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I WRITE THIS ONE week before Election Day. No one-not you, not I-knows what will come of it. Well, maybe Karl Rove does. But one of the many ugly victories of the arch-right takeover of public life is that the nation has been so obsessed with the presidential election, and with the specter of terrorism, that we've allowed a second coup on the homefront. No matter who wins the presidency, New York is at a moment of crisis and transition. So are most other U.S. cities and states. That's because the war on government-on taxes, on regulation, on the very premise that there ought to be a public sector that is the guardian of the public-has left the creature in critical condition. In New York, Governor Pataki and his allies have worked hard on their front, and it's paying off. Look at the numbers the Bloomberg administration sent the state Financial Control Board in October. They predict a budget gap of $4.2 billion two years from now-about $1.9 billion of which the Office of Management and Budget anticipates it can recover through new actions. The biggest: $600 million more in cuts from local government agencies. Already, the administration has indicated that to build new schools, it will have to borrow still more money. And then there's the Metropolitan Transportation authority, which has presented the region with a stunning choice: less and worse service, or some of the highest mass transit fares in the nation. Of course, government agencies need to cut down on the expense side of their ledgers-particularly the MTA, which is wasteful and unaccountable. Pension payouts and health care are a growing cost that's hard to rein in. But there's no way to ignore the billions in tax cuts that helped get us in this budget hole. City and state need to get their revenues from somewhere. Governor Pataki told us he would never implement new "job-killing taxes." But the tax cuts at the state and federal level threaten to wreak their own havoc on the region's economy. Name New York's number-one competitive advantage. Our world-class talent? Our fine bistros? Let me suggest another: Our 24-hour transit system. Virtually everything else that makes New York City such a desirable place to live and work--charming walkable neighborhoods, lively street life, intense creative interaction between people, and on and on-is utterly dependent on the bloodstream of mass transit. And yet ideologues like Pataki have helped starve the MTA to advance their own political agendas. New York is an expensive place to run a business, and we ought to be very cautious about further burdening companies with higher taxes. But neither can we burden our businesses with mass transit and other public systems that don't work, which would eliminate the city's chief competitive advantages. Is government as we've known it the only answer? Of course not. The Bloomberg administration is doing an impressive job at pulling together private initiative and resources to help with housing, schools and social services-efforts that other cities ought to emulate. The public and private sectors need one another to thrive. But if we are to have functioning and affordable transit, or habitable school buildings producing a skilled workforce, there ain't no way around it: There has to be a robust progressive tax system paving the way.

-Alyssa Katz Editor

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City Limits and the Center for an Urban Future rely on the generous support of their readers and advertisers, as well as the following funders: The Robert Sterling Clark Foundation, The Unitarian Universalist Veatch Program at Shelter Rock, The Scherman Foundaton, JPMorganChase, The Annie E. Casey Foundation, The Booth Ferris Foundation, The New York Community Trust, The Taconic Foundation, The Rockefeller Foundation, The Ford Foundation, The Ira WDeCamp Foundation, LlSC, Deutsche Bank, M& TBank, The Citigroup Foundation, New York Foundation, Bernard F. and Alva B Gimbel . Foundation, Independence Community Foundation, Stella and Charles Guttman Foundation, Washington Mutual, FAR Fund, Child Welfare Fund, United Way, Merrill Lynch, F.B. Heron Foundation, 1M. Kaplan Fund, Deutsche Bank Americas Foundation.

Columbia University plans to build a new campus in Harlem, using eminent domain if necessary. Local residents and businesses are proposing an alternative: campus and community coexistence. By Bob Roberts

New York City's foster care system is shrinking at a historically unprecedented rate. Children will be kept safe at home-but what happens to the organizations that used to house them? By Xiaoqing Rong

Troublemakers, do-gooders, gadflies: Call them what you will-these 10 New Yorkers have been around the block, and they're fighting to better yours.



Reporting domestic violence brings government authorities into the family. A new wave of organizations offers immigrant women an alternative. By Debbie Nathan


31 Q&A

Will plans for Harlem ignite a new renaissance? Kenneth Knuckles of the Upper Manhattan Empowerment Zone, interviewed by Jonathan Bowles.

When New York City's unemployment went up, why poverty didn't. By Tracie McMillan


American Dream: Three Women, Ten Kids, and a Nation's Drive to End Welfare, by Jason DeParle. Reviewed by David Jason Fischer.



Concern over tax incentives in the state's new Brownfield Cleanup Program going to wealthy developers is justified ["The Green Lady," September/October 2004]. Equally troubling, however, is that the part of the plan targeted to inner-city neighborhoods is stalled. The Brownfield Opportunities Area (BOA) program, intended to benefit New York's poorer urban communities blighted by brownfields, is stalled because of failed leadership in Albany. The BOA program-the heart and soul of the new brownfields law-is intended to provide municipalities and community-based organizations with up to 90 percent of eligible costs to create area-wide brownfield redevelopment plans. The lack of BOA funding comes not as a result of fiscal belt-tightening but because Governor Pataki, Senate Majority Leader Bruno and Assembly Speaker Silver cannot agree on a required Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the legal document implementing the entire program. The Legislature has already appropriated $30 million-$15 million in each of the last two state budgetsbut the money can't be touched until the leaders agree. New York State's departments of Environmental Conservation and State, the agencies administering the brownfields program, have done admirable work in getting the word out about the BOA program and its benefits for New York's low-income communities. Already, 52 applications worth more than $10 million have been received. Now it's time for the state's leaders to sign the MOU and allow the investments in New York's inner-city, urban communities to begin, as the law intended. to spill over its so-called ills into the suburban and exurban counties. Most of these nonmetro areas are flabbergasted that "these types" of economically dispossessed people magically appear in their vety own backyard. They cannot fathom that "something so awful" could ever happen to their American Dream town and consequently have not prepared their social safety net, their schools or their communities for the impact. The result is that instead of embracing the energy of an influx of the new group of people, and instead of being positioned to help the immigrants (and ultimately themselves) up the next rung of the socioeconomic ladder, they perpetuate the poverty and social dysfunction of the ghetto. They are left overextended fiscally, applying tax revenue to band-aid social welfare programs. They are left scrambling to find ways to uncrowd schools and to stem crime. They are left scratching their heads at immigrants being "bad neighbors" and poor civic participants. And they end up further harming their municipality by fleeing the city limits. The article illUStrates the need for regional governance, and regional approaches to economic development. Areas that possess and foster regional approaches to economic development, sprawl, transportation and housing are much healthier than areas that do not. Suburban/exurban areas must realize the inevitability of urban out-migration. Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York are fragmented into myriad local governments; the political environment is poorly suited to the establishment of any sort of regional consortium. But this country's suburbs, and now exurbs, must realize that they too have a huge stake in the health and governance of nearby urban centers. Thanks again for the good read.

Volume XXIX Number 10
City Limits is published ten times per year, monthly except bimonthly issues in July/August and September/October, by City Futures, Inc., a nonprofit organization devoted to disseminating information concerning neighborhood revitalization. Publisher: John Broderick Editor: Alyssa Katz Managing Editor: Tracie McMillan Senior Editor: Cassi Feldman Senior Editor: Xiaoqing Rong Copy Editor: Ethan Hauser Contributing Editors: Neil F. Carlson, Wendy Davis, Nora McCarthy, Debbie Nathan, Robert Neuwirth, Hilary Russ, Kai Wright Design Direction: Hope Forstenzer Art Director: Nia Lawrence Photographers: Angela Jimenez, Margaret Keady, Michael Berman , Philip Mansfield Contributing Photo Editor: Joshua Zuckerman Contributing Illustration Editor: Noah Scalin/ALR Design Interns: Abby Aguirre, Michelle Chen, James Connolly, Janelle Nanos, Sarah Unke General E-mail Address: CENTER FOR AN URBAN FUTURE: Director: Neil Kleiman Research Director: Jonathan Bowles Project Director: David J. Fischer Deputy Director: Robin Keegan Research Associate: Tara Colton


BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Andrew Reicher, Chair Ira Rubenstein, Vice Chair Karen Trella, Secretary David Lebenstein, Treasurer Michael Connor Ken Emerson Mark Winston Griffith Marc Jahr John Siegal Peter Williams SPONSORS: Pratt Institute Center for Community and Environmental Development Urban Homesteading Assistance Board Subscription rates are: for individuals and community groups, $25/0ne Year, $39/Two Years; for businesses, foundations, banks, government agencies and libraries, $35/0ne Year, $50/Two Years. Low income, unemployed, $IO/One Year. Newsstand circulation through BigTop Newsstand Services, a division of the Independent Press Association . For more information call (415) 643-0161 or fax (415) 643-2983 or E-Mail: City Limits welcomes comments and article contributions. Please include a stamped, self-addressed envelope for return manuscripts. Material in City Limits does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the sponsoring organizations. Send correspondence to: City Limits, 120 Wall Street, 20th FI., New York, NY 10005. Postmaster: Send address changes to City Limits, 120 Wall Street, 20th Fl., New York, NY 10005. Subscriber inquiries call: 1-800-783-4903 Periodical postage paid New York, NY 10001 City Limits (lSSN 0199-0330) PHONE (212) 479-3344/FAX (212) 344-6457 e-mail: and online: Copyright © 2004. All Rights Reserved. No portion or portions of this journal may be reprinted without the express permission of the publishers. City Limits is indexed in the Alternative Press Index and the Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals and is available on microfilm from ProQuest, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

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Compliments on ''Adios, Nueva York" [September/October 2004]; very well written and researched. I grew up in an Allentown-esque area of Pennsylvania that saw an influx of Black and Puerto Rican immigrants from New York and Philly in the early and mid-1990s. Unfortunately, these immigrants met similar economic and social challenges, as well as an uneasy relationship with civic leadership and law enforcement. There is definitely a much bigger issue to address, though-making a case for regional approaches to governance and economies. It begins with the issue of why many Allentowns in America are caught off-guard socially and economically when a nearby metropolis begins

I just read your story on Puerto Ricans leaving New York for rust belt cities in the sticks. All in all, a great, informative article. However, I thought you were off the mark on a few points. First, that Puerto Ricans are going to Providence, Rhode Island. Having attended college there and tutored in the local Latino community, I can assure you that the vast majority of New York-to-Providence migrants are actually Dominican. In fact, I never came across a single Puerto Rican neighborhood or even a single Puerto Rican restaurant in the four years I lived there. There is a huge difference between Puerto Ricans and Dominicans, and it bothered me to have them lumped together like this. continued on page 36



STARVING ARTISTS NO MORE! Thirteen East Village culrural organizations are now the proud owners of six buildings and two vacant lots. Known as Fourth ArtS Block (FAB), the groups purchased the buildings from the city for $1 apiece. The sale, initiated by Councilmember Margarita Lopez, marks the creation of what she's dubbed the «East 4th Street Culrural District." Four of the buildings have been occupied by cultural organizations for years, but group members always feared that they would lose their spaces to rising rents or luxury housing. «Councilwoman Lopez did a lot of work under the Giuliani administration to keep the buildings from being sold out from under us," says Ryan Gilliam, chairperson of FAB. Now these spaces, as a part of the sale, will house nonprofit cultural organizations in perpetuity. FAB will use the property for performances, workshops, classes for adults and children, and rehearsals. They will also create theaters for Teatro Circulo and lnstituto de Arte Teatral Internacional, the first Latino theater companies in the city to own their stages. Lopez hopes that besides enriching the neighborhood, the cultural experiences of the district will stimulate the neighborhood's economy. «We wanted to create a magnet to attract people to spend dollars in the community," she says. FAB isn't the first group of arts organizations to garner the city's help. New York City has the largest arts budget of any city in the nation, funding more than 600 programs. It also acts as landlord, leasing city-owned property for artistic ends. BAM Local Development Corporation, for example, has renovated several cityowned sites along with private ones. "The city is a parmer," says Lee Silberstein, executive vice president of the Marino Organization, the pubDECEMBER 2004

lic relations fum that represents BAM LDC. "There's a complicated set of leases." As owners, FAB members may have an easier time, but they still aren't quite official. "We have landmark districts, we have historical districts, but we aCtually don't have culrural districts," says Gilliam. That may be changing. At the state level, two pieces of pending legislation would create New York State Culrural Development Areas. Put forward by State Senator Serphin Maltese and Assemblyman Joseph MoreIle, the bills would make arts businesses in these districts eligible for tax incentives. Meanwhile, Lopez is drafting leg-

islation at the city level that would offer similar incentives while protecting culrural organizations from being pushed out. Not everyone supports the idea. "If I don't pay taxes, a tax credit won't help me," says Norma Munn, chairperson of the New York City Arts Coalition, explaining that nonprofits do not pay the types of taxes the legislation abates. "Cultural districts are not first and foremost abour improving the entire neighborhood: she said. "They're first and foremost abo u t creating art."




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taken to the streets. Others never gave up agitating. But here's a guarantee: For the next four years, 15 New York neighborhood housing groups will have a community organizer on board. From the North Bronx to the center of Manhattan to far-flung areas of Queens and Brooklyn, a new network of organizers is busy identifYing and responding to local housing problems-and working together to plan citywide action. The $4.8 million Initiative for Neighborhood and City Wide Organizing (INCO) is the brainchild of the Association for Neighborhood and Housing Development (ANHD) and has major fmancing from the Neighborhood Opportunities Fund, a consortium of major corporations and foundations. "What makes this a really big deal is that community organizing is a really hard thing to fund, " says Irene Baldwin, executive director of ANHD. "The confrontational piece of organizing can make people uncomfortable. It's a heck of a lot easier if you're a corporation to put your name on a golf tournament than a community organizing effort." The city's large network of nonprofit community development corporations grew out of

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strong neighborhood movements. But controversies, leadership changes, political fights and the professionalization of the housing movement left many nonprofits out of touch with this heritage of mobilization. Many of the groups have become more concerned with managing apartments than promoting pressure tactics. For instance, New Settlement Apartments is the developer and landlord of 16 buildings in Mount Eden, in the Bronx. With funding from INCO, New Settlement has now moved into tenant organizing, and is using its own money to hire a second housing organizer. New Settlement has initiated a survey of conditions in apartment buildings in the area, looking at such basic security issues as locks, intercoms and lighting. Of almost 200 buildings already evaluated, 86 had significant deficiencies, reports organizer Jackie Del Valle. She is starting with one building on the Grand Concourse and promises that her group will be active in six more by the end of 2004. Other groups tapped for INCO funding include Abyssinian Development Corporation, Asian Americans for Equality, Forest Hills Community House, Good Old Lower East Side, Housing Conservation Coordinators, Pratt Area Community Council and the St. Nicholas Neighborhood Preservation Corporation. Each will receive $50,000 a year for four years. INCO arose at a time when many nonprofits that advocate for affordable housing sensed they needed the kind of political muscle that mobilizing local residents can generate. At its best, organCITY LIMITS


izing fosters grassroots democracy-and it hdps keep city politicians focused on neighborhood demands. "The neighborhood-based housing movement has been extraordinarily effective," says Benjamin Dulchin, direeror ofINCO and former head of organizing for Brooklyn's Fifth Avenue Commirree. "But we weren't really able to translate our neighborhood strength into a powerful citywide voice." Gary Hattem, a managing director of Deutsche Bank and one ofINCO's major backers, says the renewed push for organizing is necessary because many community groups have been slow to adapt to changing populations and issues in their own communities. One of INCO's goals, Hattem says, is "reconnecting non profits with changed neighborhoods." Plus, adds Baldwin, many groups became gun-shy during the 1990s. "The Giuliani administration was really hostile to organized communities," she notes. In response, some groups toned down their talk. Today, a decade after Giuliani took office, the city still has vast unmet housing needs, despite the successes of community development groups. Says Baldwin, "People played nice and saw how far it got them." As INCO grows, the neighborhood organizations will need to mobilize people around issues that are not always close to home. "We've been very local in our advocacy role," says David Pagan, administrator of Los Sures, a housing group in Southside Williamsburg. "The idea of the new contraer is to be more citywide." ANHD has identified three possible citywide issues for local groups to tackle: more aggressive housing code enforcement, inclusionary wning to mandate affordable housing, and recapturing promised housing money rrom the Battery Park City surplus. At the same time, the foundations sponsoring the project must recognize that organizing's accomplishments cannot be easily measured. "It's not enough to say 'organizing for organizing's sake,'" says Darren Walker, director of Working Communities at the Rockefeller Foundation. "Foundations are increasingly concerned about their grantees delivering outcomes that demonstrate accountability and achievement toward specific objectives." And, of course, there's the age-old question of confrontation, which can put funders in a politically uncomfortable position. Says Hattem, "I don't see INCO lying down in the streets or doing radical things." But whatever tactics the groups choose, Baldwin is certain of one thing: More organizing will improve the city. "No matter how you felt about community organizing, we sure felt the loss of it," she says. "The housing crisis we're in, we wouldn't have had if there were more organized communities." •


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Rent Well Running Dry
A CITY PROGRAM designed to get homeless
families into solid jobs and apartments is yanking the rug out from under them, City Limits has learned. The Employment Incentive Housing Program (EIHP), a joint project between the city's welfare and homeless agencies, operates initially much like other rent assistance programs, offering low-income families that are leaving the shelter system a sizable rent subsidy. Then comes the catch: If clients leave welfare or hit the two-year time limit, they're expected to get by on their own. That's leaving parents like Diana Dortch in the lurch. Dortch, a mother of two who entered EIHP about a year and a half ago, says she recently got notice from her landlord that she owed back rent totaling over $2,700-and fears she'll soon be facing eviction. She left welfare in late June, when she landed a job in a law office making about $1,500 a month, and lost her housing subsidy soon after. Until then, EIHP had been paying all of her $980 rent, which she says she can't afford without help. "Once you get on your own feet, to do something for yourself, you can't maintain it," says Dortch. "And you end up back in the system." In a city where a two-bedroom apartment can run upward of $1,000, expecting formerly homeless families to suddenly find an extra grand is a tall order. Dortch's situation underscores concerns about Mayor Bloomberg's new rental assistance plan: In mid-October, the administration proposed rent subsidies for homeless families and adults that would decrease by 20 percent annually-hitting zero after five years. Enforcing time limits may not be easy, if EIHP is any indication. "We still have clients that have been with us now, three or four years," says Angela Farmer, an HRA worker with the program. EIHP has extended the subsidy for some participants, she says, if they are still on welfare. "With the rent rate going up so high, not even a person who's working can pay some of this rent," says Farmer. "Let's be realistic here." EIHP was originally designed to open up space in shelters, and thus keep homeless families from sleeping on the floors of the city's Emergency Assistance Unit. Facing contempt


