400 500 500 600 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.7 3.2 3.7 4.1 4.7 5.3 5.9 6.6 7.3 8.2 9.2 10.4 11.7 13.2 14.6 16.4 18.4 1.5 1.8 1.9 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.3 5.3 6.0 6.7 7.7 8.6 9.6 10.8 11.9 13.4 15.0 16.9 19.1 21.5 23.9 26.7 6 bar Wall thickness (mm) 10 bar 16 bar 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.9 2.4 3.0 3.7 4.7 5.6 6.7 8.2 9.3 10.4 11.9 13.4 14.9 16.7 18.6 20.8 23.4 26.3 29.7

Supplied as standard in 5 metre lengths in grey colour.

Product Description
2.4 Other Pipe Standards
In addition to the above Dyka will manufacture pipe to most European national standards on specific request. Please refer to the technical department of Dyka for details. Copies of all quality standards mentioned are available on application to Dyka.

2.5 Metric and Imperial Sizes

It is important to note that metric and imperial pipework are two distinct systems, they are not manufactured to compatible dimensions and cannot be interconnected without special adaptors. Dyka manufacture and supply metric to imperial adaptor couplings for both solvent cement and ring seal jointing.

2.6 Pipe Length

Imperial dimension pressure pipes and metric pipes to WIS 4.31.06 are supplied as standard in nominal lengths of 6 metres. All other metric dimension pipes are supplied in standard nominal lengths of 5 metres. The nominal pipe length is not the working length, as this depends on the jointing method being employed. Special lengths can be supplied to specific order providing the quantity constitutes a reasonable production run. Contact your distributor or the technical department of Dyka for further information.

2.7 Pipe Colour

All Dyka imperial and metric pressure pipes, with the exception of those in accordance with WIS 4.31.06 are manufactured in industrial grey (colour reference RAL 7011). WIS 4.31.06 pipework is blue colour coded for potable water (colour reference BS4901: 20 E54). Metric pipes to KIWA 49 can be supplied in natural PVC-u, cream colour. Pipework in other colours can be produced against specific requirements providing the quantity constitutes a reasonable production run. Contact your distributor or the technical department of Dyka for further information.

Product Description
2.8 Pipe Marking Details
The precise marking of Dyka PVC-u pipe is governed by various national and international standards, although to ensure traceability of pipes supplied the following information is usually included:

2.8.1 Imperial pipe marking

Description Manufacturers identification: Pipe material: The British Standard: Pressure rating: Size and dimensions: Production code: Fracture toughness: Example DYKA PVC-u BS3505:1986/BS4346 (mechanically jointed pipes) 12 bar 3"x04.6mm 2088 5757 3.75 n/mm2

The markings for different classes of pipe are colour coded as below and embossed into the pipe wall to avoid accidental erasure. Class Colour C Black D Green E Brown

2.8.2 Metric pipe marking

Metric pipe to WIS 4.31.06 (markings in white colour)

Description Water industry specification: Manufacturers identification: Nominal outside diameter: Pipe material: Nominal pressure: Production code: Example WIS 4.31.06 DYKA 200mm PVC-u 12.5 bar 21 88 23 7 B

Other metric pipe (markings in black colour)

Description Manufacturers identification: Production standard: Pressure rating: Dimensions: Production code: Example DYKA KIWA 1.25 MPA 63 x 3.0mm 21 88 23 7 B

Product Description
2.9 Joint Descriptions
All Dyka PVC-u pressure pipe systems employ one of three jointing methods as described below. For detailed jointing and installation instructions refer to section 6 of this guide.

2.9.1 Loose couplers

Plain ended, chamfered pipe is jointed using double socket loose couplers. These either incorporate ring seals or are for solvent weld (chemical) bonding. Jointing using loose couplers has the advantage that the nominal length of pipe supplied is exactly the working length. No meterage is lost in making the joint. However, as pipe has to be offered into each side of the coupler, two separate joints have to be made per length. This will increase installation costs. As a general rule the use of loose couplers is the most expensive method of jointing pipe, except on the very largest of diameters (400mm and over) where the saving in pipe meterage off-sets a good proportion of the coupling costs.

2.9.2 Integral solvent weld joint

One spigot end of a plain ended length of pipe is formed into a bell end. This allows the spigot end of the next length of pipe to be inserted for solvent weld (chemical) bonding. Only one joint has to be made per length. The effective length of a piece of pipe is reduced from its nominal length by the depth of the belled socket. Pipe incorporating this type of joint is generally the most competitively priced. However, installation is more time consuming than with a ring seal jointed system. Please refer to section 6 for detailed solvent weld jointing instructions.

2.9.3 Integral ring seal joint

One spigot of a plain ended length of pipe is formed into a bell end which incorporates a seat into which is set a synthetic rubber seal ring. Only one joint has to be made per length. The sealing ring may be of the "Forsheda" type for imperial and metric pipes. Metric pipes may also use the "Anger" or "Bode" type. All three types of ring seal are widely used and are approved by the WRC. The jointing method used on imperial pipes is to BS 4346 Part 2 and the seal material is to BS 2494. The effective length of a piece of pipe is reduced from its nominal length by the depth of the belled socket. Ring seal jointing is the quickest method of installation and so consequently has the lowest installation costs.

Product Description
Figure 6: Socket Insertion & Engagement Depth - Imperial & Metric Systems Socket depth Engagement depth

Figure 6a: Socket Insertion Depth - Imperial Systems to BS 3505 Socket insertion Depth (mm) Outside Diameter (inch) 1 114 112 2 3 4 5 6 8

Solvent Cement 35 40 45 55 75 90 100 125

Ring Seal

126 142 155 165 182 220

Figure 7: Socket Insertion and Engagement Depths. Metric Systems to WIS 4.31.06 Outside Diameter (mm) 63 90 110 160 200 250 315 400 450 500 630 Socket depth (mm) 130 147 160 187 212 239 256 285 Engagement depth (mm) 65 71 75 86 94 106 118 130

Product Description
Figure 8: Socket Insertion Depth - Metric Systems to KIWA 49 Standard Socket insertion Depth (mm) Outside Diameter (mm) 12 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 75 90 110 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 25 25 25 35 32 44 55 69 77 87 101 111 135 167 198 243 90 119 123 129 136 142 155 171 187 214 218


3. Applications
The Dykapipe PVC-u pressure pipe system is suitable for the transportation of potable water for industrial and domestic uses. Other major areas of application include:Agricultural irrigation Conveyance of processing fluids within industry Sewerage and industrial effluent disposal Conveyance of abrasive slurries Transportation of acids, alkalis and other corrosive chemicals (refer to section 4.8) Ground water transportation for land engineering Buried fire ringmain Conduit or duct for cables and fragile piping systems Venting systems Rigid PVC-u Dykapipe should not be used at ambient or liquid temperatures in excess of 60C for pressure systems. For other applications, please refer to the technical department of Dyka


4. Characteristics PVC-u Pipe

4.1 Potable Water
Dykapipe is manufactured to meet all of the requirements of BS 6920, BS 3505 and ISO 727, making it suitable for the supply of all cold water services including potable water. Dyka manufactured PVC-u pipe will not impart taint or taste to potable water and has been toxicologically approved by: The Department of the Environment - Committee on chemicals and materials of construction for use in public water supply and swimming pools (DOE - CCM) Wrc - Water byelaws advisory service KIWA - Attest World health organisation (WHO)

4.2 Weather Resistance

The pipe is protected against some of the harmful effects of sunlight by the use of opacifiers in the pipe formulation. Despite this Dykapipe should not be stored in direct sunlight for periods in excess of 1 to 2 months (see section 5.2 Handling, storage and transport). Refer to sections 9.17 and 9.18 for details on the protection of PVC-u pipe from long exposure to sunlight.

4.3 Properties of PVC-u

General Specific gravity: Opacity: Water absorption: 1.4g/mm3 less than 0.2% 0.12% in 24hrs @ 23C 50 N/mm2 66 Mpa 5kg cm/cm notch 3000 Mpa 12 - 15 0.35 70 - 110 Mpa 80 - 150% 3.75 n/mm2 1986) 1050 Ohms/cm3 30 kv/mm 0.02 at 800 Hz 3.4 at 800 Hz 150O - 180O C 0.06 mm/mk 0.16 w/mk 1050OC 80OC Self extinguishing

Ultimate tensile strength: Compressive strength: Impact - DIN 53453: Elastic modulus in bend: Brinell hardness @ 23OC: Poissons ratio: Flexural strength: Elongation at break @ 23OC: Fracture toughness in excess of: (against method C.3..1. BS 3505:

Volume resistivity: Breakdown voltage: Power factor: Dielectric constant:

Processing temperature Coefficient of thermal expansion: Thermal conductivity: Specific heat: Softening point: (BS 2782 method 120B) Flammability:

Characteristics PVC-u Pipe

4.4 Working Pressure and Pressure Ratings
The nominal working pressures given for Dyka PVC-u pipe are calculated to give continuous use over 50 years. In addition the excellent fatigue strength of PVC-u allows for reasonable intermittent surges and reductions in flow pressure to be accommodated. The maximum sustained working pressure for Dyka PVC-u pipe carrying water at 20C are: Head of Water Mt. ft 90 120 150 64 77 102 128 163 300 400 500 211 251 335 417 535

Class Imperial C D E Metric

Bar 9 12 15 6.3 7.5 10 12.5 16


psi 130 173 217 92 109 145 181 232

900 1200 1500 630 750 1000 1250 1600

4.5 Temperature Derating

The pressure characteristics of PVC-u pipe vary with temperature and hence great care must be exercised when installing Dykapipe in conditions where the internal or ambient temperature will exceed 50C. Temperatures up to 60C can be accommodated if a reduced pressure rating and service life are acceptable.

