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# Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

## Chap. Chap 2 Governing Equations of Fluid Flow

Prof. Chul-Ho Kim

## Important Terms in this chapter

- Conservation Law - Continuity Momentum and Energy equations Continuity, - Navier-Stokes equations - Vorticity and Circulation -S Stream Function and S Streamlines

## School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Mechatronic Engineering

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

0.8B\$/7Yrs (2002)

## 2.2B\$/8Yrs 2 2B\$/8Y (2001)

1.3B\$/3Yrs (2005)

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

Lecture Topics
General Information of Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics Governing Equations of Fluid Dynamics Fundamentals of Potential Flows (Inviscid flow) 2-D Airfoil Section Theory 3-D Finite Wing Theory Viscous Flow and Boundary Layer Theory (Aerodynamics Experiments with Wind Tunnel)
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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

The Fundamentals of fluid mechanics for the further development of Aerodynamics i i d l f d i is introduced with physics and d d ih h i d mathematics of the one-dimensional fluid motion. - Physical laws governing the change of the properties of air - A li i to subsonic/transonic/supersonic fl regions Application b i / i / i flow i 2-D approach to have G.E. of the fluid flow phenomenon in this chapter. hi h

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

Contents
2.1 Introduction (Conservation Analysis) 2.2 One-dimensional flow; the basic equation (properties in fluid dynamics and thermodynamics) ( i i fl id d i d h d i ) 2.3 The measurement of air speed (Differential Analysis) 2.4 Two-dimensional flow (The Continuity equation) 2.6 The momentum equation (moments) q ( ) 2.5 The Stream function and streamline 2.7 Rotational flow and vorticity 2 8 The Navier-Stokes equations 2.8 Th N i St k ti 2.9 Properties of the Navier-Stokes equations 2 10 Exact solutions of the Navier Stokes equations 2.10 Navier-Stokes
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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

2.1 I t d ti 2 1 Introduction
Newton s Newtons 2nd Law ; Force applied to is the rate of change of momentum M F = a = ma - Solid mechanics; g - Fluid mechanics;

## M d & F = a = m a = (mv) = m v (mass flow rate) g dt

c

The forces exerted on the air movement are ; - Body forces : weight by gravity, acceleration, electro-magnetic force - Surface forces : pressure, shear force by viscosity

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## F V = = A h Stress strain rate

Newtonian fluid ; a fluid whose stress versus rate of strain curve is linear and passes through the origin. (common f i ( fluids: water, air, other gases etc) i ) The air flow field in this study is considered as a continuum flow field. field Exceptions : Rarefield gas dynamics. (for aerospace; re-entry vehicle)

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## 2.1.2 Comparison of steady and unsteady flow

Considering an airplane in steady flight, flight (1) Ground-fixed coordinate system Ground fixed With the variation of time, the properties of the air particle changes continuously. i.e. Properties of air (T) constant It is called that the flow is unsteady state. ( quasi-steady state)
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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

(2) Vehicle-fixed coordinate system With the variation of time, the properties of the air particle at the fixed point does not change, that is, Properties of air (T) = constant It is called that the flow is steady state state.

Therefore the governing equations of air flow phenomena about a vehicle will be simplified because the time derivative terms are eliminated. eliminated
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## True unsteady flow

From the flow around a bluff body, the wake flow zone occurs at the rear of the body. At point P, sometimes, it is in the wake region and sometimes not. And the flow properi A d h fl Q ties at P changes rapidly with time. Point Q is well outside of the wake, and the variation of the properties p p is very small and it can be regarded as steady flow with little error.
P

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

<Streamline, Streamtube, Streakline and Pathline> -S Streamline : an i li imaginary line that is instantaneously tangent to the i li h i i l h velocity vector of the flow and no flow across the line - Streamtube : a bundle of streamlines or a region bounded by streamlines p particles that have passed p - Streakline : the locus of points of all the fluid p - Pathline : the trajectories that individual fluid particles

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## 2.2 One-dimensional flow : Basic Equation

(Control Volume Analysis) For the real flow analysis, -C Conservation Law (mass, momentum and energy) ti L ( t d ) - Equation of state of perfect gas
If a real flow field can be modeled by simplified assumptions, the handling complexity may be reduced considerably. However, we need the experiences to judge h h j d what the reasonable assumptions for the problem are. bl i f h bl For example, air is considered as an incompressible and inviscid fluid in much p , p of aerodynamics. However, the viscosity plays important role to transmit the aerodynamic forces to the body.
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## 2.2.1 One-dimensional flow : the basic equations of conservation

