Prana Dharma

The Sine Qua Non of Human Existence In this universe there are people whose thoughts, character and behaviour are similar ± similar but not identical. Differences in human character and mentality, which are reflected in external human conduct, are due to varying propensities and tendencies. This is what accounts for the differences between people. Just as individual human beings have their distinctive characteristics, similarly, groups of people brought up in various geographical environments, historical eras, or cultural atmospheres, acquire their own group characteristics, too. Later those characteristics inherent in a particular group get mixed with the internal thoughts and ideas of other groups within a society. This leads to the development of national characteristics. In this way an entire national psychology ± its external behaviour, its social outlook, and its philosophy of life ± is developed. This process produces different national outlooks which distinguish one nation from another. It is also in this way that different human groups have developed different viewpoints towards life and the world. These differences are internal rather than external. Through proper education and well integrated social living in the individual and collective strata, internal qualities can be properly developed. Internal discipline in the psychic sphere of individual life is what we may call the Prá a Dharma of individual life. When the national characteristics are expressed in a particular vein, we may call it the Prá a Dharma of the nation. Although Italy, France, England and America are part of the western world, their national characteristics are not uniform. There are considerable differences in the mental thoughtprocesses and external conduct of the East and the West. The thoughts and ideals of India are quite different from the other countries in the East. Since ancient times, India has been adhering to her distinct Prá a Dharma. Regarding life and the world, the Indian people are certainly spiritually inclined. They look upon each and every thought and deed as part of their spiritual practice. The reason is that in ancient India, children studied from the age of five till the age of twenty-five. They lived virtuous, disciplined and holy lives and received extensive training in spiritual knowledge as well as some degree of mundane knowledge. At the conclusion of their student careers, they returned home to adopt the life of householders. As householders they continued to cultivate both spiritual knowledge (pará) and mundane knowledge (apará). When they reached the age of fifty, having met all their family commitments, they would adopt the life of a Vanaprastha and retire to a forest to concentrate on the cultivation of spiritual knowledge. Thus all aspects of Indian life were based on spirituality. This subjective approach to life became the Prá a Dharma of Indians. Spirituality has penetrated so deeply into Indian social life that even the toughest and most notorious robbers offer something to the goddess Kálii before committing theft. They pray to mother Kálii and make pledges to her to ensure their success. The ancient Indian system of education was based on this original Prá a Dharma. Consequently, the Indian students developed a reverential, humble and noble trait in their conduct. The subtle way to undermine an individual or a nation is to divert them from their original Prá a Dharma, sometimes by forcibly snatching away their right to pursue it. This will sap them of their inherent strength and capabilities causing them to become increasingly weak. Just as a bird divested of its right to fly freely gradually becomes reduced to the status of a biped, similarly, human beings when deprived of their Prá a Dharma lose their elevated stance.
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Moghul Rule and Indian Prá a Dharma
During the Moghul period India was subjected to severe political torture. The Pathan and Moghul rulers tried to inflict a blow to the Indian Prá a Dharma indirectly. However, by holding out allurements of high posts or by using other methods, they could not do much harm to the Indian Prá a Dharma. The reason was that the inner vitality of Islamic society itself was considerably weakened after assimilating the conflicting thought waves of Egypt, Siberia and Persia. Thus, though the Islamic Prá a Dharma existed alongside the Indian Prá a Dharma it could not cause much damage.

The British Rule and Indian Prá a Dharma
The British rulers were very clever. Instead of attacking the Indian Prá a Dharma directly, they resorted to the path of diplomacy. They believed that to maintain British rule in India they would have to create a group of native supporters who would remain Indian by birth and complexion but European in manners, customs, education, taste and culture. So they introduced a system of education based on their own British system. This was an obvious attempt to strike a blow at Indian Prá a Dharma. As a result, the people of India forgot their distinctive national characteristics and developed a completely Western outlook. The moral, spiritual and social qualities that were developed through the Indian system of education were ignored. Rather, Indian youth, under the influence of materialistic Western civilization, grew cynical, materialistic and atheistic. A class of educated persons was created who were neither English nor Indians. Many of them were employed in the Indian Civil Service. A certain scholar once remarked that the Indian Civil Service ³is neither Indian, nor civil, nor service.´ These people became alienated from the mainstream of Indian social life because their conduct, behaviour, customs, manners, thoughts and ideals were different from those of other Indians. This neo-class of people with modern education could not regard the simple, innocent masses of rural India as their own. The clever English rulers trained them in such a subtle way that they looked upon the British as being nearer to them than the Indians. The imperialistic British purpose was served: colonial rule was firmly established.

The British Rule and Chinese Prá a Dharma
The British also tried to destroy the natural Prá a Dharma of the Chinese people. Prior to Kuomintang rule, Chinese people were simple, peace-loving, energetic and spiritually inclined. But the British imported a huge amount of cheap opium into China and made the energetic and pious people idle and indolent. Thus the Chinese race deviated from their original Prá a Dharma. As a result, it was easy to mislead them onto the path of communism. The British were

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responsible for the annihilation of the Chinese Prá a Dharma. The communists completely destroyed the ancient Chinese religion and finished the unfinished task of the British.