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When she loses her housing subsidy, Diana Dortch faces eviction.
orders from Judge Helen Freedman, the Giuliani administration created the program in 2000 to expedite the process of moving families into permanent homes, says Legal Aid chief attorney Steve Banks, who helped bring the initial suit. The offer is tempting: Join the program, find a job, and get a subsidy to help cover the cost of your new apartment. It certainly made sense to Cesar Rodriguez. When he, his pregnant wife and four children ended up in a shelter last year, he jumped at the chance to move into a Bedford-Stuyvesant apartment instead. "People now are telling me, 'You should've waited,'" says Rodriguez. "Bur I wasn't there by myself. The children needed to go to school, they needed a better place than just hanging around there." Now working as a security guard, Rodriguez's welfare case has been closed, and his rent supplement has been suspended, leaving him to figure out how to pay $1,230 in rent on $1,600 in pay. EIHP has no easy answer for families like Rodriguez's. Sighs Farmer, "Those families just have to do the best they can." -Tracie McMillan

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New Jersey Immigration Policy Network welcomes PART BANERJEE as its new executive director. An HA Indian immigrant, Banerjee is known for his work on behalf of the city's newest arrivals. Most recently, he served as a community organizer for the Queens-based New Immigrant Community Empowerment, working to address the curtailment of civil rights and the rising bias against immigrants in the wake of September 11. Before coming to the United States in 1985, he worked on behalf of war refugees in Bangladesh and minorities and domestic-violence survivors in India. CHRIS WARD, former commissioner of New York City's Department of Environmental Protection, has joined American Stevedoring, a Brooklyn-based shipping company, as chief executive officer. In a written statement, Mayor Bloomberg called Ward "an outstanding steward of our precious water supply" and highlighted his achievement in adding "thousands of acres to New York's watershed." Ward is expected to use his expertise on waterfront issues to lead Stevedoring's 800 employees. The company operates the Red Hook terminal, the only active shipping port in Brooklyn. The city has started a search for his successor. Hope Community, an East Harlem-based community development organization, has appointed WILLIAM JACOBY as its new executive director. He previously worked as the director of development for Community Housing Innovations in White Plains, New York, and as chief counsel of the Albany Community Development Agency. His experience elsewhere includes senior positions in the Health and Welfare Planning Association in Pittsburgh, and the New York State Department of Social Services. DEBORAH RAND joined the New York City Department of Housing Preservation as Deputy General Counsel for litigation for its legal affairs office. In the newly created position, Rand will guide the agency's efforts in pushing landlords to comply with their legal obligations. A3D-year veteran in litigation with a specialty in affordable housing, Rand headed several legal services agencies, including the West Side SRO Law Project. More recently, she worked in the city's Law Department. DAVID LANSKY joins New York's Markle Foundation, an organization focusing on using technology to address critical medical needs, as director of its health program. Until recently Lansky was president of the Foundation for Accountability, an Oregon-based health care organization. -Xiaoqing Rong


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poisoning rates go down. But if the bill is properly implemented, it could have a great effect." Not great enough, say some local parents. In October, roughly a dozen clustered outside the Department of Health offices, asking BACK IN JUNE 2003, the city's health commis- Commissioner Thomas Frieden to go beyond sioner stood before the City Council and blast- the law and lower the threshold at which it ed a bill designed to reduce children's exposure considers a child poisoned. Under the current law, DOH regularly tests to lead paint. Intro lOlA, as it was then known, "is not consistent with federal guide- all children under the age of 6 and notifIes the lines," said Commissioner Thomas 1. Frieden, family when a child is found with a blood lead and "not targeted to those at greatest need." level of 10 micrograms or more in his or her Now, just months after Local Law 1 was body. If their levels reach 15 micrograms, the enacted over these concerns and despite the agency can order the landlord to remediate. "We don't want to wait until a child's level Mayor's veto, advocates say the Department of Health (DOH) has dramatically changed becomes elevated," says Deborah Nagil, director course and is working hard to implement the of the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program for DOH. "HPD is there to prevent poisonings and make landlords live up to the law. We kick in when levels reach 10 and above." While acknowledging this as a step in the right direction, the parents, organized by the nonprofIt Pratt Area Community Council, aren't satisfIed. They cite a 2003 study released in the New England Journal of Medicine that found that children with lead levels as low as fIve micrograms can still sufAlthough Alexandra Salvatierra has an elevated level of lead in fer neurological damage her blood, the city does not consider her poisoned. and a drop in IQ They're hoping to persuade the Board of Health to lower the acceptable lead stringent new rules. In one example of the shift, DOH has start- level to fIve. "Lead is not known to be safe in any quaned a widespread public awareness campaign, reaching out to both parents and physicians tity," says Dr. John Rosen, director of Pediwith flyers and subway ads to better educate atrics at MontefIore Medical Center in the them about the threat of lead. Whenever a Bronx. Yet since the federal standard has been child tests positive for lead exposure, a land- stuck at 10 for over a decade, he adds, the likelord has 21 days to correct hazardous condi- lihood of a state or local level office interventions in the home. The DOH is also working ing at a lower level is a long shot at best. closely with the Department of Housing The parents are still hopeful. "One in two Preservation and Development (HPD) to children in these neighborhoods is affected by ensure that landlords routinely inspect and fIx lead poisoning," says Shannon Casey, a Park peeling paint and other violations. Slope resident whose II-month-old son has a "The city is making much better use of its lead level of nine. "We need to take this out of resources," says Matthew Chachere, an attorney the hands of the landlords.... Currently the with the Northern Manhattan Improvement Cor- city is saying his level is not a problem, and poration, who helped draft the legislation. "We they're offering no treatment for him and so won't have data for some time to know if our lead many others." -Janelle Nanos

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Mapping Their Citi
FORGET VIDEO GAMES and instant messagingthis fall ninth and tenth graders at the Bushwick Academy for Urban Planning have discovered a far better use for computers. As pan of Community Information Technology Initiative (CIT!) Youth Program, a partnership between the Planning Center of the Municipal Art Society and the Brooklyn Center for the Urban Environment, the students were trained to use, a mapping website. Worksheets asked them to find their houses, acceptable property uses in their area and the year their school was built. "It tells everything," marveled Earl Dunn, a 15year-old sophomore, who sat with his classmates, staring at the screen. Bright green manuals helped the students locate hard-to-find information. Micaela Birmingham, director of the Planning Center, explained the website's uses and encouraged the students to apply for internships as "map technicians" with Community Board 4, which represents Bushwick. Working with the community board will show students how urban planning is applied in real life, she said, while giving the board a youth perspective. The student interns will provide maps for areas the board is discussing, complete with wning restrictions and building information. "Very rarely is there a map that everyone can see," said Birmingham, who hopes to expand the program citywide. "The students get a fi.m leadership role because they're the ones serving up the maps."


Apollo Takes Off
NY APOLLO, a coalition of union workers, business leaders, environmental justice advocates and educators, recently launched its Ten Point Plan for a Strong Economy and a Healthy City. The program aims to make New York City safer and healthier through initiatives like green building, elimination of waste, transit alternatives and the use of renewable resources. While striving to improve indoor and outdoor environments, NY Apollo also wants to train skilled workers to fill jobs created by energy efficient technologies. As Jim Quigley, director of the Center for Sustainable Energy at Bronx Community College, explains, "Why do we keep exporting money for imported oil when we could create jobs and make our own energy?" -Sarah Unke




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Underground Justice
Domestic violence groups create their own protection system for immigrants, far from cops and courts. By Debbie Nathan

B asdeu Bangali and daughters Normela and Ishwarie are mourning wife and mom Anjelita, one of a wave of immigrant "femicides."
BEFORE 29-YEAR-OLD Anjelita Bangali and her fu.mily immigrated from Guyana to the Bronx two years ago, she went to the beach with her husband and young daughters to lay hibiscus blossoms, homemade delicacies and scatues of gods on the sand. The Hindu good luck rite was pristine and vibrant, but in the United Scates, Bangali's luck turned messy and fatal. Shortly after arriving, she began an affair with a man-also Guyanese-who srarted threatening to kill her. He succeeded late last summer, by slitting her throat, before raking his own life. Bangali's children wailed, her husband wept, the cabloids screamed, and there was another rite: her funeral.

The murder is part of a doubly disturbing set of statistics. They indicate that women are more likely to be killed in domestic violence incidents if, like Bangali, they're immigrants. Between 1995 and 2002, according to a recent city health department study, women from other countries comprised 51 percent of what criminologists call "intimate-partner female homicides" in New York City. Yet only about 40 percent of the city's women are foreign born. The murderers are mostly current and former husbands and lovers-who are also more likely to batter women even when they don't go so far as to kill them. In New York last year, the

police received some 240,000 reports of domestic violence. Once a victim calls the city's domestic-violence hodine, a huge criminal-justice apparatus revs up. During the past few years, police have been making arrests in about 1 in 10 cases reported. In criminal court, these are prosecuted by special domestic-violence units in the boroughs' DA offices. Even when perpetrators aren't around to arrest-many have fled the home by the time the cops arrive---victims can file restraining orders, mandating that their abusers keep a disrance. In October, to make all this easier, Mayor Bloomberg and Kings County District Attorney



Charles Hynes announced a new, one-stop cenJustice Department. ter, financed by the Brooklyn victims who call the city's domesticabuse horline or the police will soon be able to meet with a prosecutor, file for an order of protection and get legal advice, all in the same place. But the convenience means nothing to people like Anjelita Bangali. Most domestic-violence victims never call 911 or official horlines, and immigrants are even less likely to contact the authorities or seek a restraining order. They're more prone to remain with their abusers. So, increasingly, domestic-violence community organizations are circumventing the legal system entirely. They're crafting a parallel universe, with its own strategies for addressing and minimizing domestic violence. And they are prepared to bypass police and prosecutors when they think it's necessary.


abusers should simply be locked up. The point of all the work, Del Tufo says, is to "make domestic violence unacceptable-to change the culture of entire communities."

IMMIGRANT WOMEN have many reasons for staying mum and staying put. Some are culrural. "In Asian countries," says Angela Lee, associate director of the New York Asian Women's Center, "it's considered shameful to disclose abuse to other people." Newcomers from the former Soviet Union are loath to report because "in those countries you don't go to the authorities about anything," adds Nechama Wolfson of Shalom Task Force, which runs a domestic violence hotline for Jews. Poverty and economics also playa big part. "She's not fluent in English and she's financially

Brooklyn's Trinity Healing Center teaches teens to shun risky relationships. Here, the Fork in the Road Players portray an abusive boyfriend, and a girlfriend who can't decide what to do. After the skit the actors stay in character and the audience shouts advice.
CONNECT is one of these organizations. With about halfits $2 million annual budget covered by the City Council and half by the federal government, CONNECT, formerly the Family Violence Project of the Urban Justice Center, works with dozens of organizations in Brooklyn, Queens and the Bronx's Highbridge section. The group provides training, public presentations and flyers to social workers, church leaders and other professionals in close contact with neighborhood women. CONNECT also helps community groups develop multiculrural, multilingual materials and distribute them at places women frequent every day; like WIC offices, schools, braiding salons, "even laundromats and bakeries," says Executive Director Alisa Del Tufo. CONNECT also runs therapy and reeducation groups for male batterers-groups that are still frowned on by many activists, who think

dependent on the husband or boyfriend," says Jean Debrosse, a social worker at Flatbush Haitian Center, in Brooklyn, who works mostly with Caribbean immigrants. "She says to herself, 'He's feeding me and the kids. If I leave him, how am I going to survive?'" Then there's immigration papers. "What if you're undocumented?" says Del Tufo, a longtime domestic violence activist. "You worry that if you report abuse, you or someone else in the family could get deported." And, documented or not, says Del Tufo, "many women are reluctant to have their husbands arrested because that contradicts the traditional values of their countries." The reluctance is shared by many native-born minority women, says Darlene Post, a Safe Horiron social worker at Lehman High School in the Bronx. "African-Americans and Latinas: Even when they're abused, a lot know the reality of the

prison system for men of color. They ask, 'Do I want to send my man there?'" A generation ago, the women's movement didn't just bring domestic violence out of the shadows; it also pressed for mandatory arrest and prosecution of abusers. The effort was astoundingly successful. In New York and elsewhere today, when police answer a domestic violence call involving a felony, they must make an arrest--even if the victim doesn't want that. If the case is prosecuted, she's called to testifY against her husband or lover. If she balks, she can be subpoenaed, or even held in contempt. Activists have become increasingly troubled by a growing sense of disconnection berween what women want and what the criminal justice system offers them, says Adelita Medina, director of the New York-based National Latino Alliance for the Elimination of Domestic Violence (better known as Alianza). So organizations nationwide, including many in New York, have begun offering alternative ways of getting help. "The first thing we do is try to ensure their safety," says Antonia Clemente. Her Brooklynbased organization, Trinity Healing Center, counsels mostly undocumented Mexican victims of domestic violence. When a woman continues to live with her abuser, workers at organizations like Trinity help her make a "safety plan." It can be as simple as going to another room if her partner comes home drunk and primed for violence. Or it can marshal friends, children, and ploys straight out of a spy novel. "We ask where she'd go if she needed to get away fast," says Gemelyn Philogene of Dwa Farun, a Brooklyn organization whose name is Haitian Creole for "women's rights." "We tell her to identify someone who wouldn't tell the abuser where she went, and give that person money and a set of keys." Other groups teach prearranged signals so neighbors will know if she needs help but can't say so directly because her parmer is terrorizing her. "Things like putting the blinds a certain way or giving a wink," says Clemente. "The children learn a code," Philogene explains. '''Black shoe,' for instance. When they hear that it means 'Get the hell out of here, now----don't even stop to take clothes!'" Advice like this is reinforced in support groups. Manhattan-based Sakhi for South Asian Women, for instance-whose name means "woman friend" in several South Asian languages-serves immigrants from countries like India, Pakistan and Guyana (though Guyana is in South America, many of its population are ethnic Indians). Kinship ties are extremely important to South Asians, says Sakhi director continued on page 36


Open University
Columbia plans to expand to West Harlem. West Harlem wants to be part of the plan. Is there a way for campus and By Bob Roberts community to share the same streets?
IN FRONT OF THE 116TH Sueet gate of Columbia University, Tom DeMort surveys the small knot of his neighbors milling about. As picketers fall into step, DeMort grabs his megaphone and leads a chant: "StOp eminent domain abuse in West Harlem! Stop eminent domain abuse in . . .wait a minute, it's hard to shout 'eminent domain,' isn't it? Anyone have any ideas?" Luisa Hentiquez blows her whistle and giggles. But it's no laughing marter for her: T he building where she lives would be demolished under the university's expansion plan.

The crowd of demonsuators grows to almost a hundred. Some bear signs with inflammatoty slogans, such as "We are Defending Our Property Rights as Defined by the U.S. Constirution!" They begin to chant the names of small businesses: "H ands Off Tuck-it-Away! Hands off Pearlgreen!" All are located in Manhartanville, an area Columbia has identified as the site for an expansion of its upper Manhartan campus. No tear gas, no riots, no revolutionary bombast. The real action isn't on the meets this time, but in the realm of zoning policy. Activists, ten-

ants, business leaders and urban planners are looking to negotiate the terms of Columbia's expansion into Harlem by offering an alternative plan for development-one that would accommodate both the university's growth and the community's own goals. Most are not against Columbia's expansion. They're protesting how it may be done: through eminent domain. Eminent domain is the state's power to acquire private property for public use. In the hands of Robert Moses, it proved a powerful tool in reshaping the New York City landscape. The Cross-Bronx Expressway, Lincoln Center and Shea Stadium all resulted from the seizure of private land for a perceived public good. But a 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling broadened the scope of eminent domain to also allow private entities to use state power to acquire private property. That's how the New York Times acquired land for its recent expansion. The proposed Nets arena in Brooklyn and the stadium slated for midtown will also depend on eminent domain. As proposed by the university-as a self-contained campus- Columbia's vision for Manhartanville will be impossible without it.

It's envisioned as Columbia's largest expansion since Seth Low moved the university from


midtown to the empty headlands of Morningside Heights a hundred years ago. This April, Columbia unveiled its plans for a glittering new campus in Harlem. A collaborative effort between the architectural firm Renw Piano Building Workshop and planners Skidmore Owings & Merrill, the roughly 18-acre campus will contain open green space, a new arts center, research facilities and dormitories. Refurbished commercial thoroughfares will flow seamlessly into the Harlem waterfront, which itself is about to be redeveloped as part of the Economic Development Corporation's West Harlem Master Plan. Columbia President Lee C. Bollinger has said that the university will be creating something of "immense vitality and beauty." Columbia promises 9,500 new jobs and $5.5 billion in economic activity by the end of the 30-year build-out of the campus. "Columbia sees this as an opportunity to real-

Department of City Planning to remne an area from 125th to 133rd streets, from Broadway to 12th avenues, which is currencly limited to industrial uses. Located in the shadow of the Broadway IRT tracks, Manhattanville represents the remains of a once thriving manufacturing area. The Studebaker plant is long closed, and vanished too are the breweries and dairies that used to employ thousands. Left behind are vacant lots, an MTA bus depot, a Verizon facility and a handful of small businesses. There are approximately 1,600 jobs in the area, divided between government and the private sector. In the last year and a half, Columbia has accelerated its property acquisition within the site; the university now estimates it owns 42 percent of the area. Its holdings include the hulking Studebaker factory, which houses the Alexander Doll Company's 80 U.S. employees, and the old Prentice Hall building.

Community Board 9 197 -A Plan
Mixed use for Manhattanville: Light manufacturing, retail and residences. Community Benefits Agreement asking developers to promote affordable hOUSing, environmental improvement and local skill development. Set building height limits. Zone for affordable housing. Establish green construction standards.

