FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Heat transfer is energy in transit, which occurs as a result of temperature gradient or difference.

This temperature difference is thought of as a driving force that causes heat to flow. The concepts of heat transfer and temperature, the key words in the discipline of heat transfer, are 2 of the most basic concepts of thermodynamics.

drivingfffff ffffffffff fffffforcef fffffffff Rate of transport process= fffffffffff or rate = coefficient Bdriving force resistance
System: a region in space containing a quantity of matter which is separated from its surroundings by a boundary. Closed system (no – flow system): no exchange of matter with the surroundings, only heat and work cross the boundary. Open system (flow system): there is matter exchange with the surroundings in addition to heat and work. Work (W): is a transient quantity (energy) which only appears at the boundary when a system changes its state due to the movement of a part of the boundary under the action of a force. Sign convention: system + the work is done by the system on the surroundings: the work exits the


the work is done on the system by the surroundings.

(Although there cannot be said to be any work in a system either before or after the change has taken place, work may be said to “flow” or be “transferred” across the boundary.) Heat (Q): is “something” (energy transfer), which only appears at the boundary when a system changes its state due to a difference in temperature between the system and its surrounding. Heat, like work, is a transient quantity, which only appears at a boundary while a change is taking place within the system. (Although there cannot be said to be any heat in a system before and after a change of state, loosely speaking heat may be said to “flow” or be “transferred” across the boundary. Strictly speaking it is energy which is transferred, but to say “heat is transferred” is a shorthand way of saying “the energy transferred by virtue of a temperature difference.”) Sigh convention: + if heat flows into a system from the surroundings: If heat flows from the system to the surroundings.

1.1 First Law of Thermodynamics It is the principle of conservation of energy. It is an axiom. The first law of thermodynamics says that there exists a property of a closed system (U) such that a change in its value is equal to the difference between the heat supplied and the work done during any change of state:

X δQ @ δW =U 2 @U 1




where U is the internal energy, J

Writing Q and W for the quantities of heat and work crossing the boundary during the change of non heat energy equation state: Q-W=U2-U1 By words: any quantity of heat supplied to a closed system must equal the increase of internal energy plus the work done by the system. The internal energy of a closed system remains unchanged. For isolated systems Q=0, W=0 therefore ∆U = 0 For irreversible non-flow processes the energy equation can only be applied in integrated form:

Q @ W = ∆U
For reversible processes, the energy equation can only be applied in differential form:

d Q @ δW = d U δQ @ pdV = dU δW = pdV


For reversible, constant pressure processes (closed system):

p = constant [ pdV = d pV [ δq @ d pV = dU δQ = d U + pV = dH where H = enthalpy, J or Q = ∆H
b c





Steady-flow energy equation (for open system)
b c 1 b c ` a f f 2 Q @ W = H 2 @ H1 + fm v 2 @ v12 + mg z 2 @ z1 2

The potential energy term is either zero or negligible compared with the other terms. The 1st law of thermodynamics does not make any distinction between heat transfer and work transfer: to it they are both energy “interactions” (non-properties) that must be distinguished from the energy change (property) 1.2 Second Law of Thermodynamics It is an axiom. It says that it is impossible to construct a system which will operate in a cycle, extract heat from a reservoir, and does an equivalent amount of work on the surroundings. The 1st law says: the net work can never be greater than the heat supplied.

The 2nd law says: it must always be less. Therefore if a system is to undergo a cycle and produce work, it must operate between at least 2 reservoirs of different temperature. As a consequence, work is a more valuable form of energy transfer than heat: heat can never be transformed continuously and completely into heat.

dQf fff fff ff f There exists a property of a closed system (s) such that a change in its value is equal to Z T


for any reversible process undergone by the system between state 1 and state 2
1 2f


dQf fff fff ff f T


= S 2 @ S 1 where S = entropy, J / K


or in differential for:

dQf fff fff ff f T


= dS


The entropy of a reversible isolated closed system remains constant. (For reversible adiabatic a dQf fff ff f process dQ = 0 but dS = fff d S = 0 [ S = constant ) [ T The entropy of an irreversible isolated closed system increases:
2f 2f

dQf fff ff f Z fff T

g g




since dQ = 0



dQf fff fff ff f T

= S 2 @ S1


dQf dQf fff ff f fff ff f The cycle as a wjhole is irreversible, and E fff Z fff = T T




Therefore S1-S2<0



The proper distinction between heat transfer and work transfer is made by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. There is always an entropy transfer associated with the heat transfer. A work transfer carries zero entropy. The 2nd law of only provides definite quantitative statement about reversible processes. Only for such processes is it possible to predict the work and heat transfers crossing the boundary of a system. For irreversible processes the law merely provides statements of trend (that the entropy of an isolated irreversible system must increase), and quantitative prediction of energy transfer

cannot be made. Therefore empirical relations (such as Newton’s law of viscosity, Fourier’s law of heat conduction, and Fick’s law of diffusion) are used. They all take the form of proportionality between a quantity transferred in an irreversible process and the property gradient. These “laws” are approximate empirical relations, whose accuracy is manifested by the fact that the “proportionality constants” are not in fact constants but vary with the conditions of the experiment (temperature, pressure, or their gradient,…)

1.3 TEMPERATURE It is the system property that determines whether the system is in thermal equilibrium with another system. In thermal equilibrium of system A and B: TA=TB. The temperature of a system is measured by placing the system in “contact” with a special system (a test system) called thermometer. Temperature scales have 2 reference points. Celsius scale 0oC Ice-point of water (ice and air-saturated water in equilibrium at standard atmosphere pressure) 100 oC: Boiling point of water (liquid water in equilibrium with its own vapor at standard atmospheric pressure) Fahrenheit scale 32 oF: Ice-point of water 212 oF: Boiling point of water ToC =5/9 [T(oF)-32] Kelvin scale (thermodynamic scale or absolute scale) 273.16K: Tripe-point of water (it is only slightly above that of the ice-point 273.15K) 0 K: Absolute zero The unit of thermodynamic temperature is 1/273.16 = 1K This odd unit makes Tbp-Ticepoint = 100K and ∆T ° C = ∆ K T The temperature difference in Kelvin is the same as it is in oC 0 oC=273.15K and T(K)= T(oC)+273.15
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1.4 The Modes of Heat Transfer There are 3 basic modes of heat transport: 1. Conduction 2. Convection 3. Radiation Conduction (Fourier’s law) Heat is transported on a molecular scale with no movement of macroscopic portions of matter relative to one another. Conduction can take place through solids, liquids, and gases. In fluids: The kinetic energy of the molecules is associated with the property we call temperature. In high – temperature regions, molecules have higher kinetic energies than those in a low – temperature region. The molecules in the high- temperature region transfer their energy, through collisions, to molecules in the low-temperature region. In solids: Conduction is due to motion of free electrons in metals, lattice waves (vibrations of the crystal lattice structure) in non metals, magnetic excitations and electromagnetic radiation. Convection (sensible heat; and Newton’s law) It is heat transport due to the bulk motion of the fluid. The process occurs through the movement of macroscopic volume elements of the fluid in space from a region of one temperature to that of another. The energy transported in this way is called sensible heat.
Q = mc p T
fl in


fl out



Convection also involves the energy exchange between a solid and a fluid (interface transport). Convection is only possible in a fluid medium 2 types of convection are distinguished (a) free or natural convection – The fluid moves because of the density difference resulting from the temperature difference in the fluid (b) forced convection – The fluid is forced to flow past a solid surface


Radiation It is the transport of energy by electromagnetic radiation having a defined range of wavelength. The wavelength range of interest in thermal radiation extends from 0.2-20µm. (The wavelength range of visible radiation is 0.3-0.8µm, and that of infrared (IR) radiation is 0.8-400µm). All substances emit radiant heat but the net flow of heat is from the high – to – low temperature region. So the cooler substance will absorb more radiant heat energy than it emits. The radiation from all bodies depends on temperature (increases with temperature). No physical medium is needed for the propagation of radiation. Often all 3 forms of radiation are involved simultaneously. It is then usual to calculate the heat transport by each mode separately and adding the separate effects to provide an estimate of the total rate of heat transport. In a number of cases, 1 mode of heat transport is dominant. 1.5 Fourier’s law of heat conduction Fourier’s law of heat conduction is based on the empirical observation of one- dimensional steady heat flow through a solid. (Steady flow means that the temperature at any point does not vary with time; one-dimensional means that the temperature is uniform over surfaces perpendicular to the direction of heat flow.)

The slab is of Area A Heat is conducted through the slab in only 1 direction (x)

qf dTf ff f f ff ff ff ff f xf =@k Fourier’s law (1822) A dx
Where qx= heat flow rate in the x direction, J/s= W

For large temperature ranges K=ko +bT where ko= thermal conductivity at 0oC b = empirical constant 7 . Constant heat flux.A= area normal to the heat flow direction. w/mk Qx/A= Heat flux (heat flow rate per unit area) W/m2 As x increases. at x=L T=T2 . but not a very strong one. the temperature decreases. constant k dx A 0 T1 L T2 At x=0. Fourier’s law of heat conduction is an experimentally observed law and serves as a definition of the property of substances called the thermal conductivity. Its numerical value is an indication of how fast heat is conducted through the material. m2 dt/dx= temperature gradient or slope of the temperature curve k= thermal conductivity. Solving Fourier’s equation for the slab: qff f f x Z ff = Z @ kdT At x=0 T= T1. Constant k. k can be considered constant. so the right-hand side of the equation is a positive quantity. The – sign ensures that the equation properly indicates that the heat flow is in the direction of temperature fall. T=T1. For small changes of temperature. constant heat flux. qff ff fZ f x dx = @ k Z dT A 0 T1 L T2 qff Tffffff ff ff f ffffff f@T f f Xf 1 f ff = k fffff2f A L Thermal conductivity k Thermal conductivity is a property of a material. at x=L T=T2. K is a function of temperature.

8 . The heat flow may be related to the temperature difference between the temperature at the interphase (Tw) and that in the fluid (Tfl) q = hA T w @T b fl c Newton. The thermal conductivities of most liquids are rather small.6 Interphase transport (convective heat transfer) . W/mK 50-400 10-120 0. The characteristics of the flow affect greatly the heat transfer rate between the wall and the stream.2 While the rate of heat is transported in a body (q) is dependent on the thermal conductivity (k) and the temperature gradient (∆T). W/m2K (or film transfer coefficient or surface conductivity) This is not really a law but rather a defining equation for h heat-transfer coefficient h is not defined for a specific situation until A and ∆T are stated. 1. It is highest for metals and lowest for finely powdered materials.598 (at 20oC) 0. except for metallic liquids. the rise in temperature that this heat will produce will vary with the specific heat (cp) and the density (ρ) of the body.k varies over a wide range. s law of cooling 1701 ` a Where q = heat flow rate. A few examples of thermal conductivities Material Metals Alloys Water Air Insulators K.04-0.Newton’s law of cooling Convective heat transfer occurs when a fluid acts as a carrier or conveyor belt for the energy that it draws from (or delivers to) a solid wall.0251(at 20 oC) 0. W A= characteristic area. oC h=heat transfer coefficient. m2 ∆T= characteristic temperature difference.

Heat is transferred from the wall to the fluid. since it often cannot be predicted theoretically. q = hA T w @ T 1 Where h= average heat transfer coefficient. At any location the velocity at the wall is 0 and increases with increasing y to V 1 free stream velocity at some vertical distance away. In many cases. empirical correlations are available to predict h. The temperature decreases from Tw at the wall to T 1 free stream temperature at some distance from the wall. that is customarily assumed over b c the length of plate. The bulk temperature is the temperature that would be attained if all the fluid flowing across the section in question were withdrawn and mixed adiabatically to a uniform temperature b T w @ T b can be –the initial temperature difference c -the arithmetic mean temperature difference 9 .A heated plate with a uniform wall temperature of Tw is immersed in a uniform fluid flow of velocity v V 1 and temperature T 1 . This distance is called thermal boundary layer thickness and is highly dependent on the flow velocity. The temperature distribution T(y) is also drawn. the temperature will vary throughout the cross section of the stream. An internal flow configuration (tube flow) q = h D A π L T w @ T 1 where Tb = bulk fluid temperature ` ab c Bulk temperature is also called “cup mixing temperature” or “flow average temperature” When a fluid is being heated or cooled. known as the hydrodynamic boundary layer.