Figure 9


Cla ss E/1 6B ar



Cla ss 2.5 D1 Ba r

Where Dyka PVC-u pipe is to be subjected to temperatures between 20C and 60C the maximum working pressures must be derated to the values shown in Figures 9 and 10.







Ba r








Cla ss C1 0 r Ba

Characteristics PVC-u Pipe

Figure 10




















4.6 Flow Characteristics and Head Loss

In any pipeline a certain amount of fluid pressure will be lost or dissipated due to the effects of friction or disturbance of the fluid load against the internal pipe wall. These friction or head losses can be categorised into two areas. General head loss being the decrease in applied pressure due to the friction of the fluid load against the internal pipe wall and Point losses caused by the interruption of the smooth fluid flow by a fitting.

4.6.1 General Head Loss

The consistently smooth bore of Dyka PVC-u pipe means that very low flow resistance is experienced in the pipe. In addition the long term build up of accretion on the bore of the pipe is virtually nil because of its smooth walls and non-corrosive nature. This alleviates the need to increase pumping power over time as required in systems of more traditional materials. As a result of these efficient flow characteristics, economies can be achieved over traditional materials by the use of smaller diameters to give equivalent flow rates or by greater flow rates being achieved through PVC-u pipes of the same diameter. Any liquid will lose some pressure or head as it flows along the pipe and this must be accommodated in the design of the pipe system. Given any two of the three variables: head loss, pipe diameter or flow rate, the third unknown variable can be determined using figure 11.


Ft hd


Where fluctuating temperatures may be experienced (as may occur with hot effluent disposal applications), the pipeline design must accommodate both the de-rated working pressure and stress induced by pipeline expansion and contraction.

s Cla 16 sE r Ba
Cl sE as /1 2. 5 r Ba

Characteristics of PVC-u Pipe

Figure 11 Head Loss Nomogram


0.20 RATE OF FLOW (L/SEC) 0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.80 1 1.5 0.2 0.2 35 11/4"D 40 45 50 2"D 60 70 80 90 100 4"D 20 5"D 150 6"D 30 50 100 200 8"D 200 300 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2,000 3,000 5,000 10,000 20,000 30,000 50,000 100,000 500,000 300,000 1500 500,000 1,000,000 500 1,000 15 20 30 40 50 5 6 8 10 3 4 3"D 1 /2"D



0.01 /2"E /4"E 0.02 0.03



0.05 0.1 VELOCITY (M/SEC)

25 30 1"E

2 2.5 3 4

0.3 0.5

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 1 1.5 2 5 6 8 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 80 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 800 1,000

1 2 3 5 10


Characteristics PVC-u Pipe

The values given in figure 11 can be manually calculated for any given flow requirements and internal diameter using the adapted Colebrook-White formula shown below:

Q SD2.5

= - 6.61 log


K 3.71D

) (


(5.63 x 10-6) D Q

) }


Q is the discharge rate. D is the internal diameter of pipe.

S is piezometric gradient. K is pipe wall roughness factor.

Assuming that the temperature of the fluid is 20C and that it has a density of 1g per cm3. For the purposes of this calculation PVC-u pipe has a wall roughness factor (K) of 0.003 mm.


Point Loss

Changes in direction or abrupt changes in the internal diameter of a pipeline can give rise to the formation of eddies and other disruptive flow patterns. These can result in a head loss equivalent to a substantial length of straight pipe.
Figure 12
20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Equivalent straight length of pipe / m

40 16 32 50 63

90 110

140 160




Outside pipe diameter D / m

To simplify system design the graph in Figure 12 gives an equivalent straight meterage of pipe for various commonly used fittings. The pipe meterage calculated can then be added to the total meterage of straight pipe and the head loss determined by one calculation. For calculation purposes the following metric/imperial conversions can be used for the graph in Figure 12. Inch mm 2 16

1 32

114 40

112 50

2 63

3 4 5 6 8 10 12 90 110 140 160 200 215 315

4.7 Thermal Expansion

Expansion of PVC-u pipe as temperature rises can be significant. The expansion of Dyka PVC-u pipe,which is independent of pipe diameter, can be determined using the coefficient of linear expansion as in the following formula:

Change in = Original length Maximum occurring X 0.06 X length (mm) of pipeline (m) temperature difference (K)


Characteristics PVC-u Pipe

4.8 Chemical Resistance
Dyka PVC-u pipe has particularly good chemical resistance and can therefore be used to transport most aggressive liquids including many strong acids, alkalis and organic chemicals. Figure 13 outlines the resistance of Dyka PVC-u pipe to some common chemicals. The information is based on extensive tests by pipe manufacturers and other authorities on an international basis. This information is intended as a guide to the suitability of pipe and fittings for operations under various conditions. No guarantee can be given that actual results will be exactly as indicated. S = Satisfactory U = Unsatisfactory, due to decomposition, solution, swelling, loss of ductility, etc., of samples tested. D = Some attack or absorption. The material may be considered for use when alternative materials are unsatisfactory and where limited life is acceptable. When PVC-u is to be used with such chemicals, full scale trials under realistic conditions are particularly necessary. E = Environmental stressing hazard. * = Predicted results, using resistance data of PVC-u to other chemicals which have a similar composition.
Figure 13 Medium Acetaldehyde 100% Acetic acid Concentration 20C 60C 40%(w/v)soln. S U* U U 10%(v/v)soln. S S 60%(v/v) S D U U U U U* S* U* S S D U S* S S* S* S S* S S S S U U* S U U S* U* D S U U S* S S* S* S S* S S S S Medium Ammonium hydroxide, see ammonia solution Ammonium metaphosphate Ammonium nitrate Ammonium orthophosphates Ammonium oxalate Ammonium persulphate Ammonium sulphate Ammonium sulphide Ammonium thiocyanate Ammonium zinc chloride (zinc ammonium chloride) Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Aniline hydrochloride Aniline sulphate Animal oils Anthraquinone Anthraquinone sulphonic acid Antimony chloride Aqua regia** Aromatic hydrocarbons Arsenic acid (syrupy) Aryl sulphonic acids Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulphate Barium sulphide Beer Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzoyl chloride Concentration 20C 60C Medium Concentration 20C Benzyl acetate U Benzyl alcohol phenylcarbinol U* Bismuth carbonate S Borax, see disodium tetraborate Boric acid S Boron trifluoride S Brine S Bromine trace S 100% dry gas U* Liquid U Bromomethane (methyl bromide) U* Butadiene S Butane S Butanediols U Butanols (butyl alcohols) S Butyl acetate U Butyl chloride U* isoButyl methyl ketone U* (4-methylpentan-2-one) Butylphenols U Butyraldehyde U* Butyric acid 20% aq. soln. S conc. U Calcium carbonate S Calcium chlorate S Calcium chloride aq. soln. S Calcium hydrogen sulphite S* (calcium bisulphite) Calcium hydroxide S Calcium hypochlorite S Calcium nitrate S Calcium orthophosphates S* Calcium sulphate S Calcium sulphide S Carbon dioxide, gaseous S Carbon disulphide U Carbon monoxide S Carbon tetrachloride D Casein S* 60C U* U* S S S U U U U* S S U D U U* U* U U* U* U S S S S* S S S S* S S S S U S*

glacial Acetic anhydride (acetic acid anhydride) Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenetidine Acetophenone Adipic acid Aliphatic hydrocarbons Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Aluminium acetate Aluminium chloride Aluminium fluoride Aluminium hydroxide Aluminium nitrate Aluminium oxalate Aluminium oxychloride Aluminium potassium sulphate (alum) Aluminium sulphate Ammonia dry gas liquid Ammonia solution 35%(m/v)soln (ammonium hydroxide) (0.88g/ml) Ammonium bicarbonate see ammonium hydrogen carbonate Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride(liquid ammonia) Ammonium ferrous citrate Ammonium flouride Ammonium hydrogen carbonate

S S S* S* S S S S S* U S* U U U U S* S S S conc. U U 75%(m/m) or 2g/ml S S S* S* S S* S S trace U 100% U U D U*

S S S* S* S S S S S* U U U U U U S* U U S* U U D U S* S* S S* S U U U U U*

S S S* S S*

S S S* S S*


Characteristics PVC-u Pipe

Medium Castor oil Cetyl alcohol, see hexadecanol Chloral hydrate Chloric acid Chlorine, gas 10% dry Chlorine, gas 100% dry Chlorine, gas 10% moist Chlorine Chlorine trifluoride Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chloroethane (ethyl chloride) 2-Chloroethanol (ethylene chlorohydrin) Chloroform Chloromethane (methyl chloride) Chlorosulphuric acid Chromic acid plating soln. Chromic potassium sulphate (chrome alum) Cider Citric acid Copper** chloride Copper** cyanide Copper** flouride Copper** sulphate Creosote Cresols Cresylic acid Crotonaldehyde Cyclohexanol Cyclehexanone Decahydronaphthalene (decalin) Detergents (synthetic) diluted for use Developers (photographic) Dextrin Dextrose sat. soln. Diamyl ether Diazo salts Dibromethane (ethylene dibromide) Dibutyl phthalate Dichlorobenzene Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Dichloroethylene 1.2-Dichloropropane (propylene dichloride) Diethyl ether Diethyl Ketone Diethyl sulphate (ethyl sulphate) Digol (diethylene glycol) Dimethyl sulphate (methyl sulphate) Dimethylmine Dimethylcarboinol, see isoprpyl alcohol Dioctyl phthalate Dioxan Diphenyl ether Concentration 20C 60C S S S D D U sat. aq. soln. D U* S U U U U U D S S S* S S* S* S S U U U U U U U U U* U* D U U U U U U S S S S* S* S S U U U* U U U S S S* Medium Concentration 20C 60C Medium Concentration 20C 60C 12% (w/v) aq. soln. S 30% (w/v) aq. soln. S 90% (w/v) or greater U S S D soln. in potassium iodide U U U S S U S S U* U S U Disodium phosphate, see disodium hydrogen orthophosphate Dodecanoic acid (lauric acid) Dodecanol (lauryl alcohol) Emulsifiers All Emulsions (photographic) Ethane Ethanediol (ethylene glycol) Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) Ethylene glycol, see ethanediol Ethylene oxide (oxiran) Fatty acids Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferric sulphate Ferrous ammonium citrate, see ammonium ferrous citrate Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulphate Fixing solution (photographic) Fluorine Flourosilicic acid Formaldehyde Formic acid 40% (W/W) aq. soln. 3% aq. soln. 10% aq. soln. 25% aq. soln. 50% aq. soln. 98-100% S S S S S U S S S 100% U U* S S S D U U S S S U U S S* S* S S* S 95-100% S 40% (V/V) aq. soln. S U S S S S S S* S* S S D D U S S S S