In here, the governing equations of fl id d I h h i i f fluid dynamics i d i d f i is derived from the h conservation law. - Conservation of Mass : - Conservation of Momentum : - Conservation of Energy : Continuity Equation Momentum Equation q Energy Equation

Let is h L N i the properties of fl id and n i the properties per unit mass of i f fluid d is h i i f the fluid. (N : mass, momentum, energy)

N = nd
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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

The volume of fluid is V1 and V2 at time t1 and t2 respectively. That is, N = VA + VB at t1 N = VB + VC at t2 And the property of the fluid at each time is expressed as; d N1 = NA1 + NB1 N2 = NB2 + NC2 at t1 at t2

N = ( N B 2 + N C 2 ) ( N A1 + N B1 ) = ( N B 2 N B1 ) + ( N C 2 N A1 )
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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

Divide by time Di id b ti ;

N ( N B 2 N B1 ) ( N C 2 N A1 ) = + t t t

## ( N C 2 N A1 ) N ( N B 2 N B1 ) lim 0 = t lim 0 + t lim 0 t t t t

Where

(1)

lim 0 t
t

N dN = t dt d
B2 B1

system

Rate f h R t of change of fluid property(N) in the System f fl id t (N) i th S t Accumulation rate of fluid property(N) in the CV Rate of change of fluid p p y( ) in and out CV g property(N)
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lim

( N N ) N = t t
C2 A1

Control Volume

lim

(N N ) N = lim t t
t 0

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

From the above concepts introduced, Conservation Law (Rate f Ch (R t of Change of the Property)system = f th P t ) ( (Difference of the property entering and leaving CS)CS p p y g g ) + (Accumulated value of the property in CV)CV That is, the change rate of the fluid property(N) is; (The rate of change of the property entering and leaving through CS)CS + (The rate of change of the accumulated property in CV)CV
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## (1) The rate of change of fluid property(N) in and out through CS

As shown in the figure, the fluid velocity(V) can be divided into the tangential and normal component to the infinite control surface area (dA). Thus the mass flow through the control surface is,

dm = d
Where Wh

d = (V n t ) dA

That is, the amount of the mass flow through the control surface (dA) is,

dm = V n tdA
Therefore, the fluid property(N) leaving the control volume through dA is;

N = ndm = n V n tdA
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## For the t f h F th rate of change of th property, f the t

N
in the limit time,
t

t
lim 0 lim 0

= nVn dA
= nVn dA
CS

N
t

That is the rate of change of the difference of the property(N) entering and is, leaving CS is, N
t

= nVn dA
CS

(2)

## Accumulation rate of fluid property(N) in the CV

(2) Th rate of change of the fl id property(N) accumulated i the The f h f h fluid (N) l d in h CV; N = (nVn tdA) t control volume t
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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

Where d = (V t )dA Wh
n

## in the limit time,

t

N t
0

control volume

= (nd) t
CS

N lim li = nd t t

(3)

Substitute (2), (3) into (1) and then, the conservation equation is obtained.

dN dt

system

= nV dA + nd t
CS n CV

(4)

## ( (The rate of change of the fluid p p y( )) = g property(N))

(The rate of change of the property entering and leaving through CS)CS + (The rate of change of the accumulated property in CV)CV
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## 2.2.2 The Continuity, Momentum and Energy equation 1) C ti it E Continuity Equation ti

If N is mass(m) of the fluid in the flow field; n=N/m=1. Thus from the conservation equation (4), q ( ),

dM dt

system

= Vn dA + d CS t CV

From the conservation of mass, the rate of change of mass is zero. Then,

0 = Vn dA + d CS t CV
It means that the incoming mass flow rate through CS is equal to the sum of the outgoing mass flow rate through CS and the accumulated mass flow rate in the CV.
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CS

Vn dA = 0

## for steady, incompressible flow, ( =constant )

CS

Vn dA = 0

The equation means that the incoming mass flow rate of the fluid through the CS is equal to the outgoing mass flow rate through the CS.