-characteristic temperature difference (∆T). k) -system geometry.transfer coefficient is not a constant characteristic of the fluid medium.b T ff@T ffffffff@ffb2ff + T w2 ff f T ffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffff ffff fw1 fffb1 2 c b c - the logarithmic mean temperature difference Heat transfer coefficient The heat. -flow velocity and velocity distribution. -roughness of the surface. W/m2K 5-25 30-300 60-1800 300-6000 3000-60000 10 . ρ. These correlations are in the form of equations involving dimensionless numbers. Typical values of the convective heat transfer coefficient for various fluids: Fluid and condition Air in natural convection Superheated steam or air in forced convection Oil in forced convection Water in forced convection Boiling of water h. cp. It depends in a complicated way on –fluid properties (µ. and -surface temperature distribution For a particular situation it can be obtained either by direct measurement or from existing empirical or semi-empirical correlations.

α =0. 11 . they have an emissivity ε< 1. W A=surface area of the body.Condensation of steam 6000-120000 1. Stefan Boltzmann constant T= absolute temperature of the black body. depending on its temperature ε=1. A black body is defined as one that absorbs all radiant energy at all wavelengths and reflects none: α=1. Actually no material with ε =1 and zero reflectivity (fraction of the total energy reflected) exists. A black body also emits radiation. K Real materials do not emit electromagnetic radiation ideally as black bodies.this is negligible in process engineering.7 Radiation heat transport When thermal radiation falls upon a body. part is reflected back into space. where α is the absorptivity or fraction absorbed.0) where qr= heat flow rate . Even the blackest surfaces occurring in nature still have a reflectivity of about 1% (absorptivity of 99%. but becomes predominant at the temperature levels encountered in pyrometallurgical processing. part is absorbed by the body in the form of heat. qr = AσT4 (ε=1.676 x 108 W/m2K4.0.9) A black body emits thermal energy at a rate that is proportional to the 4th power of its absolute temperature.0) Because of the 4th power of the absolute temperature. Their emissive power is reduced by ε qr = AσT4 (ε<1.0 and are called grey bodies. m2 Stephan-Boltzmann equation σ=5. and part may be transmitted through the body. the contribution of radiation to heat transfer is not significant at low temperatures. where ε is the emissivity – the ratio of the emissive power of a surface to that of a black body.

Kirchhoff’s law states that at the same temperature T1 α 1 = ε1 of a given surface.96 0. The corresponding rates of emission and absorption will depend on the temperature of 12 . Most metals have emissivities that are quite high – approaching the black body limit of unity. window Paint black Paint white Red brick skin Soil Water Wood ε 0. the absorptivity is much smaller than when it hits a black surface.96 0. like that of the sun strikes a white surface or ice. reflect and emit.07 0.80-0.93-0.04 0. highly polished metallic surfaces have very low emissivities.93 0. The emissivity of metallic surfaces increases with increasing temperature. transmit.98 0.90-0. If short-wave radiation. Non metallic materials are characterized by high emissivities in the infrared region.Emissivity The surface of a substance highly influences its radiation characteristics and therefore the amount of radiative heat the surface can absorb.95 0. radiation at low temperature is mainly long-wave radiation. Net heat transfer between 2 radiating surfaces In an enclosure all surfaces will simultaneously emit and absorb radiant energy from the other surfaces.93 0.93-0. It is less known that the reflection of the same bodies is very small for long-wave radiation.96 0.85-0. This however holds only for low temperature radiation. Some normal emissivity values of various materials at room temperature Material Aluminum polished Aluminum rough Asphalt Concrete Glass. Thus. The emissivity is determined entirely by the properties of the surface of the material and its temperature. The maximum intensity of radiation shifts to greater wavelengths with decreasing temperature.95 0.90 Clean.88-0. Emissivity is a property that describes how radiant energy interacts with the surface of the material. The good reflection of sunlight by ice or white fabrics is well known.89-0. Smooth and rough surfaces have almost the same emissivity.97 0.

View factors of several geometries are available in many literatures. then the net heat flux from (1) to (2) is b c 1 4 4 ffffffffff ffffffffff fffffffff q. . the resultant rate of heat transfer by radiation from one to the other may be determined. The small object emits an amount of radiation of A1 ε1 α T 1 It absorbs energy from the surroundings at T2 by A1 ε1 α T 2 The net heat of absorption: 4 4 α 1 at T 2 ≈ ε1 at T 1 qr = A1 ε1 σ T 2 @ T 1 4 b 4 c View factor (or shape factor) In radiation heat transport it must be considered . = ffffffffffσ T 1 @ T 2 f g 1f 1f ff f f f f f f + ff 1 @ ε1 ε2 Radiation to a small object from surroundings Let’s examine a small gray object (area A1. The net radiation heat transfer from cylinder (1) to cylinder (2) b c 1 4 4 ffffffffffff ffffffffffff ffffffffffff f q = ffffffffffffσA1 T 1 @ T 2 g 1f Aff 1f ff f1f ff f f f ff f f f f + f f@ 1 ε1 A 2 ε2 Infinite parallel plates If plate (1) is at higher temperature than plate (2). F1-2 ≤ 1 and is a dimensionless factor.each surface. When 2 surfaces are at a given distance from each other. 13 . that electromagnetic radiation travels in straight lines F1-2 shape factor is defined as the fraction of total radiant energy that leaves surface 1 and arrives on surface 2. temperature T1) in a large enclosure at a higher temperature ofT2 so there is a net radiation to the small object. Two long concentric cylinders and concentric spheres Cylinder (1) with a surface A1 and the temperature T1 encloses cylinder (2) with a surface area A2 and the temperature T2 (T1>T2).

Effect of radiation on temperature measurement The temperature of a flowing fluid in a tube is usually measured by a thermometer or thermocouple put into a well. which is welded into the tube wall. When a thermometer is placed in a gas stream to measure temperature. W hr = radiation heat transfer coefficient. 14 . however the radiation heat transfer coefficient is a very strong function of temperature. a radiation heat transfer coefficient hr can be defined as qrad = A1 hr T 2 @ T 1 b c qrad = heat transfer rate by radiation. Energy will be transferred by convection to the thermometer and then dissipated by radiation to the surroundings.qr = A1 ε1 σF1 @ 2 T 2 @ T 1 4 b 4 c Radiation heat transfer coefficient Analogously to Newton’s law of cooling. W / m 2 K b c When radiation heat transfer occurs from a surface it is usually accompanied by convective heat transfer unless the surface is in vacuum: qconv = A1 hc T 2 @ T 1 The total heat transfer is the sum of the two: q = qconv + qrad = hc + hr A1 T 2 @ T 1 b c b c Note: The convective heat transfer is not strongly dependent on temperature. Consider the element shown on the next sketch. the temperature indicated by the sensing element is determined by the overall energy balance on the element.

Solar radiation has a short wavelength and the absorptivity for such radiation may be considerably different from the absorptivity for long wave radiation . which a surface absorbs. the maximum radiation intensity is found at 0. As a consequence of the high temperature. This equation shows that the temperature indicated by the thermometer is not the true gas temperature but some radiation –convection equilibrium temperature. The radiation shield must be designed so that it protects the temperature sensing element of the thermometer from the radiation coming from the walls but does not inhibit convective heat transfer at the thermometer surface. Vey large errors can result temperature measurements if this energy balance is not taken into account. a white surface has considerably smaller absorptivity than the Al surface for solar radiation. depends on its absorptivity.For instance. 42% is reflected or refracted back to space from clouds and the air and reflected from the earth’s surface. m Radiation shields are frequently employed to alleviate this difficulty.57 where Nu=hd/k= Nusselt number Re=ρvd/µ= Reynolds number d= outer diameter of thermocouple well (house). An estimate of the errors in temperature measurement should be made in each installation. hollow cylinder open on both ends is a desirable configuration. they only place another resistance in the heat flow path so that the overall heat transfer is reduced. In a yearly average the earth absorbs ~43% of the radiation coming from the sun (27% directly and 16% directly as diffuse sky radiation). This insulation power depends upon the emissivity of the shield surface.5µm wavelength and approximately 5 % of the radiation occurs in the ultravoilet (UV) range. The heat transfer coefficient h for the above heat balance can be estimated from: Nu=0. 40% in the visible wavelength range and 55% in the infrared (IR) up to ~3µm. A short.This equation assumes that the surroundings are either very large or black. They do not deliver or remove any heat from the overall system. 15 . Radiation shields are made of metals which are highly reflective outside the blackened inside. and 15% is absorbed in the temperature.3 Re0. Radiation from the sun The sun radiates very nearly like a black circular disk with a temperature of 5600K. The amount of the solar radiation.

e y . r = @ k fff . y = @ k ∂Tf fff fff ff f . it cannot stand alone but must operate on a scalar. ∂x q. e z are unit vectors in the x. . ∂x q. . and z direction f f f f f f f f f 5 in cylindrical coordinates: 5 =e r 5 in spherical coordinates: 5 =e r f f f f ∂f eff fff f ∂f f ff ff fff f ff f ff ff ∂ f f ff ff Θ f ff f f ff f f f f f f f ∂f eff fff ffff ff f ff ff fff ffff ∂ff f ff ff ∂ f e φ ff ff ff Θ f ff ffff ff f f ff ∂r + r ∂Θ +e z ∂z ∂r + r ∂Θ + rsinθ ∂φ Fourier’s law then in the different coordinate systems: Rectangular Cylindrical Spherical ∂Tf fff ff f q.2 THE GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION Symbols used: q= heat flow rate. It has dimensions of 1/L (1/m) 5= F ff ff ∂f G ∂ff ∂ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff .1 Fourier’s law of heat conduction in 3 dimensions ∂Tf fff ff f Fourier’s law in 3 dimensions: q. . . z = @ k ∂Tf fff fff ff f ∂z Fourier’s law in vector form: q / / = @ k 5 T f ∂ff f ∂ff f ∂f f ff f ff f ff f ff f ff f ff The del operator 5 in rectangular coordinates: 5 =e x ff+ e y ff+ e z ff ∂x ∂y ∂z f f f f 5 is a vector. y = @ k ∂Tf fff fff ff f ∂y ∂Tf fff ff f q. y . . φ = @ k ffff ∂Tf ffff fff ffff fff ffff ff f rsinθ ∂φ ∂Tf fff ff f q. x = @ k fff . . Θ = @ f fff r ∂Θ ∂Tf fff ff f q. . r = @ k fff . . Θ = @ f fff r ∂Θ q. . ∂x ∂y ∂z 5 =e x . . z = @ k fff ∂z . ∂y q. ∂r kf∂Tf f fff f ff f q. . ∂z 16 ∂Tf fff ff f q. z = @ k fff . W q”= heat flux: heat flow rate per unit area normal to the heat flow direction. vector or tensor function. x = @ k fff . ∂r kf∂Tf f fff f ff f q. W/m2 q”’= heat flow rate per unit volume W/m3 2. . .

