Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

2 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- ch09.randvar
- Process Control Chart or Run Chart
- Statistics
- Beacon Data Summary Report Example
- Draft Commercials(B)
- employee engagement.docx
- IA Presentation final1
- Livingstone, Data Analysis
- Esemen Mate.............................
- Basic Math Symbols
- 2012 Paper F5 QandA Sample Download v1
- DISTRIBUCIÓN
- Optimal Risky Portfolios
- mit6 041f10 l12
- 0actual Dispersion
- Practice Midterm
- Lesson 6 Measures of Spread or Variation
- 2yprobn
- Syllabus Statistics
- Basic Tools for Data Collection, Organization and Description

You are on page 1of 10

Define variance and standard deviation. 2. Discuss the difference between X and x. 3. Compute the variance and standard deviation for a population and sample using the deviation method. 4. Compute the variance and standard deviation for a population and sample using the raw score method. 1. Variance is the standard deviation squared. 2. Standard Deviation is the average amount that the scores in a distribution differ from that distributions mean There are three ways to determine variability: 1) range, 2) semi quartile range, (Since this method is not often used, we will not discuss it), 3) standard deviation and variance.

RANGE

The distance between the highest and the lowest score. The range is a rough index of variability. There are problems with using the range. When the variability is determined by only two scores: 1) Both the highest and lowest scores could be extremes. 2) The variability could fluctuate a large amount when even one score is dropped. 3) There is insensitive to the shape of the distribution.

A. Labeling Variance and Standard Deviation 1. We label the variance of a population 2. 2. We label the standard deviation of a population . B. Deviation of a raw score 1. Tells you how much that raw score varies from the average score of the distribution--the mean or . 2. To find the deviation of a raw score, simply subtract from the raw score. 3. A deviation score is labeled x, as opposed to its raw score X. 4. Example: X (X- ) = x 9 9-5 4 6 6-5 1 5 5-5 0 3 3-5 -2 2 2-5 -3 5. If we wanted to find the AVERAGE DEVIATION of a distribution, we would actually be looking at the average deviation of the raw scores (the mean of the deviation of the raw scores). We call the average deviation.

1

= x N 6. Note that when we sum x, we get 0. So we use the absolute value of x. = lxl N 7. The average deviation is limited because it is based on absolute values in which signs are ignored and is, therefore, nonalgebraic. II. COMPUTATION OF VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION USING THE DEVIATION METHOD A. The problem of having the plus and minus xs cancels each other out is avoided by squaring each x so that all the numbers are positive. Thus instead of , we have 2. To find , we take the square root ( ) of 2. B. Thus the formulas for variance and standard deviation are: 1. Variance of a population: x2 2 = N 2. Standard Deviation of a population N C. Steps to Calculate the Population Variance and Standard Deviation Using the Deviation Method x2 2 = N Variance for a population: X = N 1. Find . 2. Find the deviation of each raw score. (x = X-) 3. Square each deviation. (x2). 4. Sum the squared deviations. (x2).

N 5. Divide the sum of the squared deviations by N. 6. To find the standard deviation, take the square root of the variance.

x

N

25 =5 N 5 1. Find 2. Find the deviation of each raw score. (x = X-) = = X 9 6 5 3 2 6-5 5-5 3-5 2-5 (X-) = x 9-5 1 0 -2 -3

0 3. Square each deviation. (x2). X (X-)= x x2 9 9-5 4 16 6 6-5 1 1 5 5-5 0 0 3 3-5 -2 4 2 2-5 -3 9 25 30 4. Sum the squared deviations. (x2). x2=30

x 2 30 2 = = = 6 N 5

6. Find the standard deviation. Take the square root of the variance

x

N

30 = 5

6= 2.45

III. CORRECTED ESTIMATES OF POPULATION VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION A. If we found the variance and standard deviation samples using the same formula, we would be using biased estimates of 2 and because samples tend to be smaller and thus underestimate the population values. 1. When we add another case (or score), not only does N increase, another x2 also increases the numerator. 2. The two components are not increased proportionately. 3. The more cases we select, the more likely that extremely deviant scores will be included. 4. Thus, because the variance of a sample is smaller than the standard deviation of a population , it does not vary as much as the standard deviation of a population. B. To obtain an unbiased estimate of the population variance from sample data, we use a correction factor. We subtract one from N. (N-1).