Hydrogen sulphide Hydroquinone, see quinol Hydroxylammonium sulphate Hypochlorous acid Iodine

S* S* S U 40% aq. soln. S conc. S

S* S* S U S S

S S S S U* S U* U* U* S U U* U U U* U S* S S

S* S S S U* S U* U* U*

U U* U U U* U S* U S

U* U* U

U* U* U

Fructose Fruit juices Fuel oil Furfuraldehyde (furfural) Furfuryl alcohol Gallic acid, see 3, 4, 5trihydroxybenzoic acid Gasoline, see petrol Glucose Glycerol Glycerol monobenzyl ether Glycol, see ethandiol Glycollic acid 30% alc. soln. Grape sugar Heptane Hexadecanol (cetyl alcohol) Hexanol (hexyl alcohol) Hydrobromic acid 50% (w/v) aq. soln 100% (w/v) aq. soln. Hydrochloric acid 10% (w/v) aq. soln. 22% (w/v) aq. soln. concentrated (36%) Hydrocyanic acid 10% (w/v) aq. soln. Hydrofluoric acid 4% (w/v) aq. soln. 40% (w/v) aq. soln. 60% (w/v) aq. soln. concentrated Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide anhydrous Hydrogen chloride anhydrous Hydrogen flouride anhydrous Hydrogen peroxide 3% (w/v) aq. soln.

Iso-octane (2, 2, 4-trimethylbentane) Isophorone Isopropanol, see isopropyl alcohol Lactic acid 10% (w/v) aq. soln. 100% Lanoline Latex Lauric acid, see dodecanoic acid Lauryl alcohol, see dodecanol Lead acetate Lead arsenate Lead nitrate Lead tetraethyl, see tetraethyl acid Linoleic acid Linseed oil Lubricating oil Magnesium carbonate Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium nitrate Maleic acid 25% (w/v) aq. soln. 50% (w/v) aq. soln. concentrated Malic acid Magnesium sulphate Margarine Mercuric chloride Mercuric cyanide Mercurous nitrate Mercury Mesityl oxide Metallic soaps (water soluble) Methanol (methyl alcohol) 100% 6% (w/v) aq. soln. Methoxybutanol Methyl acetate Methyl bromide, see bromomethane Methyl isobutyl ketone, see isobutyl methyl ketone Methyl chloride, see chloromethane Methyl ethyl ketone, see ethyl methyl ketone Methyl glycol Methyl hydrogen sulphate (methyl sulphuric acid) 50% (w/v) aq. soln. 60% (w/v) aq. soln. 75% (w/v) aq. soln. 90% (w/v) aq. soln. Methyl methacrylate Methyl sulphate, see dimethyl sulphate Methylated spirits



S S* S*

S S* S*

S S S S S S S S S S S S* S S S S S U S* S S S U*

S S S S S S S S S S S S* S S S S S U S* D S* S* U*

S S U* S S S S* S S S* S S S S S S D U* S S* S* S* S

S S U* S S U S* S S S* S S S S S U U* U* S S* S* S* S




Characteristics PVC-u Pipe

Medium Methylcyclohexanone Methylsulphonic acid Milk Mineral oils Mixed acids** Molasses Monochlorobenzene Naphtha Naphthalene Nickel chloride Nickel nitrate Nickel sulphate Nicotine Nicotinic acid Nitric acid Concentration 20C U S S* S U S U* S U S S S S S 5% (w/v) aq. soln. S 10% (w/v) aq. soln. S 25% (w/v) aq. soln. S 50% (w/v) aq. soln. S 70% (w/v) aq. soln. D 98% (w/v) aq. soln. U U U D S* S* S* S S S S S S 60C U D S* S S U* S U S S S S S D D U U U U U U S* U* Medium Concentration 20C 60C 10%(w/v) aq. soln. U U S S S S S S S S S S S S U* S S S S S S S S S S S S U* Plating solutions: brass cadmium chromium copper gold indium lead nickel rhodium silver tin zinc Polyglycol ethers Potassium acid sulphate, see potassium hydrogen sulphate Potassium antimonate Potassium bicarbonate, see potassium hydrogen carbonate Potassium bichromate, see potassium dichromate Potassium bisulphate, see potassium hydrogen sulphate Potassium borate Potassium bromate Potassium bromide Potassium carbonate Potassium chlorate Potassium chloride Potassium chromate Potassium cuprocyanide Potassium cyanide Potassium dichromate (potassium bichromate) Potassium ferricyanide Potassium ferrocyanide Potassium fluoride Potassium hydrogen carbonate (potassium bicarbonate) Potassium hydrogen sulphate (potassium acid sulphate) Potassium hydrogen sulphite (potassium bisulphite) Potassium hydroxide 1%(w/v) aq. soln. 10%(w/v) aq. soln. conc. soln. Potassium hypochlorite Potassium nitrate Potassium orthophosphates Potassium perborate Potassium perchlorate 10% soln. Potassium permanganate 20% soln. S Potassium persulphate 5% soln. Potassium sulphate Potassium sulphide Potassium thiosulphate Propane Propane -1, 2-diol (propylene glycol) Propargyl alcohol (prop -2-yn-1-ol) Propionic acid 50% aq. soln. 100% aq. soln. isoPropyl alcohol (isopropanol) Propylene dichloride, see 1, 2-dichloropropane Propylene oxide Pyridine Quinol (hydroquinone) Rayon coagulating bath Medium Concentration Saccharose Salicylic acid Sea water Selenic acid Shortening Silicone fluids Silicic acid Silver acetate Silver cyanide Silver nitrate Soap solutions (aqueous) Sodium acetate Sodium acid sulphate, see sodium hydrogen sulphate Sodium aluminate Sodium antimonate Sodium benzoate Sodium bicarbonate, see sodium hydrogen carbonate Sodium bisulphate, see sodium hydrogen sulphate Sodium bisulphite, see sodium hydrogen sulphite Sodium borate, see disodium tetraborate Sodium bromide Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate Sodium chloride Sodium cyanide Sodium ferricyanide Sodium ferrocyanide Sodium fluoride Sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium bicarbonate diSodium hydrogen orthophosphate Sodium hydrogen sulphate (sodium bisulphate) Sodium hydrogen sulphite (sodium bisulphite) Sodium hydroxide 1%(w/v) aq. soln. 10%(w/v) aq. soln. 40%( w/v) aq. soln. conc. soln. Sodium hypochlorite 15% available chlorine Sodium hyposulphite, see sodium thiosulphate Sodium metaphosphate Sodium nitrate Sodium nitrite triSodium orthophosphate Sodium perborate Sodium peroxide Sodium silicate Sodium sulphate Sodium sulphide aq. soln. diSodium tetraborate (borax) Sodium thiosulphate (sodium hyposulphite) Soft soap Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Starch Stearic acid Sucrose Sulphur colloidal 20C S* S S U S* S S* S S S S 60C S* S S U S* S S* S S S S



S* S* S

S* S* D

Nitrobenzene Nitropropane Nitrous fumes moist Nonanol (nonyl alcohol) Octane Octanol (octyl alcohol) Octylcresol Oils & fats Oleic acid Orthophosphoric acid

20% (w/v) aq. soln. 30% (w/v) aq. soln. 50% (w/v) aq. soln. 95% (w/v) aq. soln.

S S S S S S S S S S S S S D U U U U U U U U S* S

S S S S S S S S* S S S S S S S S* S S S S* S S* S S S S S S* S* S S* S S* S* S

S S S S S S S S* S S S S S S S S* S S S S* S S* S S S S S* S* S S* S S* U* S

S S S S S* S S S S S* S S S S S S S

S S S S S* S S S S S* S S S S S S S

Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Palmitic acid

Paraffin Paraffin wax Pentane Perchloric acid Petrol Petrol/benzene mixture Petroleum spirit (petroleum ether) Phenol Phenylcarbinol, see benzyl alcohol Phenylhydrazine Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride Phosgene gas liquid Phosphates (see also under ammonium, potassium, sodium, etc.) Phosphine Phosphoric acid , see orthophosphoric acid Phosphorus Phosphorus pentoxide Phosphorus trichloride Phosphoryl chloride (phosphorus oxychloride) Phthalic anhydride Picric acid 1% (w/v) aq. soln.