2 The general heat conduction equation The statement of the law of conservation of energy: Rate of thermal energy accumulation = Rate of thermal energy in Rate of thermal energy out + Rate of thermal energy production Thermal energy may be “produced” by: 1. by virtue of overall fluid motion (sensible heat) 17 . Nuclear reaction Thermal energy in or out: 1.consider only this now 2. The conversion of chemical energy into heat (reaction heat of chemical reactions) 3.2. by heat conduction. The Degradation of mechanical energy (viscous dissipation) 4. The degradation of electrical energy (as a result of electric current passing through the material) 2.

yLy + ∆y ∆y∆z q. fz fff f z z + f @ ff f z ρ ff= @ lim ffffffffffffffff lim ffffffffffffffff @ lim ffffffffffffffff+ q/ @ ∆x Q 0 ∆y Q 0 ∆z Q 0 ∂t ∆x ∆y ∆z f g ∂qf. xLx L Rate of thermal energy out by conduction Across surface at x+ ∆x Across the surface at y + ∆y Across the surface at z + ∆z Rate of thermal energy production: Rate of thermal energy accumulation: L ∆x∆y q.ffffffffffLff∆zff ff ffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffff ff fffx fffffffffff f fffffffffffffff fffffffffffffff ρ ff= ffffffffffffffff+ ffffffffffffffff+ ffffffffffffffff+ q/ ∂t ∆x ∆y ∆z LM L M LM L M LM L M Take the limits as ∆x Q 0. . yL y L ∆x∆z q.ffffffffffLff∆yff q. . . x ff @ q. .fffff fffff∆zfffq. zLzM @ q.ffff∆xfffq. fffffffffffffff q. ffffffffff. ρ =@ + + z + q/ ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z L M LM L M LM L M LM Substitute Fourier’s law in all direction and from thermodynamics: du=dh=cpdT [u=h-pv. xLx + ∆x L ∆x∆y q.ffffffffff. z fz + fM ∂uf q.ffLffffff. .Rate of thermal energy in by conduction across surface at x across surface at y across surface at z ∆y∆z q. fy fff f y y + f @ ff f y f.f ff fff f. y fy + fM . zLz L ∆y∆z q.ffffffffff.vdp. . xLx + fM . fffffffffffffff ∂uf ff ff f f. From the definition of specific heat dh=cpdT] 18 . .fffff ffffffffff ffff f x x + f @ ff x x f. yLyM @ q.fffff q.fffff fffff∆yfffq.ff ∂qfff ∂qfff ∂uf ff ff ff f ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff fx f ff fy . .ffff∆xff q. zLz + ∆z L ∆x ∆y∆z q/ ∆x~ }~ B { ~ ~ρ ~∆y∆z~~y ~~ ~ ~ ~ mass rate of change in internal energy per mass ∂uf ff ff ff f w ∂t Substitute into the energy balance equation and divide by ∆x ∆y∆z M . ∆z Q 0 L M LM L M LM L M LM q.pdv. differentiating gives du=dh. ∆y Q 0. Since in solids p and ρ are constants therefore v=constant so du=dh.

This is the general 3-dimensional unsteady-state conduction equation in rectangular coordinate system. . . m2/s q. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂Tf fff fff ff f =k ∂t h i T T Tf ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff fffk fff fff fff j ∂fff ∂fff ∂fff 2 2 2 f g f g f g ρc p ∂x 2 + ∂ y2 + ∂ z2 + q. .ρc p ∂Tf ∂ff ∂Tf ff ∂ff ∂Tf ∂f ∂Tf fff fff ff f ff ff ff fff fff ff f ff ff fff fff ff ff f ff ff fff fff ff f =@ @k @ @k + @k + q. Boundary conditions are restrictions (specifications) applied at the physical boundaries of the system.fff .3 Boundary and initial conditions Boundary and initial conditions are required to determine the integration constants. In vector notation: ∂Tf 2 fff ff f ρc p fff k∆ T + q. . = ∂t Where ∆ = 2 ∆ + 2 operator is called the Laplacian. f = ∆ T + ffff which is another form of the general 3-dimension unsteady-state α ∂t k conduction equation Simplified forms of the heat conduction equation No heat source ∂Tf 2 fff ff f ρc p fff k∆ T = ∂t 2 ∂Tf 2 fff ff f or fff α ∆ T = ∂t Steady state and no heat source ∆ T =0 Laplacian equation 2. The number of boundary and initial conditions required is dependent on the order of the differential equation (for a second order differential equation 2 conditions are required) 19 . . .f 1f∂Tf 2 fffff f fff f ff f ffff ff. in rectangular coordinates it is + ∂ z2 ∂x 2 ∂ ff ∂ ff ∂ f fff fff fff fff fff fff ff f ff f ff f ∂ y2 k ff fff fff ff f Introducing α = pc p thermal diffusivity. Initial conditions are specifications applied at a specific time for unsteady problems.

) qf.g. At a solid. = qc . The heat flux at a surface may be specified e. T=Tw 2. steady –state is reached.fluid interface the heat flux may be related to the difference between the temperature at the interface and that in the fluid by Newton’s law of cooling. 2. An initial time condition: the temperature or heat flux may be specified at the start. q .4 kinds of conditions are commonly used: 1. Initial conditions are commonly of 2 types: 1. At solid-solid interfaces the continuity of temperature and heat flux may be specified.) 20 . (This is equivalent to specifying the temperature gradient at the surface. ` M a ∂Tf fff ffM fM @ k fff x = 0 = h T Mx = 0 @T 1 ∂x 4. Time goes to infinity ( for a number of problems when t =1 . The temperature at the surface may be specified e.ff ∂Tf fff fff ff f fff f o f = @ fff= constant ∂x k 3.g.

2.3 STEADY-STATE CONDUCTION IN ONE DIMENSION The temperature is a function of only one space variable Objectives: -To determine the temperature distribution-To find the heat transfer rate Procedure to solve problems: 1. Read the problem carefully.C and I.C to obtain the temperature distribution 6. Comment A) Plane geometry systems 3. identify the given quantities and change them to appropriate units. Make assumptions to simplify the differential equation 5. Solve the differential equation by integrating and using B.1 Heat conduction in a plane wall ∂Tf 2 2 fff ff f ρc p fff K∆ T + q / [ ∆ T = 0 = ∂t 21 . Find the heat transfer rate 7. sketch 3. Begin with the appropriate form of the general conduction equation 4.

C . 2 at x = δ T= Tffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff 2 @T 1 x + T1 δ T = T 1 [ T 1 = C2 T = T 2 [ T 2 = C1 δ + T 1 [ C1 = Tffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff 2 @T 1 δ the temperature distribution i the slab is linear b c kA b c dTf kAf fff ff f ff f ff ff ff Fourier. 1 at x = 0 B . qx=∆T/R 22 .In x @ direction: 2 dfff dTf ffTf ffff fff f fff ff f = 0 [ fff c1 [ T = c1 x + c2 = 2 dx dx Where c 1 and c2 are integration constants. K/W ∆T= T1-T2 R=δ/kA ∆Tff fff ffff ∆T f ffff ff ff ff qx = ffff= fff δ / kA R 3. C . B . o C thermal resistance.2 Composite walls (Materials in series) A composite wall consist o 3 materials placed next to each other For each layer we can apply the solution of the slab. s law: qx = @ kA fff @ fffT 2 @T 1 = fffT 1 @ T 2 = ff dx δ δ Rate of flow= driving force / resistance Rate of flow: Driving force: Resistance: qx heat flow rate. W temperature difference.

3 Overall heat transfer coefficient 23 . qx1 = qx2 = qx3 = qx = constant ∆T = ∆T 1 + ∆T 2 + ∆T 3 = qx R1 + R 2 + R 3 b c ∆T difference ffffffffff overallfffffffffffffffffff fffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffff ffffftemperature fffffffff qx = ffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffff = fffffffffffffff R1 + R 2 + R 3 thermal resistances P T ffff3 fffffffffffff ffffo @fffffff ffffff T fffff qx = ffffffffffffff δff fff fff δ ff fff fff f1ff fff fff fff fff f2ff d 3ff f f f + fff+ fff k1 A k2 A k3 A 3.∆T 1 = T 0 @ T 1 ∆T 2 = T 1 @ T 2 ∆T 3 = T 2 @ T 3 R1 = δ1 / k 1 A R2 = δ 2 / k 2 A R3 = δ 3 / k 3 A b b c c b c qx1 = qx2 = qx3 = ∆Tff ff1 f fff ff ff R1 ∆T 1 = qx1 R1 ∆T 2 = qx2 R2 ∆T 3 = qx3 R3 ∆Tff ffff fff fff f2 R2 ∆Tff ffff fff fff f3 R3 Since all the heat passes through the first layer must pass through the second and the third one.

The fluid temperatures an be the bulk temperatures. Newton’s law of cooling applies. the mechanism is called convective heat transfer. when the fluids flow through ducts. when the surface temperatures of the walls are unknown.hcold and k are known. Despite the fact that the heat flow across this layer by conduction. hhot . In practice the entire resistance to the heat transfer is regarded as being in the laminar sublayer . when the fluid flows are external. h cold and k are known b c 1 ffff ffff ffff q = hhot A T hot @ T 1 [ ∆T 1 = T hot @ T 1 = q fffff hhot A b c kAf δf ff ff f ff ff f q = fffT 1 @ T 2 [ ∆T 2 = T 1 @ T 2 = q fff δ kA b c fffff f1fff ffff f q = hcold A T 2 @ T cold [ ∆T 3 = T 2 @ T cold = q fffff hcold A 24 . or free-stream temperatures. Most of the temperature drop in the fluids occurs very near the wall in a relatively stagnant boundary layer (laminar sublayer) which adheres to the wall.Frequently it is required to calculate the heat flow through a wall separating 2 fluids of known temperature.

and T=T(r) the temperature varies only with r (radial direction) 25 . and inside wall temperature T1 Assumptions: - Steady state. outside wall temperature T2. No internal heat generation K= constant.4 Heat conduction in a cylindrical wall Derive an equation for the heat flow through the wall of a hollow cylinder of outside radius R2.T hot @ T cold = ∆T = ∆T 1 + ∆T 2 + ∆T 3 = q fffffffffffffff ffTfffffffffff fffff@T ffffff f fffffff f Therefore q = ffffhotffffcoldf1fff 1 δ f ffff fffff fff fffff ffff ffff ffff ff ffff ff fffff f ffff + ff+ fffff f hhot A g 1 fffff fff fffff ffff δ f fffff ffff ff f1fff ffff ff ffff f f + kA + hcold A h hot A kA h cold A It is convenient to express the heat transfer rate in terms of an overall heat transfer coefficient for both convection and conduction resistances: q = UA T hot @ T cold b c Where U =overall heat transfer coefficient based on an area A. inside radius R1. W/m2K Comparing the last 2 equations: 1 ffffffffffff fffffffffffff fffffffffff fffffffffffff fffffffffff fffff1fffffff fffffffffff ffffffffffff f c for a plane wall U= 1 = b fff δf f1ff fff f fff f ff ff f fff f fff f ff fff f A R1 + R2 + R3 + + h hot k h cold B) Cylindrical geometry systems 3. length L.

To determine the integration constants: B.C 1 B.C 2 at r=R1 at r=R2 T=T1 T=T2 26 .1f∂Tf 1f∂f ∂Tf 1f ∂fff ∂fff q/ff T T fffff f ff f fff fff f ff f ff f = ff r fff ffffff ffff fff + fff ffffff ffff fff + 2f fff+ fff+ ff 2 α ∂t r ∂r ∂r r ∂Θ k ∂ z2 2 2 After simplification and solving: 1fdf dTf df dTf rdTf f ff fff fff ff fff f ff ff fff ff f fff fff ff r ff = 0 [ ffr fff = 0 [ ffff C 1 = r dr dr dr dr dr Cff ff f 1 dT = ffdr [ T = C 1 ln r + C 2 r f g f g The temperature distribution is a logarithmic function.