V dA = V A
n n
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or

V dA =
n

Flowrate

1 2 3

## m3/sec kg/sec g kgf/sec

22

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

Ex) As shown in the figure, the parabolic equation of velocity distribution in di t ib ti i a pipe i given. i is i Find the average velocity of the fluid in the pipe and the volume flow rate. From

V =
Thus ,

dA

V =

5 (1 r 2 / R 2 ) r dr d

= 2 . 5 ft / s

## The volume flow rate;

Q = AV = 7.854 R

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

For summary, the continuity equation with the averaged velocity ( V ) is,

AV = AV +
in out

m t

(5)
CV

AV = AV
in out

(6)

## for steady flow, incompressible flow,

& m = AV
( mass transfer across control surface + mass storage within control volume )
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(7)

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

2) M Momentum E t Equation ti
From the conservation of momentum, the linear momentum and angular , g momentum equations are delivered. (1) Li Linear M Momentum E t Equation ti If N is momentum(mv) of the fluid in the flow field; n=N/m=v. Thus from the conservation equation (4),

V mV n= =V m

d ( mV ) dt

system

= VV dA + Vd t
CS n CV

(8)

## d ( mV ) = VVn dA + (mV ) CS dt t system

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## In 3-dimensional fl fi ld th f I a 3 di i l flow field, the force i expressed b N t 2nd L is d by Newtons Law.

d Fx = dt (mV ) x ,
from the momentum equation,

d Fy = dt (mV ) y ,

d Fz = dt (mV ) z
(9) (10)

## d Fx = dt (mV ) x = CS VVndA + t (mV ) x system

Fy =

d (mV ) y dt

system

= VVn dA +
CS

(mV ) y t

d Fz = dt (mV ) z

## = VVn dA + (mV ) z CS t system

(11)

where Vn is the vertical component of the velocity to CS and Vx, Vy, Vz are the velocity components of the main flow. Thus the two components of the velocity are not always the same i the control volume. h in h l l
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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

For summary, the momentum equation with the averaged velocity( V ) is,
Linear Momentum Equation :
d F = dt (mV ) = CS (VVndA) + t (mV ) system CV

(12)

F The is the summation of all force components acting on the CV. They could be gravity, electric/magnetic force in the field, surface tension effects, pressure forces and viscosity viscosity.

The terms on the right side of the equation mean, g q (momentum transfer across control surface + momentum storage within control volume)
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F i = V i V n dA
CS

(13)

## If the CV has single inlet and outlet on the surface,

F i = V 2 i 2 A 2 V 2 V 1 i 1 A 1V 1 = V i AV
out

V i AV

in

(14)

## for 1-D steady and incompressible flow, y p ,

& F i = m (V 2 i V 1 i ) = (V ou V in ) i dir

(15)
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## (2) Angular Momentum Equation

For the design and performance analysis of turbo-machine such as turbine, pump, g p y , p p, compressor etc angular momentum equation is required. Lets assume that the infinite volume of particle located at the radius(r) from the origin on the x-y plane receives the force (dF) from arbitrary direction The infinite volume xy direction. may be considered as rotor blade of a turbine. The force(dF) acting on the infinite volume is divided into two components; the tangential and normal direction of the radius(r). However, the rotating energy of the particle is the tangential force. Thus, the torque energy

dT = rdF
s

(16)

## dF where d t can be obtained from the previous linear momentum equation.

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

That is, Th t i

F t = CS V t V n dA + CV T t d t

in differential form,

dF = (V dm ) + V V dA t
t t t n

## from (1), (2),

dT s = r (V t dm ) + rV t V n dA t
Total Torque;

Ts =

CS

rV t ( V n dA ) + t

CV

rV t dm
31

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

Ts =

CS

rV sin ( V n dA ) + t

rV
CV

sin dm

Ts = t

CV

(r V )d + dm

CV

( r V )( V d A )

(17)

## for steady flow; y ;

Ts =

CS

( r V )( V d A )

(18)
32

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

3) Energy Equation
The 1st law of Thermodynamics ; Energy can be neither created nor destroyed but only converted from one form t another. f to th With the 1st Law and some assumptions, we can produce Energy eq. to analysis energy exchanges between systems and environments. < Assumption > - Steady : Conditions at any section of the system is independent of time - Continuity : The weight entering must equal to the weight leaving the system in the same period of time time.
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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

To t T set up th energy eq. , we h the have id tifi d 6 energy t identified terms th t that apply to various situations. Potential Energy : Z , Energ Internal Energy : U , Kinetic Energy : V/2g Energ Flow Work : W , Heat : q

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

from the law of the conservation of Energy, we can set up an Energy Equation.

inlet

exit

( where : Energy )

## P V12 Win + qin + u1 + 1 + + Z1 r1 2 g = Wout + qout

for net work and net heat ;

P2 V22 + u2 + + + Z2 r2 2 g

## net work = Wout Win = W t k net heat = qout qin = q

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

P V12 P2 V22 q + u1 + 1 + + Z1 = W + u 2 + + + Z2 r1 2 g r2 2 g
where Enthalpy = Internal Energy + Flow Work S. Enthalpy = S. I. E. + S. F. W.