Capitalism in Indian Prá a Dharma
Although capitalism does not directly oppose Prá a Dharma, the all-devouring exploitation of capitalism robs the people of their possessions and drives them into the street as beggars. For such people it becomes virtually impossible to properly follow their Prá a Dharma. Even the feudalistic exploitation in Indian social life did not run counter to the original Prá a Dharma. But the present capitalistic (Vaeshyan) exploitation has financially ruined the Indian people. Hence, it is impossible for the people to follow their Prá a Dharma. At this period of crisis in Indian Prá a Dharma the materialistic philosophies are getting scope to rear their heads. The socio-economic philosophy of Ananda Marga calls for the elimination of capitalism. It clearly emphasizes the need to fulfil minimum economic needs and create an ideal congenial social environment in which there will be maximum utilization of collective wealth and the rational distribution of resources to solve all economic problems. Every human being will get ample opportunity to follow Prá a Dharma.

Communism and Indian Prá a Dharma
Materialism can never be the base of human life in any country because it is detrimental to the all-round development of human beings. Materialism is the philosophical base of communism. Communists act against human Dharma by propagating the defective philosophy of materialism. Communism is diametrically opposed to Indian Prá a Dharma. Although they raise highsounding slogans of human emancipation and progress, human well-being cannot be accomplished by communism. The communist states give much importance to the application of material science and technology. This may help increase the wealth of the country and thereby alleviate the financial distress of the people to some extent, but by solving economic problems one does not solve all problems. If that were the case, the affluent countries of the West would be utopian. Human beings are not merely destined to fill their bellies. There is much more to human life than that. Human beings are veritable children of God having a thirst for unlimited happiness. Limited physical wealth can never quench their infinite thirst. Obviously, their Prá a Dharma should provide them with the necessary ways and means to satisfy their unlimited hunger. Communism ignores the higher human and spiritual values of life. It lets the human soul stand unrecognized. The condition of human beings in today s communist countries is no better than that of domestic cattle in dairy farms. Ananda Marga wants to establish the Prá a Dharma of the entire universe, and the Ananda Marga philosophy has been conceived to that end. Ananda Marga s spiritual treatise, social
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treatise, ethics, spiritual cult, socio-economic theory and educational system will all help in establishing Prá a Dharma. Whatever a genuine Ananda Margii does in his or her life is always conducive to Prá a Dharma. The Ananda Marga philosophy ± unlike the Vedantic sannyasin who professed the philosophy of illusion ± is not in favour of dismissing this quinquelemental world as mere illusion. On the contrary, Ananda Marga accepts this world as a relative truth and strives to cope with its problems. Both wealth and poverty force people to digress from their original Prá a Dharma. That s why the socio-economic philosophy of Ananda Marga has advised its supporters to be ever-watchful so that none is forced to die due to want of food.

Education and Prá a Dharma
Defective systems of education also strike a blow in Prá a Dharma. This is exactly what happened in India during the British regime. Ananda Marga is ever vigilant in this regard. Hence, the Ananda Marga system of education has been formulated in such a way that the fundamental Prá a Dharma of humanity has been fully recognized. The educational system of our schools is based on the principle of Prá a Dharma. It includes the study of various aspects of modern branches of human knowledge, as well as the development of qualities such as reverence, good manners, humility, dignity of labour, social consciousness, etc. The Western system of education has miserably failed to inculcate these rare qualities in the students minds. Had there been radical reforms in the defective education system introduced in post-independent India, she could have solved many undesirable problems. The reformers of Indian education can make an experiment even today by introducing a new system of education based on national Prá a Dharma. All the countries of the world can apply Ananda Marga philosophy according to their distinctive national Prá a Dharma. There is enough scope to introduce Ananda Marga philosophy in this way. 16 February 1967, Ranchi Published in: A Few Problems Solved Part 6 Ananda Marga Philosophy in a Nutshell Part 4 [a compilation] Prout in a Nutshell Volume 2 Part 6 [a compilation] Tattva Kaomudii Part 2 [unpublished in English]