S S S 10% S 70% S S S S* 10% S U U U S U U S U S* S

S* S S S* S* S* S* S S S S* S* S S S S S* S

S* S S S* S* S* S* S S

S S U U S* S

U S* U U S* S*

U* U S* S*

U* U S* S*

S* S* S S S S S* S


Characteristics PVC-u Pipe

Medium Sulphur dioxide dry moist liquid Sulphur trioxide Sulphuric acid Concentration 20C 60C S S D S S S S S S S S S S D D U U* S S S* S* S S S U U S S S S S S S S S S D U U U* S S S* S* S S* Medium Concentration Tartaric acid Tetraethyl lead (lead tetraethyl) Tetrahydrofuran Tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) Thionyl chloride Titanium tetrachloride Toluene Transformer oil Tributyl phosphate Trichloroacetic acid Trichlorobenzene Tri chloroethane Trichloroethylene Tricresyl phosphate, see tritolyl phosphate Triethanolamine Trigol (triethylene glycold) 3, 4, 5- Trihydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid) Trimethylamine Trimethylol propane (2-ethyl-2-hydroxymethylpropanediol) Trisodium phosphate, see sodium orthophosphate 20C S S U U U U U S* U S* U* U* U 60C S U U U U U S* U S* U* U* U Medium Tritolyl phosphate (tricresylphosphate) Turpentine Urea Urine Vanilla extract Vegetable oils Vinegar Vinyl acetate Water Wetting agents Whey Wines & spirits Xylene Xylenol Yeast Zinc ammonium chloride, see ammonium zinc chloride Zinc carbonate Zinc chloride Zinc oxide Zinc sulphate Concentration 20C 60C U* S S S S* S S U S S* S* S U* U* S U* S S S S* S S U S S* S* S U* U*E S

10% (w/v) aq. soln. 20% (w/v) aq. soln. 30% (w/v) aq. soln. 40% (w/v) aq. soln. 50% (w/v) aq. soln. 55% (w/v) aq. soln. 60% (w/v) aq. soln. 70% (w/v) aq. soln. 80% (w/v) aq. soln. 90% (w/v) aq. soln 95% (w/v) aq. soln. 98% (w/v) aq. soln. 10% aq. soln. 30% aq. soln.

fuming Sulphurous acid Surface active agents all Tallow Tannic acid Tanning extracts

S S* S* S S

U S* S* U* U

S* S S S

S* S S S

4.9 Lightweight
The low specific gravity of Dyka PVC-u pipe means that it is much lighter than pressure pipes made from more traditional materials. The pipe is therefore easier to handle and longer or larger sections can be installed without sophisticated machinery. This results in reduced transportation and installation costs. Details of weights are available from the technical department of Dyka.

4.10 Electrical Characteristics

WARNING - EARTHING. Dyka PVC-u pipe is a non-conductor of electricity and should not be used for earthing purposes or for the dissipation of static charges. The electricity supply company should be advised where PVC-u pipelines are being used to replace existing pipelines which have been used for earthing purposes. Where it is necessary to provide for the possibility of future detection of the pipeline by electrical means, metal tracer cables should be buried in the pipe trench. For specific application Dyka can include a metal trace in the wall of PVC-u pipe during manufacture.

4.11 Notch Sensitivity

Dyka PVC-u pipe is extremely durable in normal use, however it is susceptible to scratching or notching during handling and installation which can seriously reduce its strength characteristics. Pipe lengths showing significant damage should be discarded. For this reason threads should only be cut into pipes which have been specifically designed to allow for the consequential strength reduction. Details of these pipe systems, such as used for well casing and screen are available from the technical department of Dyka. Where it is necessary to make connections to threaded pipes of a different material, appropriate injection moulded, threaded fittings should be used.


Characteristics PVC-u Pipe

Particular care should be taken where PVC-u pipe is being inserted into existing pipes or trenchless laying methods are being used. In these instances the completed pipeline should be thoroughly tested in accordance with the method detailed in section 9.19 To minimise the occurrence of pipe failure due to notching all Dyka manufactured pipework is tested against the fracture toughness test detailed within BS 3505 : 1986 (as amended) and WIS 4.31.06 : 1990. All Dyka manufactured pipes give a result in excess of 4N/mm.

4.12 Impermeability To Gas

Dyka PVC-u pipe is impermeable to gas and hence pipes carrying potable water can be laid in close proximity to those carrying gas without fear of cross contamination.

4.13 Electrolytic Reaction

As Dyka PVC-u is a non-conductor of electricity it is not subject to electrolytic corrosion and will not support such action when in contact with metal pipes or valves. The usual care must be taken with the use of coated aluminium fittings to avoid contact of dissimilar metals. In particular, brass fittings must not be directly attached to coated aluminium tapping bands.

4.14 Behaviour in Fire

PVC-u does not support combustion and when the source of ignition is removed it is self extinguishing. The principal doubt expressed with regard to the performance of PVC-u pipework during an internal fire is that it would burn away leaving access for the fire to enter another part of the structure. This has been investigated by the Fire Research Station of the Building Research Establishment. Special investigation report number 9116, Ad Hoc fire tests on PVC-u services in buildings concluded that PVC-u pipes were found to soften and close forming a carbonised mass that sealed the void. However as an added precaution Dyka recommend that where pipes pass through a fire stop that may give access to fire, intumescent seals should be installed. Providing correct attention is given to the installation of PVC-u internal systems, their use will not aid the spread of fire any more than a conventional non-combustible system. Tests show that the fumes created by burning PVC will not adversely affect structural concrete despite minor surface chloride deposition.

4.15 Abrasion Resistance

Due to the extremely low co-efficient of friction of Dyka PVC-u pipe it is particularly suitable for the transportation of abrasive slurries. Dyka PVC-u pipe has been used successfully in a number of quarries, sand plants and open cast mines throughout the world. Under such conditions its life expectancy has been established to exceed that of equivalent steel pipeline by 2 to 3 times.


5. Working Characteristics
4.16 Impact Strength
At very low temperatures (eg 0C) the impact resistance of PVC-u is reduced. When installing pipelines at low temperatures extra care should be taken with handling and backfilling.. All Dyka manufactured pipes are rigorously tested against the impact strengths required by various national standards including BS 3505 and KIWA 49.

4.17 Biotic Resistance

Studies carried out at the University of Cairo conclude that PVC-u pipe will not suffer from rodent or biotic attack.

5.1 General
The British Standard Code of Practice CP312 Code of Practice for Plastic Pipework (Thermoplastic Material) deals in depth with many aspects of handling, installation and jointing. The following is a summary of the most important aspects of these techniques. However, Dyka recommend that the above publication is used for reference wherever possible.

5.2 Handling, Storage And Transport

PVC-u pipes and fittings can become damaged during transport, handling or storage. CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO ENSURE THAT EACH ITEM IS FREE FROM DAMAGE PRIOR TO INSTALLATION. The use of damaged pipes and fittings, may affect the performance of the pipeline and they should be discarded.

5.2.1 Handling
While PVC-u pipe is light and easy to handle, it should not be maltreated. The protection of the pipe ends is particularly important. Pipes and fittings should never be dropped to the ground. They should be unloaded from the transport either by hand or using slings and lifting equipment.

5.2.2 Storage
PVC-u pipe will distort under load and this is particularly evident at elevated or uneven temperatures. Whilst this distortion will not affect the performance of the pipe it may make it difficult to joint. Stacks of pipes should therefore be protected from direct sunlight or other heat sources if stored for extended periods. Racks for long term storage should preferably provide continuous support along the pipes length, but if this is not possible then supports of 75mm (min) bearing widths at 1 metre (max) centres should be placed beneath the pipes. If side restraints are required these can be at up to 2 metre spacing. Racks should not exceed 1 metre in height. Where racks are not available pipes can be stored on a temporary basis on the ground, providing the surface is level and free from loose stones or other sharp projections.


Working Characteristics
Where different sizes and classes of pipe are stored in the same rack, the heaviest pipes must be at the bottom and where pipes are nested inside one another the stack height must be reduced in relation to the added weight.
1.5 metres maximum centres

1 metre maximum

1 metre maximum centres 75mm minimum width

Packs of pipes should remain in their packing until ready for use. The complete packs can be stored directly onto level ground that is free from loose stones and other sharp projections. Packs of pipes can be stacked, however the total stack height should not exceed 3 metres.

Support Battens

1m Spacing

Ground Level

5.2.3 Transport
Dyka PVC-u pipes should only be transported on vehicles with a flat bed that provides adequate support along the full length of the pipe. The bed of the vehicle must be thoroughly checked before loading to ensure that it is free from imperfections that may damage the pipes. Where side supports are required they should be smooth and not more than 1.5m apart. An unsupported overhang at the rear of the vehicle should not exceed 1m. As with storage the packs of pipe should be loaded with the heaviest at the bottom. Pipe that arrives on site damaged should not be used and the incident should be advised to Dyka immediately.

5.2.4 Handling & Storage - Advice to staff. Do not:

Remove protective packaging or securing straps from pipes until ready to use. Drag or roll pipes or bundles into position. Throw or drop pipe from delivery vehicles. Use hooks, chains or metal slings when lifting. Allow pipes or fittings to be stored near intense heat for long periods. Exceed 3m high when stacking packs of pipes.


3m Maximum

Working Characteristics
Protect pipes and fittings from being exposed to direct sunlight for long periods. Store pipes on a suitable surface free from loose stones and sharp projections. Ensure pipes and fittings do not come into contact with any aggressive chemicals (refer to Figure 13) in particular beware of solvents. Use wide fabric or nylon slings for lifting. Take special care handling slippery pipes in wet or frosty conditions. Ensure adequate support is given when lifting long lengths of pipe.

5.3 Shipping Information

PVC-u pipe has a high volume to weight ratio. Where shipping or airfreight rates are calculated on a volumetric basis the cube rate will apply in most cases. Dyka solvent weld cement and cleaning fluid are classified as hazardous for shipping purposes. When shipping these products they should be packed in full wooden cartons according to I.M.C.O. regulations and shipped on deck at the masters discretion.

5.4 Hazardous Shipping Details

5.4.1 Solvent weld cement - standard usage - yellow labels
Chemicals constituents: - Tetrahydrofuran - Methylethylketone - Cyclohexanon - Vinylchloride Polymer IMCO Class 3.2 UN Number 1133 ADR Code 3.5C IATA - DGR 3.3 Flashpoint - 16 C

Spillage instruction: absorb in sand or other inert absorbent and transfer to isolated containers for safe disposal. Marks: Flammable according I.M.C.O. regulations.