P h=u+ r
Thus

## 1 q W = (h2 h1 ) + (V22 V12 ) + ( Z 2 Z1 ) 2g 1 = h + V 2 + Z 2g

(19)
36

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## 4) Bernoulli's Equations Bernoulli s

Many engineering problems have been solved since it was introduced by Daniel Bernoulli i 1738 It h th li it ti B lli in 1738. has the limitations t apply f th problems given b l to l for the bl i below. - High-Speed Flow of Compressible Fluids ( c ) g p p - Fluid Flow with Heat Transfer - Fluid Flow with large Pressure Change due to friction ( P c ) For the practical flow problems, the theory of fluid dynamics based on the conservation law should be solved to get the detailed information of the flow field characteristics. - Continuity Equation - Energy Equation - Momentum Equation - State equation of Gas
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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

for f a small stream t b f ll t tube, from N t ' 2 d L of M ti ; Newton's 2nd Law f Motion

F = P dA ( P + dP ) dA W cos d P dL = ma
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Where Wh

W = g dA dL,

dU a= , dt d

dZ cos = dL

## d P is Perimeter of Cross-section Area of the stream tube.

dP dA g dA dZ d P dL = U dU dA dL dP g dZ d P = U dU dA
dL dP + U dU + g dZ + d P =0 dA
The above equation is called Eulers equation for viscous fluid. For inviscid flow, the Shear Stress ( ) is zero.
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(20)

## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

dP + U dU + g dZ = 0 dP + U dU + g dZ = 0

dP

U + dU + dZ = 0 g dP
2

U i.e. + d + dZ = 0 2g
for incompressible fluid, ( = const. )

P U +Z =0 d + 2g
2

(22)

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P U2 d + +Z=0 2g

## for Incompressible fluid , for process

1 1 dP + u du + dz = 0 r g
2 2 2 1 1 1

1 1 ( P P ) + (U U ) + ( Z Z ) = 0 r g
2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

P 1

U P2 U + + Z1 = + + Z2 2g 2g
(B Bernoulli equation ) lli i

2 1

2 2

P U2 + + Z = H = const 2g

## P Pressure Head U y : , : Velocity Head, Z : Potential Head 2g

2

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## 2.2.2 Comments on the Momentum and Energy Equations

U + + Z = const 2g
2

(Pressure or Internal energy) + (Kinetic energy) + (Potential energy) = constant It is not considering the viscosity effect, thus Bernoullis equation can not be applied along a streamline in a boundary layer. In aerodynamics, viscosity is important reason in the energy dissipation in flow field.

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## 2.3 Measurement of air speed (Pit t t ti Tube) 23M t f i d Pitot-static T b

2.3.1 2 3 1 Pitot-static tube
The pitot tube was invented by the French engineer Henri Pitot in the early 1700s and was modified to its modern form in the mid 1800s by French scientist Henry Darcy. y y y Pitot tube Static tube

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

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## From Bernoullis equation, F B lli i

1 1 2 2 PA + VA = PB + VB 2 2

VB =
where the air density, air

2( PA PB )

air

2 h

air

Po = RTo

It can be used to measure the flow velocity in the wake and boundary layer regions even though the Bernoullis equation has a limitation to inviscid flow. Stagnation Pressure Coefficient (Cpo)

V P P Cp = 1 = 1 V V 2
0 2

=1
46

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## 2.3.2 The pressure coefficient (Cp)

P P Cp C = 1 V 2
1

where P is static pressure at some point where the velocity is q. P and V is static pressure and velocity of2 the undisturbed flow. For incompressible flow;

q C = 1 V
p

(1) if q > V then P < P and Cp < 0 (negative value) (2) if q = V then P = P and Cp = 0 ( free stream ) (3) if q < V then P > P and Cp > 0 (positive value)
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## 2.3.3 Air-speed 2 3 3 Air speed indicator

1) Indicated air speed (IAS) ) p ( ) 2) Equivalent air speed (EAS) V = V , E 3) True air speed (TAS)

1) IAS : Uncorrected reading by the actual-air-speed indicator. The speed of an aircraft as shown on its pitot static airspeed indicator calibrated to reflect standard atmosphere adiabatic compressible flow at sea level uncorrected for airspeed system errors. 2) EAS : The airspeed at sea level which represents the same dynamic pressure as that flying at the true airspeed (TAS) at altitude 3) TAS : The actual aircraft speed relative to the air when =1, TAS = EAS and normally TAS > EAS because ( < 1 ) 1,
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## Airspeed indication system in Aircraft

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## Air-speed I di Ai d Indicator Altimeter

Variometer (VSI)

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## 2.3.4 2 3 4 The compressibility assumption