3

1.

N 1

2. Find the deviation of each raw score. (x = X- X ) X (X- X ) = 9-5 6-5 5-5 3-5 2-5 x 4 1 0 -2 -3

9 6 5 3 2 25 3. Square each deviation. (x2). X 9 6 5 3 2 (X- X )= 9-5 6-5 5-5 3-5 2-5

x 1 0 -2 -3

x2 4 1 0 4 9

16

25 4. Sum the squared deviations. (x2). x2=30 2 5. Find the variance s using the formula:

2 2 = x = 30 = 30 = 7.5 s N 1 5 1 4

30

s = 2 x = N 1 30 = 4 7.5 2.74 =

IV. COMPUTATION OF VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION FROM RAW SCORES A. This formula is used to avoid inaccuracies due to rounding and B. The formula for the variance for a population is: 1. Variance of a POPULATION

N 2. Variance of a SAMPLE:

=

2

(X)

N

N 1 a. Find each X2. b. Find X2. c. Find X d. Find (X)2. C. Standard Deviation for a POPULATION: 1. For a population:

s =

2

(X)

N

(X)

N N

s=

(X)

N 1 N

D. Example: X 9 6 5 3 2 25

X2 81 36 25 9 4 155

1. VARIANCE OF A SAMPLE: a. Find X2 (see second column). b. Find X2 = 155 c. Find X = 25 d. Find (X)2= (25)2 = 625. e. Use formula

s2 =

(X)

N 1 N

155

( 25 )

51

5 =

155

2. STANDARD DEVIATION OF A SAMPLE: a. Find X2 (see second column). b. Find X2 = 155 c. Find X = 25 d. Find (X)2= (25)2 = 625. e. Use formula

s=

(X)

N 1 N

( 25 ) 155

5 1 5

155 4

625 5 =

155 125 = 4

30 = 4

7.5 2.74 =

A. DEFINITIONS 1. variance the standard deviation squared. 2. standard deviation the average amount that the scores in a distribution differ from that distribution's mean. B. DEVIATION METHOD 1. Variance of a POPULATION x2 2 = N 2. Standard Deviation of a POPULATION

x

N

N 1

2 =

(X)

N

N N 3. Variance of a SAMPLE:

(X)

2

2

(X)

s=

(X)

N 1 N

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS CHAPTER 3 1. a. Find the variance and standard deviation for the following population using the deviation method. b. Find the variance and standard deviation for the following SAMPLE using the deviation method. 2. a. Find the variance and standard deviation for the following population using the RAW SCORE method. b. Find the variance and standard deviation for the following SAMPLE using the Raw SCORE. Score (X) 39 31 30 26 25 23 3. Define the following: a.

b. c. s 2 d. s e. N f. g. x h. X

i. j.

(X)

2

k. X l. variance m. standard deviation 1. Answer the following questions. a. Why is standard deviation important? b. What does it mean if the standard deviation is large? c. What does it mean if the standard deviation is small?

x 2 166 2 = = = 27.67 N 6 a.

x=X- X 10 2 1 -3 -4 -6

x2 100 4 1 9 16 36 166

x

N

2

166 = 6

27.67= 5.26

b.

x =

N 1

166 = 33.2 5

166 = 6 1 166 = 5 33.2 5.76 =

s=

N 1

2.

39 31 30 26 25 23 174

a.