T 1 = C 1 ln R1 + C 2 [ C 2 = T 1 @ C 1 ln R1 T 2 = C 1 ln R 2 + C 2 [ C 2 = T 2 @ C 1 ln R1 T 1 @ C 1 ln R1 = T 2 @ C1 ln R2 Tffffff Tffffff ffffff fffff ffffff f@ T f f 1 @T f 1 f ff C 1 = fffff2f C 2 = T 1 @ C1 ln R1 = T 1 @ fffff2fln R1 [ Rff Rff ff ff f f ff f f 1 ln ln f1f R2 R2 Substituting the integration constants to get the temperature distribution: ln b c ln R @T1 ffffff Tffffff ffffff fffff fffff f 1 ffffff fffff fR 1 T = T 1 + T 1 @ T 2 ffffff ffffff= ffffff [ ffffff fffff g g T 1 @T 2 Rff Rff ff f f ff f f ln f1f ln f1f R2 R2 d rff ff ff f f e d rf ff ff ff f e The heat flow from the Fourier’s law: ∂Tf ff ff f f fff ff f = @ kA fff qr ∂r A = 2πr L the normal to the heat flow T f@T f dTf Cff 1ffffff2f fff ff f ffffff fff ff f ffffff ff f f 1 1 f ff = f= g dr r r f Rff ff f f ln f1f R2 b c ∆T T f@T f fffLf ` a 1f ffffff 2πk fff f ffffff fffff fff fff ff f ffff f 1 f ff qr = @ k 2πrL f fffff2f= ffffff T 1 @T 2 = fff f g g r RT Rff Rff ff ff f f ff ff f f 1 1 ln ln R2 R2 ln Therefore the thermal resistance is RT = g Rff ff ff f f 2 R1 ffffff ffffff fffff fffff f 2πkl 3.5 Composite cylindrical walls 27 .

We can apply the results obtained for cylindrical wall.A composite cylindrical wall consists of 3 materials placed in series. the heat flow rate in radial direction in the composite cylindrical wall can be determined Temperature distribution Location d rf ff ff ff f e Thermal resistance g Rff ff ff f f 2 R1 ffffff ffffff fffff fffff f Tffffff ffffff @T 1 R ffffff ffffff ffffff fffff ffffff fffff = f 1g T 2 @T1 Rff ff f f ln f2f R1 ln R1 ≤ r ≤ R2 RT1 = ln 2πk 1 L f Tffffff ffffff @T 2 R ffffff ffffff ffffff fffff ffffff fffff = f 2g T 3 @T1 Rff ff f f ln f3f R2 ln d rf ff ff ff f e R2 ≤ r ≤ R 3 RT2 = g Rff ff ff f f 3 ln R2 ffffff ffffff fffff fffff 2πk 2 L f Tffffff ffffff @T 3 R ffffff ffffff ffffff fffff ffffff fffff = f 3g T 4 @T 3 Rff ff f f ln f4f R3 ln d rf ff ff ff f e R3 ≤ r ≤ R 4 RT3 = ln 2πk 3 L g Rff ff ff f f 4 R3 ffffff ffffff fffff fffff 2πL T f T 4 @ Tffffff ffffffffff1fffffffffff @T 4 fffffff ffffffffffffffffffff fffffff ffffffffffffffffffff ffffff ffffffffffffffffffff d e d e qr = 1 = d e f2 f ff f f ff ff ff f4 f ff f f 3 X RT i ln Rff ln Rff ln Rff Rf ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff fff1ff fff f ffR 2ff fff f ff ffR 3ff fff f ff i + + k1 k2 k3 b c 28 . Using the temperature distributions and thermal resistances given in the next table.

3. L= length of tube δ = Ro @ Ri = wall thickness = Rhot = hi Ai ln d 1 ffff ffff fff fff Ai = 2πLRi R wall = R cold 2π k 1 L 1 ffff ffff ffff ffff = A i = 2π LR 0 ho A o b c b c e Rff fo f ff ff f ffffff ffffff ffR fff fffff fi T hot @ T cold 2π L f hot @ T ff ∆Tff fffffffffffffffff fffffTfffffffffff fffff fffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffcoldfff ffff ff f d e d qr = fffff ffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffefffffff = fffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffff = Rff Rff fof ff f f fof ff f f XR ln ln 1 1 ffff ffff ffffff ffff f1 ff ffffff f1ff ffff ffffff ffff ffff ffffff ffff ffff ffR iff f f f ff f ffff ffffff ffff ffff ffR iff fff fffff f fff + fff ff+ ffff ffff+ ffffff ffff + fff h o Ao 2πk L hi Ai ho Ro k h i Ri 29 .6 Overall heat transfer coefficient In many problems fluids with different temperatures are flowing inside and around tubes and we need to determine the heat transfer rate knowing the bulk fluid temperatures.

but sometimes the inside surface area (Ai) is chosen. insulating a pipe is a common practice because it is an inexpensive method of retarding heat losses. It is customary to select the outside surface area (Ao) of the cylinder (pipe).7 Critical thickness of insulation In industry. To= outside tube wall temperature Ro= outside tube radius T∞=ambient fluid temperature The overall resistance is the sum o the “cylindrical shell” resistance of the insulation and the external convective heat transfer resistance: 30 .Often it is desirable to express this equation in terms of an overall heat transfer coefficient U: qr = UA T hot @ T cold b c The question is which area to select for A. however. In some cases. adding insulation causes an increase in heat loss. the overall heat transfer coefficient Uo based on Ao is Uo = 1 fffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff ho e Rff fof ff f f Ri 1f ffffffff 1fRff ff ffffffff ff ff ff ffffffff ff ff ff fffffff f fffffff ff f f 0 f + R o ln d k + h i Ri The overall heat transfer coefficient Ui based on Ai is Uo = ffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff fffffff1fffffffff f h o Ro e Rff fof ff f f 1f ff ffffffff 1f ffRff ffffffff ff ff ff ffffffff ff ff ff ffffR iff f if fffffff f ff f + R i ln d k + hi 3. Comparing the last 2 equations.

If Rins< Rins crit . A practical application is the problem of insulating electrical wires where the objective would be the provision of adequate electrical insulation at the same time providing the maximum wire cooling. the addition of insulation always increases the insulation effect. (Eg. not insulating until Rins>Rins crit. the addition of the first layer of insulation decreses the overall thermal resistance R.) The critical insulation radius for a sphere is Rins crit= 2(k/ho) 31 . then adding insulation increases the heat transferred. for a given current. than the same wire if bare. so enhances heat transfer. A wire insulated with a covering of not too low thermal conductivity may run cooler.e Rfff fff ff ff f insf ln Rf 1 ffffff ffffffffff ffffff ffffffffff fffo ff fffffffff c R = fffffff bffffffffff + d 2πkL 2πRins L ho b 2π T O @ T 1 Tfffffff qf fffffffffffff ffffff f@ffff ff T 1 f ffffffffffff d e q = f0ffffff f= fffffffffffff [ f fffffffffffff f ff ff ff R L ln Rffff ins 1 fffffff fffff ffffff ffffff ffffff fffff ffR o ff fffff ff ffff + ffff k h o R ins c q/L reaches a maximum or R a minimum where ∂Rff ffff ffff fff ff ∂ or d e qf f f f f fffff ffL ff fffff ffff f ∂Rins =0 ∂Rins =0 ∂Rff fff1fffff fffff 1ff 1 ffff fffffffff fffffffff ffff fffffffff fffffffff fff ff ffffffff f fffff ff f =` a fff@ h 2π L 2 1ff ff ff ∂Rins 2πk L fff o Rins R ins Solving for the critical insulation radius for the cylinder Rins crit f g 1 1 fffffffff 1f fffffff fffffffff f fffffff fff f1fff f fffffff fff ffff f fffffff f 2π L Rins crit k kf ff f Rins crit = ff ho @ ho Rins crit 1f fffffff 1 f fffffff f fffffff = 0 [ f= fffffff k ho Rins crit The critical insulation radius corresponds to maximum heat transferred. In case of a “thin” bare cylinder: Ro< Rins crit . In case of a “thick” bare cylinder: Ro> Rins crit .

4.It may control the rate at which process equipment is brought to stable operating conditions. or The time needed to attain a certain temperature - The general heat conduction equation: qffff . The temperature history. Curing time of objects made of molded plastic or rubber.fff . burning of bricks. heat treating and casting of metals). 1f∂Tf 2 fffff f fff f ff f ffff = ∆ T + ffff α ∂t k Assumptions: - No internal heat generation ( q’’’/k=0). Unsteady state heat conduction is important in determining the processing time of many solid articles (eg.the heat-transfer rate. UNSTEADY.… The aim is to find . cooling of ingots. Many industrial heat conduction problems are unsteady state. Constant k.STATE HEAT CONDUCTION In transient –conduction problems temperature varies with the location within the system and with time. ρ In 2-dimension: - 2 boundary conditions for x - 2 boundary conditions for y. and 1 initial condition for t 32 . Other examples are heat flow through a building wall during the daily 24-hour heating and cooling cycle.. annealing of casting.

There is a heat loss or gain by convection (internal transfer) to the surroundings.For relatively simple geometries the above differential equation can be solved. For some problems the internal resistance is negligible compared to the surface resistance. At any instant in time there are no temperature gradients within the object. 4.Lumped capacitance model Consider an object at an initial temperature of Ti that is being cooled (or heated) by a fluid stream at a temperature of T∞.1 Systems with negligible internal resistance. but for more complicated systems we need numerical or graphical techniques. only a temperature difference between the surface and the free stream The heat transferred between the object and the fluid is controlled by the surface resistance (ie the value of the heat transfer coefficient h) - - 33 . There are 2 types of resistances to the heat transport: - Internal thermal resistance: δ/kA Surface or film resistance : 1/hA We can identify 3 types of problems that arise for a transient problem. If the thermal conductivity of the object is high. For other problems the surface resistance is negligible. Still. the internal resistance (δ/kA) to the het flow is small then: - The temperature profile within the object is uniform and everywhere equal to the surface temperature. for others both are important.

we can formulate a model by performing an energy balance on the object.The heat –transfer process is called Newtonian cooling (or heating). To simplify the differential equation we introduce dimensionless temperature Then the heat flow rate becomes This means that the body-fluid difference decays exponentially. 34 . Because the temperature does not change (significantly) withi the solid.

It takes a longer time for the body to reach equilibrium with the surroundings fluid when its lumped capacitance is large and / or its product hA is small. It is called the lumped capacitance equation. It presents the ratio of heat transfer by conduction to the energy storage rate within the material.the characteristic time of decay. Examining the exponent of the lump capacitance equation: The ratio of volume to surface area for an object is often used as a characteristic length Lch Where Fourier number is a dimensionless time parameter. or decay time constant. or thermal time constant.This equation describes the time-temperature history of the solid object. ρ cp V - lumped capacitance ρcpV/hA . Thus the lump capacitance equation becomes: 35 .

capacitance equation to apply. the instantaneous rate of heat transfer q(t) in Watt from the body is Where T= instantaneous temperature. This is the criterion for the lump.1.The assumption of negligible internal resistance is reasonably accurate when Bi < 0. At any time. The instantaneous temperature from the lump capacitance equation is This implies: The amout of heat Q in Joules transferred from the solid from time t=0 to t= t is 36 .

The aim is to predict the temperature profile in the plate with time. an the heat transfer rate. Fourier solved this problem by developing the method of Fourier series. will assume the same temperature as the fluid: T1=T∞ which holds when Bi>1. once exposed. The descriptive differential equation: 37 .) If the heat transfer coefficient h is very large then the film resistance (1/hA) is negligible so the surface temperature. the left and right surfaces of the plate are suddenly cooled to T1 by a fluid at a temperature T∞.2 Systems with negligible surface resistance Consider an infinite plate of thickness 2L at an initial uniform temperature Ti. At some time zero.4. The thickness of the plate is 2L.

x/L) the temperature distribution is a function of Fourier and Biot numbers and x/L.The boundary conditions are: Change to dimensionless quantities: The dimensionless differential equation is then: The new boundary and initial boundary conditions are: The Fourier number appears in the dimensionless equation therefore Θ=Θ(Bi. Fo. The analytical solution got by the separation of variables method: 38 .