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The Macrocosmic Stance and Human Life
Phálgunii Púr imá 1958 DMC, Amrah, Birbhum Today¶s subject of discourse is ³The Macrocosmic Stance and Human Life´. Human beings not only want expansion, but undisputed authority in the process of expansion. Not only do they seek the Supreme shelter, they want to bring that shelter within their reach. Out of this desire to attain the Supreme, out of this longing to become as vast as the Supreme, they discovered the science of intuitional practice. But this discovery was not easy. They had to cross numerous hurdles such as ritualistic observances, isms, doctrines and cults. Their discovery was the reward for their long-cherished desire to attain the Supreme. Without the desire for expansion, they would have never tried to realize Brahma even while remaining in the ocean of Brahma. The entity closest to them would have remained far away. It is the innate desire of human beings to seek expansion, to yearn for the Supreme. They want to attain Him for their personal happiness, self-preservation, and attainment of bliss. The owner of a hundred acres of land wants to own a hundred and fifty acres; a millionaire wants to become a billionaire. But if the desire for self-expansion or happiness is limited to the mundane world, clashes of interest and various hindrances will certainly arise before long. It is not possible to enrich oneself at the expense of others for very long. Due to the defective mentality, ³Let others live in destitution, but I want immense wealth; let others be landless, but I want landed property´, many people had to suffer in the past, and many are suffering even today. This mentality begins with violence and exploitation and ends with violence and exploitation. Violence begets violence. If a person becomes a billionaire today by exploiting the masses, tomorrow the same masses, driven to irrepressible violence by poverty and hunger, will snatch away the billionaire¶s accumulated wealth and raze his honour to the ground. The endeavour to expand should not centre around finite objects of the mundane world. Whether the mind accepts it or not, every limited resource of the world should be treated as the property of the entire humanity. The collective wealth of the human race should not be amassed by a few individuals. The human desire for expansion is an innate desire. It cannot be suppressed, but must be given full scope for expression. Since desire for expansion is harmful for society when limited to the material sphere, it should be diverted to unlimited objects. No matter how much people acquire from this unlimited stock, it will not create conflict amongst individuals. While running after the acquisition of finite objects, the dissatisfied human beings of the past realized one day that their minds were looking for something which had hitherto eluded them. Psychic objects are limited by nature, but the Entity who is the Subject of the mind is unlimited. The final establishment in that Entity alone is the real expansion, the Supreme fulfilment of sádhaná. One glorious day, while moving along the path of Pratisain cara towards the Supreme Subject, human beings attained Him. Actually, it not proper to say they ³attained´ him, because one only attains an object with the help of the mind. When one attains the Supreme Subject the small-I loses itself completely in Him. Neither the mind nor words can attain Him; they merge in Him. One does not ³get´ Him; one becomes one with Him.
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In the process of expansion clashes occur between the boundary of one object and that of another object. In the case of mundane objects it is impossible to expand without encroaching upon the boundaries of other objects. This clash over boundaries brings out the worst in human beings ± narrow-mindedness, greed, casteism, provincialism, nationalism, etc. ± as they strive to establish themselves in the empire of the universe. Those who are bound by these sentiments deny the existence of the Absolute Entity. Even if they set out with a goal before them, their love for crude desires grows so intense that their goal becomes totally obscured. Being preoccupied with their own self-interests, they lose their capacity to look towards their goal. Such people are called mohándha or blindly infatuated. Those who are moving will have to think constantly of their goal, not of their movement, and certainly not about the probable obstacles they may encounter along the way. If one thinks of obstacles, the obstacles themselves become one¶s goal, and the actual goal is relegated to the background. Hence in the sphere of Brahma sádhaná only Brahma is the goal, only Brahma is to be meditated upon. Spiritual aspirants must not entertain any thought about the impediments which may arise at the time of meditation, but focus their minds upon the supreme culminating point. To establish a heavenly kingdom in this mundane world human beings will have to fight tirelessly against the internal and external demons. But this does not mean that the demons should become the object of ideation. Brahma Sádhaná is entirely different from jada sádhaná (the pursuit of matter) because it focuses on the goal and not the clash. Spiritual aspirants who struggle to expand the self should never compromise themselves with those forces which try to thwart the process of supreme expansion. The path of self-expansion (dharma sádhaná) is the path of valour. There is no place for inertness or cowardice on such a path. In the social sphere, the perennial struggle of human beings should not be undertaken individually but collectively. Those who provide leadership in the social struggle must be established in yama and niyama (code of yogic morality). Such people I call sadvipras. How will sadvipras be created? They will be created in the continued endeavour to expand the self. By reciting holy scriptures or by acquiring a few Samskrta titles, one cannot succeed in spiritual pursuit. Brahma does not care who is of noble descent or high caste. The important thing is to continue sádhaná. One¶s life can only be properly evaluated in the light of that struggle. Násti te u játividyárúpakulakriyádi bhedah. The struggle in collective life, with the sadvipras in the position of leadership, will continue endlessly. Sadvipra after sadvipra will come: the torch carried by one will be handed over to the next. But the sádhaná of individual life is not endless ± it culminates in the attainment of Brahma. Those who believe that they must first attain success in individual life before participating in the collective struggle will not succeed. They will never bring expansion in their individual lives if they ignore collective welfare. To be worthy of being sadvipras, individuals will have to concentrate on both intellectual and social development. Otherwise, no matter how lofty the word dharma might sound in theory, it will remain as a big hoax in the practical field.
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All spiritual aspirants must strive to become sadvipras, and that, too, from this very moment. If a person who takes bribes starts an anti-bribe campaign he will become an object of ridicule. One will have to make an earnest endeavour to develop oneself thoroughly; mere rhetoric will not do. Only those endowed with sincerity and devotion can be called righteous, and can successfully propagate dharma. For the propagation of dharma government help is not required. Those who want to thwart the introversial phase of the Cosmic Cycle in individual and collective life are dominated by Avidyámáyá. In the struggle against Avidyá, if the thought of Puru a (Cognitive Faculty) is kept awake in one¶s mind, Avidyá¶s influence will start to wane. In individual life the six enemies (ripus) and eight fetters (páshas) are collectively known as the force of Avidyá. For the preservation of the physical body, and to keep social tyrants under control, these páshas and ripus need to be maintained, but the mind must not be allowed to become their slave. Those who want to destroy them would be better off committing suicide. Sincere spiritual aspirants must keep their páshas and ripus firmly under control, making them subservient to their disciplined mind. Though the Avidyá force is expressed in various ways, its expression in the human mind can be divided into five categories: avidyá, asmitá, rága, dve a, and abhinivesha.

