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This temperature difference is thought of as a driving force that causes heat to flow. The concepts of heat transfer and temperature, the key words in the discipline of heat transfer, are 2 of the most basic concepts of thermodynamics.
drivingfffff ffffffffff fffffforcef fffffffff Rate of transport process= fffffffffff or rate = coefficient Bdriving force resistance
System: a region in space containing a quantity of matter which is separated from its surroundings by a boundary. Closed system (no – flow system): no exchange of matter with the surroundings, only heat and work cross the boundary. Open system (flow system): there is matter exchange with the surroundings in addition to heat and work. Work (W): is a transient quantity (energy) which only appears at the boundary when a system changes its state due to the movement of a part of the boundary under the action of a force. Sign convention: system + the work is done by the system on the surroundings: the work exits the

the work is done on the system by the surroundings.
(Although there cannot be said to be any work in a system either before or after the change has taken place, work may be said to “flow” or be “transferred” across the boundary.) Heat (Q): is “something” (energy transfer), which only appears at the boundary when a system changes its state due to a difference in temperature between the system and its surrounding. Heat, like work, is a transient quantity, which only appears at a boundary while a change is taking place within the system. (Although there cannot be said to be any heat in a system before and after a change of state, loosely speaking heat may be said to “flow” or be “transferred” across the boundary. Strictly speaking it is energy which is transferred, but to say “heat is transferred” is a shorthand way of saying “the energy transferred by virtue of a temperature difference.”) Sigh convention: + if heat flows into a system from the surroundings: If heat flows from the system to the surroundings.
1.1 First Law of Thermodynamics It is the principle of conservation of energy. It is an axiom. The first law of thermodynamics says that there exists a property of a closed system (U) such that a change in its value is equal to the difference between the heat supplied and the work done during any change of state:
1
X δQ @ δW =U 2 @U 1
1
2
b
c
where U is the internal energy, J
Writing Q and W for the quantities of heat and work crossing the boundary during the change of non heat energy equation state: QW=U2U1 By words: any quantity of heat supplied to a closed system must equal the increase of internal energy plus the work done by the system. The internal energy of a closed system remains unchanged. For isolated systems Q=0, W=0 therefore ∆U = 0 For irreversible nonflow processes the energy equation can only be applied in integrated form:
Q @ W = ∆U
For reversible processes, the energy equation can only be applied in differential form:
V
d Q @ δW = d U δQ @ pdV = dU δW = pdV
W
For reversible, constant pressure processes (closed system):
p = constant [ pdV = d pV [ δq @ d pV = dU δQ = d U + pV = dH where H = enthalpy, J or Q = ∆H
b c
b
c
b
c
Steadyflow energy equation (for open system)
b c 1 b c ` a f f 2 Q @ W = H 2 @ H1 + fm v 2 @ v12 + mg z 2 @ z1 2
The potential energy term is either zero or negligible compared with the other terms. The 1st law of thermodynamics does not make any distinction between heat transfer and work transfer: to it they are both energy “interactions” (nonproperties) that must be distinguished from the energy change (property) 1.2 Second Law of Thermodynamics It is an axiom. It says that it is impossible to construct a system which will operate in a cycle, extract heat from a reservoir, and does an equivalent amount of work on the surroundings. The 1st law says: the net work can never be greater than the heat supplied.
2
The 2nd law says: it must always be less. Therefore if a system is to undergo a cycle and produce work, it must operate between at least 2 reservoirs of different temperature. As a consequence, work is a more valuable form of energy transfer than heat: heat can never be transformed continuously and completely into heat.