The temperature history at the midplane (x=L) is of practical interest and is a function of Fourier number: For values of Fo much greater than 0. The instantaneous heat flow rate (q) and the amout of heat transferred (q) for the infinite plate are : 39 . knowing Fo number the dimensionless temperature for the center plane can be read for different shapes. An infinite plate is a plate whose thickness is small in relation to the other dimensions. only the first term in the series need to be used in the solution (except at points very close to the boundaries). The centerline of the plate is a line of symmetry and therefore analogous to an insulated or adiabatic surface. An infinite cylinder is a cylinder where the diameter is small compared to the length. On a chart (Fig 6.This makes possible a graphical presentation .1.6).This equation is for the case where the left and right faces of an infinite wall are maintained at the same temperature Ti.

Heisler charts (1) The dimensionless temperature history at the center of an infinite plate of thickness. a sphere and other types of common geometries.3 Systems with finite internal and surface resistances Both internal and film resistances are significant 0. a semi-infinite solid. The solutions are conveniently summarized graphically on the above charts. Calculations made from such solutions are presented in graphical form by Heisler (1947) and Grober (1961). The solutions are complex in form.1<Bi< 1 Analytical solutions for a variety of problems are given in the literature.7) q (in watt) and Q (in Joule) can be read as a function of Fo A similar analysis can be formulated for an infinitely long cylinder . 40 .On a chart (fig 6. 4.

9 Q= the total amount of energy (J) that has passed through the wall up to any time t 41 . (2) The dimensionless temperature distribution in an infinite plate at any x location within the plate is given in Fig 3.This chart can be used to calculate the midplane temperature from Fourier number. which in turn can be used in the next chart to determine the temperature at any other x location within the plate.

7 for the case of negligible surface resistance ( h is high Ts =T∞). 42 . This is also represented on the charts. H ∞). For the negligible surface resistance case the heat transfer coefficient is large (ie. Note: the characteristic length (Lch) used in the lumped-capacitance method is different from the characteristic length used in the Heisler and Grober charts.4 Semi-infinite solid A solid body occupying the space from x=0 to x= ∞ is initially at temperature Ti.Qo = the initial internal energy of the wall relative to the fluid temperature T∞( it is equal to the maximum internal energy change that can occur) Qo = ρcpV(Ti-T∞) Similar charts for infinite cylinder (L/R > or = 10 at least. At time T=0. 4. Let’s examine the analytical solution to the same problem. the surface at x=0 is suddenly raised to temperature Ts and maintained at the temperature fot t>0 constant wall temperature. Lch=R) are also available. For this case 1/Bi=k/hLch=0. The solution to this problem appeared in fig 6.

Some properties of the error function: Therefore: 43 . The right hand side is called Gauss error function or probability integral and denoted by error function of lamda . constant physical properties. Its values are available in tables.Assumptions: - heat conduction occurs only in x direction. This integral is a function of its upper limit. The conduction equation The boundary conditions for the constant surface temperature: This integral has no closed form. no heat generation.

99 when the argument is about 2.001(Ts-Ti) For distances x> δT . the initial temperature is changed by less than 1 % of the difference ( TsTi) 44 . therefore we can define a thermal penetration thickness δT as that didtance x for which the temperature dropped to a value of 0.The error function reaches a value of 0.

The next figure compares the solutions the 3 types of possible boundary conditions. When V is of the order of magnitude of plate thickness L. The heat flux is Then the heat flux at the surface is The total amount of heat (Q) transferred from the solid from t=0 to t=t is The problem can be redefined and the surface convection effect or constant heat flux at the surface could be accounted for. 45 .When δT is small with respect to the plate thickness L. then the semi-infinite solid solution can be used. then the finite slab solution (rectangular parallelopipedon) has to be used.

t) .t) are known solutions to 2 separate one-dimensional problems.t) For the purpose of simplifying the notation. 2(y. their product gives the solution to the combined problem: 2(y. 1(x.5 Bodies of Finite Size Solutions to one – dimensional problems can be combined to obtain the solutions having finite geometries.y.t). we shall use the following symbols: 46 .t)= 1(x. If 1(x.4.t) and 2(x.

In each case the solid exists at an initial temperature Ti. Finite cylinder 47 . and at the time zero it is subjected to a fluid temperature T∞ with a heat transfer coefficient h.The following figures show how the solutions to 2 one dimensional problems are combined to obtain the solution to a 2-dimensional problem. Other combinations can be made.

Infinite rectangular bar Semi-infinite plate 48 .

CONVECTION In most transfer processes heat transfer in fluids is accompanied by some fluid motion so that the heat transfer does not occur by conduction. th en it is used to derive the temperature profile. 5. There are 2 types of heat transport involving fluids: 1. Free or Natural convection The fluid flow is caused by the buoyant effect resulting from heating o cooling the fluid. The method o solution: 49 . Forced convection The e fluid flow is established by an external driving force (pressure difference –provided by a pump or gravitational force). The method of solution: First the velocity profile is found. 2.Parallelipiped (rectangular bar) This body can be viewed as the intersection of 3 infinite plates that are perpendicular.

1 Equation of continuity (equation of conservation of mass) The equation of continuity in vector form is The equation of continuity in rectangular coordinates (Table 7. the fluid motion can be described by the equations of fluid mechanics. In general. energy.they are not enclosed but have contact with a solid surface.The velocity profile and temperature profile are intimately related and therefore determined together. However. Whether the heat transfer mechanism is natural or forced convection. External flows. All problems of convective heat transfer can be expressed in terms o f differential mass. Internal flows.2 Equation of motion (equation of conservation of momentum) 50 . and momentum balance (equations of change).they are enclosed completely by solid surfaces (flow in a pipe or duct) 5. at high velocities it is laminar near the heating surface and turbulent at some distance away. 2. At low velocities the flow is laminar throughout the system.1) is For incompressible fluid 5. the mathematical difficulties with the integration of these simultaneous non-linear partial differential equations are such that analytical solutions exist only for relatively simple problems. we have 2 types of flow situation: 1.

then the thermal energy equation (Table 7.F or ρ= constant. If ρ.3) becomes 51 . and k are constants.3 Equation of thermal energy It is more convenient to have the thermal energy equation in terms of fluid properties (µ T cp). µ= constant – Navier stokes equation (Table 7. µ.2) The x-component in rectangular coordinate system: 5.

Simplification of the equation of thermal energy: For ideal gas For a fluid at constant pressure ( ρ=constant) In rectangular coordinate system: For solids (ρ=constant) 5. other parameters. 52 .4 Applications of equations of change to turbulent flow The equation s of change in laminar flow for a certain simple geometrical situations can be solved and the temperature distribution can be determined analytically. can be calculated. For turbulent flows none of the velocities vanish in the Navier –Stokes equation and all of the non linear terms remain.Where Øv= viscous dissipation function . it is customary to “time-smooth” the instantaneous velocity. Once the temperature profile is known. such as heat flux or bulk temperature. It is usually negligible. it is needed only in special situations. pressure and temperature to get mean values and time-averaged the equation of change. Therefore.

For very simple geometry. these equations can be solved. dimensional analysis… 5. He recognized in 1904 that the effect of the solid boundary on the flow is confined too a very thin layer of fluid immediately adjacent to the solid wall and can be considered negligible beyond d it. The equations of change describing the flow are Equation of continuity: These equations were considerably simplified by Prandtl. This layer is called the boundary layer. 53 . The refore alternative solution methods have been devised such as boundary –layer theory. but for most of the situations we cannot.5 Boundary layer flow Consider the problem of the 2-dimensional steady flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid with constant properties over a flat plate in laminar flow.

both are important in determining drag forces and heat transfer rates. the velocity in the neighborhood of the surface will change with distance perpendicular to the flow. That is the hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness δ is where Vx is approximately 0. Suppose a fluid approaches the plate with uniform v∞ (or free stream velocity) and T∞ temperature when the fluid reaches the surface. The fluid in contact with the surface will be brought to rest and will gradually approach the free stream velocity v∞ at some distance from the surface. 54 . The boundary layer grows from the leading edge with distance x. Typically . The thermal boundary layer thickness δT where the temperature approaches T∞: T is approximately T∞. Within the boundary layer the velocity in x direction varies only with y: Vx=Vx(y) Similar behavior occurs with temperature. a velocity gradient is set up because of the viscous forces acting within the liquid. and therefore the boundary layer strictly has no precise outer limit. Anywhere along the plate the velocity profile changes from the uniform free. Thus. Despite their size.99V∞.When a fluid flows over a surface the elements in contact with the surface will be brought to rest and the adjacent layers layers retarded by the viscous drag of the fluid. However. ρ=constant) (2) A boundary layer (the fluid adheres to the surface due to viscous effects) The thickness of the layer in which the fluid is retarded becomes greater with distance in the direction of profile. This layer was termed boundary layer by Prandtl. it is convenient to define the boundary layer thickness such that the velocity at its outer edge equals 99% of the free stream velocity. We divide the flow regions into 2 parts: (1) A non –viscous region away from any solid surfaces (ideal fluid: µ=0. δ and ∆t are a few thousandths of a millimeter thick. The velocity increases from zero at the surface to nearly the free stream value at some distance away . The free stream velocity is approached asymptotically.

There is no pressure gradient or gravity force in x direction 6. As a result of (1). The exact solution by Blasius (1908). 55 .The mathematical simplifications for the equations of change: 1. d2Vx/dx2 is much smaller than d2Vx/dy2 3. The boundary layer is thin compared to the distance measured from the leading edge. 4. The pressure across the boundary layer is assumed to be constant: dp/dy is approx 0 5. q’’w or Tw can be constant) There are 2 strategies for solving the boundary momentum equation for the velocity profile: 1. 2. There is negligible heat conduction in the direction of flow: d2T/dx2<< d2T/dy2 The equations for the boundary layer become: Solutions for the temperature profiles depend on the boundary conditions specified (heating could begin at the leading edge of the plate or somewhere downstream. vy<<vx (so all terms in the Navier – stokes equation y-component which involve Vy may be neglected).

Therefore . The approximate solution from the integral method developed by von Karman and Pohlhausen (1921) Blasius’ exact solution It is assumed that the velocity profiles have similar shapes at various distances from the leading edge of the plate. the thickness of the boundary layer is proportional to the square root of the kinematic viscosity (ν) and the square root of the downstream distance x.96. Solution by the integral method This method for solving the boundary layer momentum equation is approximate and much easier to apply to a wide range of problems than is any exact method of solution.99. We are not really interested in the details of the velocity or temperature profiles in the boundary layer. we integrate the boundary layer equations from the wall . That is δ. (These slopes give the shear stress and the heat flux at the wall ).0 instead of 4. to make ordinary differential equations of them. beyond learning their slopes at the wall. y=0. to the boundary layer thickness. If δ is the value where Vx/V∞ = 0.2. It turns out that 56 . then: where The Reynolds number based on the downstream distance x. y=δ. that is they have the same functional dependence o y regardless of x location. Some literature gives the constant 5.

The total skin friction drag obtained by integrating the wall shear stress over the plate area ( with W as the plate width): Heat and momentum transfer analogy Let’s define a new dimensionless group called Prandtl number as The physical significance of the Prandtl number of a fluid is that it represents the ratio of the transport coefficient for viscous momentum transport to the transport coefficient for heat conduction. 57 .these much simpler equations do not reveal anything new about the temperature and velocity profiles. The solution leads to the boundary layer thickness The result is in close agreement with that obtained in the exact solution. Shear stress at the wall The shear stress at the surface of the plate τw(x) may be determined from the rate o fluid shear (dvx/dy) in the boundary layer at y=0. but they do give accurate explicit equations for τw and q’’w.