Anityáshuciduhkhánátmasu nityashucisukhátma khyátiravidyá. When human beings become blindly infatuated with objects of enjoyment and lose all common sense, when they become totally absorbed in the pursuit of finite objects forgetting the infinite, they make the error of believing that the impermanent is permanent. This useless pursuit exhausts all their vital energy. They forget that no single object of the world enjoys permanence. Some educated people say, ³Well, I may not live long enough to enjoy all the pleasures of life, but my grandchildren will.´ This yearning for the finite is caused by avidyá. Under the influence of avidyá, people become so infatuated that they forget the difference between pure and impure; and so greedy that they eat rotten meat, choose to forget that alcohol is bad for health, and even try to prove the unholy as being holy by force of logic. Some people claim that eating meat and drinking alcohol are a part of dharma sádhaná; and some state they eat meat to maintain their health and strength. Lost in blind pursuit for finite objects, people fail to realize that the pleasure they derive will actually bring more sorrow in the future. An alcoholic does not understand that heavy drinking severely damages the liver: an opium addict does not understand that the temporary pleasure derived from the drug gradually benumbs the nervous system. This mistaking pain to be pleasure is caused by the influence of avidyá. Those who succumb to this influence can be likened to a dog chewing on a dry bone in a burial ground. The dog thinks that the blood oozing out of its jaws comes from the dry bones and greedily bites even harder, further damaging its jaws. The poor animal wrongly thinks sorrow is happiness.

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Under the influence of avidyá people believe that the finite objects created by static Prakrti are their own. They think, ³my horse, my son, my daughter, my wealth,´ and believe that with these objects they will live eternally. But the fact is, all these limited objects will desert them after sometime. Nothing that can be called one¶s own will remain. To understand avidyá properly, one must pursue the path of spiritual practice. Without sádhaná one cannot escape the devouring jaws of avidyá.

Drgdarshanashaktyorekátmatevásmitá. Asmitá literally means to arrogate the full authorship of an action. The actual authorship of action, no matter what that action may be, does not belong to the sensory and motor organs. In the absence of Átman (the knowing entity) the organs become totally ineffective. If the image an of elephant is reflected on the eyes of a corpse, it will not be able to see it. A corpse has no Átman, no witnessing entity, and thus no capacity to see. People often believe that mind is everything, and thus commit the error of taking the mind to be the author of actions. This error is called asmitá. Asmitá causes human beings to confuse drkshakti (witnessing entity) with darshanshakti (faculty of sight). Sádhakas must remember that the mind and the indriyas can only perform their allotted duties when Consciousness is reflected on the unit mental plate. By forgetting that the Cognitive Faculty is the witnessing force behind the faculty of seeing, behind the existential I-feeling, people become worse than animals.

Shukhánushayii rágah. The human mind constantly needs pabulum. A mind devoid of any pabulum attains the nonattributional stance. But sleep, senselessness or death cannot be regarded as the non-attributional stance. From the viewpoint of psychology, sleep and senselessness are almost similar. They occur when the kámamaya and manomaya ko as of the mind remain suspended due to some reason or other. In both cases the mind still has an object. In the case of death, the psychic power (reactive momenta) is detached from the nerve cells of the brain and hence the mind cannot perform actions. In the wakeful and dream states human beings seek to acquire objects with the help of their entire mind. Under the influence of avidyá they think that they will derive pleasure from eating a certain type of food, or become more comfortable by wearing certain clothes, or get some satisfaction by playing a certain role. This tendency to run after certain objects in the pursuit of pleasure is called rága or blind attachment.

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People live for joy and happiness, and that is why they run after various objects. They do not understand, or sometimes refuse to understand, that nothing in this universe except infinite Brahma can give them permanent happiness. When people lose the sense of discrimination by foolishly giving indulgence to rága it should be understood that they have allowed themselves to become pawns in the hands of Avidyá.