In compressible flow, p for dynamic pressure; the pressure coefficient; where thus,
a=
2

P = RT
2

1 1 V = PM 2 2

## (where M : Mach number)

Cp =
o

Po P P 1 = ( o 1) 1 V 2 0.7 M 2 P 2
2 4 6 8

## 7/2 P 7 7 7 7 o = 1+ 1 M 2 = 1+ M + M + M + M + .... P 5 10 40 400 1600

M M M Cp = 1 + + + + .... 4 40 1600
2 4 6 o

(2-32)

The equation is reasonable when M < 1.0 but for supersonic (M > 1.0), the shock wave formed and the flow field is completely altered.
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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

(Example 2-1) Calculating the TAS from IAS IAS = 950km/h at SL in ISA TAS = 891km/h (59km/h difference) Why it happened?

V =
B

2( P P )

2 h

air

air

P = RT
air

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52

## 2.4 Two-dimensional flow (Differential Analysis)

As the particle velocity has two components in a flow field, the flow is called 2field 2 dimensional flow.
1-D flow 3-D flow 3 D fl 2-D flow

V = ui

V = ui + vj

V = ui + vj + wk

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## 2.4.1 Component Velocities

The flow velocity at P(x,y) in the field,

V = ui + vj
In a Cartesian coordinate, a particle moves from P(x,y) to Q(x+x, y+y), th the velocity f P( ) t Q( + + ) then th l it of the particle is ;

In the horizontal direction ; u = dx / dt the vertical direction ; v = dy / dt the magnitude of velocity ; q = u 2 + v 2 the direction of velocity ; = tan1 ( dx / dy )
54

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

In a polar coordinate, a particle moves from P(r,) to Q(r+r, +), then the velocity of the particle is ; - the radial velocity ;

q = dr / dt
n

## - the tangential velocity ; qt = rd / dt

2 2 - the distance travelled ; s = s + ( r )

## - the magnitude of velocity ; g y - the direction of velocity ;

q =q +q
2 2 n
1 t

= tan ( q / q )
n

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

( Fluid acceleration )
Velocity at Q(x+x, y+y), x-dir : y-dir y dir : Acceleration t Q( + + ) A l ti at Q(x+x, y+y), x-dir : y-dir : Pressure at Q(x+x, y+y),

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## 2.4.2 C i i E 2 4 2 Continuity Equation in Cartesian coordinate i i C i di

Consider a typical elemental CV at P(x,y). P(x y) The local velocity components and density are; U(x, y, t), V(x, y, t), (x, y, t) Mass flow per unit area; (UA)

( u ) x ( u )y 1 (x-dir) in: x x 2 ( u ) x out : ( u + )y 1 x 2 Mass flow accumulated in x-dir; (out)-(in) ( u ) x y 1 x ( v ) Mass flow accumulated in y-dir; (out) (in) y dir; (out)-(in) x y 1 y
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## The total accumulated mass flow in CV;

( u ) ( v ) + x y 1 y x The rate of change of mass of the fluid through the CS. ( Volume) = ( dx dy 1) = Q t t

(1)

(2)

## That is, (1) = (2)

( u ) ( v ) + + =0 t x y

## Continuity Equation; ( y q ; (2-D flow) )

u v +u +v + + = 0 t x y x y
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## Continuity C i i equation for steady and incompressible flow in 2-D flow; i

u v + =0 x y
(if u increases then v decreases)

## Continuity equation in 3-D flow;

u v w +u +v +w + + + =0 y z t x x y z

## for steady and incompressible flow in 3-D flow (=const)

u v w + + =0 x y z
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## 2.4.3 C i i E 2 4 3 Continuity Equation in Polar coordinate i i P l di

for Radial direction; the accumulated mass flow rate (mr);

## Thus total accumulated mass flow rate in CV; (3)

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## The rate of change of mass of the fluid through the CS.

( Volume) = ( rddr ) = Q t t

(4)

## That is, (3) = (4)

q ( q ) 1 q + + + =0 r r t r
n n t

## for steady flow;

( q ) 1 q + + =0 r r r
n n t

## for steady and incompressible flow; (=const) y p ; ( )

q q 1 q + + =0 r r r
n n t

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## 2.6 The momentum equation

Physical Concept of the momentum equation; (from conservation of momentum) ( the force acting on the fluid within CV) = (the rate of increase in momentum in CV, ( m v ) ) + (the net rate at which momentum flows out though CS, ( m v )in ( m v )out ) The fluid force ; (Body force) : gravity (or weight) of the fluid in the CV ( (Surface force ) : pressure force, viscous force on the CS p , (a) pressure force : a stress acting perpendicular to the CS
62