Working Characteristics
5.4.2 Solvent weld cement - tropical usage - brown labels
Chemical constituents; - Tetrahydrofuran - Cyclohexanon - Vinylchloride Polymer

IMCO Class 3.2 UN Number 1133 ADR Code 3.5C IATA - DGR 3.3 Flashpoint - 10 C

Spillage instruction: absorb in sand or other inert absorbent and transfer to isolated containers for safe disposal. Marks: Flammable according to I.M.C.O. regulations.

5.4.3 Cleaning Fluid

Chemical constituents: - Tetrahydrofuran - Methylethylkletone

IMCO Class 3.2 UN Number 1133 ADR Code 3.5C IATA - DGR 3.3 Flashpoint - 7 C

Cleaning fluid is a de-fatting agent. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. If fluid comes in contact with the eyes seek medical attention immediately. Spillage instruction: absorb in sand or the inert absorbent and transfer to isolated containers for safe disposal. Marks: Flammable according to I.M.C.O. regulations. When transporting, handling or working with either solvent weld cement or cleaning fluid all operatives must ensure that they are acquainted with the COSHH details.


6. Jointing
6.1 General
One of the major benefits of Dyka PVC-u pipes is the ability to use one of the three jointing methods below. This gives a great deal of flexibility in allowing for varying installation conditions and the skill and equipment of the installers. 1. Solvent Cement 2. Ring Seal 3. Threaded Fittings see also section 7.3 for fittings specifications Before making any joint the pipe lengths and fittings should be thoroughly inspected to ensure there is no transit damage. Any damaged items should be discarded.

6.2 Cutting and Chamfering

The pipe should be cut using a fine tooth panel saw. It is important that the cut should be square and to this end a mitre box or similar device is recommended. If this is not available a square cut can be obtained by using a piece of paper wound around the pipe as shown in figure 14 The outside edge of the pipe end should be chamfered to approximately 15 so that at least 50% of the wall thickness is removed at the leading edge. A chamfer of this nature is essential for both solvent cement and rubber ring seal joints. a rasp or file can be used for this operation.
Figure 14: Paper square cut

Using a sheet of paper with square edges, wrap it round the pipe. Ensuring that the paper is tightly wound and ends are square, cut along edge of paper

6.3 Solvent Cement Jointing

It is recommended that only Dyka solvent cements and cleaning fluid be used in the construction of joints with Dykapipe. When solvent cementing PVC-u pipes it is useful to have a theoretical knowledge of the chemicals and the process. Before making any joint inspect all fittings and lengths of pipe for transit damage.

6.3.1 Solvent cementing process

The Dyka cleaning agent does not only clean and degrease the pipe and fittings, it also penetrates the PVC-u surfaces causing them to swell and create a favourable environment for the subsequent bonding. The adhesive itself also penetrates the surfaces to be bonded and this penetration is improved if the adhesive is kept fluid longer and the surfaces have been pre-treated with the cleaning fluid. In cold weather the penetration takes longer than in warm weather.


Adhesives are formulated according to their usage and the type of PVC-u to be bonded, only the correct adhesive should therefore be used. It is important to check that the adhesive used is still in good condition. Tins that contain lumps or have a heavy surface film should be discarded. Under no circumstances should cleaning fluid be used as a thinner. Always use sufficient adhesive, work it in well and keep it fluid. If a less than perfect fit between the two mating surfaces has to be filled, apply several layers of adhesive, do not allow the last layer to dry before applying the next. The two surfaces must be mated in one movement while the adhesive is still wet and the PVC-u is still soft. Due to the softening power of the adhesive any excess must be removed, immediately the joint is made. Mated surfaces should be left undisturbed for 24 hours to allow the bond to cure.

6.3.2 Jointing procedure

To ensure a good joint the following procedure should be adhered to, also refer to the illustrations in figure 15. Check that the pipe end is cut square, chamfer the outside edge, deburr the inner and outer edges of the spigot and socket. Make sure the fittings are clean and free from moisture by using Dyka cleaning fluid. Mark the spigot with a pencil or felt pen line at a distance equivalent to the depth of the socket (see figures 6-8 for pipe insertion depths). Do not score the pipe or mark with a saw. Dry fit the pipe into the socket - an INTERFERENCE fit should be reached before the pencil mark is completely home Remove the spigot form the socket and abrade both mating surfaces with heavy grade emery paper or a bastard rasp on diameters larger than 4/110mm. Degrease both surfaces with Dyka cleaning fluid. Using the correct Dyka solvent cement (see figure 16) apply an even but not excessive coating to the internal surface of the socket and a more generous coat to the marked pipe end. Where the cement dries before completion (on large diameter pipes or in hot and windy conditions) give the spigot a second coat. Push the pipe home and hold firmly for thirty seconds. Remove all excess solvent cement as quickly as possible to prevent unwanted chemical attack on exposed joints. The joint should not be disturbed or strained for 5 minutes after jointing and 24 hours must be allowed before pressure testing.

Figure 15 Solvent Cement Jointing

1. Cut pipe end square, chamfer to a minimum of 15, deburr and smooth surface.

2. Clean external surface of spigot and internal surface of socket using DYKA Cleaning Fluid.

3. Care should be taken to keep both mating surfaces clean.



4. Apply correct DYKA Solvent Weld Cement from figure 16 Apply cement axially to pipe surface.
Figure 16 Cement types & applications

5. Joint pipes, using pipe jack if necessary in a single fluid movement

Nominal size of pipe mm Nominal size of pipe imperial Average number joints per litre




32 1" 190

40 114" 140

50 112" 75

63 2" 70

90 3" 60

110 4" 40

140 5" 30

160 6" 25

200 8" 17







Type of cement PVC cement for pressure systems up to 90mm/3" outside diameter PVC cement for pressure systems 4 and above PVC cleaning fluid

Label Yellow



Tins 1 litre Small bore Tubes 125 gram pressure systems Tins 14 Litre Tins 1 litre Tins 14 Litre Tins 1 litre Tins 14 Litre Tropical use. Large diameter systems Degreasing in preparation for bonding

Brown HD


6.3.3 Extreme conditions

Cold - Under extremely cold conditions, special care must be taken to ensure excess solvent cement is not allowed to enter into the pipeline as this could result in solvent cracking of the pipe Hot - In hot weather, particularly when solvent cementing long lengths, the pipe should be well ventilated. In some cases forced ventilation will be necessary.

6.3.4 Caution
Ensure adequate ventilation when solvent cementing. If swallowed do not induce vomiting and seek medical attention. If splashed on face or eyes, wash liberally with clean water and seek medical attention. See Appendix 5 for health and safety guidance. Adhesive and cleaning fluid are hazardous chemicals. Ensure that empty tins, soiled cloth and paper are disposed of correctly and not left in the pipe trench.


6.3.5 Possible errors when bonding PVC-u
Pipe end not cut squarely Pipe end not deburred and chamfered Moisture and dirt on glued surface Not properly cleaned or dried Brush still wet with cleaner Adhesive not evenly spread Adhesive not brushed out axially Adhesive on only one of the two surfaces Pipe and accessory not assembled in time Pipe not pushed home to shoulder Incorrect adhesive used. Adhesive type did not match the application The gap too big to be filled completely, leaving passages through the adhesive During assembly of pipe and accessories, one of the fittings has been twisted relative to the other Adjusting after jointing, occurred too late, causing the already cured adhesive to be broken apart The drying time not adhered to No attention paid to the presence of water or damp conditions (condensation) Ventilation too drastic causing adhesive to dry during application (skin forming) Adhesive no longer homogeneous, caused by the tin being left open for too long Use of incorrect cleaning agent Oil or oil containing substances contaminated joint surfaces causing bond failure Bonding took place at sub zero temperatures without the necessary precautions

6.4 Ring seal jointing

The assembly procedure for the Dykapipe mechanical Joint System is outlined below, refer also to figure 17 Ring Seal Jointing Before making any joint inspect all fittings and lengths of pipe for transit damage.

6.4.1 Jointing procedure

Deburr and smooth the pipe spigot, cut the chamfer, and mark on a depth of entry line with a pencil or felt pen (see figures 6-8 for insertion depths). Clean both socket and ring, particularly the inside of the groove of the socket. Check the ring is correctly inserted, and seated. Incorrectly seated seal rings can be easily repositioned by applying hot water to the ring seal and captivating ring (only present in Forsheda seal rings). Make sure that the pipes align correctly in both planes. THIS IS MOST IMPORTANT, do not try to insert the spigot at an angle.


Apply joint lubricant in an even coating over half the spigot length (not the joint ring). Refer figure 18 for approximate coverage of rubber ring jointing lubricant. Move the spigot pipe so that the leading edge is just engaging the socket mouth before insertion. The flexibility of the pipe in sizes 4" and below may prevent correct alignment during assembly. The force required to assemble the joint should be applied as near the spigot end as possible with the socket held in position. A twisting action will ease entry. Push the spigot to the depth of entry mark. This should be done with a swift movement, the momentum gained by the spigot travelling from the socket mouth to the ring, being of assistance. CAUTION - if the pipe does not enter the socket without undue force being used, withdraw the pipe; and re-check the joint ring. PARTICULAR ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO RING SEATING AND PIPE ALIGNMENT. When installing larger diameter pipework a pipe jack may be necessary to provide the impetus to make the joint. The use of a mechanical excavator to push the spigot home is not recommended as this can result in over insertion, and damage to the pipeline.
3. Mate surfaces in a single fluid movement. 2. Check that spigot end is cut square chamfered at 15. Apply Dyka Ring Seal Lubricant to spigot end only. 1. Ensure seal ring is correctly installed. Reposition as necessary using hot water to soften sealing ring
Figure 17

Figure 18 Rubber ring jointing lubricant requirements

Nominal pipe Diameter mm Nominal pipe Diameter Imperial Average number of joints per 800mg tub

63 2" 220

90 3" 190

110 4" 120

140 5" 90

160 6" 80

200 8" 50

Figure 19 Cross section detail of ring seal joints

Detail of the Forsheda captive lip seal on Imperial Dyka systems

12 TO 25 mm

A cross-sectional view of the pipe socket and the specially designed groove for the sealing ring is shown in the figure below.