Dve a
Duhkhánushayii dve ah The opposite of rága is dve a. There are some objects or ideas upon which people cannot fix their minds because, according to their samskáras, they find it painful to do so. They are reluctant to analyse whether those objects or ideas are really painful or tormenting. When an attempt is made to divert the mind from those objects or ideas to escape the anticipated pain it is called dve a. Most of the wars and battles of the world are the result of either rága or dve a. Dhritarastra s love for Duryodhana and his animosity towards Bhiima was one of the causes of the Mahábhárata war.

Svarasobáhii vidu opi tathárú há bhiniveshah. In the world there are many wise and gifted people who understand the difference between Vidyá and Avidyá. Theoretically, they know what is real and what is unreal, what is dharma and what is adharma. They deliver eloquent discourses on dharma and morality in meetings and symposia, yet knowingly indulge in sinful deeds in their personal lives, even though they are aware of the dreadful consequences of their sinful actions. This suppression of Vidyá is also an expression of Avidyá shakti in one¶s personal life. Incidentally, I remember a story. Once there was an alcoholic who realized, by studying good books and generally cultivating his knowledge, that addiction to wine is a very bad habit indeed. Under the influence of Vidyá shakti he even made a vow to give up the habit of drinking on the next auspicious day. When that auspicious day came he marched resolutely past the wine bar he used to frequent. When he was ten steps past the wine bar he said in self-appreciation, ³Well done, mind. You are so firm in your resolution to kick the habit of drinking that you¶ve succeeded in taking ten steps past the wine bar. Congratulations! Today I will reward you for your courage. Let¶s open two bottles of wine!´ After that the alcoholic continued to visit the wine bar regularly and drink large quantities of wine. This story is a beautiful illustration of abhinivesha or psychic obsession. From where does abhinivesha derive its impetus? From the acquired samskáras of human beings. As long as human beings are guided by their own individual flow, they are microcosms, and when they are guided by the Cosmic flow (Brahmarasa or Parárasa) they become liberated souls ± they become one with Shiva.
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The life or vital energy of human beings is the coordinated functioning of the ten vayus. As these vayus are one of the fundamental factors (the aerial factor) in the extroversive flow of the Cosmic imagination, it can be said that vital energy is created and vibrated by the Cosmic imagination. Thus, human life is no more than a mere bubble in the vast ocean of Consciousness. The influence of Avidyá on the human mind, the dominance of one¶s individual flow, and microcosmic reactive momenta, are only relative factors. No one can advance by disowning the vast Macrocosmic flow. However vain or conceited one might be, one¶s vanity will be smashed into smithereens one day. To proceed towards Parama Puru a one will have to jump into and drift along the vast Cosmic flow. In the process of this movement one will realize His divine sweetness. By relinquishing the authorship of action one will gradually merge into the Macrocosmic authorship; one¶s individual flow will merge into the rásaliilá of the Supreme. To merge one¶s individual life and mind into the Cosmic flow and enjoy divine sweetness is not something unnatural. Rather, to dance, laugh, and weep with such intensity that one will be branded as a lunatic is really quite natural! The individual flow of microcosms throws them into the grip of Avidyá, whereas the Cosmic flow leads them towards the Supreme. The Cosmic flow is nothing but Brahma Himself (rasovaesah). He is the blissful flow personified. Saguna Brahma, as creator of the universe, has imbibed vast samskáras with which He is continuing His endless creation. Those samskáras are being exhausted in the extroversive flow of the imagination of Hira yagarbha (Brahma in His creative mood). That which is the svarasa of Brahma is the parárasah of microcosms, and that which is the svarasa of microcosms leads them into the clutches of Avidyá. The more human beings advance towards the authorship and witness-ship of the Supreme Entity, the more they understand the expression of the Cosmic flow. The more they proceed to the Cosmic Stance (bháva), the more effulgent their existence becomes and the more the darkness of ignorance fades. To shake off the influence of Avidyámayá one must take shelter in Him. To count beads or practice ritualistic worship without directing one¶s mind towards the Supreme Entity is of no use. To pretend to be virtuous outside while harbouring sinful thoughts within is absolutely meaningless. Such hypocrisy carries no value. The beginning, the middle and end of dharma sádhaná is to rush towards Him, to channelize all the positive and negative propensities of mind toward Him. Spiritual aspirants will not destroy the six ripus (not even káma or physical longing) but will utilize them for their benefit. When utilized as aids for spiritual progress they will do no further harm. So-called jin ánis may fight the propensity of krodha (anger), but devotees will utilize it to fight staticity. They will shatter the meanness and pettiness of the mind through psychic strength and fearsome temper. So-called jin ánis claim that the propensity of greed (lobh) is harmful, but devotees disagree ± they nurture greed to attain Him. Jin ánis abhor vanity or pride (mada), but devotees say that the only object of pride in their lives is Parama Puru a. Jin ánis detest the propensity of blind attachment (moha), but devotees say, ³I am already in love with Him. I have a blind attachment
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for attaining my Lord´. The propensity of jealousy (mátsarya) as a ripu is very bad, but a spiritual aspirant will never take it as harmful. In this way spiritual aspirants keep their vision fixed on Brahma. Those who fail to focus their entire entitative existence on Him, those who do not flow towards the Macrocosmic Nucleus of the Cosmic Cycle, realize one day that everything in their lives has become futile. On seeing the ostentatious practices of religion the popular ideas of a Sufi saint are likely to arise in the mind of a sádhaka: Andhakárer minár hate moyájjiner ka tha pái Múrkha torá kámya toder hetháy hothay kotháo nái. [I listen to the voice of the muezzin from the minaret in darkness. I say you are all fools ± where is your God? He is neither here, nor there.] If you throw a stone in the pond, the ripples that it causes vibrate other objects in the pond. Similarly, when the Cosmic flow is inspired by Puru ottama it vibrates in its entirety, thereby vibrating all the receptive minds in the universe. These emanated vibrations take different forms to provide momentum to human beings in different ways. This force of inspiration keeps all the receptive minds connected to Puru ottama, the Supreme Source of all emanations, and motivates them to rush towards Him. When the Macrocosmic stance dances in its individual Macrocosmic Flow, the microcosms dance in parárasa. In the past the svarasa (divine flow) of Brahma was expressed through Maháprabhu Caetanya, causing people to madly run after him, dancing, crying, singing and laughing in ecstatic joy. Brahma¶s svarasa was also expressed in the flute sound of Shri Kr a, which resonated with such divine sweetness that people ran towards it, madly forgetting their family, culture, prestige, lineage, and so on. The gopiis of Brindávan, leaving the privacy of their homes, also danced, sang and burst into laughter to the tune of the flute. In Ananda Marga this divine flow of Brahma is embedded in different lessons of spiritual meditation. Thus, those who practice this meditation, whether in the present or the future, whether within time or beyond time, will certainly cry, sing and dance with exquisite spiritual joy, and advance steadily towards the blissful Macrocosmic stance. Advancing thus, establishing oneself in yama and niyama, and becoming a true sadvipra, one will attain oneness with the Supreme Entity. Developed human beings will have to move along this Macrocosmic flow of Brahma. One who tries to remain aloof from this divine flow does not deserve to be called a human being. One should bear in mind that the highest fulfilment in life lies in movement in the Cosmic flow. The path along which this movement takes place is called the path of bliss, the path of Ánanda Márga. Phálgunii Púr imá 1958 DMC, Amrah, Birbhum Published in:
Ananda Marga Ideology and Way of Life in a Nutshell Part 8 [a compilation] Subhá ita Samgraha Part 7 [unpublished in English] Supreme Expression Volume 1 [a compilation]