Columbia Expansion Plan
Site new campus on 18 acres, including Broadway to 12th Avenue between 125th and 133rd streets. Create net gain of 9,500 jobs. Generate $1 billion in spending annually. Build a network of open spaces. Employ workers from upper Manhattan and the South Bronx. Open new retail on 125th Street. Build energy-efficient facilities.

ble around Manhattanville. Officials have attended numerous community board and advisory council meetings and placed op-eds in the Amsterdam News. Officials attending local meetings ftequencly speak of "transparency" and a "collaborative community planning process." At the same time, the university has released few concrete details about its plans. The download on its website consists chiefly of aerial photographs, statistics from planners at the consulting firm Appleseed and breezy watercolors of hypothetical Harlemites walking in the sunshine reflected from glass building fronts. The Columbia plan has so far been presented as an all-or-nothing proposition. Columbia officials have acknowledged that the university has opened talks with the city Economic Development Corporation and Empire State Development Corporation about using the power of eminent domain to acquire private property they are unable to purchase. Stoldt says that the university is continuing negotiations with Manhattanville property owners. Acquistion thtough eminent domain, he adds, does remain as a last resort. As to whether Columbia is contemplating any changes in its plans, Stoldt says, "It's really too early at this point to consider alternatives."

The lack of information is frustrating for those who want to figure out an alternative plan for Manhattanville that would accommodate both Columbia and community-that would allow for university development and the jobs and economic activity it will bring, without displacing everything that's there now. "They're very cautious," says Mercedes Narciso of the Pratt Institute Center for Community and Environmental Development (PICCED), which has for the last year been helping community residents and businesses formulate their own urban plan for Manhattanville. "They don't reveal what they're doing as they're doing it. We see everything on a piecemeal basis, lime by lime." Narciso wants to see Columbia's plans because she's working with Manhattan Community Board 9 to help shape them. Under section 197-A of the City Charter, communities can formulate their own plans for land use and development, and CB9 is now racing to get its own 197-A plan for Manhattanville through ULURP and in to City Planning. So far, the community plan is moving ahead faster than Columbia's. In late October, it passed CB9 and will come before the borough president and the City Council within the next year. It's been 13 years in the making. City Plan-

ize the economic potential of the area," says Jeremiah Stodt, director of Campus Plan and Facilities Management for the university. Noting the plan's improvements to the area's landscape, Stodt adds, "We think it makes a significant contribution to the character of the neighborhood." Unlike in its previous attempts at expansion, Columbia has invited Harlem along. The university has assiduously courted Congressman Charles Rangel, former Mayor David Dinkins and the entire spectrum of Harlem's political and business leaders. In order to lay to rest the lingering memory of its ill-fated attempt in 1968 to build a gymnasium in Morningside Park, Columbia appointed an advisory council of business, community and clerical leaders to weigh in on the proposal. As a first step, Columbia will be asking the

But under its current plan, Columbia would need all of it. The university has said it intends to go through the the city's Uniform Land Use Review Process (ULURP) in order to have the industrial wne redesignated as "mixed use. " Under ULURP, the proposal will journey from Community Board through the Borough President's office for recommendations, then to the City Planning Commission. If the commission approves it, it moves on to the City Council, and, with a majority vote, from there to the desk of the mayor. The process can be stopped at any point from City Council on up. Following rewning, the first 10-year stage of Columbia's development will be the construction of its Arts Center, a central quadrangle (including a park), a science building and the refurbishment of Prentice Hall and the Studebaker Factory. Columbia has already made itself highly visi-


ning rejected a version in 1998 because-like many such documents-it amounted to an unworkable wish list. (It was titled "Sharing Diversiry Through Communiry Action.") This time around, under the guidance of Narciso and forme r PICCED director and Ciry Planning Commissioner Ron Shiffman, the board is going to play hardball. Communiry boards have no legal power over land use; what they do have, potentially, is political leverage. "This isn't a silver bullet," cautions Shiffman. "It's a basis for negotiation." The communiry plan divides Manhattanville into three areas: one for light manufacturing, one geared toward arts and entertainment, and a mixed-use district. These could accommodate existing businesses-and the universiry. Instead of a separate campus, Columbia's facilities would be part of a neighborhood streetscape. Board members hope their plan will present a viable alternative to Columbia's seizure of the entire area. Already, Roben Jackson, councilman for the CB9 district, has taken the position that Columbia's plan must fit into the communiry's 197-A plan, not the other way around. Board member Marina Dunn, who is the executive director of the Harlem Valley Heights Communiry Development Corporation and a member of Columbia's Communiry Advisory Council, says that she and her neighbors are not antidevelopment. What she won't tolerate, she explains, is the displacement of existing businesses. ''A 3D-year plan with eminent domain in place rapes this communiry," says Dunn. She says she's confident that, with rezoning and the planned waterfront redevelopment, West Harlem will thrive economically no matter what, and she sees no need to hand over the whole area. "Columbia isn't doing us any favors! " says Dunn. To prep elected officials for ULURP, Dunn has conducted walking tours of the neighborhood and its businesses. Manhattan Borough President C. Virginia Fields-who, along with the communiry board, will submit a recommendation to the Ciry Planning Commission-is siding with Dunn and her neighbors. "On the issue of eminent domain, I fully suppon the communiry board," says Fields. "I have suggested to Columbia that we may need to convene a meeting with all of the electeds and look at everything that is in the plan." Fields is also the most prominent endorser of CB9's demand for a communiry benefits agreement with Columbia. Communiry benefits agreements, or CBAs, have become popular tools for corporations and communities to negotiate the terms of major real estate development-though not, until now, in New York.

The Staples Center in Los Angeles spent seven months developing a CBA with the surrounding communiry. Several universities, including Harvard, Penn and Temple, have used them to come to terms with their neighbors before embarking on expansion programs. CBAs can cover anything from minoriry contracting and job training programs to environmental impact and traffic flow. The Communiry Board 9 plan calls for any rezoning to include an accompanying CBA. A benefits agreement was also one of the key recommendations of the Communiry Advisory Committee in its report to Bollinger in July. Columbia says it's prepared to negotiate. "We're not ruling it out," says Stodt. "Certainly there's an advantage to codifYing our relationship to the communiry. We're just trying to

Group. Says Siegel, "What excites me here is the combination of the small businesses, communiry activists and tenants all working together." Siegel also sees an opportuniry to challenge the broad scope of New York State's eminent domain laws- specifically the state's power to transfer properry from one private owner to another. Across the country, courts are forcing state and local governments to reexamine their eminent domain laws, and in particular how "public benefits" are defined. In Michigan, a recent court decision overturned a 1982 ruling that allowed General Motors to expand at the expense of a residential neighborhood. Right now, the u.S. Supreme Court is preparing to hear the case of homeowners in New London, Connecticut, whose land is scheduled to be seized for use in a private

The owners of Hudson Moving and Storage turned down Columbia's offer to buy or relocate their Broadway facility. The state may use eminent domain to tear it down.
development project. The scope of New York State's eminent domain power hasn't been challenged in decades. And Siegel's not taking any chances. He wants to make certain that Columbia stays on the ULURP track for its proposed rezoning plan-and thus remain accountable to local elected officials. He is hopeful the universiry will negotiate. "I hope we don't have to litigate," he says. "But if we can't resolve this in the court of public opinion then we will resolve it in a court of law." •

figure out what format it will take. A lot depends on who's involved. We want to be as representantive as possible." As for CB9's role, Stodt says, "They would have a seat at the table."

Facing an uncertain political process, Columbia has continued its efforts to acquire properry. When six neighborhood businesses reported being pressured by Columbia's real estate agents, Dunn and ShifIinan put them in touch with attorney Norman Siegel, who has since agreed to represent them as the West Harlem Business

Bob Roberts is a Bronx-based freelance writer.

By Xiaoqing Hong
Photographs by Philip Mansfield


New York City's foster care system is downsizing at an unprecedented clip. It's a breakthrough for families-and a crisis for the organizations that work with them.


he campus of St. Christopher's Inc, a 123-year-old child welfare agency in Westchester, is bathed in summer sunshine. The boys are in classes; the girls, playing ball on the grass. The Hudson River shimmers in the background. Construction is underway on a new school building. All seems to be in perfect shape. "Looks can be deceiving," sighs Luis Medina, the agency's executive director. Budget curs are biting deep, leading to the shutdown of some projects and pay freezes for staff. The New York City Administration for Children's Services paid St. Christopher's roughly $13 million last year to house foster children on this campus and in group and private homes, as well as provide them with services like counseling and education. That's less than he's entitled to under New York State's formula for paying for foster care services. But ACS can pay less if it determines that it does not have sufficient funds to pay a private agency in full-and for the last three years, the city has paid St. Christopher's and its other foster care agencies 5 to 10 percent below the rates agreed to under their contracts, according to industry groups. That's not the only reason St. Christopher's budget for foster care has shrunk. New York City's entire foster care system is downsizing at a historically unprecedented pace. In 2000, Medina had 1,349 New York City children housed in pri-

vate homes. Today, he has 797. And the worst may be yet to come. The agency has repeatedly scored near the bottom of ACS' performance evaluation for foster care agencies, which examines the quality of their services, their success in securing children permanent homes, and the thoroughness of paperwork and other bureaucratic procedures. St. Christopher's is currently under investigation

"Lack of predictability is hurting the system. It's extremely hard to plan for the future."
by the city for allegedly prodding staff to fabricate records of visits to foster homes that never took place-a practice that has been reponed by caseworkers at other agencies as well but never officially confirmed. ACS will be deciding in the next few months which agencies get their city foster care contracts renewed-and St. Christopher's may not be one of them. In just a few brief years, New York City has seen a fundamental change



in its child welfare system. The Giuliani administration turned to foster care as its first line of protection. For Mayor Bloomberg's ACS, it is a last resort. Even following a recent upswing in the number of deaths of maltreated New York City children, ACS is standing firm by its commiunent to keep the number of young people in foster care as low as it can. It aims to use preventive services, not foster care, as its primary response to families' problems. "We need to reinforce and bump up the priority and visibility of intact-family services," new ACS Commissioner John Mattingly told Child Welfare Watch in an October interview. "You are going to see a new focus on that." If Mattingly and his agency can protect more and more children without removing them from their homes, it's a moment of triumph for families facing trouble. And for operations like St. Christopher's, it's a threat to their continued existence. Medina, like every child welfare agency executive in the New York region, has had to rethink his entire organization. Last year, St. Christopher's shut down an office in the Bronx, one of a dozen outside Dobbs Ferry. As for its three group homes, which can house up to 36 residents, he's looking into other ways to fill the bedsincluding housing juvenile offenders or the disabled elderly. St. Christopher's is also considering selling one of its group homes. There may be no turning back, not even if there's a resurgence in demand for foster care. Longtime observers of New York's child welfare system say we ought to be prepared for exactly that possibility. "The lesson we should learn from the mid-'80s is that the demand can turn around very quickly," says Fred Wulczyn, a research fellow with the Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago who is helping ACS assess the performance of private contract agencies like St. Christopher's. As New York's entire foster care system shrinks, adds Wulczyn, it "shouldn't take place in a way that diminishes the capability to respond to an increasing demand." But Medina can't afford to plan for a hypothetical future need for his facilities. His chief concern right now is stable income, and there are plenty of people out there who need peaceful homes and attentive care. "Lack of predictability is hurting the system. It's extremely hard to plan for the future, " says Medina. "That's the world we are in."

dren from their drug-using parents, including newborns whose blood tested positive for cocaine. In 1991 , the population of kids in care in New York City reached an all-time high of more than 49,000. Even once crack faded, the foster care census didn't. Kids stuck around for years. And more and more went in all the time. By 1999, the city took two or three dozen more children from their parents every day. That year, there were 38,441 New York City children in foster care. By July of this year, there were fewer than 21 ,000. At the press conference introducing new ACS commissioner John Mattingly in July, Mayor Michael Bloomberg called the decline a "dramatic stride forward in the protection of New York City children." But the organizations that have housed children for all these years are suddenly finding themselves all built up with nowhere to go. They've acquired extensive infrastructure, accumulating office leases and verdant campuses. These organizations are paid for this work under contract

Executive Director, SL Christopher's Inc. SL Christopher's is keeping its Westchester groul} homes filled by bringing in more and more teenagers from outside New York. It may also start housing juvenile offenders, or even the elderly.
with the city-paid per child. Fewer children spell less money. Under the Bloomberg administration, the Administration for Children's Services suffered some of the biggest declines of any New York City government agency. Foster care spending alone declined by $82 million during the first two years of the Bloomberg administration, down from $750 million. "The trend is for agencies to go out of business," says Edith Holzer, the spokesperson for the Council ofFarnily and Child Caring Agencies, a trade association of foster care providers. In the past five years, eight agencies have closed or eliminated their foster care programs, some of which were started in the 19th century. The 40 left are reinventing themselves to survive. Under its new commissioner, ACS wants to help decide which agencies stay in the business and which don't. "If we don't take action we will startand we already have to some extent-losing providers," says Commissioner Mattingly, who took over the agency in August. "The number of kids they have in care is not going to sustain their administrative expense."

Controlling the Contraction


he number of children in foster care in New York City is lower than it has been since 1987. That's when the crack epidemic pushed child welfare officials to start removing legions of chil-



To shrink the system, ACS will be looking at agencies' performance evaluations. St. Christopher's, whose group homes are currently ranked second-worst, is not the only one whose future is on the line. Another is bottom-rated Miracle Makers, which was created in the 1980s in response to the surge of demand for foster care in Bedford-Stuyvesant. Mattingly is keen to have ACS keep the highest quality agencies open-and make sure that those without their own endowments survive their current budget troubles. "The system is at some risk if we don't make decisions about either closing some beds, closing some contracts,

Executive Director, Forestdale Forestdale is one of the Ad ministration for Children's Services' best-perfo ring agencies, yet it had to cut back sta ff to close a bud get gap. Its board has considered shu tting down the organization's foster care I) rogram.

"If you are rigid., you are not going to survive. You have to be ready to switch gears.""
moving some beds or contracts to higher performing agencies or agencies better serving the community," says the commissioner. "Because if we don't do that, we risk having the system contract because of fiscal pressure only. T hat would leave some of the better programs out." A managed process would go a long way toward ensuring the best possible care for children at the lowest cost. But the system has already been shrinking for years, and the agencies that provide foster care have been irrevocably reshaped in the process. "The train is 90 percent out of the station," says Wulczyn.

and a father's education program. It's also one of the five top-performing agencies in the city, according to ACS. Why is it doing so well? Executive director Joy Bailey points to what she calls its "task-centered team approach." Instead of having a single staff member handle all aspects of a caseworking with the birth family, the children, the foster family and a judge, as well as handling all paperwork-Bailey has three-member teams working collaboratively. This speeds up the process, she says, and avoids delays caused by staff turnover. It also allows staff to specialize. One of the three is a social worker with a master's degree, assigned to counsel birth parents trying to get their children back. Another worker interacts with children and their foster families, and a third does paperwork. "Before it was just one person wearing all the different hats," says MSW Jennifer Garofalo. "Now I have a lot more one-on-one with our clients in the field." But efficiency hasn't protected Forestdale from financial pressures. The number of kids in its foster care program has dropped to 280 from 504 five years ago. For each child it is still working with, Forestdale has been paid only 92 percent of the rate set by New York State. "So here I am, a top-performing agency running a deficit," says Bailey. Last summer, when the deficit reached $100,000, Bailey cut her staff. Nine teams became seven, and their average caseloads went up to 57 from 44. Now 150-year-old Forestdale is considering more drastic change. The board is evaluating whether to add new programs to get funding from new sources-and to possibly eliminate foster care programs entirely. They're considering providing services to adolescents, such as job training. "If you had asked me five years ago, would this board ever give up foster care, I would say no way," says Bailey. Concludes Bailey: "If you are rigid, you are not going to survive. You have to be ready to switch gears. "

ost foster care agencies have either diversified their operations already or are thinking about it. They evaluate the opportunities based on how adequately government financing covers the cost of services and what their established infrastructure allows them to do. Among the most popular new directions is to contract with the New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (OMRDD), to provide housing and services for mentally or otherwise

Efficiency Experts


oster care has never been a cushy business, and the most successful agencies are already vigilant about efficiency. Forestdale, in Queens, is not a big or complicated organization. It has a budget of about $10 million and runs foster boarding homes, adoption and prevention services,



disabled young people and adults who require special care. It is a viable move for agencies that own group homes, whose beds and physicians can easily be redeployed. With OMRDD, the demand is stable, and agencies can get fully compensated for what they spend. Likewise, there are an increasing number of agencies looking to diversify into mental health services, under contract with the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, because many of them have already established the infrastructure, including clinics and therapists. Foster care programs themselves are reaching out to find new business opportunities. Increasingly, agencies that mainly rely on referrals from ACS have started to recruit children from other counties and states. Take St. Christopher's. Five years ago, four out of five of its kids came from New York City. Now it's three in five; the rest are from elsewhere in the state and Connecticut. "If I was scrictly relying on New York City children," says Medina, "I really don't know how I would make ends meet." However, diversilication is not always an easy choice. Agencies typically have to invest their own capital, drawn from their endowments, to finance the transition before the government money starts flowing. And then the organization itself must change dramatically: revise its charter or mission, become familiar with a different bureaucracy, and so on. The whole process, according to experienced agency executives, can take two years. To agencies already in trouble, that might be too long.