2 =

(X)

N N

2

2

( 174 ) 5212

6 6

5212

30276 6 = 5212 5046 = 166 = 27.67 6 6 6 30276 6 = 5212 5046 = 166 = 27.67 = 5.26 6 6 6

(X)

N N

=

2

5212

( 174 )

6

=

2

5212

b.

s2 =

(X)

N 1 N

( 174 ) 5212

6 1 6

5212

s=

(X)

N 1 N

( 174 ) 5212

6 1 6

5212

- ch09.randvarUploaded byamisha2562585
- Process Control Chart or Run ChartUploaded byNavin
- StatisticsUploaded byapi-3731661
- Beacon Data Summary Report ExampleUploaded byrblair5225
- Draft Commercials(B)Uploaded byVenkatesh Nenavath
- employee engagement.docxUploaded byektadv
- IA Presentation final1Uploaded byhellolaura
- Livingstone, Data AnalysisUploaded bychemistj
- Esemen Mate.............................Uploaded byshaf_merc90
- Basic Math SymbolsUploaded byKyungJun Shin
- 2012 Paper F5 QandA Sample Download v1Uploaded bykent232323
- DISTRIBUCIÓNUploaded byJJYRJRYS
- Optimal Risky PortfoliosUploaded byShilpi Rai
- mit6 041f10 l12Uploaded byapi-246008426
- 0actual DispersionUploaded bySushantGaur
- Practice MidtermUploaded byAnonymous 9qJCv5mC0
- Lesson 6 Measures of Spread or VariationUploaded bytheia28
- 2yprobnUploaded bybliss_au
- Syllabus StatisticsUploaded byShah Maqsumul Masrur Tanvi
- Basic Tools for Data Collection, Organization and DescriptionUploaded bymitha
- Chapter 2 Student VersionUploaded byKit Meng Lim
- Frequencies VariablesUploaded bySri Rahayu
- research exam -2Uploaded byapi-354563570
- Individual Report for Fall 2013 EDLD-6462.701 DISTRICT SCHOOL FINANCE - William Kritsonis, PhDUploaded byAnonymous aDHOj5
- Assignment-2.pdfUploaded bymustafa
- bary-siamUploaded byFelipe Pait
- Vade MecumUploaded byAdnan Nawaz
- Stats Calc SheetUploaded byJoshua Poblete Directo
- Standard Deviation and Its ApplicationsUploaded byanon_882394540
- Assignment I - - - STAT 106 (17-09-2019)Uploaded bychhayank kaushik

- Anova & Reml ManualUploaded byHugo Ferney Gomez Becerra
- Biostatistics.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 3xcMImL4
- Planning an investigation.pptxUploaded byDANIELA SIMONELLI
- u09d1 ANOVA F Stat Research QuestionUploaded byarhodes777
- Week 1Uploaded bytkiet123
- Errors ExperimentUploaded byaliffpadzi
- Mann WhitneyUploaded byMarivic Daludado Baligod
- Chapter 7Uploaded byMia
- 11_MANOVAUploaded bySunil Kamat
- Business StatisticsUploaded byShivshankar Yadav
- Econ 7629 Applied Econometrics-Syllabus for Fall 2015Uploaded byShana Khan
- Problems on Testing of Hypotheses-1 Solution (1)Uploaded byAnmol Arora
- f Distribution TableUploaded byPebo Green
- What Factors Drive Brand Loyalty in JeansUploaded byAbhinav Bhatnagar
- chap_13_2Uploaded byapi-19746504
- dt1994jwo001.pdfUploaded byPatrycja Maia
- 12 Multiple Regression Part2Uploaded byRama Dulce
- Class12_1Uploaded byzainida
- ch12Uploaded byTonoy Peter Corraya
- SAS_ARIMA.pdfUploaded byasfour00
- Business Analytics Course Content_1.pdfUploaded bydratha01
- SPSSChapterUploaded byIre Reign Francisquite
- Introduction to Statistical Learning: with Applications in RUploaded byAnuar Yeraliyev
- Sample Data Sets for Linear Regression1Uploaded byThảo Nguyễn
- An_Introduction_to_the_Bootstrap.pdfUploaded byCyprian Omari
- Regression Analysis.pdfUploaded bytiberiu_stefan
- CHAPTER 3 Measures of Central TendencyUploaded byAce Botones
- u02d1 Factors Affecting Power in the T TestUploaded byarhodes777
- materials_2685_Study on effect of CRIMS data on warpage simulation and possibility of using supplement CRIMS data.pptxUploaded bysandokan_85
- Data Presentation and AnalysisUploaded bysweety

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.