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Requirements of an Ideal Constitution
22 September 1986, Calcutta With the changes of the social cycle, the human society has developed several social institutions to carry out its duties and responsibilities. The state is one such vital institution which organizes a group of people in a certain area of land, rules them, promotes their welfare and oversees their good. This institution is powerful because it also enjoys sovereign power. Accumulation of power is dangerous if it is not guided by some rules and basic principles. The guide book in which all such rules, regulations and principles for the proper conduct of a state are codified is called a constitution. A constitution guides a state with policies and principles to render all-round services to the people for their rapid progress. The first written constitution was framed by the Licchavi Dynasty of Vaeshali (in northern Bihar) in ancient India over 2500 years ago. Prior to that, the words of the king were law and kings ruled according to the advice of their ministers. The first republican democracy was established by the Licchaviis. The Licchavi Republic comprised some portion of Muzzaffarpur, portions of Begusharai, Samastipur and Hajipur between the Gandaka and Kamala rivers, all in the present state of Bihar. It was the first democratic state and they had their own written constitution.

Differences Amongst Some Constitutions
There is no British constitution ± it is only a collection of traditions and conventions and not a written document. The theoretical head is the crown queen or king. All power is vested with the crown but practically it is exercised by the prime minister in a parliamentary form of government. The French system is a presidential form of government where the president appoints the prime minister and all other ministers. The USA also has a presidential form of government. In France and the US there is a written constitution. In the US the president exercises power or rules the country through secretaries appointed by the president who is directly elected by the electorate. There are no ministers, only secretaries in the US system whereas there are ministers in the French system. When there is no ministry in Britain a lameduck ministry is formed by the crown and the crown can head that ministry until a new parliament is elected. In India the president has no power and is only a signatory authority or rubber stamp. The Indian president cannot even head a caretaker government. The Indian prime minister can remove the president but the president cannot remove the prime minister. Although the prime minister is powerful according to the constitution, he or she is not directly elected by the electorate, that is, by the people. The prime minister is elected only as a member of parliament and then is made prime minister by the party. The US presidential form of government is a better form of government, but there is a shortcoming in the US constitution and that is that individual rights are given maximum scope: this leads to an unrestrained capitalist order. Now India is also going to suffer the same disease and this is leading to regionalism. Too much individual freedom should be curtailed in an ideal form of government. PROUT will introduce social controls so that collective interests will be
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supreme. In the US constitution purchasing power is not guaranteed to the people. The best form of government is the presidential form where the president is elected directly by the electorate and there is less individual liberty.