dQf fff fff ff f There exists a property of a closed system (s) such that a change in its value is equal to Z T
1
2
for any reversible process undergone by the system between state 1 and state 2
Z
1 2f
Mathematically:
dQf fff fff ff f T
g
= S 2 @ S 1 where S = entropy, J / K
f
rev
or in differential for:
dQf fff fff ff f T
g
= dS
rev
The entropy of a reversible isolated closed system remains constant. (For reversible adiabatic a dQf fff ff f process dQ = 0 but dS = fff d S = 0 [ S = constant ) [ T The entropy of an irreversible isolated closed system increases:
2f 2f
dQf fff ff f Z fff T
1
g g
=0
A,irreversible
b
since dQ = 0
c
Z
1
dQf fff fff ff f T
= S 2 @ S1
1f
B,irreversible
dQf dQf fff ff f fff ff f The cycle as a wjhole is irreversible, and E fff Z fff = T T
2
g
<0
B,irreversible
Therefore S1S2<0
and
S2S1
The proper distinction between heat transfer and work transfer is made by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. There is always an entropy transfer associated with the heat transfer. A work transfer carries zero entropy. The 2nd law of only provides definite quantitative statement about reversible processes. Only for such processes is it possible to predict the work and heat transfers crossing the boundary of a system. For irreversible processes the law merely provides statements of trend (that the entropy of an isolated irreversible system must increase), and quantitative prediction of energy transfer
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cannot be made. Therefore empirical relations (such as Newton’s law of viscosity, Fourier’s law of heat conduction, and Fick’s law of diffusion) are used. They all take the form of proportionality between a quantity transferred in an irreversible process and the property gradient. These “laws” are approximate empirical relations, whose accuracy is manifested by the fact that the “proportionality constants” are not in fact constants but vary with the conditions of the experiment (temperature, pressure, or their gradient,…)
1.3 TEMPERATURE It is the system property that determines whether the system is in thermal equilibrium with another system. In thermal equilibrium of system A and B: TA=TB. The temperature of a system is measured by placing the system in “contact” with a special system (a test system) called thermometer. Temperature scales have 2 reference points. Celsius scale 0oC Icepoint of water (ice and airsaturated water in equilibrium at standard atmosphere pressure) 100 oC: Boiling point of water (liquid water in equilibrium with its own vapor at standard atmospheric pressure) Fahrenheit scale 32 oF: Icepoint of water 212 oF: Boiling point of water ToC =5/9 [T(oF)32] Kelvin scale (thermodynamic scale or absolute scale) 273.16K: Tripepoint of water (it is only slightly above that of the icepoint 273.15K) 0 K: Absolute zero The unit of thermodynamic temperature is 1/273.16 = 1K This odd unit makes TbpTicepoint = 100K and ∆T ° C = ∆ K T The temperature difference in Kelvin is the same as it is in oC 0 oC=273.15K and T(K)= T(oC)+273.15
4
` a ` a
1.4 The Modes of Heat Transfer There are 3 basic modes of heat transport: 1. Conduction 2. Convection 3. Radiation Conduction (Fourier’s law) Heat is transported on a molecular scale with no movement of macroscopic portions of matter relative to one another. Conduction can take place through solids, liquids, and gases. In fluids: The kinetic energy of the molecules is associated with the property we call temperature. In high – temperature regions, molecules have higher kinetic energies than those in a low – temperature region. The molecules in the high temperature region transfer their energy, through collisions, to molecules in the lowtemperature region. In solids: Conduction is due to motion of free electrons in metals, lattice waves (vibrations of the crystal lattice structure) in non metals, magnetic excitations and electromagnetic radiation. Convection (sensible heat; and Newton’s law) It is heat transport due to the bulk motion of the fluid. The process occurs through the movement of macroscopic volume elements of the fluid in space from a region of one temperature to that of another. The energy transported in this way is called sensible heat.
Q = mc p T
b
fl in
@T
fl out
c
,J
Convection also involves the energy exchange between a solid and a fluid (interface transport). Convection is only possible in a fluid medium 2 types of convection are distinguished (a) free or natural convection – The fluid moves because of the density difference resulting from the temperature difference in the fluid (b) forced convection – The fluid is forced to flow past a solid surface
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Radiation It is the transport of energy by electromagnetic radiation having a defined range of wavelength. The wavelength range of interest in thermal radiation extends from 0.220µm. (The wavelength range of visible radiation is 0.30.8µm, and that of infrared (IR) radiation is 0.8400µm). All substances emit radiant heat but the net flow of heat is from the high – to – low temperature region. So the cooler substance will absorb more radiant heat energy than it emits. The radiation from all bodies depends on temperature (increases with temperature). No physical medium is needed for the propagation of radiation. Often all 3 forms of radiation are involved simultaneously. It is then usual to calculate the heat transport by each mode separately and adding the separate effects to provide an estimate of the total rate of heat transport. In a number of cases, 1 mode of heat transport is dominant. 1.5 Fourier’s law of heat conduction Fourier’s law of heat conduction is based on the empirical observation of one dimensional steady heat flow through a solid. (Steady flow means that the temperature at any point does not vary with time; onedimensional means that the temperature is uniform over surfaces perpendicular to the direction of heat flow.)