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

(b) viscous force : acting on the surface of CS. (1) side face : (2) top/bottom face : stress tensor for 2-D flow :

In I engineering problem, the direct stress (xx, yy) are negligible compare with i i bl h di ( li ibl ih the shear stress. Even the shear stress is ignorable in a still fluid. (the force acting on the fluid within CV, (III)+(IV)+(V) ) = (the rate of increase in momentum in CV, (I) )+ (the t t t hi h (th net rate at which momentum fl t flows out th t though CS (II) ) h CS,
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## (I) the rate of increase in momentum in CV h fi i i

( v ) ( Vol v ) = dx dy 1 = Q v t t

( v ) u v dx dy d d 1 = ( i+ j )d d 1 dx dy t t t

## (II) th net rate at which momentum flows out though CS the t t t hi h t fl t th h

for x-direction, ,

& & mV mV
3 3 1

u u v u = u + v + u + x y 1 y x y x u u = u + v x y 1 y x
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(continuity eq.)

64

## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

for y-direction,

& & mV mV
4 4 2

v v = u + v x y 1 y x

x y

g x y 1

## (IV) Pressure force acting on the CV

Net pressure force in x-direction ; x direction Net pressure force in x-direction ;

P x y 1 x P P P = x y 1 y y P P =
x1 x2

y1

y2

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+ x y 1 F = y x
xx xy x

## Viscous force in x-direction ;

+ x y 1 F = y x
yx yy y

Put the terms (I~V) into the concept; x direction x-direction ; (I)+(II) = (III)+(IV)+(V)

u u u p +u +v = g + + x y x x y t
xx x

xy

(2.66a)
66

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## y-direction ; (I)+(II) = (III)+(IV)+(V)

v v v p + u + v = g + + y x y x y t
y yx y yy

(2.66b) (2 66b)

## For 3-D momentum equations for continuum fluid;

u u u u p + u + v + w = g + + + z x y x x y z t
xx xy y x xz

v v v v p + u + v + w = g + + + x y z x x y z t
yx yy y zx zy

yz

(2.67 b, ) (2 67 a, b c)

w p w w w + u + v + w = g + + + z x y z x y z t
z

zz

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## 2.6.1 2 6 1 Euler equation i

For inviscid flow, the viscous term is ignored in the momentum equation. Then the equation is called Eulers equation. For 3-D Eulers F 3 D E l equations for inviscid flow; ti f i i id fl

u u u u p +u +v +w = g z x y x t
x y

v v v v p + u + v + w = g x y z x t w p w w w + u + v + w = g z x y z t
z

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

In engineering problem, - continuity equation - momentum equations can be solved to get the velocity (U, V, W) and pressure (P) in the flow field. But because the pressure term does not appear on the continuity equation. For inviscid flow case, the Euler s equations reduce to a simple equation Eulers which is called Laplace Equation.

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## 2.5 2 The S Stream f function and S i Streamlines i

2.5.1 2 5 1 Stream function () f nction
Lets think about a shallow river with constant depth, 1m. If q = 2m/s, the volume flow rate is p , passing g through OA line is ;

Q = A V = 40 1 2 = 80( m / s )
3 n

Even the shape of the rope is changed, the amount of water passing through is the same and is not p g g affected by the shape of the rope. Stream F St Function () : th amount of fluid quantity passing an area per unit ti the t f fl id tit i it

time. (m3/s)

## volume flow rate ( Q )

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70

## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

Let the flow velocity be q passing over a small length (S) of line;

q sin s 1( m / s )
3

op

q sin ds
71

## (Integration of normal velocity component from O to P)

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

If this quantity remains constant irrespective of the path of integration, it is called the stream function of P with respect to O. Stream Function :

P = q sin ds
op

## < Sign Convention for Stream Function >

When looking in the direction of integration, if the flow across from left to right, the sign is positive.
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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

2.5.2 Streamline
If mOP = mOP = mOP = mOP = mOP ..... = mOPn , no flows across the PP1, P1P2, o ows c oss e P2P3, P3 P4. That is, the velocity of the flow must along or tangential to the lines.
1 2 3 4

(condition f t ( diti of streamline) li ) - No flow across the streamline - The stream function is constant along the line g - Flow velocity is always tangential to the stream line - Constant stream function line Lets assume,

OP = OP = OP = OP = OP ..... = OPn
1 2 3 4

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

If OP = OP1 , there is no flow cross the line PP1. That is the flow must be along or tangent to PP1. Therefore, PP1, P1P2, P2P3, P3P4, ., Pn-1Pn are lines of constant P . The line is called stream lines. lines A streamline is a line of constant

The velocity of fluid particles on a streamline can be changed in magnitude but the direction is always that of the tangent to the line.