Common Constitutional Defects
Everyone has the right to physical, mental and spiritual development. But all constitutions have been written in such a way that they do not ensure the all-round welfare of all citizens. A constitution should be fair and just. The least bias on the part of the framers towards any particular ethnic, linguistic or religious group may undermine the unity and solidarity of the concerning country and thus disturb the peace and prosperity of the society as a whole. Judged from this perspective some of the defects of the Indian constitution are easily discernible. India should have a new constitution to establish unity in diversity in a multilingual, multi-social and multi-national country. While drafting the constitution of a country the framers should keep in mind the population structure of the concerning country. The population of India is a blended population of the Austric, Mongolian, Negroid and Aryan races. But the Indian constitution, due to inherent defects, has not helped establish social amity, cultural legacy, equality and unity among these races. As a result fissiparous tendencies have developed in the country. There are several fiscal and psychological loopholes in the Indian constitution. The fiscal loopholes include the following. First, there is no check on unbarred capitalist exploitation. This is because the leaders of the independence struggle did not give any economic sentiment to the people. The only sentiment was an anti-British sentiment. Thus the independence struggle was only a political movement and not an economic movement. After 1947 instead of white exploitation, brown exploitation emerged. 1947 brought only capitalist political liberty but not economic freedom. As a result, unbarred economic exploitation continues today. Secondly, the constitution gives no guarantee for increasing the purchasing capacity of every individual. Thirdly, the president has no constitutional power to check financial or fiscal matters. The Indian economy is controlled by a few business houses through some chambers of commerce. The president has no constitutional power to check either the price level or the degree of exploitation. Neither the president nor the prime minister can check these. Fourthly, there is no provision for inter-block planning for socio-economic development. Fifthly, there is no clear concept of balanced economy. The psychological loopholes in the Indian constitution include the following. The first is the imposition of a regional language as the national language. English imperialism has been followed by Hindi imperialism. Hindi is only one of many regional languages. The selection of one such regional language as the official language adversely affects the psychology of people who speak other languages. As the consequence of such a defective language policy in the constitution, the non-Hindi-speaking people face unequal competition at the national level and they are forced to use a language, either Hindi or English, which is not their natural language.
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Hence they are relegated to ³B class´ citizens. No regional languages should be selected as an official language in a multi-national, multi-lingual and multi-cultural country like India. Such a selection would affect the minds of other non-Hindi-speaking people. Hindi is just a regional language like Tamil, Telegu and Tulu. It is a good language but it should not be forcibly imposed on others. India is a secular country but Pakistan is a Muslim state and Nepal is a Hindu state. They may or may not impose a language on their people, but in India this imposition should not take place. The spirit of secularism provides equal scope and equal avenues for all for the maximum psychosocial-economical development of every individual. When the Indian parliament debated the issue of official languages, the constituent assembly was equally divided into two. The then chairman of the Constituent Assembly at that controversial stage cast his all-important vote in favour of Hindi. Thus Hindi becomes the official language of India by a single vote. Samskrta may be the national language of India. It is the grandmother of almost all the modern languages of India and has a great influence on the languages of India. It may take five, ten, fifty or hundred years to spread this language to all people. Roman script should be used since Samskrta has no script of its own. All groups of people including linguists of India should join together and decide this controversial matter. The second psychological loophole is that there are several disparities in the law. The constitution of India proclaims that all are equal in the eye of the law. But in practice, this principle is not followed, and as a result disparity is growing in the arena of law and justice. Such disparity is adversely affecting the different groups of people in the country. For example, there are disparities between the Hindu Code and the Muslim Code. Hindu women and Muslim women, although they are all Indian citizens, do not get equal advantages of law. For instance, according to Hindu law, a man cannot have more than one wife, but a Muslim man is entitle to have more than one wife. A Hindu husband or a Hindu wife is required to approach the court to secure a divorce, while a Muslim man is entitled to divorce his wife without the permission or approval of the court. Moreover, a Muslim husband can divorce his wife but a Muslim wife cannot divorce her husband. Besides, a Muslim husband is not required to show [[any reason for the divorce]]. Disparity in the eye of the law is creating all these problems. The root of all these evils lies in the psychological loopholes of the Indian constitution. Why is the constitution allowing the Hindu Code and Muslim Code to stand side by side? Let there be only one code ± the Indian Code. This Indian Code should be based on cardinal human values, with a universal approach and NeoHumanistic spirit. Then only equality before the law can be established in practice, and equal protection of the law for all can be guaranteed. So the constitution should remove the psychological loopholes by eradicating existing disparities in the eye of the law. The third psychological loophole is that there is no law against the indiscriminate destruction of flora and fauna due to the absence of Neo-Humanistic sentiment. In the Cosmic Family of the
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Parama Puru a, humans, animals, plants, and inanimate objects exist together and maintain a harmonious balance. However, human beings, because of their superior intellect, are indiscriminately destroying plants and animals for their own narrow, selfish ends. In the constitution, there is no provision for the safeguard of the plants and animals. In a constitution, there should be safeguards for the lives of plants and animals. The absence of such provisions in the constitution creates psychological loopholes which should be corrected without delay. Fourthly, the relation between the centre and the states in a confederation should be clearly defined in the constitution. Otherwise, there will be centre-state conflict and the whole country will be psychologically affected. Among all other aspects of this relation two important aspects should be clearly defined; the right of self-determination, and the right of secession of a particular component of the confederation. In the constitution of India these are not clearly stated. As a result, the relation between the centre and the states is always strained and pressured. Fifthly, in the constitution of India, no clear definitions of scheduled tribes and scheduled castes are given. Rather, these lists have been wrongly prepared on the basis of racial considerations. Instead of this unscientific approach, Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Caste lists should be based on economic backwardness and educational backwardness.