δ=δT - - (a) For Pr=1 The equation of energy is similar to the equation of motion. the hydrodynamic boundary layer is greater than the thermal boundary layer. The boundary conditions are identical for dimensionless velocity and dimensionless temperature. the dimensionless velocity profile solution is the same as the dimensionless temperature profile solution and for any point in the flow system. as in the case of slags.- When the Prandtl is large. the dimensionless velocity is equal to the dimensionless temperature): In the case we can immediately calculate the heat transfer coefficient from the heat flux at the wall from Blasius’ exact solution: 58 . Under these conditions.e. as in the case of liquid metals. then the differential equations are identical. the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers practically coincide. as in the case with most gases. that is we may ignore any velocity gradients and assume that all the fluid moves at the free stream velocity. the hydrodynamic boundary layer is relatively small and we neglect the effect of the solid surface on the velocity distribution when we formulate the thermal energy balance. so each problem must have the same solution( i. the ability of the fluid to transport momentum is greater than that to transport thermal energy. δ>δT. For Prandtl numbers much smaller than unity. If α=ν. When Prandtl is close to unity. δ=δT.

local heat transfer coefficient and the local Nusselt number is: 59 . So Nux =0.It is customary to express the heat transfer coefficient in terms of dimensionless group Nux. the temperature gradient at the wall becomes: So the heat flux at the wall.332 Re ½ for Pr =1 (b) For Pr not equal to 1 From the integral method of solution Pohlhausen found that With this.

The average heat transfer coefficient h (or h-) for the entire surface is Since the analysis was based on constant fluid properties. in real situations are not. they depend on the local temperature. fluid temperature.These equations give the local heat transfer coefficient (hx) and the dimensionless local heat transfer coefficient (Nux) at a distance x from the leading edge of the plate. fluid properties have to be evaluated at the average temperature of the fluid in the boundary layer: Turbulent flow over a flat plate 60 . which.

there is still a laminar sublayer near the surface. there are several temperature differences of importance. The hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness is And the local nusselt number is 6. In turbulent region. It is not possible to solve the boundary layer equations to obtain an exact solution. Transition usually occurs over a range 2 x 10 5 < or = Rex < or =3 x 106 and not a single point.As the boundary layer thickens. The velocity profiles in laminar and turbulent flows are different. Convective Heat Transfer in closed Conduit The most important convective heat-transfer process industrially is that of cooling or heating a fluid flowing inside a closed conduit in pipe. The onset of turbulence is characterized by a sudden rapid increase in the thickness of the boundary layer. 61 . However. The heat transfer coefficient depends on the temperature difference selected. For purposes of calculation it is customarily assumed that transition occurs at Rex= 5 x 105. For flow in a conduit. at distances farther from the leading edge. The relationship between temperature profile and heat transfer at a boundary surface is defined in terms of the heat transfer coefficient introduced in Newton’s law of cooling. and each has an associated heat transfer coefficient. the integral method gives very good results. the turbulent profile is flatter over a greater portion of the boundary layer due to mixing effect. however. a point is reached where turbulence appears.

This is not usually the case for the heat transfer with turbulent flow. even for laminar flow. it is customary to express heat transfer performance. entrance region A fluid usually enters a pipe with uniform velocity and temperature profiles. The thickness of these boundaries layer grows till δ=R at z=ze. To relate the heat transferred to the temperature change experienced by the fluid. momentum. engineers prefer to work with heat transfer coefficients. If the pipe wall is heated or cooled. the continuity. in terms of the heat transfer coefficient. where ze is the hydrodynamic entrance length and δT = R at z=zT. where zT is the thermal entry length. Constant wall heat flux In the number of practical problems q’’ wall heat flux is constant rather than Tw wall temperature. For flow over a plate. then both thermal and hydrodynamic boundaries begin developing at the pipe inlet. To relate the heat transferred to the fluid temperature between the wall a nad the fluid 6. 2. Ass a result. The heat transfer coefficients for the laminar flow have a strong dependence on position. and energy equations have been solved for the constant wall heat flux problem to give the following exact solution: 62 . There are 2 objectives 1.1 Laminar flow.Although the solution for the differential energy balance in the laminar flow regime is available.

It is an important quantity. The solution in the entrance region The Leveque solution (1928) for the Nusselt number in the entrance region for laminar flow and constant wall temperature 6.constant heat flux at the wall The heat flux at the wall q’’w = q/A = constant. The temperature profile reaches a non-changing shape (thermally developed flow). Experimentally this can be achieved by passing electric current through a metal pipe by wrapping the duct with a material through which an electric current is passed. the integrated result would be h. Both Tw and Tb can vary in the z-direction. The local heat transfer coefficient hz is Tw-Tb is the temperature difference between the wall and the fluid.Therefore for Pr> 1 the flow develops hydrodynamically more rapidly than it does thermally. T-T∞ increases with increasing axial distance z. The solution to the problem: 63 .2 Heat transfer in laminar flow. The fluid temperature at the inlet is T∞ and varies within the tube.average heat transfer coefficient. but with the constant heat input that exists. If we integrate the local coefficient hz over a definite area (such as the surface area As). T varies from Tw to some value at the center line. At any axial location z.

The is the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient based on the local heat transfer coefficient is: 6. (In case of a pure substance condensation is an isothermal process.3 Heat transfer in laminar flow. The heat transfer rate for the problem is 64 . but the flux q’’w decreases with increasing z. The combined effect is that the local coefficient hz becomes constant in the thermally developed region.Constant wall temperature Experimentally constant wall temperature can be achieved by allowing a fluid to condense on the outside surface of the tub.) Tbcontinues to approach Tw with increasing Z.

From dimensional analysis it can be seen that: The following graph summarizes the results obtained from the solution of the differential equation of energy. The temperature profile is thermally developed when 1/Gz> 0.05 65 .Graphical representation of results The Nusselt number based on the local coefficient hz is significant parameter.

4 The combined. the case is referred to as the combined-entry-length problem. For the combined problem of developing velocity and the temperature profiles. It is often impractical to have graphs from which to obtain Nusselt number. For this case the heat transfer in the entrance region is more sensitive to the Prandtl number.5 Heat transfer in turbulent flow in tubes in tubes Turbulent flow becomes hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed after a short distance from the entrance to the tube: Ze< 50 D 66 .entry-length problem for the laminar flow When the laminar flow is not developed hydrodynamically or thermally. Sieder –Tate equation is useful : It applies to steady laminar flow of Newtonian fluid in a tube having constant wall temperature under the following conditions: 6. Graphical representation of the problem (as graphs of Nu vs 1/Gz) is available in literature for constant wall temperature or constant wall flux as well.6.

This equation should be used for water. Combining with experimental results. which consists of using a dimensionless group j called the Colburn factor: The dimensionless group j is often plotted against the Re number Dittus. most equipment are operated in the turbulent range. It is not possible to obtain a closed – form solution for the velocity profile in turbulent flow. at the wall temperature.Heat transfer coefficients are higher with turbulent flow than with laminar flow. Since the rate of heat transfer is greater I turbulent flow than in laminar flow.Boelter Equation 67 . Dimensional analysis predicts that the Nusselt number depends on Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. The use of this equation may be trial and error. and hence µw. In place of this type of correlation another is often used. since value of hL must be known to evaluate Tw. the following is found to apply: Sieder-Tate equation: This correlation is applicable in case of moderate temperature differences between the wall and the fluid.

These correlations for the turbulent regime predict the local Nusselt number. The average Nusselt number based on a heat transfer coefficient for the entire tube is not available. the hydraulic diameter or equivalent diameter is used in the heat transfer correlations whenever D diameter appears. When dealing with non-circular conduits. 68 .

HEAT EXCHANGERS A heat exchanger is a device designed for exchanging heat between two fluids. One fluid flows through the inner pipe. (2) By construction .tube heat exchanger – it consists of a huge outer cyclinder ( shell ) within whiocmh are contained many tubes (tube bundle). .7. the required the heat transfer area . 7.1 Classification of Heat exchangers (1) By flow arrangement: -parallel flow.crossflow. 69 .shell – and.double-pipe heat exchanger – It consists of 2 concentric pipes.the 2 fluid paths cross each other at right angles. depending on what is known. .others (3) By the number of passes: .single pass -multi pass The objective is to predict: - the amount of heat transferred the outlet temperature of one or both fluid streams . . the other flows through the tubes.counterflow ( or countercurrent flow) – the 2 fluid streams travel in opposite direction. One fluid flows through the shell. the other flows through the annulus . It is usually assumed. that all the heat lost by the hot fluid is transferred to the cold fluid (that is there are no heat losses).the two fluid streams travel in the same direction along the exchanger.

In parallel flow.2 Temperature Distributions In the counter-flow arrangement t2 ( cold fluid outlet temperature) can be greater than T2 (hot fluid outlet temperature). however. the upper limit of t2 is T2 70 .7.

when not more. than 9-14m2 of heat transfer surface is required It is preferred for small capacity.7. high pressure and countercurrent operation For low flowrates.3 Double-pipe heat exchanger One fluid flows through the center pipe while another flows in the annulus.1m) Application of double-pipe exchangers: - It is useful. Effective lengths: -12ft (3. 71 .65m) - 15ft (4. Such an exchanger may consist of several passes arranged in a vertical stack.57m) or 20ft (6.

as an association of heat exchanger equipment fabricators. Disadvantages -Each double-pipe exchanger introduces no fewer than 14 points at which leakage might occur . high capital cost).tube heat exchanger Where a high flow rate is involved. shell and tube heat exchanger can be used.Considerable time and expense required for dismantling and periodically cleaning it compared with the other types of equipment.- If the heat duty (q) is less than 500kW. 7. they require considerable space. Under these conditions a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is uneconomic. If for the shell and tube heat exchanger the number of tubes are less than about 30(3/4in=19mm OD tubes) and the diameter of the shell is less than 200mm. The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer’s Association (TEMA) . -when a large number are connected. a large number of small diameter shells in series are required to provide adequate velocities and near-countercurrent flow. has developed a standard for basic construction. 72 . the number of double –pipe heat exchangers required becomes large (high flow space requirement.4 Shell-and. so an alternative apparatus.

which serve to support them and direct the fluid flow in the shell in such a way that the heat transfer is enhanced. The assembly of tubes and baffles. The tubes pass through a number of flat plates. along their length. termed tube sheets. to form a liquid. The tubes are attached to perforated flat plates. 8 Condensation heat transfer Condensation is a convective process associated with a phase change of fluid.The number of tubes in the tube bundle ranges from about 20 to over 1000. at each end. Processes of heat transfer accompanied by phase change are more complex than simple heat exchange between fluids. called the tie bundle is held together by a system of tie rods and spacer tubes. The condensing vapor may consist of - A single substance ( eg steam) 73 . Condensation occurs when a saturated vapor comes into contact with a solid surface whose surface temperatureTw is below the saturation temperature Tsat. called baffles.

glycerin. - The condensing temperature of a single pure substance depends on ly on the pressure therefore the process is isothermal. Mixed vapors condensing at constant pressure condense over a temperature range and yield a condensate of variable composition until the entire vapor stream is condensed. There are 2 types of condensation -dropwise condensation -film-type condensation Dropwise condensation The condensate begins to form at microscopic nucleation sites (eg tiny pits. scratches. specks …).- A mixture of condensable and non-condensable substances (e. Film –type condensation When the condensate wets the surface. The fine drops. steam…). steam and air) A mixture of 2 or more condensable vapors. dust. and clear the surface for more droplets. consequently the heat transfer coefficient at these bare areas is very high. The average coefficient for dropwise condensation may be 5-10 times that for the film-type condensation and can be as high as 110 000W/m2K. in turn.g. During drop wise condensation. Dropwise condensation occurs when the condensate does not wet the surface (e. which flow down the surface under the force of gravity. nitrobenzene. coalesce into small streams. large portion of the surface area is covered with an extremely thin film of liquid of negligible thermal resistance. It is this film of 74 . isoheptane. sweep away condensate. The liquid film flows over a surface by the action of gravity.g. The drops grow and coalesce with their neighbors’ to form visible fine drops. This type of condensation is so unstable and is so difficult to maintain (because the surfaces become wetted after prolonged exposure to a condensing vapor) that the method is not uncommon. it forms a continuous liquid film through which heat must be transferred. ethylene glycol. For normal design purposes film-type condensation is assumed.

but the nature of the coefficient correlations is somewhat different. The thickness of the film increase rapidly in the first few centimeters and then more and more slowly. Friction losses in a condenser are normally small. with the condensate formed inside or outside of the tubes. The basic equations for the rate of heat transfer in film-type condensation were first developed by Nusselt (1916) 75 . Pure vapors are usually condensed on the outside of tubes (shell side). Condensing film coefficients are much greater than those in forced convection and are of the order of magnitude of several thousand of W/m2K.liquid between the surface and vapour that forms the main resistance to heat transfer. and -geometry The usual design for condensers employs tubes. so that condensation is a constant pressure process. These same basic design equations used for heat exchangers are valid. depending upon: -the rate of condensation -fluid properties -length of path of the growing condensate film. depending upon whether the condensation process takes place on vertical or horizontal tubes. The film may flow in the laminar or in the turbulent regime.