The pipe should be marked (not with a saw) so that the spigot enters the socket to within 12-25mm of the bottom of the socket (Dimension A, figure 19 Cross section detail of ring seal joint) If installing above ground, check entry depth after installation. As with all pipe jointing, cleanliness is of prime importance and pipes, especially spigot ends, should be supported clear of the ground to prevent dirt being smeared on with the lubricant. Placing the pipes on blocks also reduces friction and consequently facilitates the making of the joint. THESE BLOCKS MUST BE REMOVED BEFORE BACKFILLING. The pipeline should be pressure tested after the first 300 to 400 metres have been installed. After this, tests should be carried out at convenient intervals preferably not exceeding 1 kilometre.


Threaded Joints

Where it is necessary to join Dyka PVC-u pipe to another type of pipe using a threaded joint, Dyka recommend the following guidelines: Wherever possible make the connection with the PVC-u pipe as the male component of the joint. Use only P .T.F.E. tape as a sealant. Tighten to firm hand tightness only using strap wrenches - do not use serrated jaw wrenches. A full range of adaptors is available to connect Dyka PVC-u pipe to other materials please contact the technical department Dyka.

6.6 Saddle Joints

Dyka offer a comprehensive range of saddle joints for use with a variety of pipe sizes. Single branch saddles are available in clamp or wedge designs and double branch clamp models in clamp design to fit mains pipes up to 250mm diameter.

6.7 Flange Jointing

To enable jointing of Dyka PVC-u pipelines to pipes, valves or vessels of different materials PVC-u flange adaptors are available, though care has to be exercised in their use. Allowances have to be made for the different methods of measuring PVC-u pipe and for instance ductile iron piping. For example PVC-u pipe is sized according to its outside diameter and ductile iron by its internal bore. In addition the different wall thicknesses of these different materials cause incompatibilities between internal bore and outside diameters. To overcome this Dyka offer a range of adaptors and converters to allow effective connections in most applications.

6.7.1 Standard stub and backing ring

This allows PVC-u pipe to be easily attached to pipelines made from other materials and provides a clear bore equivalent to the PVC-u pipe. This may however mean that the bore of the other pipe material is reduced down to that of the PVC-u.

6.7.2 Standard stub and adaptor ring
This enables pipes of similar bores to be connected with no disruption to flow and therefore minimal risk of blockage occurring.



6.7.3 Joining bolted flange adaptors

Dyka recommend the following guidelines should be observed when joining pipes using flange adaptors.



Ensure mating surfaces are clean and free from damage. Use a single rubber gasket of the correct size. Additional jointing compound should not be used. Assemble flange joints before any other joints on the pipeline. Mating surfaces must be aligned to within 5mm prior to bolting. Use only undamaged bolts, nuts and washers of the correct size. Ensure the gasket is properly aligned prior to bolting. Once nuts and bolts are finger tight, then progressively tighten as follows: Using a torque wrench work in diagonally opposite sequence. Tighten all bolts to 5% of final torque. Tighten all bolts to 20% of final torque Tighten all bolts to 50% of final torque Two operators should work together on pipe diameters above 180mm. Check final torque of all bolts after one hour. Remember a uniform tightening sequence is as important as final torque settings. Tighten all bolts to 75% of final torque Tighten all bolts to final torque.

OD X Bore (mm) nominal 63 90 125 180 225 250 x x x x x x 50 80 80 150 200 250

Torque (Nm) 355 355 355 605 805 10010

OD X Bore (mm) nominal 315 355 400 450 500 x x x x x 300 350 400 450 500

Torque (Nm) 12010 15010 20025 25025 30025




7. Water Hammer/ Pressure Surges

7.1 General
A moving column of water has momentum proportional to its weight and velocity. When this flow is stopped suddenly this inertia is converted into a shock load or pressure surge known as Water Hammer. The greater the quantity of liquid and the fluid velocity the greater the shock loading. Dyka PVC-u pipe has excellent fatigue strength and allowances for intermittent fluctuations and surge pressures, such as increasing pipe pressure rating or reducing normal working pressures, are not normally necessary. However, excessive surge pressure can cause the failure of a pressure system and for this reason the following precautions are recommended: Avoid the use of fast opening and closing valves. Provide for pressure relief where surges are likely to occur for other reasons, such as pump failure. Major pressure surge is likely to occur, due to valve closure, when: The valve closing time Where: 2L a L = pipeline length (m) a = surge wave velocity (m/sec) (see figure 20)

The increase in pressure due to the effect of Pressure Surge can be calculated by the formula:

H = a DV g


H = Water Hammer, pressure increase in bar. a g V = = Surge wave velocity (see figure qq) Gravity

= Change in velocity

Figure 20 Showing Surge wave velocities for design purposes Pipe Material PVC-u Cast Iron Asbestos Cement Surge Wave Velocity 300m/sec 1200m/sec 900m/sec


8. Pipe Installation
8.1 General
The simplicity of the installation procedure for Dyka PVC-u pipe offers considerable benefits especially in terms of time and the consequent cost saving. The following is general information on installation techniques. For more specific guidance reference should be made to: CP312 Code of Practice for the Plastic Pipework and Appendix 6 Water Authorities Association Guidelines. Dyka PVC-u pipe is a semi-flexible conduit and as such can deflect considerably without damage. Its response to earth loading is not governed by pipe strength, but rather by the interaction of the soil and the pipe. It is therefore very important that all aspects of pipe laying, particularly bedding and sidefill, receive special attention.

8.2 Temperature
Particular care should be exercised when installing pipes at temperatures below 10C. Pipe laying should not be carried out when the temperature is below 0C.

8.3 Trench Excavation

As a general rule trench excavation should not be carried out too far ahead of the pipe laying as slumping and collapse of the trench wall may occur. During excavation and laying of unusually deep pipelines the trench walls should be supported with an appropriate system to safeguard the installation personnel against collapse of the trench. The excavated soil should be kept well back from the edge of the trench and loose stones removed and discarded.

8.4 Trench Widths

The narrower the trench in which PVC-u pipe is laid, the less the load it has to carry. Trench width should, therefore, be kept to a minimum but it must be sufficient to allow the proper placing and compaction of bedding material against each quadrant of the pipe. For this purpose it is recommended that, at the crown of the pipe, the trench width should be 300mm (+50mm) wider than the diameter of the pipe. Above the crown the trench may be any convenient width.

8.5 Trench Depth - Depth of Cover

Dyka PVC-u pipes may be laid with the same minimum depth of cover as pipes of other materials. Particular attention should be given when the pipeline passes under a roadway or other load bearing structure. Figure 21 shows recommended minimum depth of cover above the crown of the pipe for typical situations.


Pipe Installation
Figure 21 Recommended minimum depth of cover

Location Roads & Streets (at maximum DOE loading) Driveways Footpaths and Gardens Open Country

Depth of Covering 1000mm 750mm 500mm 1000mm

8.6 Bedding
The trench should be over excavated to a depth equivalent to the nominal diameter of the pipe or a maximum of 100mm. The underbed should be filled and thoroughly compacted with bedding material which conforms to WIS 4-08-01 or meets the particle size and compaction requirements given in section 9.8 below. Care must be taken to ensure continuous support is given along the entire pipe length and not just on the joints. The bedding should be scooped out to accommodate joints and fittings. In all cases the underbed should be laid to the correct fall and gradient.

8.7 Sidefill, Backfill and Compaction

When in place in the trench the weight of overlying earth tends to force down the top of the pipe, but for distortion to be possible, the sides must move out a corresponding distance. Such movement of the side walls is only possible to the extent that the bedding material around the pipe can move. The firmer that this bedding material is, the greater the force required to move it and consequently the greater the external load the pipe can safely carry. It is, therefore, very important that bedding and sidefill material and the compaction process meet the correct specifications. After laying the pipe on the prepared bed, the sidefill should be placed around the pipe and compacted to 80% of optimum density, in 75mm layers, to a thickness of the pipe diameter or a maximum of 100mm above the pipe crown. Care must be taken to avoid displacing or damaging the pipe and to ensure that the cavities under the two lower quadrants of the pipe are eliminated. For the protection of the pipe initial backfilling of the trench should be carried out as soon as possible after laying. The remaining backfilling can be completed with on site spoil in well rammed layers not exceeding 300mm. Do not use heavy mechanical rammers until the pipe is covered by more than 300mm.
Compact in 300mm layers Refer to Figure 21

100mm minimum cover above pipe crown Fill material to conform to WIS 4-08-01

300mm minimum initial backfill. Do not use heavy compaction equipment.


100mm bedding


Pipe Installation
8.8 Test For Suitability Of Soil Material For Surrounding Buried PVC-u Pipe
The suitability of the bedding and backfilling material can be determined in one of two ways. Either by estimating the approximate particle size or by calculating the compaction fraction of the material. Under both methods it is necessary to obtain a representative sample of the proposed material. This is done by taking about 50kg of the material and heaping it on a clear surface. The pile is equally quartered and two opposing quarters are selected, the remainder is removed. The retained quarters are remixed to form a new pile and the process is repeated until the required sample size is obtained.