Constitutional Reforms
To overcome these fiscal and psychological loopholes, all constitutions in the world today need to be reformed. The following reforms should be implemented. (1) Dissolution of the ministry or parliament. The president may discharge the ministry or dissolve the parliament under certain circumstances: in case of inimical action within the country; in case of disorder or the breakdown of law and order; in case of external inimical activity; and when a democratic ministry is rendered a minority in the parliament. When a democratic ministry is discharged because it is a minority in the house, the president has to explain the reasons for his or her actions before the parliament within one month from the day of taking such action against the ministry. If the parliament is already dissolved then the president will have to arrange a general election within six months and explain the position before the newly elected parliament within one month of the election. (2) Period of emergency. The president may continue the period of emergency with the approval of parliament for a period of six months, and with such a parliament the president may continue a period of emergency for not more that two years. (3) Advice of a lame duck ministry. The president may or may not act on the advice of a lame duck ministry. If the advice of a lame duck ministry is not honoured by the president then the parliament will be dissolved. A new parliament will have to be formed through a general election, and the president will have to explain his or her position before the new parliament within one month of its formation.

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(4) The moral standard and character of the president and prime minister. The president or prime minister must be of high moral character. The president or prime minister must not divorce his or her spouse, marry a divorcee or have more than one spouse. (5) The power of the president to issue any statement. The president must not issue any statement under normal conditions without consulting the parliament or the prime minister. In normal conditions when there is a ministry, the president will have to act according to the advice of the ministry. In case the ministry is dissolved the president will have to act according to the advice of parliament. (6) Parliament in the role of constituent assembly. The parliament will play the role of constituent assembly only with a majority of 7/8 of the members, because changing the constitution at regular intervals reduces the status of the constitution. (7) Language. All living languages of a country must have equal status before the state or the government. (8) Equal rights. All citizens must have equal rights before the law. Physical requirements are to be equally considered for all citizens so that all citizens will have equilibrium and equipoise in collective life. (9) Review board. To review economic progress and development of different parts of the country, a high-level review board should be constituted by the president. If there is any difference between the ministry and the board, the president must act according to the advice of parliament. And if there is any difference between the parliament and the board, the president should seek advice from the supreme court of the country and act according to their official advice, according to the provisions of the constitution. (10) A case against the prime minister or president. A case may be filed in the supreme court against any person in the country including the prime minister and president, because every citizen in the country is equal before the constitution. (11) The right of self-determination and plebiscite. The right of self-determination for a part of the country may be recognized only on the basis of a plebiscite held in that area with the permission of the parliament functioning as a constituent assembly. If the plebiscite is to be held, it should be held under the strict control and supervision of the central government by the chief election commissioner of the country. (12) Education. Primary education for all must be guaranteed and education should be free from all political interference. (13) The law and the constitution should be the same. The law and the constitution should be the same for the entire country, as each and every individual is equal before the law and before the constitution. According to th constitution, each and every part of the country will enjoy the same power. For example, special rights or facilities for Kashmir should not be allowed. Today a

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Kashmiri can go to Bengal and purchase land, a house, etc. but a Bengali in Kashmir cannot enjoy that facility. This kind of discrimination must end.

Charter of Rights
The formation of a World Government will require a world constitution. A charter of principles or bill of rights should be included in such a constitution and encompass at least the following four areas. First, complete security should be guaranteed to all the plants and animals on the planet. Secondly, each country must guarantee purchasing power to all its citizens. Thirdly, the constitution should guarantee four fundamental rights ± spiritual practice or Dharma; cultural legacy; education; and indigenous linguistic expression. Fourthly, if the practice of any of these rights conflicts with cardinal human values then that practice should be immediately curtailed. That is, cardinal human values must take precedence over all other rights. All the constitutions of the world suffer from numerous defects. The above points may be adopted by the framers of different constitutions to overcome these defects. 22 September 1986, Calcutta
Published in: A Few Problems Solved Part 8 Prout in a Nutshell Volume 3 Part 12 [a compilation]

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