The Urge to Merge


or mercyFirst, a Long Island-based agency that has operations in New York City, a merger with a sibling institution was the fastest way to diversifY. A new organization emerged last March from the marriage of St. Mary's and Angel Guardian, two separately incorporated organizations with a shared board of directors and a history of more than a hundred years each. Before the merger, Angel Guardian was primarily a foster boarding program only for New York City children. St. Mary's was known for its high quality group homes housing yo ung people from all over the region. The merged agency combines 29 sites, scretching from Riverhead, Long Island, to downtown Brooklyn. Besides existing foster care, residential treatment and homeless intervention programs, they've started housing and helping adults with mental illness under contract with the state Office of Mental Health. The new agency has an annual budget of $45 million. Once they connect with the agency, children and families can be steered to appropriate specialized services. As a merged agency, mercyFirst now commands funding from five city and state agencies, including ACS, the New York State Department of Education, Department of Health, Office of Mental Health and the Office of Children and Family Services. "The services of both agencies complement each other," says Executive Director Liz Giordano. "Economically speaking, I get more cost centers to spread my administrative overhead." mercyFirst has succeeded because the parent agencies shared more than a board. Both were founded by the same religious order, the Sisters of Mercy, and offered complementary programs. A catalyst for the

merger was the retirement of the executive director of Angel Guardian; Giordano, who was the head of St. Mary's, naturally became the executive director of Agencies that have closed the new agency. They were able or no longer provide foster to avoid power struggles and care services. culture conflicts, which so often arise when two organizations merge. • Association to Benefit Children More important, St. Mary's June 2004 was financially healthy and could afford to pay consultant and legal fees for the merger• Sheltering Arms April 2004 rescuing Angel Guardian out of a deficit. Instead of cutting staff or programs, mercyFirst • Louise Wi e February 2004 was able to hire 100 new staff for its newly established com• Brookwood Child Care munity residence program and August 2003 an enlarged quality improvement department. Though the benefits of a • Talbot-Perkins March 2002 merger are potentially great, mercyFirst is the only one • SL Joseph's Children's that's pulled it off in recent Service years. There are many barriers June 2001 to mergers between nonprofits, even when both could benefit [see "Joint Purpose," • Central Brooklyn Coordinating Council November 2003]. The biggest is financial des.PRACA peration. Facing a crisis, Brooklyn-based Brookwood had talked with Louise Wise, an agency also running a deficit, about the possibility of a merger. It didn't work out. Brookwood-which had been around for 160 years--closed in August 2003. Louise Wise closed soon after, after the failure of merger talks with another agency, Sheltering Arms. And Sheltering Arms, although still in operation, no longer provides foster care services. These agencies shared a fatal liability: They were already in financial trouble, and what they had been seeking was sheer survival. "Most agencies don't even talk of mergers until the parties are feeling pressure to do so," agrees Fatima Goldman, former executive director of Brookwood. "By that time it's a lirtle late. "


RIP: Death of an Agency


ight agencies [see above] have just given up: they've eliminated their foster care programs or closed entirely. Among them are some of the oldest foster care providers in the city. The demise of Brookwood is an example of how things can go



wrong. Besides foster care, the agency also ran Head Start and family day care programs, allowing it, hisrorically, to draw funding from multiple government agencies. Then the establishment of ACS in 1996 pulled all of these children's services into one operation. But futther diversification was no longer an option: The agency had closed its rwo group homes in 1994, as a response to early signs of the decline of the number of children in care. At the same time, Brookwood was burdened with other real estate: a 20-year lease on an office that turned out to be larger than they needed. The excessive rent costs helped dig a $600,000 budget hole. In the end, Brookwood found itself $1 million in the red. In the rwo years leading up to its shutdown, the agency tried to fmd creative ways to earn income. It tried to establish a for-profit child care business. It considered subletting space to other agencies. And its board voted to eliminate foster care programs.

Look Beyond Foster Care

t Children's Village, one of the largest child welfare agencies in the country, new executive director Jeremy Kohomban has a clear vision for the future. He wants the agency to be smaller and stronger, focusing its resources on where kids need them most. In his opinion, that means helping young adults thrive after they grow up. "The most important thing in child welfare is not so much what happens when kids are here, but what happens when they leave us," says Kohomban. "Are we truly supporting kids in getting jobs, in learning to be a son or a daughter, a husband or a wife, and a father or a mother?" When young people arrive to live at Children's Village, Kohomaban sees one of the most striking effects of a smaller, more selective foster care system: These teens are older and tougher. Children's Village's Westchester campus is a residential treatment center, where young people who need special counseling and attention live in a controlled environment. The odds against them are high, and Children's Village has a precious JEREMY chance to help vault them into KOHOMBAN successful adulthood. Executive Director, Right now, the agency proChildren's Village vides "aftercare" services to just one in five of the young people Children's Village who live there. The teens get job wants to move its training and paid mentors who teen residents out will follow each young person for more quicklyfive years after he or she leaves giving every one a care. The mentor is there to help I)ersonal mentor to help them make a them on everything they might transition from need, such as job applications, foster eare to finding housing and ongoing independent emotional encouragement. adulthood. It will Kohomban wants to expand raise private money aftercare to everyone who comes to pay for the work. to Children's Village. "Treatment is just one small piece of a larger picture," says Kohomban. "We want to stay focused on what we do best, which is teach kids to go out and be young adults." The one thing that isn't there is government funding. KohomBut all of these efforts failed to avoid the inevitable. "Even if all of ban will have to fmd the money to fill the gap. Already, since arriving those had been successful, we would not have come close to closing a in March, he has cut 20 top management positions. He and his board million-dollar deficit," says Goldman, who had led Brookwood for nine plan to triple private donations in the next five years-spending all of that years. "It was just way too far. " She is now executive director of the Fed- money on aftercare programs. "One of the struggles the system faces in general is that we have been so dependent on government dollars," said eration of Protestant Welfare Agencies. Brookwood wasn't the only agency to be done in by an expensive Kohomban. ''I'm very confident that we can go out to private donors and long-term lease. In the early 1990s, when the number of children to corporations, and get them excited about going beyond government." in foster care peaked at a historic high, St. Joseph's Children's Services moved to a building in downtown Brooklyn, with a 25 year commitment. At the time, it had 850 children in care. By the time it This article WflS produced in coUaboration with Child Welfare Watch, a project ofthe closed in 2000-after 75 years in business-it had 750. The agency Center for an Urban Future and the Center for New l-Ork City Affair;. For a foU cut its staff to save money, but rent was a fixed cost it couldn't sustain. report on the transformation ofNew l-Ork Citys child welfare system and information about a December panel discussion, visit www.newschooLedulmilanolnycaffair;.


"We want to stay focused on what we do best, which is teach kids to go out and become young adults."




Meet seven mid Iife activists who've honed the art of provocation.
LOOK AT ANY CLASS of Union Square Awards or Open Society Institute fellowship

winners, and you see the rising stars of New York City activism: young, fresh talent raging to get out and remake the world every day. But New York also has midcareer reformers who've been around the block and are still going strong. Some are community organizers looking for new causes and challenges. Others are public servants who decided that they had to put themselves out there to make essential change happen. Some never thought of themselves as anything other than ordinary citizens until now. But all of them are committed to independent action to challenge and improve the institutions we count on to make the city work. And to be effective, they are quite willing to put their personal interests on the line-perhaps because life has taught them that risk is the way to get results. Yes, a few of these activists collect decent paychecks. And their efforts hardly diminish the accomplishments of professionals working within the system-who've had to raise millions to rebuild an apartment complex, or squeeze a one-line amendment onto a bill, or forge a delicate alliance among far-flung interests. But we need people like these 10-who take the heat themselves, when that's what has to happen.


The Union

Lavon Chambers
President, Local 279 Association of Professional & Specialty Workers

"They assume, 'This is some union hack.'"

DO-GOODERS, BEWARE : Lavon Chambers has his eye on you. Or, more specifically, on your workers. The 39-year-old union organizer is setting out to conquer one of labor's frontiers, nonprofit staff. But if you're expecting traditional union gripes to drive this campaign-low pay, long hours, fix it or we walk-you'd better take a second look. "I have workers that say, 'They can't afford to pay me for 60, 70 hours, and that's okay," says Chambers, who entered the union movement after a stint as a community organizer challenging it. Many nonprofit workers are willing to deal with tough working conditions because of the social mission, says Chambers. And that social commitment is exactly what he hopes to gain by getting nonprofit workers to join the Laborers Union. His campaign to organize nonprofits aims to build bridges between grassroots groups and organized labor, heightening both groups' political power. For Chambers, it's a personal issue. The former construction worker found himself repeatedly working on union jobs, but-like many

black men-never getting into the union. So he joined Harlem Fightback, a group demanding that neighborhood residents be given union membership and jobs on local projects-and ended up being recruited by the Laborers to work as an organizer. Branching out to nonprofit workers is new territory for the union movement, says Chambers, now president and director of organizing for Local 279. His predecessor had focused on organizing administrative staff at unions, a path Chambers could have followed. Instead, he saw an opportunity to build alliances between labor and community groups. In the past, says Chambers, community organizations haven't been enthusiastic about organized labor. "They assume, 'This is some union hack, and he's going to come in and talk to us about his stuff. He has no idea-he just wants us to pay dues," says Chambers. "And, historically, unforrunately, they're right." Challenging those assumptions is a skill Chambers honed in his last job, also for the Laborers, demanding that public housing pro-

jects employ local workers. When pro-labor community organizing group ACORN built a new high school in Bushwick, the group was embarrassed to find that the developer was using nonunion contractors. "The Carpenters said, 'What the hell is this? Here's a nonunion job.' And they threatened to put a rat in from of the high school," says Bertha Lewis, ACO RN's executive director. "So I call Lavon-who else?" With Chambers' help, Lewis met with the unions and the developer and figured out a compromise. ''That really could have been a horrible community-labor showdown," says Lewis. "And it was avoided with the work of Lavon." His most recent targets include For a Better Bronx, an environmental justice group and staff at the Citywide Harm Reduction Program. The mix sounds about right to Chambers. "Some people might accuse me of being dramatic, but if there's not a direct link created in the near furure between labor and the grassroots, you're going to see a negative effect," he says. "Both sides pretty much have the same enemies. I think it's a perfect fit." -Tracie McMillan CITY LIMITS




Sheldon Silver and Senate Majority Leader Joseph Bruno. Then Bruno created a task force to come up with some proposals. Everyone's a reformer now. Suozzi, the Nassau County executive for the past three years, is usually more about managing the books than about rocking the boat. The mayor of Glen Cove for four terms, he ran countywide at a time when Republicans had plunged Nassau into $3 billion of debt and near-junk-bond status. He has since managed to reverse both trends. But he knew he would soon have trouble balancing his budget as the county's share of spending for Medicaid and preschool programs, mandated by the state, kept rising. "I've got problems with traffic," he says. "I've got problems with gangs. I've got needs for affordable housing. But I can't invest money because the programs that the state has determined to be most important are growing at 15 to 20 percent a year. " Suozzi's narrow focus on Medicaid has left other reformers mystified. "I think in the end what will energize reform is a reform agenda that actually addresses problems," argues Assemblymember Richard Brodsky, a Westchester Democrat. "You've got to be able to say, 'Here's what I'd do differently.'" But from Suozzi's perspective, unfunded mandates are perfect for a populist campaign, since they shift the burden to local governments, who must then pass them on to homeowners. "It's not just about reforming the rules and passing budgers on time," he explains. "It's relating that dysfunction to people's property taxes because that's what people care about." When Suozzi first mentioned challenging incumbents last year, lobbyist Patricia Lynch, a former top aide to Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver, "fired" Nassau County, one of her clients. Later, Silver left Suozzi's name off the list of delegates to the party convention in Boston. But taking a controversial tack is central to drawing attention to his cause. 'Albany was always dysfunctional. People wrote about it for 10 years," Suozzi notes. "When it comes to reform related to government, you have to put it into the political arena. " Taking a controversial tack has also drawn a lot of attention to Suozzi's political ambitions. Big deal, he says: "You notice that most of the people proposing reforms right now are people who say they want to run for higher office." The 42-year-old Suozzi wants to concentrate on his job and run for it again next year, but he won't rule out a run for governor in 2006. After all, it might mean challenging an incumbent.


ALL SUMMER, political rivals had cracked
that the only people supporting Thomas Suozzi's Fix Albany campaign were newspaper editorial writers. Then came the September 14 Democratic primary, when it turned out that 3,507 voters in the 13th Assembly District on Long Island chose Suozzi's handpicked candidate over the six-term incumbent. That doesn't sound like many votes, but it was enough for Charles Lavine to knock Assemblymember David Sidikman off the ticket. It was also enough to make reform fashionable. Within days, other incumbent Democrats introduced bills that would wrest the legislative ptocess out of the hands of "three men in a room"-Governor Pataki, Assembly Speaker

Tom Suozzi
Nassa u County Executive

"Property taxes are what people care about."

-Matthew Schuerman

"ANYONE KNOW ANY success stories?" Lisa Ortega looks around the conference room. There's only silence-unusual for this group of about a dozen ex-prisoners and family members of incarcerated people. They know there aren't a lot of success stories out there. "I think it will be more successful if you show atrocities," says Walter Jennings. Like others here, he used to be in prison-and has a mental illness. "We need to, like, show pictures of Muslims being raped and all that," says Jennings. In other words, make mistreatment in New York prisons as visible as Abu Ghraib. Onega is the organizer of this group, known as RlPPD (Rights for Incarcerated Prisoners With Psychiatric Disablilites), and they are trying to get New York State to end mistreatment of mentally ill prisoners and criminal defendants. Target number one: Solitary Housing Units (SHU), where prisoners are sent after getting into run-ins with correction officers or other prisoners. RlPPD is also pressing to expand alternatives to incarceration-treatment programs instead of prison. "Involvement at RlPPD is what keeps me motivated," says member Anthony Spratley, who was in SHU for a year. Ortega has been a community organizer for almost a decade, but never like this. She worked with Mothers on the Move, a Bronx group, revving up her Hunts Point neighbors

The Organizers
Lisa Ortega and Anthony Spratley
Rights of Incarcerated People With Psychiatric Disabilities (RIPPD)

IIlf you act out, it's the mental illness.

about everything from crappy schools to rats on the sidewalks. T hen Heather Barr called. At the time Barr was a lawyer with the Urban Justice Center, best known for Brad H v. Giuliani, which ensured that mentally ill people don't just get dumped on the street after a stay

at Rikers. Barr decided that she could only do so much in the courts-she also needed activists on the ground. She found Ortega, who was formerly incarcerated herself and is the daughter of a bipolar mother. She goes recruiting in places where mentally ill people get clinical services. Government-funded organizations don't always cooperate; why risk confronting the Pataki administration, which they depend on for funds? Organizing people with psychiatric disabilities to make noise is also a challenge to the passive behavior mental health organizations tend to cultivate in clients. "Sit down, be quiet, your time will come," is how Ortega describes it. "If you act out, it's the mental illness." RlPPD members are more likely to sit down in protest, like they did when they occupied the hall outside the office of Dr. lloyd Sederer, the city's Executive Deputy Commissioner of Mental Hygiene, and refused to move unril Sederer came out personally to rake a letter from the group. The NYPD showed up and threatened arrest. Civil disobedience with people on parole? Absolutely, says Ortega. The group's m.o. is to confront key officials-others include Corrections chief Martin Horn, populist Councilmember Margarita Lopez and Chief Judge Judith Kaye-and demand action. Vows Ortega, "We'll antagonize you like we're antagonized every day." -Alyssa Katz

The Foundation Watchdog
Rick Cohen
National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy

"We say things funders don't want to be said."
RICK COHEN SPENDS his days trying to figure out how philanthropists can be effective at promoting a more just society. So why do some consider him a troublemaker? It's not hard to figure our: "We'll say things that many fUnders don't want to be said," observes Cohen. In the past, Cohen and his organization, the National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy, have asked Congress to increase the portion of their assets foundations must spend on charitable work each year. This spring they published a study determining why conservative foundations have been more successfUl than liberal ones at shaping American politics and ideology. Both were controversial enough. Now his latest campaign challenges a sacred tenet of modern philanthropy: the project-based grant. Every nonprofit knows and dreads them. These grants fUnd a single project, typically a new intiative, for a limited time period. Meanwhile, the same organizations struggle to secure fUnds for their general operations. In 2000, the proportion of philanthropic dollars going to general support was 11.5 percent--down from 16 percent six years earlier. If one excludes universities and hospitals, the share of general support shrinks even fUrther. Foundations, and their trustees, have good reasons for parceling out money according to their priorities of the moment. It's hard to measure results, so they tend to want to set targets themselves. They also don't want to see their money misused or wasted. It's their version of tough love. Cohen argues that the efficiency of the nonprofit sector is hurt when organizations have to

spend so much effort chasing down dollars and configuring their programs to ever-changing outside pressures. Fundamentally, he says, most progressive foundations are failing to make necessary long-term investments in non profits they help fUnd. "The restrictions of grants mean [organizations) are unable to respond in a timely and flexible way needed to promote social change," says Cohen. In contrast, he points to conservative foundations, which his study found are much more likely to make grants for long-term operating support. Cohen decided that the best way to change foundations' habits was to mount a lobbying effort-with nonprofit grant recipients themselves as the advocates. He has been on the road, holding meetings with organization leaders across the country and collecting stories to share with foundations. Their goal: to have 50 percent of foundation grants fUnd general support. The foundations that sympathize with Cohen don't expecr miracles. "It's hard to change philanthropy, because philanthropy is made up of over

60,000 different foundations. It doesn't work in lockstep," says Maria Mottola, executive director of the New York Foundation, which distributes half of its grants as general operating support. And not everyone surveyed thinks general support should be a top priority. Some have commented that it's much more important to increase funding for social advocacy work, period. And, as always, groups fear biting the hands that feed them. Cohen himself depends on charitable grants to support his work. That wasn't always the case: He used to be chief planner for Jersey City, and later a vice president at the Enterprise Foundation, which is sustained by corporations seeking tax breaks. Now that he's confronting philanthropy, he's risking alienating the source of his own fUnding. It doesn't faze him. "I've made enemies in many parts of my life," Cohen reflecrs. What's important, he says, is "sticking to your guns and holding true to your values. Your enemies are testament to your values."