Method 1 Particle Size The maximum particle size should not exceed 20mm but a small percentage of particles between 20mm and 40mm is acceptable. If particles over 40mm are present the material should be rejected. In cases of doubt, a representative sample of the material weighing about 2kg should be sieved, using 20mm and 40mm British Standard approved test sieves (BS 410 Test Sieve). When sieving, clumps of material that break up under light finger pressure may be helped through the sieve, but force should not be used to squeeze oversize lumps through the mesh. The material should be rejected if: a) any particles are retained on the 40mm sieve or b) more than 5% by mass is retained on the 20mm sieve. For sharp, hard materials these particle size limitations should be halved (i.e. max. size 10mm and 20mm). Where scouring of the bed under the pipeline may be caused by adverse ground water conditions the prepared bedding material should be of a particle size smaller than 10mm to prevent loss of support to the pipeline. Method 2 Ease of Compaction 1. Place a 250mm length of 160mm O.D. pipe on a clear surface. 2. Fill the length of pipe loosely with a representative sample of the proposed material and level off to the top of the pipe. 3. Lift the pipe off the sample and place it on a clear surface. 4. Replace about a quarter of the sample into the pipe and compact it using a rammer of approximately 1kg weight. Repeat this process until all the sample has been returned to the pipe. Measure the distance the material has compacted (X) and refer to Figure 22 to determine the suitability of the material.
Figure 22 Compaction test - material suitability.

Dimension of X + 50mm 50 - 75mm > 75mm

Compaction Fraction 0.20 0.20 - 0.30 > 0.30

Suitability of Material Suitable Not suitable if ground is subject to waterlogged conditions after laying. Not Suitable


Pipe Installation
Diagrams 1-4 of compaction test. 1 2 3 4

8.9 Pipe Deformation

If the deflection of the top of a flexible pipe is steadily increased a point will be reached where it loses support from the spread out sides and collapses into the lower portion of the pipe. Collapse occurs when the deflection reaches about 20% of the pipe diameter. A maximum deflection of 5% of the pipe diameter is usually accepted giving a nominal safety factor of 4. This maximum deflection of 5% allows for new connections into the system to be easily achieved. Reference to the recommended depths given in figure 21 will ensure that pipe deformation is within acceptable limits. Where a pipeline is required to be encased in concrete as a design requirement or due to excessive loading it must be wrapped in a non-porous membrane such as polythene film to a thickness of 250 mu, according to Figure 23 below. Flexible ring seal joints must be allowed to expand by the inclusion of a compressible board joint filler between each concrete pour as detailed in Figure 23.
Figure 23 Preferred method of encasing pipe in concrete.
12 thick compressible board or preformed joint filler for full thickness of concrete bed or surround. Flexible pipe joint Grade C10P concrete 150 mm thick may be formed to a radius batter or horizontal surface.

8.10 Contaminated Ground

Dyka PVC-u pipe is resistant to many contaminants, but where contamination is suspected but it is recommended that a detailed soil analysis is undertaken. The suitability of PVC-u can then be ascertained by reference to the Chemical Resistance table in section 4.8 Some protection can be given to pipelines in contaminated ground by encasing the pipe in a clean sand envelope. Additional protection can be made by the provision of a PVC-u membrane around the sand as shown in figure 24.

Figure 24 Trench details in contaminated ground.





8.11 Pipe Bending Radii

Dyka PVC-u pipe is a semi-flexible conduit and hence gradual changes of direction can be made by laying the pipe to a curve. The minimum radius of any such curvature


Pipe Installation
is 150 times the nominal diameter of the pipe. The maximum deflection allowed in a mechanical joint =3. Avoid placing joints and fittings in pipes which are to be bent, preformed bends and elbows are available to eliminate stress. For further information on pipe bending for particular applications please refer to the technical department of Dyka.

8.12 Trenchless laying

Trenchless laying of PVC-u pipe has been carried out extensively and has proved successful up to 90mm/3" diameter, solvent welded pipe only. PVC-u pipe has proved suitable for mole plough and cut and feed installation techniques. Obviously care has to be taken to minimize the induced stress on the pipe whilst pulling in. Pipe to be installed by this method should be prejointed in lengths not exceeding 300 metres and the solvent welded joints given a full curing period of 24 hours before commencing laying. Following laying the jointing of these sections can be carried out, with care taken to ensure the pipe has reached ground temperatures. During feed down the pipe must not be curved tighter than the following radiiNominal diameter 100 mm 80 mm 65 mm or less Minimum curve radii

80 x 65 x
100 x

Trenchless laying should only be undertaken once it has been ascertained that the soil type is suitable and damage to the pipe will not occur.

8.13 Thrusting and Anchorage

Thrust blocks (as in figure 25) are needed whenever the pipeline changes direction or size, stops or has an inline tee piece or valve. The function of these thrust blocks is to prevent deflection or extension of the pipeline under the action of internal fluid pressure and to transfer the resultant forces to the surrounding ground of load bearing capacity. The following figures are a guide to the design, and position of the anchor blocks. When placing concrete on a PVC-u pipeline care should be taken to avoid encasing the pipe completely.
Figure 25

In trench 90 bend thrust details Insulating protective membrane trench poured in situ concrete thrust block ring seal jointed bend dyka ringseal joint

In trench 45 bend thrust details

tee installation

flanged tee

trench wall trench wall protective membrane In situ protective membrane poured concrete


Pipe Installation
This is because the slight flexibility of PVC-u may cause pulsing under pressure variations which may cause the pipe to shear at the interface between the concrete anchor and the backfill. It is recommended that a thin membrane, such as bituminised paper, thin roofing felt or polythene film to a thickness of about 250 mu is applied between the concrete and the PVC pipe.
vertical plane bend anchor details restraining straps with protective membrane end cap thrust detail cross section view of thrust block

protective membrane

trench wall

protective membrane

trench wall

8.14 Above Ground Installation

Mound Installation Where a mound is to be made up to accommodate a pipeline above the existing ground level. The mound must first be made up to 1000mm above the planned crown of the pipe and compacted. A trench is then dug and the pipeline laid in the usual manner. Exposed Installation Dyka PVC-u pipe is manufactured for great flexibility, this means when used in exposed applications adequate support must be provided. The pipeline should be as near as possible to operating temperature when installed. The clamps and supports are then affixed to it in its expanded state. These will arrest any contraction when the pipeline cools, but more importantly there will be no signs of sagging when the pipeline is at normal operating temperature.Table 26 Gives recommended support spacings for horizontal pipelines, the spacing can be doubled for vertical pipelines.
Figure 26 Recommended Pipe Support Spacings-horizontal pipelines (spacing can be doubled for vertical pipelines)


20 75 85 90 100 110 125 140 150 165 185 215 225 250

30 60 70 75 85 100 115 130 140 155 175 205 215 240








8"16mm 2"20mm 4"25mm

50 55 65 80 95 110 120 135 155 185 200 225 50 60 70 85 95 105 120 160 170 200 55 60 70 80 110 130 160

1" 32mm 1 4"40mm


112"50mm 2"63mm 2 "75mm 3"90mm 4"110mm 5"140mm 6"160mm 8"200mm


Pipe Installation
Extra support should be given to accommodate the weight of heavy fittings and equipment and also to protect the pipeline from the torque applied when operating valves and hydrant tees. The pipe supports should have flat surfaces of half the diameter of the pipe or 100mm minimum width (whichever is the greater) and not be able to damage the pipe if any movement occurs. Dyka PVC-u pipe is a good insulator of the pipe contents and this helps to prevent freezing , additionally the flexibility of PVC-u allows for expansion to accommodate the increased volume of frozen liquids. However for operational reasons it is usual to insulate pipelines to minimise the risk of the contents freezing. Care should be taken that insulation is waterproof or is protected by a waterproof cover. Provision should also be made to enable drain down of pipe runs with drain valves at the lowest points. Horizontal pipe runs should incorporate a fall to facilitate drainage. PVC-u pipelines should be insulated from local intense heat sources such as boilers and steam pipes as this may cause excessive thermal movement of the pipe. In addition exposed pipelines should be protected from potential impact damage.

8.15 Thermal Movement Compensation-Expansion Requirements

9.15.1 Below ground
Where flanged, threaded or solvent bonded joints are used, the pipe temperature prior to final connection should approximate that incurred in normal service conditions. Mechanically jointed pipe will provide some compensation for thermal movement. In the case of fluctuating service temperature, refer to section 4.7.

9.15.2 Above ground

Installations above ground should incorporate expansion joints to accommodate movement. The expansion joints should be firmly anchored to prevent movement but other guide supports should allow the pipe to slide freely. Where specific expansion has to be allowed for, the distributor should be contacted for further advice. Mechanically jointed installations above ground must be installed so that each socket is firmly anchored but the spigots are free to move. It is important to ensure that the socket is not able to move either longitudinally or laterally. Figure 27 shows preferred fixing methods for above ground installations. The recommended method should be used wherever possible and it is essential that lateral movement be absent from Jointed Installations.

Figure 27: Preferred above ground fixing method

non-preferred no restraint

preferred no restraint


Pipe Installation
8.16 Vibration
Vibration - Continuous vibration, particularly where threaded joints are used (e.g. connections to water pumps) must be avoided and, where necessary, flexible joints should be used to minimise vibration effects.

8.17 Effect of Sunlight

PVC-u pipe which is exposed to direct sunlight, in hot conditions, for more than six months is likely to lose its colour. The impact strength is also reduced but the tensile strength (an indication of pressure rating) remains unaltered. Tests have shown that the colour loss is limited to a depth of 0.15mm after approximately twelve months exposure. Sunlight also causes ultra-violet degradation to rubber seals. Therefore all seals and items with seals fitted should be kept out of direct sunlight, in their original packaging if possible, until ready to use.

8.18 Protection After Installation

Pipework installed inside a building or buried requires no further protection, however, if exposed to the effects of sunlight, PVC-u pipe will require protection unless in a permanently shaded position. Pipe colour plays an important part in determining the surface temperature of the pipeline. The darker the colour, the greater is the temperature gain due to solar radiation. For example, in tests at an ambient temperature of 47C PVC-u pipe and fittings in a dark grey colour achieved a surface temperature of 60C, a gain of 13C. A cream pipe kept close to the ambient temperature. If conditions are humid and there is a breeze, cream PVC-u pipe could achieve a slightly lower temperature than ambient. The importance of colour indicates that all permanently exposed pipework would benefit from being cream (or even aluminium) in colour. If cream pipe and fittings are not available then painting is the simplest method of protection. Paint adheres extremely well to PVC-u and it is usually satisfactory to paint with a top coat only. For maximum permanence of colour a two coat paint should be used. All Alkyd paints are suitable. Metal primers (zinc chromate) provide a suitable undercoat. Individual paint manufacturers vary in their specification, recommended specifications are given in Appendix 7.