Heat is transferred through the film solely by conduction ( 4.1 Vertical surfaces-Laminar flow On a vertical flat surface of width W a vapor is condensing in a film-type manner.8. 5. The condensate film flows in laminar flow 3. The physical properties of the condensate are constant and evaluated at a mean film temperature Tf hz = k/δ) 7. 76 . Negligible vapor shear exists at the interface. The film is 2dimensional and has a thickness of δ at any z location [δ=δ(z)]. Pure vapor is at its Tsat saturation temperature 2. 6. The temperature of the condensing surface Tw is constant. Nusselt Assumptions: 1. The temperature distribution through the film is linear.

Velocity distribution The velocity distribution in the falling film can be determined from the Navier-Stokes equation as 77 .

78 .

79 .

80 .

81 .

82 .

The function of the operations: Distillation: is to separate.…) Gas adsorption: a soluble vapor is absorbed by means of a liquid in which the solute gas is more or less soluble. The operations may be conducted in either batchwise or continuous manner. H2O vapor of a stream of N2 by condensation). (dialysis. permeation. by vaporization. drying. liquid extraction. electrodialysis. the diffusing substance moving from a place of high to one of low concentration.g mixture of alcohol and water.PART 2 1. The mass transfer is a result of concentration difference. If the operations involve changes in composition of solutions. 83 . fuel oil. adsorption. The solute is then recovered from the liquid by distillation. Such operations may be entirely mechanical (e. or gradient (which is the driving force).g. crude oil into LPG. Liquid extraction (solvent extraction): a mixture of 2 components is treated by a solvent that dissolves 1 or more of the components in the mixture Leaching (extraction of solids): a soluble material is dissolved from its mixture with an inert solid by means of a liquid solvent. The mass transfer operations are characterized by transfer of a substance through another on a molecular scale. petrol. the surface of which has a special affinity for the solute. These operations separate mixtures into its component parts. washing of NH3 from a mixture of NH3 – air by liquid water). kerosene. Dehumidification: a pure liquid is partially removed from an inert or carrier gas by condensation (e. diesel. INTTRODUCTION A large number of the unit operations used in the recovery and purification of metals are concerned with the problem of changing the composition of solutions and mixtures through methods not involving chemical reactions. they are called mass transfer operations. from its mixture with an inert gas (e. Adsorption: A solute is removed from either a liquid or gas through contact with a solid adsorbent. Mass transfer operations include distillation. gas absorption. leaching. O2 Ar. screening…). liquid air into N2. etc but these are non-equilibrium operations).g. filtration. crystallization. dehumidification. a liquid of miscible and volatile substances into individual components or into groups of components (e. Mass transfer can occur in the same phase orfrom one phase to the other.g.

We will consider only binary mixtures 84 . the transfer occurs through stagnant layers of solid or fluid by molecular diffusion. This mechanism is analogous to the heat transfer by conduction. If there is a bulk mixing of phases or layers of fluids by mechanical stirring or because of a density gradient. however.mixing or dividing. mass transfer occurs by the mechanism of forced or natural convection. involve knowledge of the equilibrium relationships between phases.Auxilliary operations -heat addition orremoval ( to change temperature or phase conditions) -work addition or removal ( to change pressure) . You have already seen that analogy between momentum and energy transfer. Sometimes the diffusion process is accompanied by bulk flow of the mixture in a direction parallel to the direction of diffusion and it is often associated with heat flow. we will extend the analogy to include mass transfer. -utilizing the concept of equilibrium stages. All mass transfer calculations. If the mixture is stagnant. This is called eddy diffusion. The choice of method depends on the kind of equipment in which the operation is carried out. -Solids separation by size Mass transfer problems can be solved by 2 distinctly different methods: -based on diffusional rate processes.

but because of the considerably higher molecular concentration. A 1. being only a small fraction of the length of its actual path.) Diffusion also takes place in fluids by physical mixing and by eddies of turbulent flow.5m diameter tank is filled with a salt solution to a depth of 0. the net distance in one direction which it moves in a given time. spontaneous alteration through molecular diffusion also occurs. the salt will. It can be calculated that the salt concentration at the top surface will still be only 87. A 0. The average distance the molecule travels between collisions is its mean free path. the flow of the diffusing component is continuous. But placing a 0. A concentration gradient tends to move the compound in such direction as to equalize concentrations and destroy the gradient. by molecular diffusion. The molecule thus travels in a zig-zag path. completely penetrate the liquid. MOLECULAR DIFFUSION 2. For this reason. uniformity is achieved only by molecular diffusion. On the other hand. But the process is very slow.3kg/s per 1m2 of water surface.75m. (To demonstrate the importance of the barrier molecular collision presents to diffusive movement: the rate of evaporation of water at 25oc into complete vacuum is approximately 3. A molecule is imagined to travel in a straight line at a uniform velocity until it collides with another molecule. When the gradient is maintained by constantly supplying the diffusing component to the high-concentration end of the gradient and removing it at the low-concentration end. In a two-phase system not at equilibrium. (e.g.5% of its final value after 10 years and will reach 99% of is final value after 28 years. The kinetic theory of gases provides a means of visualizing what occurs. the diffusion rate is very slow. ultimately coming everywhere to one-half its concentration in the original brine.1 mm thick layer of stagnant air at 1 atm pressure above the water surface reduces the rate by a factor of approximately 600) The same general mechanism prevails also for the liquid state. no matter how small. whereupon its velocity changes n both magnitude and direction. the diffusion rates are even slower than in gases. Within each eddy. a simple paddle agitator rotating in the tank at 22rpm will bring about complete uniformity in approximately 60s. and the average velocity depends on the temperature.2. 85 . If the contents of the tank are left completely undisturbed.75m deep layer of pure water is carefully placed over the brine without disturbing the brine in any way. The analogy between heat and mass transfer is so straightforward that equations developed for the former are often found to apply to the latter by simply changing the meaning of the symbols.1 Molecular Diffusion is the movement of individual molecules through a substance by virtue of their thermal energy. which is the ultimate process. sum as layer of NH3-air as a gas solution in contact with a layer of liquid water. This method of solute transfer is called eddy or turbulent diffusion. the rate of diffusion.

and the mole fraction. the molar concentration. xi. ci. will be uniform everywhere throughout the system at equilibrium and this brings the diffusive process to a halt. but it will not be the same in both phases. ωi.2 Definitions of concentrations. In all mass transfer operations. 86 . The chemical potential ( or activity ) of the components. 2.ultimately bringing the entire system to a state of equilibrium whereupon alteration stops. diffusion occurs in at least 1 phase and often in both phases (e. and the average molecular mass of the mixture is M. solute diffuses through the gas phase to the interface between the phases and through the liquid phase from the interface. the mass fraction. In gas absorption. At the end. ρi. which is differently dependent on concentration in the 2 phases. We will use four: the mass concentration. velocities and mass fluxes In a multicomponent system the concentrations of various species may be expressed in numerous ways. the concentration of any constituent is the same throughout a phase. The molecular mass species i is Mi.g.

for a mixture the local mass average velocity v is defined as 87 . Let vi denote the velocity of species I with respect to stationary coordinate axes. Then.I In a diffusing mixture the various chemical species are moving at different velocities.

88 . Expressed mathematically. Similarly. we may define a local molar average velocity v* as When the whole fluid is moving in convective flow and component A is diffusing in the same direction as the flow. since the diffusion velocity vAd is added to that of the bulk phase molar average velocity v*. its diffusion velocity is measured relative to the moving fluid. The velocity of a particular species relative to the molar average velocity (v*) is called the diffusion velocity (vAd ). the velocity of A relative to the stationary point VA is then the sum of the diffusion vAd and the molar average velocity v*.This is the local velocity one would measure by a Pitot tube and identical to the bulk flow velocity v as used in for pure fluids. A is moving faster than the bulk of the phase. To a stationary observer.

vA and vB are identical. in cases foe which there is a concentration gradient in the direction of flow. The motion may be referred to as stationary coordinates or to the local molar average velocity v* In any of the equations derived for the integral or differential balances. the mass flux is not equal to the molar flux N times the average molecular mass M. which apply to mixtures.The mass or molar flux of a species is a vector quantity denoting the mass or moles of the species that passes through a unit surface area per unit time. because the mass average velocity and the molar average velocity are different. the velocity used has been the mass average velocity. there is no interdiffusion effect . ( In the flow of a uniform mixture through a pipe. Therefore.) 89 . However. and the mas flux is then equal to he molar flux N multiplied by the average molecular mass M. vA and vB differ with effect noted above.

the area being measured in a direction normal to the diffusion.When the mole fraction xA or mass fraction ωA are small. The diffusion of component A in a mixture is balanced by an equal aand opposite molar flow of component B. (e. even containing only 2 constituents. N= the molar flux relative to a fixed location in space. kmol/m2s ( it is important in the design of equipment) J= the molar flux relative to a fixed location in space kmol/m2s (it is more characteristic of the nature of the constituent. Diffusion of A and B takes place in opposite direction.3 Fick’s first law There are 3 types of situations in diffusion: 1. but the molar fluxes are unequal (e.) 90 .g distillation) 3. both constituent must diffuse if uniformity is the ultimate result.we don’t deal with this) Diffusion rates are described in terms of molar flux (mole/area-time). and this leads to the use of 2 fluxes to describe the motion of 1 constituent. (eg. the flux with respect to stationary coordinates (NA. nA) is approximately equal to the flux relative to the average velocity of the fluid due to diffusion (JA. Diffusion quantities In a non-uniform solution. so that there is no net molar flow. and the total flow is the same as the flow of A. jA) 2. Absorption of a single component from a gas into a liquid) 2.g in diffusion of chemically reacting species to and from a catalyst surface. Only 1 component (A) of the mixture is transferred to or from the interface.

and diffusional fluxes exist in all direction. Fick’s law is the definition of diffusivity DAB . This can be done by the following consideration: -The movement of A carried by the convective bulk fluid flow. For steady state conditions the net flux is NA+NB=N It is usually convenient to describe the mass flux by diffusion (diffusion flux) relative to a stationary coordinate system. -The movement of a carried by molecular diffusion. rather than the average molar velocity of the fluid. NA= NxA+JA since xA=cA/c and N =cvz All the above has considered diffusion in only 1 direction . but in general.Fick’s first law states that the species A diffuses (moves relative to the mixture) in a direction of decreasing concentration of A. 91 . velocities. just as heat flows by conduction in the direction of decresing temperature. concentration gradients .