-Xiaoqing Rong


The Residents
Alex Hedgepeth and Marc Hutch inson
Client Advisory Board, Camp LaGuardia

.. A lot of people

just gave up."
ALEX HEDGEPETH VIVIDLY remembers his arrival at Camp laGuardia, the city's largest homeless shelter, home to roughly 1,000 men: a slow bus from Manhattan, driving in the wee hours of a cold March night. Destination: Chester, New York. When his case manager first mentioned the place, Hedgepeth thought it must be somewhere near La Guardia airport. But "Camp," as it is known, is a 360-acre compound two hours north of the city and three miles from the nearest town. Though beautiful, he says, it can also feel bleak, like a "prison without bars. " But all that is starting to change. Hedgepeth, a smooth-talking Texan, has set out to transform the shelter with the help of Marc Hutchinson, a former office worker and fellow "displaced citizen. " (Hedgepeth prefers that term to "homeless.") "If it can happen to me," he says, "it can happen to anyone." The camp, run by Volunteers of America under contract with the city, is in bad shape, according to Hedgepeth and Hutchinson. Windows lack screens, they say, elevators are broken, and bathrooms are moldy. (A surprise inspection by the Coalition for the Homeless verified several of their concerns.) Even more imporrant, the remote location makes it especially difficult for residents to find jobs and homes in the city. Increasingly frustrated, Hedgepeth and Hutchinson took over the camp's Client Advisory Board in September. Since then, they've scored several meetings with high-ranking shelter staff and drafted a petition demanding better care. "We see great strength in their abiliry to advocate, organize and take action for themselves and others," says Sandra Jimenez, director of client advocacy for the Department of

Homeless Services. Social activism is a new pursuit for both men. Unmarried and adventurous, Hedgepeth bounced through different jobs and cities before landing in New York two years ago. Then his luck ran out. He was fired from his job and got evicred from his Hell's Kitchen apartment when his roommate, an N-drug user, stopped paying rent. Hutchinson's path started in the suburbs: Laid-off shortly after 9/11, he fell behind on mortgage payments and lost his New Jersey home. Too proud to keep imposing on friends, he found himself sleeping in Port Authority, and then in a city shelter. Because he is over 35, he was automatically transferred to Camp. For men like Hedgepeth and Hutchinson who are simply down on their luck, the isolation can be brutal. "The problem is, we don't have problems," says Hutchinson. Case man-

agers assess residents and try to find them permanent housing, a process that can take months. In the meantime, residents can work in the camp's on-site job readiness program (for a maximum of $72 per week) or take a bus to the city and pound the pavement. Hedgepeth and Hutchinson are lucky enough to own suits and ties, but poor phone and internet access coupled with a temporary address present a challenge. Fighting to improve Camp has become something of a job in itself, but Hutchinson and Hedgepeth have bigger plans. They hope to be placed in a midtown SRO so they can find new jobs and then start a nonprofit to serve other "displaced citizens." "We're not the first two intelligent people to come through, " says Hutchinson. ''A lot of people just gave up or didn't give a damn. We happen to be the ones to say, 'This is it. '" -Cassi Feldman



Carmen Jerez and Ocynthia Williams
Community Collaborative to Improve District 9 Schools

IIThere1s a definite power in numbers:1
three dozen Bronx elementary school teachers took a tour of Highbridge, the neighborhood just north of Yankee Stadium. Eydie Holloway, a parent volunteer, led the teachers down Walton Avenue as children walking with their parents shouted hellos. The teachers were there to envision their pupils' homes, connect with parents and understand the community resources available to kids who might be falling behind in class. Holloway showed the teachers photos of the area in the 1980s, when it was burned outDECEMBER 2004

"spooky, looked like a ghost town." Then she pointed out the tidy brick apartment buildings with green fire escapes, a community garden, and an after-school center filled with dioramas and pottery projects and tables fUll of kids chattering. All are the work of the nonprofit New Settlement Apartments, which helped reclaim and manage the buildings. The tour was part of New Settlement's latest venture: a parent group that is shaping how 10 South Bronx schools are run. Their success defies the experience of parents elsewhere who have found themselves relegated to subordinate roles as part of the Bloomberg administration's school reforms. Four years ago, parents involved with New Settlement expressed frustration that while the 'hood had improved, the schools hadn't-75 percent of kids read below their grade level. Jack Doyle, New Settlement's director, asked Eric Zachary, a professor at the NYU Institute for Education and Social Policy, to lead a workshop about the system and parents' rights. "They understood it's not their own fault, but systemic," says Doyle. "I remember parents saying, 'We've learned all this-let's take action.'" Early actions "were crazy," Doyle says. Parents went to one community school board meeting dressed as Martians and another dressed in striped prison uniforms. Then the group convinced five other Bronx community organizations to create a bigger, more powerful entity called CC9. In 2002, CC9 crafted a four-point plan to improve instruction in District 9 classrooms, then brought hundreds of parents out to rallies where they publicly pressured local politicians and education officials, like superintendent Irma Zardoya

and teacher's union leader Herb Katz, to back their platform. "The higher-ups, they're willing to sit around the table month after month to implement our plans because we can mobilize several hundred parents," says Ocynthia Williams, a parent leader. "I didn't realize before that, in the schools, there's a definite power in numbers." CC9 won the support of reformers' usual opponents by proving that they shared common goals. Rather than attack teachers and administrators, CC9 proposed to help raise private money to provide mentoring and training to principals, and to recruit "lead teachers." These mentors-paid $10,000 a year above union scale-are charged with supporting fledgling educators, in an effort to reduce the sky-high teacher turnover rates in South Bronx schools. Things looked shaky for CC9 when new chancellor Joel Klein reconfigured the school system, changing leadership of the district's 10 schools and reducing parents to "coordinators" with no role in management. But Zardoya, United Federation of Teachers (UF1) leaders and 10,000 petition signatures helped CC9 convince Klein to keep the schools under their existing leadership. Just how deeply have CC9 parents inserted themselves into the power structure? Last spring, the UFT threw them a 300-person gala. Then, after CC9 secured $400,000 from the Booth Ferris Foundation to help hire lead teachers, Klein announced in June that the school system would contribute $1.6 million of its own. It was a powerful signal to parents that their voices do count. "We have sat at the table with all the principals," says Annamaria Garcia, a parent leader. "For the first time, we feel respected."

-Nora McCarthy 29


Clean Air Crusader
John Culpepper
Lower Washington Heights Neighborhood Association

"We know it's bad; we just want to know how bad,"
"SEE THAT TRUCK? See that smoke? That's what we're after!" John Culpepper has declared war on dirty air. His weapon: an E-Sampler Particulate Monitor, a portable device that measures PM 2.5-the tiny particles emitted by cars, trucks, buses, factories, power plants and construction sites. PM 2.5 works its way deep into the lungs, aggravating asthma and other respiratory problems. When neighborhood groups want to cut down

on the sea of dust, they call John Culpepper. Culpepper, a retired sea merchant and executive director of the Lower Washington Heights Neighborhood Association, started looking into air quality in the mid-1990s, after he learned of the alarmingly high child asthma rates in his community. When the state and federal environmenral agencies teamed up to install two dozen air monitoring devices around the city, Culpepper helped get one set up on West 182nd Street. But the EPA rejected Culpepper's request for a second monitor at a school on 155th Street, near a heavily trafficked truck route. "So we came up with the idea to get our own machine," says Culpepper. Local elected officials obliged with contributions. Culpepper and Edgar Freud, a retired electrical engineer, look for hot spots where PM 2.5 levels average higher than 15-the threshold above which air can be harmful to health, according to the EPA-and supply the data to community organizations. The Federation of Civic Associations in Southeast Queens recently called to get air readings at two waste-transfer stations. Since the closest monitor is in North Queens, residents are wondering how accurately the state Department of Environmental Conservation's regional readings measure the air in their own neigborhood. Once they obtain it, they plan to take the data to DEC, which controls the permit for the trash sites, as well as the Department of City Planning, which regulates their wning. "His organization provides an essential ser-

vice," says Gerry Bogacz, planning group director of the New York Metropoliran Transportation Council (NYMTC) , a regional association of transit agencies that has worked with Culpepper to address the problem of idling buses in Washington Heights. Though NYMTC relies only on regional data, Bogacz says Culpepper's localized information is imporrant because it enables communities to determine sources of pollution and mobilize to lower their impact. Says Bogacz, "In his role as a community representative, he's supplementing the information DEC provides." But Ray Warner, chief of the air-programs branch at the EPA, says Culpepper's monitor isn't providing a whole lot of new information. "We have monitors in the area and we already believe the air quality in Washington Heights, the Bronx, and Queens is unhealthful," says Warner. Still, he thinks Culpepper is successfully prompting needed local action. "You have trucks going down streets they shouldn't be going down. Figuring out routes, cracking down on idling trucks-this is done at the local level." Culpepper and Freud would like to purchase a second monitor and hire additional staff. But another monitor would cost around $8,000, and the work is time-consuming-the EPA will only honor data taken in a single spot over the course of six continuous hours. "We know it's bad; we just want to know how bad," says Culpepper. "I want the agencies to know there's another set of eyes out here."

-Abby Aguirre



Q&A: Will current plans for Harlem ignite a new renaissance uptown?
Harlem is awash in plans that promise jobs and have potential to stimulate the local economy, from Columbia University's expansion to the neighborhood'sfirst auto dealership in 50 years. In a community juggling high unemployment and rapid economic transformation, assessing these projects is tough. So the Center for an Urban Future went to find out what KENNETH KNUCKLES, president and CEO of the Upper Manhattan Empowerment Zone, sees ahead for Harlem.

Interview by Jonathan Bowles
CUF: Is Columbia's planned expansion a good thing for Harlem? KN: Under the right set of circumstances, expansion could be of great benefit to upper Manhattan. Manhauanville, at least west of Broadway, is analogous to midtown west. It is underdeveloped, [and] it is mostly small manufacturing businesses. I think there may be 1,000, maybe 1,500 jobs there. To the holder of the job, that's a vital job. But I think there's a greater economic development potential there, and the burden of Columbia is to demonstrate that this expansion will not come at the expense of the surrounding community. ing communities that their expansion does not mean the marginalization of the surrounding communltles. lending scenario that recognizes their strengths and shores up their weaknesses.

CUF: What about fears that development in Harlem won't result in jobs for people in the community? KN: One of our primary planks in our investment strategy is workforce development. We're going to make sure [that] where we invest our capital- be it in an auto mall, a retail facility or a hotel-there will be corresponding job training, so that people will be in a position to obtain those jobs. Moreover, anyone that obtains funds from the empowerment wne must have a job quota. So you cannot get our funds unless you make a commitment to hire Upper Manhattan Empowerment Zone residents.

CUF: Is this a new focus on small businesses? KN: One of the constant complaints of the local
community is that the wne was only concerned about big projects. That's not true in terms of the expenditures we've made. But perception is reality to many people. They see the Harlem USNs, these big projects. They don't hear about the smaller projects, which are the typical projects that we do. [With] small-business lending, it takes two dollars to lend a dollar. It's so labor intensive; that's why banks don't do it. But we've got to do it. We're a lender oflast resort, but we have to also enable these businesses to go to conventionallending sources after they leave us.

CUF: What needs to happen? KN: Columbia has to be sensitive to, and facilitative of, relocation efforts. It's got to work with the businesses that are there. But Columbia has at least three things to offer its neighbors: procurement opportunities, its spending power, and jobs. It's the single largest employer in Upper Manhattan. I want to work with Columbia around workforce development. Columbia is made up of more than professors; there are technical jobs, there are facilities-management jobs, and there are administrative jobs that people from the surrounding community should have access to. We need to find a way to break down the barriers. In fairness to Columbia, they've been open to this. I think they recognize the need to bring assurance to surround-

CUF: Are there still untapped opportunities in Harlem? KN: There certainly are. The anchor projects
have been very successful, and we want to do more of them because they create jobs and [are] catalysts for development around them. But we also are going to focus a lot of energy on small business development. Small businesses make up the backbone of the economy up here. So we are going to provide technical assistance to these businesses, and we're going to do a kind of equitable lending. We're going to take each business and partner with it and structure a

CUF: What would you suggest to city and state officials? KN: We've got to stop defining economic development as only meaning midtown Manhauan, lower Manhauan and now downtown Brooklyn and Long Island City. I think there's a recognition of that, but I would certainly want upper Manhauan-as a cultural economy and a place where you have two major universities [Columbia University and City College]-to be seen as part of the economic equation. •

For the complete interview, visit the Center for an Urban Future's website, 31





JOBS 2004 How to Keep New York Working

The Poverty Paradox
Why are New Yorkers' incomes staying steady when so many are unemployed?
By Tracie McMillan
WHEN THE LATEST poverty statistics came out in August, the numbers didn't make very big waves. With the Republican Party roaring into New York, the fact that poverty had gone up nationally-no surprise for an economy just creeping out of a recession-barely made it ro the local news at all. But a close look at New York City's share of the numbers showed a quirk: Poverty here didn't go up. It stayed flat. Even more curious were the unemployment numbers. Though poverty didn't go up in the Big Apple, unemployment plowed steadily upward; in September, it was 6.9 percent. Nationally, unemployment also rose, but on a much smaller scale. Nothing like what one would expect. After all, the more people lose jobs, the more people should be poor; and if fewer people are losing jobs, then fewer people should fall into poverty-right? Not so this time around. And the reasons why, posit some observers, tell us a lot about who's moving ahead in the current economic landscape and who's being left behind. Even more important, they help illustrate the difficulties of not just keeping poverty at bay, but actually reducing it. To understand why poverty stayed stable while unemployment rose, it's important to take a look at who was able to stay employed. Jobholding rates declined dramatically for young men in the city, by nearly 12 percent from 2000 to 2003. This trend mimics the nation as a whole, where young men saw their job holding decrease by about 7 percent, according to an analysis of census and labor data by Mark Levitan, senior policy analyst for the Community Service Society of New York. That unemployment was higher here is typical for New York; we generally outpace the national average by several percentage points (see chart). What happened to young women is more interesting. Jobholding for females under age 25 dropped by only 3 percent during the same period. And not only did young New York women experience less job loss than men, they hung onto more jobs than their counterparts nationwide. Young women across the country saw jobs drop by nearly 5 percent, a striking contrast to the city.

The Unemployment Gap

r-------------, _ Percent Differential
Between NYC and U . Unemployment Rate .S


10 1975 1980 1985 1980 1995 21m 2003


Since 1970, New York City's unemployment rate has been consistently above the U.S.average -and after gains in the 1990s, New York is again losing ground.
Center for An Urban Future SOURCES, U . Census Bureau. Bureau of Labor Statistics .S

- 3~----------------------------~

The disproportionate unemployment among young men is the key to understanding why New York's poverty rate barely budged, says Levitan. "Younger men typically are either on their own, or living with their parents, so the effect on the poverty rate of that group losing their jobs is pretty small," he explains. "We've had a tremendous amount of job loss in this city, but it's fallen on people who by and large are not supporting families." Since women are largely the ones heading households solo, keeping them at work is likely to make the quickest inroads into stalling poverty. And if there's one area in which New York has shone, it's been moving single mothers into jobs. The powerful combination of workfocused welfare reform and a booming economy in the late 1990s led women into the workforce en masse. Even amid the recession and an overall loss of jobs, a higher proportion of the city's single mothers were working in 2003 than in 2000. That's not to say that working women are living large. They tend to dominate employment in fields like health and education services-the only sectors to see significant expansion in New York City during the recession-where the average annual income hovers around $25,000. Broadly increasing incomes could be a boon to working fiunilies that are no longer in poverty, but are not far from it, either. "There are things we might do ... like increase the earned income tax credit, the minimum wage," says Lawrence Mead, professor of politics at New York University and a former consultant to the Giuliani

administration on welfare policy. Still, whether those options are realized or not, says Levitan, former welfare recipients "have a bit more money than they had when they were on welfare." But that is where the city's success comes to a grinding halt. "If there's a poster child for the recession, it's a younger African-American man who's probably living with parents, or on his own," says Levitan, who authored a widely cited report last fall documenting the rampant lack of jobs among the city's black men, nearly half of whom are not working. "Among younger men, it's been men of color, particularly AfricanAmerican men, that have lost their jobs." And part of the reason, say observers, is that women have been the center of debate. "Women are doing better than the men," says Mead. "But one reason for that is that they've been the objects of recent welfare reform, so they're getting more attention." Berween government's preoccupation with moving women into jobs, and the rapid expansion of employment in fields dominated by women, it's little wonder that men have faced a tougher time. In the end, figuring out how to move young men into steady employment may make the difference berween keeping poverty rates stable and actually reducing them. "We can go back and forth about whether [more men in jobs) is a big advance for these families," says Levitan, noting the tenuous hold on economic stability of many working families. "But it's clear that the poor as a group are not going to advance unless more men are working." •




The Myth of Welfare Reform
Documenting how much never changed, ajournalist points to what could.
plan, or even in 2000 when George W Bush touted the measure as a plank in his plarform of "compassionate conservatism," the most radical change in public policy of the last 10 years merited scarcely a mention in the fiercely competitive race berween Bush and John Kerry. Perhaps the reason why is that nobody knows quite what to say. Though the welfare reform law expired in 2002, Congress has been deadlocked on a replacement measure and has deferred the issue by repeatedly passing extensions of the original law. The stalled economy of the last several years slowed-but did not reverse-the radical drops in state welfare rolls that led most observers to hail welfare reform as a triumph during the late 1990s, confounding the dire predictions of liberals who had opposed the changes. But it has also become clear that conservative predictions of the "transformational power of work" lifring millions of former aid recipients into self-sufficiency and largely reversing the embedded pathologies of underclass communities were similarly off-base. At this becalmed moment in the ongoing history of welfare reform, Jason DeParle's Ameractivists, officials and advisors-the scheming of welfare rights activists in the 1960s, a Clinton speechwriter's search for the perfect phrase in late 1991, a game of political chicken berween a Wisconsin governor and his legislative rivals a few short years later--can lead to ptofound changes for millions they will never meet.

THE QUANTITATIVE measures of welfare reformthe drops in aid receipt, changes in work rates and income levels-have been recorded and endlessly debated. But what else was accomplished by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996? Perhaps the most important change was that the myth of the welfare parasite, assiduously cultivated by Ronald Reagan and other conservatives before and since, was largely destroyed. The country saw millions of single women accept the end of their guaranteed benefits with relative equanimity and jump into the workforce to support their children. As DeParle shows, however, this was in no small part because many of these former aid recipients were already working. For the brash and sardonic Angie Jobe, one of the three women whose story helps frame the book, the monthly welfare check was just one source of income, along with a series of low-wage jobs and occasional assistance from boyfriends, family and others. This crucial finding-all but unreported in much of the ideologically driven literarure from both sides in the debate-probably helps explain why the spectacle of all these women entering the workforce failed to provoke the profound positive changes in child development and srudent achievement that public officials from Bill Clinton to Wisconsin (and later New York City) welfare chief Jason Turner had predicted: The kids had already seen Mom going off to work.