## 2.5.3 Velocity component in terms of

(a) Cartesian Coordinate ( ) C i C di The amount of fluid flowing across between P and Q is . i.e. : the change of stream function between P(x, ) d Q(x+x, + ) P( y) and Q( + y+y)
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74

= uy vx
x y

## Thus these velocities are Vx, Vy components on the stream function ( )

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, u= y

v= x

## = qtr + qn (r + r ) = qtr + qn r + qnr

Thus,

= qtr + qn r
76

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## The total flow across in the line PRQ is ,

(r , ) = r + r
1 q = r
n

Thus

q = , r
t

(qt , qn ) are velocity components at a point (r, ) in a flow given by stream function ( )
From the above, the velocity(q) in any direction is found by differentiating the stream function ( ) with respect to the direction n normal to velocity (q).

q= n

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77

## 2.7 2 Rates of strain, rotational flow and vorticity f i i f i i

Let s Lets assume that all of the fluids (gases, liquids) are Newtonian fluids. It means, (gases fluids means (the viscous stress)

## (the rate of strain)

(the rate of strain) (the velocity gradient) 2.7.1 Distortion of fluid element in flow field
In general, the transformation of a fluid element comprises the following operations; general (1) Translation (2) Dilation/Compression (shape remain invarient but volume changes)
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F dU = A dy y

## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

In I general, the t l th transformation of a fl id element comprises the f ll i operations; f ti f fluid l t i th following ti ( ) (1) Translation (2) Dilation/Compression (shape remain invarient but volume changes) (3) Distortion (shape changes with keeping the volume)

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## ( Transformation of a Fluid Element )

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## 2.7.2 Rate of strain

The control volume, (ABCD) at ( = ti ) deformed ( ,( ) (t (ABCD) at ( ) (t=t); ); The velocity at ( t = ti ),
UA =U U x U y x 2 y 2

V x V y VA = V x 2 y 2

U x U y UB = U + x 2 y 2
U x U y UC = U + x 2 y 2

V x V y VB = V + x 2 y 2
VC = V + V x V y x 2 y 2

uA, vA;

x' u = t
A A

y' v = t
A A
81

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v = t x
d v = dt x

u = t y
d u = dt y

## The rate of shear strain in x-y plane is;

d xy dt d = v d + u 1 1 v u ( ) = t + t = + x dt d 2 y 2t 2 x y
d xz 1 w u = + 2 x z dt

d xy

1 v u = + dt 2 x y

d yz

1 w v = y + z dt 2

(2.72a, b, c)

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82

## 2.7.3 R 2 7 3 Rate of di f direct strain i

The direct strain and their corresponding rates of strain ;

d u = dt x
xx

d v = dt y
yy

d w = dt z
zz

## The rate of strain tensor for 2-D flow;

xx

xy

yx

yy

83

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## 2.7.4 V ti it ( t ti 2 7 4 Vorticity (rotation, )

The vorticity() is an instantaneous rate of rotation of a fluid element.

d ( ) dt

## It is called the vorticity in z-axis.

d d v u = = dt dt x y
For 3-dimensional flow, the vorticity is a vector g , y given by; y;

w v u w v u = ( ,, ) = ( , , ) y z z x x y
Mathematically, the vorticity is given for 3-D flow; (3-D vorticity, )

= V
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## 2.7.5 Vorticity (rotation, ) in polar coordinates

The vorticity() in polar coordinates is ; from equation (2-54), p73

qt qt 1 qn = + r r r
2.7.6 Rotational and Irrotational

Vorticity is associated with the effects of viscosity. If viscosity is neglected, the vorticity is equivalently zero and the fluid elements do neglected not rotate or distort as they move through the flow field. For an inviscid flow; - Vorticity is zero ; = ( , , ) = 0 - Irrotation or undistorted flow (pure translation flow) - Potential flow
85

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

2.7.7 Circulation
Circulation () : The total amount of vorticity passing through any plane region within a flow field. The total strength of the vortex can be written;

= n dA
A

## If Area(A) in the X-Y plane and n = k , then;

=k

= n kdA = dA
A A

(2-81) (2 81)

Circulation is a measure of the combined strength of the total number of vortex line g (vorticity flux) passing through the area (A).
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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

Circulation is the property of the region A in CV whereas vorticity is a flow defined at a point. - vorticity Point ( = ( ,, ) ) - circulation Area ( = A dA )