8.19 Pipeline Testing

Dyka recommend the following guidelines be followed for pipeline testing, however, the design or site engineer or local conditions may require alternative testing methods. The following points should be noted before testing begins. Do not use high pressure air testing. Allow 24 hrs after welding before testing. Backfill or restrain the pipeline prior to testing.


Pipe Installation
Leave joints exposed. Test with all valves in fully open position. Test sections should not exceed 1 kilometre.

Proceed with the testing as follows: 1. Blank off all ends and bolster them against pressure. 2. Insert air bleed valves at all the highest points along the pipeline. 3. Insert a pressure gauge capable of reading pressure changes of 1% of test pressure at the lowest point of the pipeline. 4. Slowly fill the pipeline with water, take care to avoid risk of damage due to pressure surge. 5. Ensure all air bleed valves are open and operating correctly. 6. Gradually raise the pressure without shock loading to the test pressure specified in figure 29. 7. Allow the test section to stand for half an hour to equalise temperatures before proceeding with the pressure test.


Pipe Installation
Figure 29 Shows the Quantity of Water required to fill a 1km pipeline for pressure testing.


500000 200000 100000


50000 30000 20000 10000

5000 2000 1000 500 300 200 100

1 1 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000



Pipe Installation
The Design and Site engineer will have final approval on acceptance of an installation, Figure 30 gives a recommended procedure. Figure 30 Recommended Pressure Testing Criteria. Simple Pressure Test Testing Pressure (x operating pressure) Test Duration 1.5 Standard Pressure Test Phase 1 Phase 2 1.5 1.3

2 hours

4 hours for Straight Runs 12 hours for pipes with branches Every 2 hours with extra pumping

3 hours up to 160mm O.D. 6hours over 160mm O.D.

Test Checks

1hour with no extra pumping

Every 1 hour with no extra pumping

Allow for loss of pressure to:

0.5 bar/hr

0.5 bar/hr

to 0.1 bar/hr

8.20 Water Authorities Association Guidelines

Designers and installers of water pipelines should comply with the guidelines for Distribution Systems as laid out by the Water Authorities Association, these are detailed in appendix 6.

8.21 Local Authority Regulations

All installation and testing of Dyka PVC-u pipelines must comply with Local Authority Bye-Laws and Statutory regulations where applicable.

8.22 Technical Services

Technical advice is available from the manufacturers of Dyka PVC-u pipes through the technical department of Dyka. Users are advised to first contact their merchant or distributor who may be able to supply adequate advice and information in respect of known local conditions.


Appendix 1 - Quality Standards

Quality Standards Applicable to Dyka PVC-u Pipe
BS3505 Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC-u) pressure pipes for cold potable water. Specification for unplasticised PVC pipe for industrial uses. Joints and fittings for use with unplasticised PVC pressure pipes. -Solvent Weld Joints and fittings for use with unplasticised PVC pressure pipes. -Mechanical Joint Specification for blue unplasticised PVC pressure pipes, integral joints and post-formed bends for cold potable water (underground use). Specification for unplasticised PVC pressure fittings and assemblies for cold potable water (underground use). Information and guidance note - unplasticised PVC pipes and fittings. Unplasticised PVC pipe for water mains. Edition 5 Pressure pipes of unplasticised PVC for cold water pipe lines. Pressure pipes and fittings of unplasticised polyvinyl chloride for water supply. Pipes and fittings made of unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC-u) for water supply. Thermoplastic pipes for the transport of fluids - nominal outside diameters and nominal pressures. PVC pressure pipe for water supply. PVC-u pipe and couplers for pressure sewer systems. Plastic pressure system: Tension proof couplers for PVC-u pipe installation and test method.

BS3506 BS4346 Part 1

BS4346 Part 2

WIS 4.31.06

WIS 4.31.07

IGN 4.31.01

IS 123 SS 1776

DS 972

ISO 4422

ISO 161

DIN 19582 NEN 7029 NEN 7107


Appendix 1
NEN7108 BRL K-502 BRL 2013 KIWA 10 Bends for use with PVC-u pressure pipe. PVC-u pressure pipe. Rubber rings and flange gaskets for use in pressure systems. Tension proof couplers, type AMSTERDAM for use with PVC-u pipe. SBR ring seal for use in systems for the supply of potable water. Waterpipes of unplasticised polyvinyl chloride. PVC-u couplers and fittings. PVC-u fittings in nominal diameters 12mm to 90mm inclusive. PVC-u saddles and service connections for plastic pressure pipe systems. Tension proof couplers for use with PVC-u water supply pipe. Plastic pipes - general requirements PVC-u pipe for industrial use. PVC-u pipe for potable water. PVC-u socketed fittings with elastometric ring seal joints for water supply under pressure.


KIWA 71 NBN T42-003 NBN T42-110 NBN T42-111 NBN T42-603


Appendix 2 - Abbreviations
NAMES AFNOR ATA ASTM BS BSCP CIBS DIN HVCA IEC IMCO ISO KIWA NEN NFPA NFT UK UNI UNIPLAST UN Association Francaise De Normalisation Attest on Toxicology Aspects American Society for Testing and Materials British Standard British Standard Code of Practice Chartered Institute of Building Services, U.K. Deutsches Institut for Normung, e.V Heating and Ventilating Contractors Association, U.K. International Electrotechnical Commission International Maritime Conference Organisation International standards Organisation Keurings Institut Voor Waterleiding Artikelen Nederlandse Eenheids Norm National Fire Protection Association Norm Francaise United Kingdom Ente Nazionale Italiano Di Unificazione Eute Italiano Di Unificazione Nelle Materie Plastiche Universal Nomenclature

3 2

centimetre millimetre kilometre square millimetre square metre square kilometre hectare cubic metre litre radian micron

l or lit rad u


Appendix 3
Water Authorities Association Guidelines
Design Criteria a) b) New mains should be designed with a minimum of dead ends. Where they are unavoidable flushing facilities should be provided. Chambers for valves, meters, hydrants and particularly air valves should be carefully sited and where practical, be provided with drains to avoid the accumulation of contaminated water. They should be located where there risk of burial is minimal. Air valves should be positioned above the highest possible level to which water could rise in the chamber so as to minimise the possibility of contamination entering through them.


New Mains a) Pipes for new mains should be stored and laid as hygienically as practicable, all reasonable measures should be taken to exclude vermin, debris and dirty water. During installation the pipe ends should be capped whenever work stops. Before a main is brought into service it should be cleaned and disinfected. Any dirt and debris should be removed by flushing and swabbing. The risk of microbiological contamination remaining at joints can be reduced if this is preceded by filling the main with water containing 20mg/l of free chlorine. When the flushing water is clear the main should be charged with water containing 20mg/l of free chlorine and left for a contact period of 24 hours before it is displaced by mains water. After a further 24 hours samples should be taken for bacteriological examination at a number of points along the main and at the extremities. b) The new main may be brought into service if all the samples are found to be free of coliform organisms and after the contents of the main have been tested successfully for taste, odour and appearance. All new services should be flushed before being used for supply. Domestic service connections should be disinfected if there is any doubt about the cleanliness of the pipework. New linings drawn into existing mains should be treated as new mains.


Renovated Mains a) b) Before being returned to supply, mains subject to refurbishment must be flushed and disinfected as for repaired mains. Mains refurbishments must be carried out only by restricted area and multifunctional personnel.


Appendix 6
Repaired Mains a) Where a main can be repaired without cutting, it should be cleaned around the fracture and this area, together with the repair collar, should be disinfected with a solution containing 1000mg/l of chlorine. The main should be flushed and samples taken for bacteriological examination. The main may be returned to service immediately. Where a main has to be cut for repair, every care must be taken to prevent contamination. If possible, it should not be emptied below the level of the fracture until it has been exposed and the trench pumped dry. Enough pumps should be available to prevent flooding while repairs are in progress. If practicable final disinfection should follow as for new mains but the period of contact may be reduced to two hours or 30 minutes if a 50mg/l concentration of free chlorine is used. In cases where this is impracticable, all surfaces which will come into contact with the potable water should be disinfected with a solution containing 100mg/l of chlorine. In all cases the main should be finally flushed and samples taken for bacteriological examination. The main may be returned to service immediately. c) If, despite precautions, a significant amount of dirty water enters the pipes, the full cleansing procedure for new mains entailing pre-disinfection, flushing, swabbing and final disinfection, should be followed as far as is practicable. Rigorous isolation, cleaning and disinfection procedures must be carried out if foul water from a fractured sewer or drain may have entered the pipes. This is a dangerous pollution hazard and any such incidents must be reported to a senior officer of the water company. The main must not be returned to supply until satisfactory bacteriological results have been obtained. Consumers should be warned not to draw water during the disinfection procedure. Mains repairs must be carried out only by restricted area and multi-functional personnel.



e) f)

Abandoned Mains a) Where source works, mains or services are to be abandoned they must be completely separated from the pipework remaining in use. Disused pipework or plant should not merely be isolated by means of a valve or stopcock. Where sluice valves fixed to tees cannot be removed they should be blanked off. Service pipes no longer required should be disconnected from the main. Abandoned valves and stopcocks should preferably be removed but, if left in situ, valve spindles and handwheels or crutch heads should be removed, as should surface boxes, indicator plates and posts.


Contamination Incidents Water undertakings should establish procedures for dealing with incidents of contamination in distribution systems. The Guide to the microbiological implications of emergencies in the water services (WAA 1985) provides relevant advice.