By David Jason Fischer
American Dream: Three Women, Ten Kids, and a Nation's Drive to End Welfare By Jason DeParle Viking Books, 442 pages, $25.95
YOU PROBABLY MISSED it in the flood of words
thrown back and forth about pre-emptive war, middle-class squeeze, terror and forged memos, but the usually salient issue of welfare reform has been the dog that didn't bark in the 2004 election. Unlike in 1992, when Bill Clinton established his New Democrat bona fides by promising to "end welfare as we know it," or four years later when Clinton signed a bill doing just that despite its radical differences from his original

ican Dream: Three Wi1men, Ten Kids, and a Nation's Drive to End Welfore offers a tremendously valuable summary of where we've been and where we are now in this evolving area of policy- and gives some insight as to where we should go next. Part history, parr biography and part sociology, DeParle's book not only brings the great debate of national policy down to human scale through the story of three Milwaukee women and their families, it also details how the very human and rarely preplanned actions of


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One of DeParle's accomplishments in this book is how such revelations help illustrate other, better-known truths impacting those attempting the transition from welfare to work: the ofr-repeated cycle between employment and idleness; the "barriers," from a lack of educational attainment to transportation and child care problems and mental health issues, between welfare leavers and sustained, steady work; the essential wonhlessness of the old Aid to Families With Dependent Children that led even those who deplored the mid-1990s reforms to concede that change was needed. Over the course of the book, Jobe's work career is interrupted by car failure (and thefr, at one point), recurrent bouts with depression, and-another revelation for attentive policymakers-the receipt of her Earned Income Tax Credit, a windfall worth several thousand dollars that suddenly makes work seem a little less crucial. He also renders, in heartbreaking fashion, the story of Jobe's friend Opal, whose addiction to crack cocaine not only lasts through welfare reform and the birth of her six children, but is even abetted by the same welfare program, Wisconsin Works (W2) , that brought Turner and the state's governor,

Tommy Thompson, to national prominence. Through most of the book, DeParle admirably holds his own views in abeyance, but his outrage shows through when he describes the astonishing waste, corruption and mismanagement that characterized this widely lauded program. At best, programs like W2 redirect funds that once went to aid checks in order to help low-income workers arrange transportation and address other obstacles to sustained employment. In reality, this was all too rarely the case. In the book, not only does W2 pay for Opal's crack; its misaligned incentives and lack of oversight furnishes her with a halfdozen caseworkers in just over a year (including a fellow addict). Elsewhere in Maximus, the company managing her case, welfare-towork executives are lining their pockets, putting family and lovers on the payroll and spending millions in taxpayer money on promotional ephemera from music jingles to golf balls. With nearly everyone-except, of course, those whom the program is intended to serve-benefiting from the myrh of W2's transformational success, corrective investigation is painfully long in coming. Part of the problem, DeParle implies, is that

though welfare reform radically changed the goals of "the system," it did little to change the culture of the bureaucracy or the processes it used. Thus we see Jobe mistakenly deprived of her food stamps, leaving the more than half dozen children in her home hungry, even as Opal keeps getting her checks because successive caseworkers fail to discover her history of addiction. And Michael Steinborn, a caseworker at Maximus who fmally determines to help Opal, spends as much time trying to decipher a needlessly complex and almost comically counterintuitive computer coding system as he does trying to solve the problems of his clients. The primary change needed to really achieve success in the lives of program participants-an ethic on the part of agency workers that participant well-being is the most important goalnever took place. Thus the system continued to enable those, like Opal, who needed a salutary kick in the rear while erroneously imposing penalties on countless individuals who were doing exactly what they had been asked to do.

THE PLEASURE OF reading American Dream is in
its vividly drawn characters, from Angie, Opal and the ambivalent but heroic caseworker

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Michael to Tommy Thompson, Bill Clinton and other leading figures of the national welfarereform movement. And the book serves as a marvelous summation of much of the best literature on welfare to date, £Tom Nicholas Lemann's The Promised Land to Alex Kotlowitz's There Are No Children Here and LynNell Hancock's more recent work on welfare reform in New York City, Hands to WOrk. DeParle picks up the themes of all these works-the profoundly important migration over decades £Tom Jim Crow South to the great cities of the north, the struggle of innercity children to grow up in a severely dysfUnctional culture, and how changes in the welfare laws affected both family structures and local job markets-and weaves them into a single extraordinarily compelling narrative. But what does the book tell us abouc how to further align public assistance with societal values and bring real improvement to the lives of Americans who, while off the welfare rolls, seem nearly as far from self-sufficiency now than they were in 1995? Ultimately the question is one of values and goals: whether we are truly committed to rewarding work and "playing by the rules," or content not to subsidize "idleness." Near the end of the book,

DeParle cites a Brookings Institution plan to raise the minimum wage and increase child care and tax credits for work, which its authors estimated would help 20 million families, all led by working adults. At a cost of

The change needed to achieve success in participants' lives never took place.
$26 billion per year, it would account for less than half the revenue lost by the Congressional decision to end the estate tax, which almost entirely benefits multimillionaires. If this is the first you've heard of this proposal, you're not alone.

Absent a real reordering of political realities along these lines, perhaps the answer is a program that does more of what W2 was supposed to do, with bigger carrots-barrier removal, educational and training opportunities, rewards for sustained employment or child academic achievement-as well as sticks. And although liberals will likely blanch at the prospect, DeParle's account makes it clear that the next step in welfare reform will somehow have to address men and family formation; without a public effort to put single men in low-income communities back to work and create incentives for them to live up to family obligations, there is a sharp limit to what welfare reform can accomplish. The unifYing concept here is the social contract itself, so effectively used by President Clinton and others to build support for welfare reform in the fim place: Work hard, live right, and we'll make it worth your while to do so. Through the first decade of welfare reform, progress toward making this grand bargain meaningful has been halting and inconsistent, but sufficiently real to give observers from all points of the political compass hope that this American Dream might yet be realized.•



continued from page 14

Underground Justice

Purvi Shah. So the group's volunteers don't demand that a woman leave her abuser. Instead, they try to move her toward financial and emotional independence. Participating in Sakhi support groups combats feelings of shame and isolation, and a woman is welcome to anend for many months if need be, even years. There she can learn from women who've used the criminal justice system successfully. She can get information about government assistance like food stamps and public housing, which may be available if she splits from her partner. To prepare for a job, she can take Sakhi-sponsored classes in English and computers. And if she's undocumented or a temporary resident prohibited from working, she can be referred to an immigration anorney who might be able to upgrade her status. The federal Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) is extraordinarily generous to immigrant victims of domestic violence who are married and depend on their permanent resident or U.S. citizen spouses to sponsor changes to their status. VAWA lets them to file on their own for a green card, eliminating the need to be sponsored by an abusive spouse. VAWA also makes it unnecessary to call the police in order to convince officials that abuse really happened. "You can just file your own affidavit with the immigration authorities, or

give them affidavits from witnesses," says Cyrus Mehta, a local immigration attorney and adviser to Sakhi. VAWA, some activists say, has made the process so easy that the first call many immigrant domestic violence victims make is not to 911 or a hotline but to a lawyer. Still, a lot needs changing. Anjelita Bangali apparently never heard of VAWA-or CONNECT, Sakhi or any other group that might have helped her. Her boyfriend, Dhanraj Hamashwar, "was threatening to chop her up," says Bangali's Il-year-old daughter, Normela. She and her sister Ishwarie, 9, lived with their mother arrer she moved in with Hamashwar. Despite his threats, police have no record of ever getring a call about him from Bangali. Her neighbor and best friend, Shanti Jainaraim, says Bangali "always said things were going well. But she'd have tears in her eyes." Bangali was murdered days arrer telling Hamashwar she planned to leave him. That period, according to experts, is the most dangerous time for a domestic violence victim. "I was ready to forgive her and wish she'd been able to get counseling," says her husband, Basdeu Bangali. "But we didn't know how to find it. We were new to this country." •

Third, that Spanish-speaking teachers would be important for new migrants to Allentown, or that "English is rarely heard" in new Puerto Rican 'hoods. I think it is really rare among Nuyoricans to find school-age children who don't speak more English than Spanish. In seven years in New York I have yet to come across a New York-born Rican under the age of 21 who can't speak English. Other than that, an interesting story.

Franziska Castillo Riverdale, New York
Debbie Nathan replies: Check the Us. Census. For 1990, it shows that 27 percent, or about 6,500, of Providence's 23,744 Latinos identified themselves as Puerto Ricans. A decade later, that number had essentially doubled, to almost 13,000 Puerto Ricans. During the same period in Providence, the Dominican population rose from 7,973 (about a third of the Latino population) to 14,683down to 28 percent, because they've been overshadowed by new groups of Latino immigrants: from Mexico, and Central and South America. Demographically, Dominicans in Providence today barely dominate Puerto Ricam. When reporting in Allentown, I did rarely hear English on the streets. Spanish is lingua franca in this community. Allentown teachers andparents told me many children have problems speaking and writing English, which they attributed to the atrocious state ofpublic schooling in New York City.


continued from page 4

Second, that Providence is a rust belt city. It actually has a substantial middle and upper middle class, plus it has recently undergone quite a revitalization.

Planning for Communities, Cities and the Environment at Pratt.
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To place a classified ad in City Limits, e-mail your ad to or fax your ad to 212-479-3339. The ad will run in the City Limits Weekly and City Limits magazine and on the City Limits web site. Rates are $1 .46 per word, minimum 40 words. Special event and professional directory advertising rates are also available. For more information, check out the Jobs section of or call 212-479-3345.

related field. Salary $50,000-$60,000 plus benefits. Send cover letter and resume to Ms. Nancy D Miller, VISIONS, 500 Greenwich Street . NY, NY 10013; email: Website:
ADMINISTRATIVE AIDE TOTHE DIRECT R O IBO is seeking an organized, detailed-oriented individual to serve as an Administrative Aide to the Director and also provide assistance with routine office work to lBO's senior staff. Responsibilities include scheduling meetings, screening calls, typing, filing, and providing other assistance to the Director as necessary. The Administrative Aide also is responsible for processing agency expense vouchers, timekeeping, and maintaining office supply inventory. Candidates must be reliable, able to work independently and collaboratively, and meet deadlines. Send cover letter, resume to or fax to 212-4420350. MlEOE. ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT - Administrative Assistant to provide support to social work staff in special needs housing: maintain office files, machines, supplies; voucher and petty cash; copy/fax; correspondence and record meetings; phones. Team player for diverse workplace; Must have: BA degree; admin asst. experience. Up to $30,000 & benefits. Bklyn location, Fax letter of interest and resume to: 718-602-9107. ADMINISTRATIVE ASSIST ANT - Exciting national non-profit economic justice law office seeks adm. asst. (secretarial, litigation support, development). 3+ yrs. exp., $33,000 up, excellent benefits. Midtown South. Persons of color, formerly on welfare or poor, encouraged. EOE. See Send resume, refs to ADMINISTRATOR OF FACILITY MANAGEMENT - St. John's Place Family Center. Coordinate day to day operations of several multi-family properties in Brooklyn. Responsibilities include coordination of maintenance, security, purchasing and other support services divisions. Provide project management on various capital improvement projects including design review, construction. Convert and upgrade computerized preventive maintenance program. Set standards for custodial and security staff to ensure quality service is provided. Develop equipment replacement schedules. Oversee compliance with building regulations. Competitive salary, excellent benefits. EOE. Fax (718) 771-3980 or Mail to Louis Rodriguez, St. John's Place F amily Center, 1630 St. John's P lace, Brooklyn, NY 11233, Tel (718) 771-

evenings a week. Compensation is $25 per hour for six to eight hours per week. Candidates must have hands on experience, have training in adult education at the literacy and pre-GED levels with at least two years experience teaching adults. Please forward resume and cover letter to Human R esources, The Doe Fund, Inc., 341 East 79th Street, NY, NY 10021; fax to (212) 570-6706 or e-mail to Please respond asap. EOE
m ER SCHOOL PROGRAM COORDINATOR Project R .A .E .D.Y. (Resources for Employment and Academic Development for Youth) is a Bronx-based, educational enrichment and vocational training initiative, targeted for youth ages 6- 22. The After School Program Coordinator position entails working with grade school age youth, ages 6-11. Candidate must possess: strong administrative and educational development skills; capacity to hire, train, supervise and evaluate staff; solid teaching experience at the grade school level; and experience with curriculum development and lesson planning. Experience with planning and implementation of summer camp program a plus. Requirements: Minimum BA in Education or Human Services (MA in Education and Teacher Certification preferred). Bilingual (English /Spanish) a plus. Minimum 5 years supervisory/managerial experience. Strong verbal and written communication skills. Salary commensurate with experience and credentials. Com prehensive benefits package. Send resume and cover letter to: Estel Fonseca, Vice President of Youth Services, The Mount Hope Housing Company, 2003-05 Walton Ave., NY 10453. Fax: (718) 466-4788. No telephone calls. ASSDCIATE DIRECTOR - Leading non-profit organization has an immediate opening for a talented professional to enhance the operation of its faith- based shelter network, mobilize clergy and volunteers, and design initiatives that recruit new congregations to provide emergency overnight shelter throughout the city. Applicants must have excellent management and community- organizing skills, the ability to work with diverse coalitions, and a willingness to work non-traditional hours and days to meet project needs. Bilingual (English/Spanish) preferred. Interested applicants should send a resume to: Director of Human Resources The Partnership for the Homeless 305 Seventh Avenue, 13th floor New York, New York 10001. ASSOCIATE STATE DIRECTOR - COMMUNITY OUTREACH - We're 35 million members strong - with more joining us every day - the largest and "Most powerful grassroots organization" around, according to Fortune magazine. In fact, we're more involved in your state and community than ever before. If you're ready, here's your chance to take action in our New York, New York office. Working to ensure AARP is seen as a visible force you will develop and implement activities related to priorities in the state including community service

programs, diversity outreach, and education/learning activities with a focus on various consumer health and/or economic security issues, advocacy and other campaigns. You will develop effective partnerships with diverse comm unity organizations and businesses, maintain visible statewide coalitions dealing with community outreach strategic issues and recruit, train, orient and recognize volunteers. Requires a bachelor's degree; 5 - 7 years of relevant experience; knowledge of the state's diverse community service environment; and excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Travel up to 50%. Qualified candidates are invited to apply online at (see State and National Initiatives Job Code EC2004260). MRP - The power to make it better. We are an Equal Opportunity Employer that values workplace diversity.
BILINGUAL SOCIAL WORKER - Bilingual Social Worker Project R.E.A.D.Y. (Resources for Employment and Academic Development for Youth) is a Bronx-based, educational enrichment and vocational training initiative, targeted for youth ages 6- 22. The Social Worker position entails: providing individual and group counseling services, planning and implementation of life skills training curriculum, crisis intervention and referral to entitlement programs (housing, child care, medical and other resources). Lead and train parent groups. Candidate must have proficient clinical skills for individual and group modalities, team coordination and decision-making, program implementation. Proven track record with grade school youth, adolescents and families is essential. Requirements: Masters degree preferred. Minimum BA in Psychology/Human Services. Bi-lingual (English/Spanish) is essential. Strong verbal and written communication skills. Competent computer skills. 3-5 years proven experience working with school age and adolescent youth. Salary commensurate with experience and credentials. Comprehensive benefits package. Send resume and cover letter to: Estel Fonseca, Vice President of Youth Services, The Mount Hope Housing Company, 2003-05 Walton Ave., Bronx, NY 10453. Fax: (718) 466-4788. No telephone calls. BRONX BOROUGH COORDINATOR - The CityWide Task Force on Housing Court, Inc., is seeking a full-time borough coordinator to work at the Bronx Housing Court. We are looking for someone who is passionate about housing issues and willing to fight for tenant rights! The borough coordinator is responsible for running the information table at the Housing Court, monitoring the court, identifying trends at the court and formulating strategies to address problems at the court. The coordinator must collect statistics on visits to the information tables. At the City-Wide office, the coordinator must respond to calls to CityWide's Housing Court and Rental Arrears Hotline. The coordinator must plan, organize and implement the monthly meeting of the Bronx Task Force on Housing Court, which brings

ACCOUNTANT - (Manhattan Office) Reporting to the C O, the Accountant performs all F accounting and reporting functions for a portfolio of human services and educational programs. The Accountant is additionally responsible for recording payroll journal entries in the general ledger, allocating and recording pension expenses and assisting in the preparation of yearend audit schedules. A Bachelor's degree in accounting or related business field and two years of professional accounting experience required. Good analytic and technical skills and literacy in Fundware or comparable financial software essential. Starting salary - $30,000 to $35,000 depending on qualifications and prior work experience. Interested candidates meeting the above criteria should forward their resumes and letters of interest to Mr. Robert Drake, Director of Human Resources, The New York Urban League, 204 W 136th Street, New York, NY 10030. Resumes . will be accepted until the position is filled . The New York Urban League is an EEO/M employer. ADMINISTRATOR/CAMP DIRECTOR - Administrator, full time, year round for residential camp serving blind people of all ages. Must live at camp for 10-week summer plus selected winter weekends. Optional year round housing available. Evening work and local travel required. Office work based in Lower Manhattan. Minimum 3 years residential, administration, supervision and risk management experience. Masters in Social Work, Education or