In 2-D flow, in the absence of viscosity, circulation is conserved; from conservation of mass; (continuity equation)
+u +v =0 t x y

Circulation is also calculated by an integration around the perimeter (C); ( pp y g (applying Stokes theorem) )

= q t d ds
c

## (Circulation is important concept to the theory of lift.)

87

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

(Example 2.2) page89 Prove that the circulation can also be evaluated by the integral around the closed circuit. circuit (sol) from Eq. (2-81)
= dA = (
A A

v u ) dA x y

Where C1 ; C2 ;

## q = ui, t = i, ds = dx C3 ; q = ui, t = i, ds = dx q = vj, t = j, ds = dy C4 ; q = vj, t = j, ds = dy

= q t ds
c
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## 2.8 Th Navier-Stokes 2 8 The N i St k equations (p89) ti

2.8.1 2 8 1 Relationship between rates of strain and viscous stresses In solid mechanics (by Hookes Law) : ( y ) ( (stress) (strain) ) ( )

In fluid mechanics (Newtonian Fluid) : (viscous stress) (rate of strain) For 2-dimensional flow, the above concept can be written in; (2.87) It is good for an incompressible fluid. For the compressible fluid, direct stress generated by dilation should be considered.
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## Claude-Louis Navier (10 February 1785 in Dijon 21 August 1836 in Paris)

-Established the elastic modulus as a property of materials in 1826 - Navier-Stokes equations, central to fluid mechanics in 1822

George Gabriel Stokes (13 August 18191 February 1903, Cambridge, England), a mathematician and physicist, who at Cambridge made important contributions to fluid dynamics

-Terminal velocity or Settling velocity (Falling viscometer) -Derived an expression for the frictional force (Stokes' law) in 1851 Derived

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90

## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

For compressible flow, the term given below should be considered for direct stress by dilation of fluid; (2.88) Stokes hypothesis : 3+2=0 ); or =-2/3
2 3

## ' = + 0 (in most engineering problems)

The bulk viscosity( ' ) is ignorable in most engineering problems but important for the propagation of sound waves in liquids and gases. In this study, the flow is considered as incompressible thus the direct stress term study incompressible, is ignored and only eq.(2-87) is valid.

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91

## 2.8.2 The derivation of Navier-Stokes equations

For 2-D incompressible flow; (from eq. (2.72a) (2 73) into (2 87)) 2 D, eq (2 72a) (2-73) (2.87))

## the momentum equation (2-66a) becomes; u + u u + v u = g p + +

xx

xy

Thus the momentum equation written in the velocity terms for viscosities of q y fluid; u u u u u p + u + v = g + + x y x t x y x-direction; x direction; (2-92a) (2 92a)
2 2 x 2 2

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## Aerodynamics (1) - AERO3260

Thus the momentum equation written in the velocity terms for viscosities of fluid; y-direction; di e ti ;
v v v v v p + u + v = g + + x y y t x y
2 2 y 2 2

(2 92b) (2-92b)

## The above equations (2-92a, b) are 2-D Navier-Stokes equations. q ( ) q

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## Navier-Stokes equations for 3-dimensional incompressible flow ;

u v w + + =0 x y z
2 2 2

(2.94)

u u u u u u u p + u + v + w = g + + + (2.93a) x y z x t x y z
x 2 2 2

v v v v v v v p + u + v + w = g + + + (2.93b) ( ) x y z y t x y z
2 2 2 y 2 2 2

w w w w (2 93c) w w w p + u +v + w = g + + + (2.93c) x y z y z z t x
2 2 2 z 2 2 2

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## 2.9 P 2 9 Properties of the Navier-Stokes equations (p91) i f h N i S k i

3-D incompressible flow N-S equation; (Newtons 2nd Law of Motion) p q ;( )

It is impossible to obtain the exact solutions from N-S equations because, (Limitations of Navier-Stokes Equations) (1) Non-linearity of the equation ( ) (2) Complex effect of viscosity p y
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## Non-dimensional N-S equations with an example given below;

To have N-S equations for non-dimensional; the parameters (L, U, L/U, U2 ) are NS non dimensional; (L incorporated. (2.97-98) (2 97 98)

put the equations into eqs. (2.94) and (2.95); (non dimensional (non-dimensional continuity equation)

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## (non-dimensional momentum equation) with body force terms omitted; (2.100 a, b, c)

The equations have the Reynolds number term that has very serious effect on the flow pattern of the flow field. For the simulation of the flow with no flow separation on the body surface, the NS equations without the viscous term can be applicable but in the real case with q pp separation , the calculation results obtained from N-S equations is not reliable.

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97