0 cm2/s. For intermediate concentrations. but this method can lead to large errors for non-ideal solutions. an approximate value of D is sometimes obtained.2. which move rapidly than the large. For strong electrolytes dissolved in water.1. Diffusivities in gases can be predicted with considerable accuracy from kinetic theory. Diffusivities for dilute solutions can be calculated approximately from formulas presented in literature.4 Diffusivity Diffusivities are best established by experimental measurements. undissociated molecules. The diffusivity of gases varies inversely with pressure: The diffusivity of gases varies wit temperature as DAB=const T3/2: Liquids The theory of diffusion in liquids is not advanced nor the experimental data as plentiful as gas diffusion. the diffusion rates are those of the individual ions. The diffusivity in concentrated solutions differs from that in dilute solutions because of changes in viscosity with concentration and also because of changes in the degree of non-ideality of the solution. Unlike the case for binary gas mixtures the diffusivity for a dilute solution of A in B is not the same as for a dilute solution of B in A. Gases DAB values fall in the range of 0.1. DAB ranges 10-5 to 10-6cm2/s and it varies appreciably with the concentration and temperature. Often the desired values are available and they must be estimated from published correlations. The diffusivities can be considered independent of concentration at pressures below ~5atm. Solids 92 .

It is of the order of 10-8 to 10-10 cm2/s. The rate of reaction in some chemical processes is determined by solid diffusion. The diffusion process in solids may be strongly nonisotropic.One component in a solid will diffuse through the other at a measurable rate if there is a suitable concentration gradient and the temperature is high enough. An atom vibrates about it equilibrium position. We can write a mass balance for the diffusion species A over the volume element as we have done it for total mass and momentum before. and occasionally a vibration becomes strong enough to cause the atom to escape its original position and jump to a new place. kmol/m3s. through which a binary of A and B is flowing. the equation of continuity for component A will be Reminder: the differential energy balance equation for ρ=constant was 93 . The effect of diffusion in solids is very important in metallurgy and ceramic industry. The atoms in a crystalline solid are localized at certain positions in the crystal lattice. For concentrated systems the diffusivity is a strong function of composition and temperature. Within this element. the atom needs certain activation energy to jump over this energy barrier. DAB values are given in reference books. Diffusion in Binary Mixtures 3. Its energy is low at the lattice position but higher in between. A may be produced by chemical reaction at a molar rate RA.1 The equation of continuity for a binary mixture Consider a volume element fixed in space. A balance equation in general: Rate of A out – Rate of A in + Rate of accumulation of A=Rate of generation of A Expressed in mathematical terms. 3.

the vapor will move away from the surface but the air will have kno movement. The vapor is diffusing at a constant rate (steady-state0 from the liquid surface up through the layer of stagnant air in the tube. Consider liquid A (water) is evaporating into gas B (air).If there are no chemical reactions (steady stse. 1 component in a gaseos mixture will be transported relative to a fixed plane (say.2 Diffusion through a stagnant fluid (one-component mass transfer or one-way diffusion) In several important processes. This implies that NB =0 94 . a liquid interface) and the other will undergo no net movement. and if the bulk flow through the volume element is negligible. In gas absorption a soluble gas A will be ranferred to a liquid surface where it dissolves. whereas the insoluble gas B wll undergo no net movement with respect to the interface. In evaporation from a free surface. and we maintain the liquid level at z=z1. since generation of A is zero). the component balance equation for A results in a second-order differential equation in terms of the concentration: 3.

95 .

96 .

97 .

Its value is a function of the geometry of the system. the mass transfer coefficient may also depend on time. MASS TRANSFER COEEFICIENTS 4. NA is defined a the flux at the phase interface. So the solution of the differential component mass balance is difficult as it was for the differential energy balance equation. For unsteady state situation. so that we don’t have stagnant fluids. wher substance leaves or enters the phase for which kc is the mass transfer coefficient. It ws convenient to express the rate of heat flow in terms of a convective heat transfer coefficient by Newton’s law of cooling: The analogous situation in mass transfer is handled by an equation of the form: The dimensions of kc from the above definition: kc may apply to forced or natural convection. the fluid velocity . the properties of the fluid . 98 . The fluid flow is more frequently turbulent to increase the rate of transfer per unit area or to increase the interfacial area.1 Individual mass transfer coefficients In the practical applications of the mass transfer operations. the location along the surface. and concentration. the fluids are always in motion. or boundary.4.

these mass-transfer coeeficients are useful only for low mass transfer rates. 99 .2 Mass transfer models Film theory This is the oldest and most obvious picture of the meaning of the mass transfer coefficient borrowed from a similar concept used for convective heat transfer. for use later in design. we depend on direct measurement under known conditions. Comparing the rate equation with the solution of “Transfer of A through stationary B” In a few limited situations mass transfer coefficients can be deduced from theoretical principles. In th eegreat majority of cases however.Transfer of A through stagnant B Since the convective flow term has been ignored in the solution. 4.

The shape of the curve is controlled by ED eddy diffusivity to DAB. The problem was solved to give the molar flux of A as 100 . (This is a fictitious film. the concentration distance relation ia sa shown by the full curve. we use film theory. Thus.) The problem is now reduced to steady-state diffusion through a stagnant film of thickness δ. such that the entire concentration difference (cA1-cA2) is attributed to molecular diffusion within an effective film of thickness δ.When a fluid flows turbulently past a solid surface. the the concentration at the outer edge of this film is cA2. The film theory assumes that the concentration will follow the broken curve of the figure. with mass transfer occurring from the surface to the fluid.That is the resistance to diffusion in the entire flowing fluid is considered equivalent to that in a stagnant film of δ thickness. since it does not exist. Instead of attempting to solve the equation of the fluid flow. because of a concentration difference of (cA1-cA2). its thickness cannot be determined by any experiment.

Obviously δ can never be measured. so that the concentration gradient of the film theory. since the thickness of this hypothetical film δ.) Penetration theory In many situations the time of exposure of a fluid to mass transfer is short. 101 . would not have time to develop. Higbie (1935) described the contact of 2 fluids with this theory. The film theory is in conflict with our knowledge of turbulent flow. the effect of mass transfer on heat transfer. since it does not exist.That is the k-type mass transfer of coefficients for different solutes are directly proportional to the DAB’s for the solutes. but does well in case of high mass transfer flux. since only part of the concentration gradient is in the laminar sublayer and all of it is postulated to occur across a laminar film. So this fictitious thickness of laminar-flowing fluid offers the same resistance to transfer as actually exists in the entire turbulently flowing fluid. characteristic of steady state. concentration levels etc. is a function of the same parameters as the mass transfer coefficient itself: velocity and properties of the fluid. and in predicting the effect o reaction rate on mass transfer. (Although there exists a laminar sublayer next to the wall in turbulent flow. this is not equivalent to a laminar-flowing film. The thickness of this fictitious film extends beyond the laminar sublayer to allow for the change in concentration in the buffer layer and turbulent core. Unfortunately this last equation does not allow a direct way to evaluate kc. geometry.

102 .

The average flux over the time interval 0 to tT is

This independence on DAB is typical of short exposure times, where the depth of solute penetration is small relative to the depth of absorbing pool. Difficulty: tT is not usually known. The depth of penetration, defined as the distance at which the concentration change is 1% of the final value is

Surface renewal theory The Higbie theory assumed a constant time of the eddies of fluid at the surface. Danckwerts gave more realistic picture, where the eddies are exposed for varying length of time. The liquid-gas interface is then a mosaic of surface elements of different exposure-time histories. Since the rate of solute penetration depends on exposure time, the average rate for a unit surface area must be determined by summing up the individual values.

In most mass transfer operations 2 insoluble phases are brought into contact to transfer of constituent substances between them. Therefore, we have to apply simultaneously the diffusional mechanism for each phase to the combined system. The rate of diffusion within each phase is dependent on the concentration gradient existing within it. At the same time, the concentration gradients of the 2-phase system are indicative of the departure from equilibrium, which exists between the phases. When equilibrium is established, the concentration gradients and hence the rate of diffusion falls to zero.

5.1 Equilibrium Dynamic equilibrium
Example: the absorption of NH3 from NH3-air mixture by water.

A fixed amount of water and NH3-air mixture is placed in a closed container and maintained at constant temperature and pressure. Since NH3is very soluble in water, some NH3 molecules will instantly transfer from the gas into the liquid, crossing the interfacial surface separating the 2 phases. A portion of the NH3 escapes back into the gas, at a rate proportional to their concentration in the liquid. As more NH3 enters the liquid, the concentration increases in the liquid and the rate at which NH3 returns to the gas increases, until eventually the rate at which it enters the liquid exactly equals that at which it leaves. At the same time, through the mechanism of diffusion, the concentration throughout each phase becomes uniform. A dynamic equilibrium now exists, and while NH3 molecules continue to transfer back and forth from phase to the other, the net transfer falls to zero. The concentration within each phases no longer change. To the observer who cannot see the individual molecules the diffusion has apparently stopped.

Equilibrium relations
There are many useful equilibrium equations in books on physical chemistry. A few simple equations relating to vapor-liquid equilibrium and gas absorption: Dalton’s law According to this law the partial pressure of a gas within a gas mixture is equal to the product of the total pressure (P) and its mole fraction (yi) of the gas phase. This law applies whether the gas is ideal or nonideal


Roult’s law When the liquid phase can be considered ideal, it is possible to predict the equilibrium partial pressure (pi*)of an ideal gas/vapor from the solution concentration and the physical properties of the pure components.

In reality there are no ideal solutions. Ideality would require that the mplcules of the constituents be similar in size, structure and chemical nature. Practically however, many solutions are so nearly ideal that for engineering purposes they can be so considered. Roult’s law matches experimental data best for components present in high concentration.

Henry’s law
For liquid solutions, which are not ideal, Roult’s law gives highly incorrect results. If the solution is sufficiently diluted, th eproportionality constant is no longer the vapor pressure of the pure componenet Pi but Hi


But these bulk concentrations cannot be used directly with a mass transfer coefficient since the 2 concentrations are differently related to the chemical potential. the name should be 2-resistance theory. just as an overall heat transfer coefficient was used in heat transfer. there must be a concentration gradient in the direction of mass transfer within each phase. Lewis and Whitman (1923) assumed: 106 . by water. Many of the mass transfer operations are carried out in the steady flow. since diffusion of the solute A occurs. or dependent on. Most gases follow Henry’s law to equilibrium pressure to ~5 std atm. the solubility is defined by giving the Henry law constant and the temperature.Overall mass transfer coefficient The theory has a wrong name because it is related to. It is convenient to use an overall mass transfer coefficient. To get around the problem. Correctly. Consider the extraction of a soluble component from a liquid mixture.3 Two-film theory. the film theory of mass transfer. The mass transfer occurs between two immiscible fluids. Since the solute is diffusing from the liquid mixture (phases) into water (phase m). with continous flow of th e contacted phases such that concentrations at any point in the equipment used do not change with time. The bulk concentrations cs and cm are notequilibrium values. which is real driving force. 5.When Henry’s law holds.

This implies that The concentrations cs.- The only diffusional resistances are those residing in the fluids themselves.I are equilibrium values==> - (Experiments verify the validity of the assumption) The concentrations are shown graphically in the next figure. Point P: represents the 2 bulk-phase concentrations Point M: represents the concentrations at the interface 107 . There is no resistance to solute transfer across the interface separating the phases.I and cm.

as in the penetration theory.For steady-state mass transfer. so that no accumulation or depletion of A at the interface occur The overall resistance to mass transfer is the sum of individual resistances (hence “tworesistance theory) The “films” in the model need not be stagnant layers of a certain thickness in order for the 2-film theory to apply. the rate at which A reaches the interface from Liquid 1 must equal that at which it diffuses to the bulk liquid II . Mass transfer in either film may be by diffusion through a laminar boundary layer or by unsteady-state diffusion. 108 .

MASS TRANSFER WITH LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW. Laminar flow occurs in only a few systems. 6. However. because most mass transfer systems contain more than one fluid phase. heat. and mass transfer Dimensionless groups 109 . so that stable laminar boundary layers cannot build up.2 Similarity between momentum. laminar boundary layer exists when mass transfer occurs between a solid and a fluid and in a falling liquid film. 6.6.1 Mass transfer with laminar flow In laminar flow molecular diffusion prevails and therelationships developed for steady-state diffusion of A through stagnant B” can be used to calculate mass transfer rates.

110 .The Schmidt number …………………….

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