ADULT EDUCATOR - PART TIME - The Doe Fund Inc., an innovative social service organization providing job training, education and transitional housing to homeless individuals, seeks a part time adult educator to teach basic education to program participants at our Brooklyn facility. Classes meet two



together advocates in the Bronx to address issues in Housing Court. This description is not complete. The best candidate will have experience in Housing Court with broad knowledge of how the court works, the types of cases that are heard and the defenses people can raise. He or she will also have a broad knowledge of the types of housing in New York City and the different laws that apply to them, the types of rent subsidies available and the rules used to apply those subsidies, and a strong familiarity with the different organizations working on housing issues in New York City. This is a frontline position in a critical battleground for housing issues and it demands exceptional competence and passion. Spanish-bilingual preferred. Please send a cover letter and resume addressed to the Executive Director, City-Wide Task Force on Housing Court, Inc., 29 John Street, Suite 1004, New York, New York 10038. Applications can also be made via email to or via fax to 212-9624799. We cannot respond to every application and will contact only those people who meet our basic selection criteria. The coordinator works mornings at the court and afternoons at City-Wide's main office in Lower Manhattan. Salary is competitive and we offer excellent benefits. CASE MANAGERS AND CASE PLANNERS (New York Urban League, Human Services programs located in Brooklyn, Manhattan and Queens) - Case Managers and Case Planners required in three human services programs to provide direct services respectively to senior citizens, children and families, and pregnant and parenting teens. Duties include weekly home visits to clients, case assessments, writing of case reports, development of service plans, service referrals, crisis intervention and maintenance of case files. Case Managers Bachelor's degree in sociology, human services or related field and computer literacy required. Effective written and oral communication skills essential. Salary $28,000 - $31,000. Case Planners - MSW required. Salary $37,000. Interested candidates meeting the above criteria should forward their resumes and letters of interest to Mr. Robert Drake, Director of Human Resources, The New York Urban League, 204 W . 136th Street, New York, NY 10030. Resumes will be accepted until the position is filled. The New York Urban League is an EEO/AA employer. CASEWORKER - Seeking caseworker for East Village Homeless Shelter. Must have BAlBSW and at least 2 years expoin social services elderly, mental health and substance abuse expopreferred. Salary low 30k + benefits. Fax resume to Gina Rosich: (212) 260-9846. CENTER DIRECTOR - Community Healthcare Network is one of NYC's largest network of notfor-profit community based healthcare centers provides health, mental health & social services to medically underserved neighborhoods throughout Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens & the Bronx. Responsibilities include day-to-day mgmt coordination of all clinical admin & operational functions. M BAIBS in public in health administration or related field 3 yrs expo in primary care admin; working knowledge of budget development; strong verbal/written communication skills & managerial background reQ'd. If interested please send your resume to the VP of Human Resources at 79 Madison Avenue NY NY 10016 or fax to (212) 807- 0250 or email: COMMUNITY ORGANIZER - Full-time position organizing CUCS staff and consumers to influence public policies that affect the CUCS community, including 2 transitional service programs and 9 permanent supportive housing programs. Resp.: Coordinate and provide administrative support to the CUCS Advocacy Committee. Develop tenant and staff leadership. Plan advocacy-related events and activities, including voter registration and get out the vote efforts. Prepare summaries, updates and correspondences on policy issues. Develop and maintain systems for the dissemination of information throughout the organization. ReQs.: Bachelors degree. Experience in advocacy and/or community organizing. Minimum of two years experience working with people who have experienced homelessness, mental illness, or HIV disease. Excellent verbal and written communication skills - public speaking experience helpful. Computer literacy and strong organizational skills. Supervisory experience preferred. Please send Resume and Cover letter, asap to: Paula Diamond-Roman, CUCSlHRC, 120 Wall Street, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10005; fax: (212)635-2191 CUCS is committed to workforce diversity. EEO COMMUNITY ORGANIZER - Northwest Bronx Community and Clergy Coalition seeks candidates to organize community residents around housing, education, immigration, and other issues, with emphasis on leadership development and direct action. Requires commitment to social justice, organizing experience, and Spanish language skills. Salary $25-32 Kwith good benefits. Send letter and resume to or fax (718)3675655. COORDINATOR OF CONTRACT MANAGEMENT - Organization that works with prisoners, exprisoners and their families is recruiting for a Coordinator of Contract Management. Background in government funding and contract compliance, fund and grant accounting, management and program administration required. Send salary requirement, resume and cover letter to For more detailed information please visit EOElAA COORDINATOR OF FAMILY DEVELOPMENT SERVICES - Brooklyn based nonprofit providing Early Childhood Education, Family Support Services, Transitional Housing, Youth Development, and Literacy seeks Certified Social Worker to supervise Family Development component. Responsibilities include supervision of Family Workers, case management, assessments, short term counseling, psycho-educational groups, parent education, establishing community partnerships and managing contractual requirements. Qualifications: CSW, 3 years experience in community based social work and supervisory experience, computer proficiency, bilingual a plus. Competitive salary and benefit package. Please fax cover letter and resume to (718) 330-0846 Attn: Operations Manager. COORDINATOR, DOMESTIC VIOLENCE EDUCATION AND PREVENTION PROGRAM - Leading Westchester domestic violence agency seeks Coordinator of school-based program providing educational, individual, and group support services related to violence in families and intimate relationships. Exp. working with children, knowledge of victimization, supervisory experience necessary. MSW/MA preferred; SpanlEng preferred; must own car. Salary min.$35K. Send resume and cover letter to: asiniscalchi@mysistersplaceny.orgorfax 914683-1599. No calls. DEPUTY GENERAL COUNSEL - Salary Commensurate with Experience ($50,634 $108,044). The New York City Department of Homeless Services (DHS), a City agency working in partnership with other public and private organizations to provide temporary emergency shelter and support services for eligible homeless individuals and families, seeks a skilled attorney and manager to serve as the Legal division's second-ranking legal officer. Serving in the title of Deputy General Counsel, the selected professional will develop litigation strategies in high-profile class action lawsuits, assist the agency in implementing its five-year plan to end chronic homelessness, advise executive staff on legal matters and represent the agency at both public meetings and private negotiations. The Deputy General Counsel will also supervise legal and non-legal staff, and will be charged with continually improving the division's productivity. Candidates should have demonstrated success in handling class action or other high impact litigation in either the public or private sector. Excellent written, negotiation, oral advocacy and managerial skills are also desired. Requirements: Admission to the New York State Bar and four years of recent fulltime responsible, relevant and satisfactory legal experience subsequent to admission to any state bar. Candidates must also have had 18 months of experience in the supervision of other attorneys, or in an administrative, managerial or executive capacity. New York City Residency is required. (Posting no. 071-05-122-587C). For immediate consideration, please send a writing sample and two copies of a cover letter (indicating salary history and the posting number of the position as listed above); along with two resume copies to: Department of Homeless Services, Recruitment Coordinator, 33 Beaver Street - 12th Floor, New York, NY 10004. The Dept of Homeless Services is an equal opportunity employer. DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATE NonProfit!Social Service Organization seeks Development Assoc. with excellent verbal, writing, editing, research skills. Duties include grant writing; writing and editing publicity material (newsletters and press releases); maintaining website. Knowledge of QuarkXpress, Dreamweaver, Photoshop, Excel, Word. Salary $40 + excellent fringe benefits. Email resume to DIRECTOR OF MARKETING & PUBLIC RELATIONS - Lower East Side BID, Candidate will possess 3 years NYC based experience marketing and P . Responsibilities include: Working .R with Board and E.D. to create a marketing plan for the Lower East Side to enhance brand recognition and attract visitors to the neighborhood. Planning and execution of a program of community events. Managing P.R. for the organization, maintain media contact list. Managing updates, production, distribution and promotion of two brochures and Quarterly newsletter. Salary $35-38K. Email resumes: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE COUNSELOR - HELP USA, a nationally recognized leader in the provisions of transitional housing, residential and social services, seeks a Domestic Violence Counselor to work with battered women. Key responsibilities include clinical &group counseling. Ideal candidate must be experienced in crisis intervention and client advocacy. MSW preferred; must be computer literate & bilingual (Spanish/English). Salary: commensurate with experience. Send resumes to: Ms. Hayley Carrington, HELP-ROADS, 515 Blake Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11207 or fax to 718-495-0859. EOE. ADrug Free Workplace. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM CASE MANAGERS (New York Urban League, Brooklyn) - Reporting to the Director of the Young Adult Borough Program, Case Managers provide educational advisement, personal counseling and resource referrals to young adults enrolled in an alternative evening high school. Based on areas of specialization, specific duties may include assisting students in preparing for college admission and providing general social service support. Bachelor's degree in education, social science or related field required. One or more years professional work experience in education or case management preferred. Starting salary $30,000 - $35,000 depending on Qualifications and prior work experience. Interested candidates meeting the above criteria should forward their resumes and letters of interest to Mr. Robert Drake, Director of Human Resources, The New York Urban League, 204 W. 136th Street, New York, NY 10030. Resumes will be accepted until the position is filled. The New York Urban League is an EEO/AA employer. EMPIRE ZONE PROGRAM MANAGER - Manage business/industrial development initiatives, provide liaison services for businesses seeking access EZ benefits, coordinate day-to-


day activities, monitor reporting requirements, records maintenance, administer program budget, ordering supplies, etc. Email:, Fax: (718) 292-3115. EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT (New York Urban League, Manhattan Office) Reporting to the President/CEO, the Executive Assistant coordinates internal and external communications on behalf of the President, serves as liaison to the Board of Directors, program and departmental supervisors, corporate officers and the general public, and represents the President in assigned meetings and committees. The Executive Assistant is additionally responsible for managing the President's calendar and independently preparing draft correspondence. ABachelor's degree and minimum of five years senior level work experience required. Master's degree in public administration, public relations or related field preferred. Superior oral and written communication, highly developed organizational skills and literacy in Microsoft Office Suite are essential. Starting salary - $40,000 to $50,000 depending on qualifications and prior work experience. Interested candidates meeting the above criteria should forward their resumes and letters of interest to Mr. Robert Drake, Director of Human Resources, The New York Urban League, 204 W 136th Street, New . York, NY 10030. Resumes will be accepted until the position is filled. The New York Urban League is an EEO/AA employer. FACILITY MANAGER Westchester leading Social ServiceS/Housing Agency has opening for an experienced person to direct the operations of its Maintenance Department. Ideal candidate will be responsible for planning, organizing & directing all maintenance functions of Scattered Sites, Special Needs & Owned & Managed Units as well as supervising the Facilities Supervisor, Admin Asst & Warehouse Clerk. Abachelor's degree or equivalent with a minimum of 5 years related experience required. Must have good knowledge of HVAC, Electric, Plumbing and management of human & material resources. Good oral/written/computer & interpersonal a must. Own vehicle & clean NYS driver's license a plus. Send resume/letter of interest to Dir HR, Westhab, 85 Executive Blvd., Elmsford, NY 10523, Fax 914-345-3139, email EOE. FAIR HOUSING COUNSELOR - (New York Urban League, Queens) - Reporting to the Vice President for Programs, the Fair Housing Counselor provides information and advisement to tenants and property owners and assists in mediating formal housing-related disputes and complaints. Additional duties include the presentation of informational workshops on housing law and the rights/responsibilities of tenants and owners, writing and maintaining case reports and complaint records, and preparing monthly and quarterly reports. Bachelor's degree in social science or related field required. One or more years of housing-related work experience preferred. Salary - $29,310. Interested candidates meeting the above criteria should forward their resumes and letters of interest to Mr. Robert Drake, Director of Human Resources, The New York Urban League, 204 W 136th . Street, New York, NY 10030. Resumes will be accepted until the position is filled . The New York Urban League is an EEO/AA employer. FISCAL DIRECTOR - EI Puente, a community human rights institution that promotes leadership for peace and justice in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, ( seeks a Fiscal D irector to oversee its finance department. Responsibilities include managing financial systems and personnel functions; Supervising bookkeeper and accounting clerk; Preparing annual budgets, budget modifications, financial reports and annual audit. Desired Qualifications: MBA in accounting and at least 3-5 years experience in nonprofit financial management, contract management, and staff training/supervision. Competitive salary and benefits. Send resume and cover letter to HOUSING PLACEMENT SPECIALIST - Bailey House is a nationally recognized leader providing innovative housing and support services for formerly homeless men, women and children living with AIDS. Assist clients in obtaining appropriate housing. Provide case management, independent living skills and housing placement services. Act as liaison for clients to CBO's, AIDS service programs. Conduct outreach, intake assessment, develop housing service plans, broker leases, develop strategies to obtain HASA, Section 8, SSI or PA rental subsidies and other duties BA degree a + experience in obtaining housing, working with individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Ability to negotiate the HASA housing placement system, leases. Excellent verbal, written, computer skills. Knowledge of benefits, entitlements available to PLWAs. Bilingual (EnglishlSpanish). Please send your resume and cover letter in confidence to, by mail to Bailey House, Inc. 275 Seventh Avenue, NY NY 10001 Attention: Human Resources, or Fax: 212-414-1431. INTAKE COORDINATOR - Common Ground Community, a prestigious NYC non-profit housing organization, seeks an Intake for screening, interviewing and assessing eligibility of applicants. Slhe will have a baccalaureate degree (Masters preferred) and experience in real estate, Low Income Housing Tax Credit programs, and Fair Housing regulations. Email resumes to . JOB DEVELOPER - The Doe Fund, an innovative social service organization providing job training and transitional housing to homeless individuals, seeks an experienced job developer/recruiter to cultivate and maintain employer relationships. Candidate must posses ability to teach life skills and job preparation classes and experience working with homeless population a plus. Ability to provide full range of job placement services - resumes, interview training and tracking clients' job search



J-51 Tax Abatement/Exemption 421A and 421B Applications 501 (c) (3) Federal Tax Exemptions All forms of government-assisted housing, including USC/Enterprise, Section 202, State Turnkey and NYC Partnership Homes

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Social Policy Research Design and Evaluation

Vahnont Consulting LLC
Mary Eustace Valmont, Ph.D. Phone: 718·788·8435 Fax: 718·788·0135 Email:



efforts required. This position requires a bachelor's degree, strong oral and written communication skills, great interpersonal skills and at least 3 years experience as a job developer or recruiter. Salary in high 30's with comprehensive benefits package. EOE. Send resume to Human Resources, The Doe Fund, 341 East 79th Street, NY, NY 10021; e-mail to Please respond no later than September 30, 2004.
JOB DEVELOPER - Wildcat Service Corporation. Full-Time Base Salary Up To $45,000 Per Year Plus Bonus. Excellent Benefits Package. Convenient Lower Manhattan and Bronx, NY Locations. Wildcat Service Corporation, established as a private, non-profit social services agency in 1972, is a multi-million dollar workforce development organization serving over 8,500 individuals annually. Wildcat provides job training and job placement services to populations such as dislocated workers, welfare recipients, ex-offenders and prisoners serving in work release programs, former substance abusers, non-custodial parents, youth dropouts and delinquents, and Latino populations with limited English proficiency. Wildcat currently seeks Job Developers to place the agency's customers in jobs in a variety of industries in the private, public and non-profit sectors. Requires job placement experience and an active job bank (i.e., active accounts). Wildcat Service Corporation is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Send resume by mail, fax or e-mail to: Gail Auchterlonie, Personnel Department, Wildcat Service Corporation, 2 Washington Street, 3rd Floor, New York, NY 10004, Fax: 212-635-3872, E -mail: Learn more about Wildcat Service Corporation at www.wi Click "Employment Opportunities" to see all available Wildcat Service Corporation positions. "PERSONAL TRANSFORMATION THROUGH EDUCATION AND WORK" JOB READINESS INSTRUCTOR - Job Readiness Instructor needed to develop and implement job read iness and life skills curricula as well as basic computer and internet workshops for unemployed, homeless, and substance abusers in recovery. Establish and measure participant progress by their achievement of established competencies and milestones. Develop workshop schedules and enter participant data as required into BRC's database and files. Meet with other staff to discuss participant progress. Related duties as assigned. BA strongly preferred. Previous teaching/instructional experience required. Excellent computer, writing, speaking, and presentation skills required. Experience working with the homeless, mentally ill, and substance abusers in recovery a plus. Bilingual Spanish preferred. Please email resume to: KNOWLEDGE SHARING COORDINATOR Local Initiatives Support Corporation seeking Knowledge Sharing Coordinator to identify cut-

ting-edge topics for community development practitioners, and develop of research papers, short glossy publications, online training sessions, conference panels and online resources. For more information, see job description at httpi/ or contact Lisa Mueller Levy at
MANA ER, E O G CON MIC DEVELOPMENT AND H OUSING- The National Urban League seeks a Manager, Economic Development and Housing. The successful candidate will assist in the operation and administration of the department's programs and services. The Manager will work to refine strategies for technical assistance and program designs that advance homeownership, community economic development, asset building and other self-sufficiency models. The ideal candidate will work as part of ateam of talented professionals who create and deliver services and programs through partnerships with other nonprofit organizations, government agencies, foundations and corporate entities. Bachelor's degree is required. Master's degree preferred. Three years experience required in two or more of the following areas: Housing and/or Economic D evelopment Policy Analysis, Urban P lanning, Nonprofit management, Training and Technical Assistance, Program Design and Evaluation and interaction with elected officials and government agencies. The ability to work cooperatively with public and private sector agencies, local community development groups and national nonprofit boards required. Excellent communication and organizational skills required. Prior experience with writing reports, briefs and newsletters. To apply submit cover letter, resume and writing sample to Please mention you were referred by City Limits. No phone calls. Salary $55k-$60k. The National Urban League is an equal opportunity employer. MANAGER, WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT FEGS is one of the largest not-for-profit health and human service organizations in the country with an operating budget in excess of $170 million, 3,500+ staff, 12 subsidiary corporations and a diverse service delivery network including operations in over 250 locations throughout the metropolitan New York area. The FEGS Education and Youth Services Division is seeking a Manager, Workforce Development to Manage and administer the delivery of comprehensive services for out-of-school youth employment and training program to ensure that program is in full compliance with Agency and governmental policies, including effective supervision of program staff; establish and implement strategic plan to build relationships with employers in high demand industries. Successful candidates will demonstrate their ability to perform the following functions: . Coordinate, oversee, and lead outof-school youth program . . Assess and evaluate staff development needs and ensure that all such needs are adequately and routinely met through utilization of internal and external agency resources . . Attend pertinent confer-

ences and in-service training sessions for professional enrichment of staff and programming . . Oversee supervisory management of general staff and may also provide supervision to professional staff.. Develop, implement, evaluate, and monitor strategic program plans, based on current labor trends, to ensure that program meets contractual milestones and program goals.· Assist in the development of program related publications, promotional materials, information brochures, etc. . Work closely with program managers, job developers, and case managers to guide and direct the development of collaborative relationships with local employers .. Perform organizational development interventions including strategic planning, group facilitation , team building and systems analysis. . Create employee! employer programs within specific businesses that ensure the retention of business partners . Maintain records and prepares qualitative and quantitative reports outlining program performance in key areas.. Serve as liaison to the New York State Department of Labor, Economic Development Board and various local employment agencies to establish and maintain collaborative relationships and opportunities for job development, placement and retention for participants. FEGS offer a competitive salary and benefits package. Send resume to our H ConSUltants: HR Dynamics, Inc., Dept. R ECS ISS. 315 Hudson Street, 6th Floor, New York, New York 10013 or fax 212-366-8555 Attn: ECS/SS or e-mail: EOE, M/F/DN.
MSW - InMotion seeks a part-time (three days/week) certified social worker with a MSW to provide social services to women who are receiving legal help from inMotion. This newly created position offers an exciting opportunity to collaborate in the design and implementation of a program of counseling, advocacy and referral services to women in crisis. The MSW will take the lead in building a new social work team and for recruiting and supervising social work student interns to work alongside our legal staff located in the Bronx and Manhattan. This individual should have experience representing indigent clients and knowledge of the dynamics of family violence and the needs of immigrant families in our city. We seek a team player with excellent organizational, interpersonal, communication and computer skills. The ability to work both collaboratively and independently and must demonstrate established links with community organizations and resources. Fluency in English and one additional language is desirable. O MSW ur will work in both our Manhattan and Grand Concourse!Bronx office. Salary will be commensurate with experience. We offer generous benefits and vacation leave. Send resume and cover letter to Ramonita Cordero, Esq., Director, Legal Program, inMotion, 70 West 36th Street, Suite 903, NY, NY 10018. Fax: (212) 695-9519 or Email: OFFICE MANAGER -

Resource Center is seeking a full-time Office Manager. The Office Manager works closely with the HRC Business Manager, and the CUCS Fiscal and HR departments to support HRC's work and staff. Resp. : Prepare check requests; analyze monthly spending reports; oversee purchasing of supplies and equipment; process staff reimbursements; liaison with the accounting department; track program expenses; prepare contracts and invoices; oversee and reconcile token, petty cash, discretionary fund and American Express account; develop vendor relationships; process timesheets and units of service. Reqs.: BA or HS Diploma +2 years office experience required ; initiative and attention to detail; excellent computer skills; excellent organizational skills; ability to work independently, prioritize work and exercise good judgment. Please send resume and cover letter, indicating position, by 10/11/04 to: Suzanne Wagner, CUCSlHRC, 120 Wall St., 25th FI., New York, NY, 10005; fax (212)635-2191. CUCS is committed to workforce diversity. EED
PLANNER: PARKS &OPEN SPACE SPECIALIST - The Brooklyn Borough President's Office seeks an urban planner or project manager to serve as liaison to city, state and federal park, recreation and open space agencies as well as citywide and local park and open space organizations. For additional information about the position, please visit: POLICY ANALYST - HELP USA, a nationally recognized leader in the provision of transitional housing, residential & social services, has a position available for a Policy Analyst. The individual is responsible for identifying and engaging in opportunities to advance HELP USA's position on various policy issues, such as homelessness, housing, welfare, child care, job training, etc.; organizing activities on behalf of the HELP Advocacy Council; facilitating the work of the Resident Advisory Councils at each of HELP USA's facilities; presenting written/oral testimony at public hearings; researching and writing policy briefs for educational and advocacy purposes. Candidate must have either a JD or a Master's Degree, preferably in Social Work and be computer literate wIMicrosoft applications. Salary in the mid $30s. Send resumes to: EOE. A Drug Free Workplace. POLICY ANALYST - Manhattan Borough President's Office. Prepare ULURP recommendations; attend meetings; present testimonies; oversee Borough Map Room; provide technical assistance; review and assign street numbers. Graduate degree in relevant field; knowledge of land use and NYC zoning; minimum one year relevant experience; work under pressure; knowledge of Manhattan topography. Send resume/cover letter with salary: Ms. Lee Chong, Director Land Use Housing and Development email: or fax 212 669-7862

The CUCS Housing




PREVENTIVE SERVICES CASEWORKER - The Little Sisters of the Assumption Family Health Services: MSWIMA or BSWIBA + equivalent experience. Bilingual(English-Spanish}. Great opportunity to join a team committed to helping stressed families stay together. Flexibility, willingness to make home visits, writing/record keeping-skills. Competitive salary/benefits Contact information: PROGRAM COORDINATOR - Responsible for administration and finance of research group focused on HIVIAIDS, substance abuse and domestic violence and affiliated with School of Social Work at Columbia University.. Manage annual budget of $2.1 million: develop and monitor annual budgets, forecast future budgets based on known grants, work with School Financial Management Office and SIG administrative team to assure SIG compliance with Columbia University policies. Please send resume and cover letter to PROGRAM DIRECTOR - The Bowery Residents' Committee, Inc. seeks a Program Director who will be responsible for coordinating and overseeing the educational components of BRC's workforce development program including instructional services and an internship program. The Director is also responsible for supervising the job readiness instructors and developing and revising training curricula for job readiness as well as occupational training (food services, maintenance, and entry-level administrative internship positions). The Program Director will also assist in the management of outcome data and the development of additional workforce development program components as necessary and other duties as assigned. MS preferred, BA required. Previous program management and supervisory experience required. Experience developing curricula and teaching required. Excellent computer, writing, speaking, and presentation skills required. Experience working with the homeless, mentally ill, and substance abusers in recovery a plus. Ability to speak Spanish a plus. Salary is commensurate with experience. Excellent Benefits. Please email resumes to: PROGRAM DIRECTORIYOUNG ADULT BOROUGH CENTER - New York Urban league: Reporting to the Director of Educational Programs, the Program Director is responsible for the management and supervision of the YABC alternative evening high school program. Specific duties include design and coordination of support services and activities; hiring, supervising and evaluating full and part- time staff; developing and managing the annual program budget; and writing required program reports. Bachelor's degree in education or related field, three years of full-time professional experience in educational supervision and proven ability to work effectively in multi-ethnic environment required. Master's degree preferred. Effective written and oral communication skills essential. Twelve-month position. Starting salary $42,000 - $46,000. Interested candidates meeting the above criteria should forward their resumes and letters of interest to Mr. Robert Drake, Director of Human Resources, The New York Urban league, 204 W 136th Street, New . York, NY 10030. Resumes will be accepted until the position is filled . The New York Urban league is an EEOIM employer. PROJ ASSOCIATE, Til AND HDFC TECHNIECT CAL A TANCE- The Project Associate will SSIS work with buildings in the Tenant Interim lease Program (TIl) administered by the NYC Department of Housing Preservation and Development (HPD), and with co-ops that have graduated from Til and other NYC programs. The Project Associate will provide training and technical assistance to residents and groups of residents. For full job description, visit ; vis it for general information. PROJ ECT DIREC TOR, HOUSING ADVOCACY & T - The Association for Neighborhood & A Housing Development, a member organization of NYC non-profit housing groups seeks a Project Director. The Director will oversee training &technical assistance to CDCs and coordinate advocacy around local affordable housing production programs. Only applicants with direct experience in affordable housing development or finance will be considered. Successful candidate will have minimum 3 years housing development experience, demonstrated ability to deliver technical assistance and will be very familiar with HPD housing programs. Excellent work habits and extremely strong interpersonal skills required. Salary $45,000 to $55,000. Women and persons of color encouraged to apply. Full job description at Fax resume, cover letter, writing sample by October 1 to Irene Baldwin (212) 747-1114 or PR C DIREC - R SIDENT ASSISTANCE OJE T TOR E - Job Description: With fellow Project Director responsible for carrying out the Tenant Advocacy Project (TAP), an initiative that helps lowincome New Yorkers access and maintain stable housing using federal programs, including public housing and Section S Produce educa. tional materials, online tools, and training workshops for tenants and organizations assisting them. Includes translating legal and regulatory information into language that is clear and understandable to CBO staff and residents. Assist fellow Project Director in advocating for, advising and representing individual clients Develop and implement plans for activities, staffing, marketing and funding needed to maintain and expand future operations. Conduct outreach to resident groups, CBO's and citywide advocacy groups. Work collaboratively with resident leaders, community based and citywide organizations to achieve program goals and strengthen policy advocacy. Coordinate efforts with other CSS activities. Requirements: Master's Degree in public policy or social work or a law degree is required. Four (4) years of professional experience in housing or a closely related field required ; experience with public and subsidized housing and community based organizations and providing client services strongly preferred. Demonstrated success in program development and implementation including training and training materials. Excellent oral and written communication skills and good computer knowledge required. Submit resume and cover letter to: Community Service Society of New York, Human Resources Department PP-43, 105 East 22nd Street, New York, NY 10010. Fax 212 614-5336 or e-mail PROJECT MANAG - New Destiny Housing ER Corporation seeks Project Manager to participate in all aspects of developing affordable and supportive housing for low-income domestic violence survivors and others at risk of homelessness. s/he will prepare development and operating budgets, visit the construction site, assist in preparation of funding proposals, prepare marketing plans and implement project rent-up, and work closely with development team and not-for-profit clients. Project Manager reports to Senior Project Manager. Qualifications: B.A.; 2 years experience in real estate development or finance; strong Excel and computer skills and experience with financial spreadsheets; good written/oral communication and organizational skills. Salary: mid-30's with benefits. Fax resume and cover letter to Sr. Project Manager at 646-472-0266. PROJECT MANAGER - Organization: Division of Special Needs Housing, Department of Housing Preservation and Development. Description: The Division of Special Needs Housing seeks a Project Manager to oversee the development of supportive housing projects. Duties may include: underwriting, budget oversight, asset management after completion; as well as coordinating loan closings, land disposition approvals, design submissions, environmental and community board approvals, and applications for additional funds. Candidates should have: knowledge of the development of supportive housing and construction; experience with budgeting and project scheduling; demonstrated capacity for analysis of development proposals; and superior negotiating and communication skills. Familiarity with financing mechanisms in the field of low-income housing development is highly desirable. Candidates must have a master's degree in public administration or a related field and one year of full-time professional experience in a related field. Relevant experience may be substituted for a graduate degree. Salary $50k to $70k. To apply send a letter and resume to HPD, 100 Gold Street, Room 9C9, NY, New York 1003S, attention David Rouge. New York City Residency is Required within 90 days of appointment. HPD AND THE CITY OF NEW YORK ARE EQUAl OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYERS. PROPERTY MANA GER - Bronx non-profit agency seeks an experienced Property Manager. Responsibilities: Oversee property management, supervise maintenance workers, monitor repairs, supervise contractors and vendors, prepare reports, leasing compliance, rent up and collection. Qualifications: BA with two or more years experience in housing management with supervisory experience or High School Diploma plus five years experience in the field required. Experience in leasing guidelines (SIP, NOWIHOME) preferred. Excellent verbal, written skills; computer skills; and knowledge of building systems; bilingual Spanish a plus. Salary: Mid 30's. Send resume with cover letter to: Executive Director, Bronx Heights NCC, 99 Featherbed lane, Bronx, NY 10452. Fax: 71S294-1019. PROPERTY MANAGER Manhattan Beach .. .JASA, NY's largest community-based, non-profit agency serving the elderly, seeks a seasoned professional to manage its 150 unit, HUD 202 senior housing facility. Responsibilities will include management of operations and maintenance, development and control of budgets, tenant relations, Unionllabor Relations and supervision of staff. Will act as liaison with government agencies and insure HUD compliance. 3+ years of related experience required. BBA or related degree preferred. We offer a competitive salary and a comprehensive benefits program. Qualified candidates may forward resumes and salary requirement (resumes submitted without salary requirement will not be considered) to or by FAX to: 212 6959070. EOE. RElOCATlO NIPRO PERTY MANAGE E S EM NT P C IALIST - Affordable housing development agency seeks RelocationlProperty Management Specialist to work in our home office. The main responsibility of this position is to coordinate relocation of tenants while their units are being rehabilitated. Other responsibilities include providing information to tenants, both in person and on the phone; investigating and resolving tenant complaints; and attending tenant meetings. The successful applicant will be a tenacious problem solver who is diplomatic and persuasive, can read and analyze monthly reports, and has knowledge of the building management process. For full job description, visit; visit for general information. RESIDENTIAL ASSISTANT - Brooklyn based nonprofit providing Early Childhood Education, Family Support Services, Transitional Housing, Youth Development, and Literacy seeks Residential Assistant for transitional residence serving homeless, pregnant and parenting young women and their children. Responsibilities include aSSisting the Residential Coordinator in overseeing the Center, maintaining inventory of equipment and supplies, and assisting residents as necessary. Qualifications: Associate's Degree in Human Services or related field or High School Diploma and a minimum of two years experience working with a residential program, computer proficiency,






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With the MTA facing a $14 billion debt, and with no relief in sight from Albany, City Hall, or suburban counties , the likely result will be higher fares and drastic service cuts. Instead of hoping for future government handouts, maybe the agency should consider another, more cooperative, model for running mass transit?







and good interpersonal and organizational skills. Please fax cover letter and resume to (718) 330-0846 Attn: Operations Manager. RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANT Resource Development Assistant provides clerical support , acts as liaison with Finance Department, prepares donor acknowledgements, information requests, and other correspondence, assists in solicitation of in-kind donations from selected donors. Must have good verbal and written skills, computer skills, Internet research and database (Raiser's Edge a plus). College degree and experience a plus. Interested applicants send resume and covers letter to Facsimile 212-389- 9313 or Email: SOCIAL SERVICE PROGRAM MANAGER Dynamic and highly motivated MSW to direct social services and staff in permanent supportive housing program. Must have MSW and experience with homeless, substance abuse, mentally ill, HIV/AID; case recording skills, computer literacy, leadership skills and commitment to working with this population. Send resume and cover letter to Personnel Search, Columba Houses, PO Box 286385, New York, NY 10128 SOCIAL WORKER - Creative MSW for service team in supportive housing. Responsibilities: case management, counseling, group work. Must have: grad degree; special needs experience (homeless, mentally ill, substance abuse, HIV); patience & energy; excellent communication, writing, computer skills. Bi- lingual a+. $40+K & benefits. No. Manhattan location. Fax explanatory letter & resume to: 718-602-9107. EOE. SUBSTANCE COUNSELOR, MICA COUNSELOR & HEALTH COORDINATOR - Dynamic and highly motivated individuals to provide case management in permanent supportive housing program. Must have BA with five years experience or MA with three years experience with homeless, substance abuse, mental illness, HIVIAIDS; computer literacy and commitment to working with this population. Send resume and cover letter to Personnel Search, Columba Houses, PO Box 286385, New York, NY 10128 TAX CREDITS ALLOCATION COORDINATOR NYC Department of Housing Preservation and

Development seeks Tax Credit Allocations Coordinator as lead staff for evaluation, awards processing and administration of NYC low-Income Housing Tax Credit applications. Duties include performing/reviewing financial analyses & competitive scoring of proposed projects, supervising allocations staff, planning & conducting training and providing technical resources services to constituents, and various analytic and administrative projects. Candidates should have basic knOWledge of real estate finance, strong analytical and problem-solving skills, ability to understand complex financial transactions, and strong verbal, writing and organizational skills. Facility with Excel and Word expected. Candidates with underwriting experience & familiarity with housing subsidy programs preferred. Salary to $65,000 based on experience/salary history. Eligibility requirements: Master's in economics, finance, accounting, business or public administration, political science, or related field & 2 years experience in budget administration, accounting, economic/financial administration, fiscal/ economic research, management/methods analysis, program evaluation, economic planning, social services program planning/evaluation, fiscal management, or related area, including 18 months supervising staff. New York City Residency is Required within 90 days of appointment. To apply, send resume and cover letter to: NYC Department of Housing Preservation and Development, 100 Gold Street Room 91 -5, NY, NY 10038, Attention: Wendy Reitmeier. HPD AND THE CITY OF NEW YORK ARE EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYERS TEAM LEADER, TIL AND HDFC TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE - Affordable housing development agency seeks Team leader for our borough offices (Brooklyn, Harlem/Bronx) to provide outreach to tenants in Til and HDFC buildings, provide and develop training and technical assistance, write accurate reports, and manage team of project associates. Qualified applicants will have at least a bachelor's degree and a minimum of two years relevant work experience. Fluency in Spanish is a major plus. For full job description, visit; visit for general information. VICE PRESIDENT OF FINANCE - (New York Urban league, Manhattan Office) - Reporting to the President/CEO, the Vice President will

serve as the chief fiscal officer and will be responsible forthe management and oversight of the general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts payable, payroll and annual audits. Additional duties will include risk management functions, preparation and management of the annual budget, supervision of six accounting staff and financial oversight of private grant budgets and approximately 15 govemment-funded educational and human services programs. An advanced degree in accounting or finance and ten years of managerial experience including work in not-forprofit organizations required. Applicant's work history must demonstrate strong technical competency and willingness to be hands-on. literacy in Fundware or comparable financial software essential. CPA preferred. (The ideal candidate will be available to work with the sitting CFO on a fit basis for a four month planned transition through 12/31/04 at an annual rate of $70,000 - $80,000.) Starting salary effective 1/1/05 - $90,000-$110,000 depending on qualifications and prior work experience. Interested candidates meeting the above criteria should forward their resumes and letters of interest to Mr. Robert Drake, Director of Human Resources, The New York Urban league, 204 W 136th Street, New York, . NY 10030. Resumes will be accepted until the position is filled . The New York Urban league is an EEO/M employer. VICE PRESIOENT OF FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION - leading national nonprofit in Manhattan seeks professional to direct finance department, employee benefits, vendor relations, facilities, IT and HR. Must be proven leader with a minimum 10 year record of outstanding results. BA or MA in related field. Will supervise staff of 5 and report to the CEO. Excellent compensation package. Email resume and cover letter with salary requirements to VOCATIONAL TRAINING COORDINATOR - The Doe Fund, an innovative social service organiization providing job training and transitional housing to homeless individuals, seeks a Vocational Training Coordinator to be based in our Harlem facility. Candidate will research vocational trainings to match trainee base; coordinate scheduling of trainings and appropriate applications; follow-up on trainee progress; coordinate with Job Developers on

job placement of trainees; provide monthly reports. In addition, candidate will coordinate with legal Action Center and provide assistance to trainees regarding past criminal charges and certificates of relief. This position requires a bachelor's degree, strong oral and written communication skills and great interpersonal skills. Salary in low 30's with comprehensive benefits package. EOE. Send resume to Human Resources, The Doe Fund, 341 East 79th Street, NY, NY 10021; e-mail to Please respond no later than September 30, 2004. YOUTH COUNSELORNIOLENCE INTERVENTION SPECIALIST - (PIT - Staten Island)- Reporting to the Director of Violence Prevention and Intervention Program, the Youth Counselor is responsible for implementing outreach to schools and general community, conducting weekly violence prevention/resolution workshops and mediating conflicts. Bachelor's degree in social science or related field and at least one year of professional experience in violence prevention and mediation required. 12 hrs per week @ $20lhr. Interested candidates meeting the above criteria should forward their resumes and letters of interest to Mr. Robert Drake, Director of Human Resources, The New York Urban league, 204 W . 136th Street, New York, NY 10030. Resumes will be accepted until the position is filled. The New York Urban league is an EEO/M employer. YOUTH DEVELOPMENT COORDINATOR Brooklyn based nonprofit providing Early Childhood Education, Family Support Services, Transitional Housing, Youth Development, and literacy seeks part-time (30 hours/week) Youth Development Coordinator to plan, coordinate and implement activities for afterschool program serving youth ages 9-12 years old. Responsibilities include curriculum development, leadership development, collaboration with public school officials, parent involvement, staff development and evaluation. Qualifications: Bachelor Degree in education or related field , two year's experience in managing youth development programming computer proficiency, and good organizational and interpersonal skills. Competitive salary and benefit package. P lease fax cover letter and resume to (718) 330-0846 Attn: Operations Manager

- ~.Clty IDECEMBER 2004


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