The slab is of Area A Heat is conducted through the slab in only 1 direction (x)
qf dTf ff f f ff ff ff ff f xf =@k Fourier’s law (1822) A dx
Where qx= heat flow rate in the x direction, J/s= W
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the temperature decreases. at x=L T=T2. Fourier’s law of heat conduction is an experimentally observed law and serves as a definition of the property of substances called the thermal conductivity. K is a function of temperature. Its numerical value is an indication of how fast heat is conducted through the material. constant k dx A 0 T1 L T2 At x=0.A= area normal to the heat flow direction. m2 dt/dx= temperature gradient or slope of the temperature curve k= thermal conductivity. constant heat flux. For small changes of temperature. Solving Fourier’s equation for the slab: qff f f x Z ff = Z @ kdT At x=0 T= T1. Constant heat flux. The – sign ensures that the equation properly indicates that the heat flow is in the direction of temperature fall. so the righthand side of the equation is a positive quantity. For large temperature ranges K=ko +bT where ko= thermal conductivity at 0oC b = empirical constant 7 . qff ff fZ f x dx = @ k Z dT A 0 T1 L T2 qff Tffffff ff ff f ffffff f@T f f Xf 1 f ff = k fffff2f A L Thermal conductivity k Thermal conductivity is a property of a material. w/mk Qx/A= Heat flux (heat flow rate per unit area) W/m2 As x increases. but not a very strong one. at x=L T=T2 . T=T1. k can be considered constant. Constant k.
A few examples of thermal conductivities Material Metals Alloys Water Air Insulators K. The characteristics of the flow affect greatly the heat transfer rate between the wall and the stream. The thermal conductivities of most liquids are rather small. 1. W A= characteristic area.k varies over a wide range. 8 .0251(at 20 oC) 0.2 While the rate of heat is transported in a body (q) is dependent on the thermal conductivity (k) and the temperature gradient (∆T). W/mK 50400 10120 0. except for metallic liquids.040.Newton’s law of cooling Convective heat transfer occurs when a fluid acts as a carrier or conveyor belt for the energy that it draws from (or delivers to) a solid wall.6 Interphase transport (convective heat transfer) . the rise in temperature that this heat will produce will vary with the specific heat (cp) and the density (ρ) of the body. oC h=heat transfer coefficient. s law of cooling 1701 ` a Where q = heat flow rate. W/m2K (or film transfer coefficient or surface conductivity) This is not really a law but rather a defining equation for h heattransfer coefficient h is not defined for a specific situation until A and ∆T are stated. It is highest for metals and lowest for finely powdered materials.598 (at 20oC) 0. m2 ∆T= characteristic temperature difference. The heat flow may be related to the temperature difference between the temperature at the interphase (Tw) and that in the fluid (Tfl) q = hA T w @T b fl c Newton.
This distance is called thermal boundary layer thickness and is highly dependent on the flow velocity. The temperature decreases from Tw at the wall to T 1 free stream temperature at some distance from the wall. In many cases. empirical correlations are available to predict h. The bulk temperature is the temperature that would be attained if all the fluid flowing across the section in question were withdrawn and mixed adiabatically to a uniform temperature b T w @ T b can be –the initial temperature difference c the arithmetic mean temperature difference 9 . known as the hydrodynamic boundary layer. since it often cannot be predicted theoretically. Heat is transferred from the wall to the fluid. At any location the velocity at the wall is 0 and increases with increasing y to V 1 free stream velocity at some vertical distance away. that is customarily assumed over b c the length of plate. An internal flow configuration (tube flow) q = h D A π L T w @ T 1 where Tb = bulk fluid temperature ` ab c Bulk temperature is also called “cup mixing temperature” or “flow average temperature” When a fluid is being heated or cooled. The temperature distribution T(y) is also drawn.A heated plate with a uniform wall temperature of Tw is immersed in a uniform fluid flow of velocity v V 1 and temperature T 1 . the temperature will vary throughout the cross section of the stream. q = hA T w @ T 1 Where h= average heat transfer coefficient.
ρ.b T ff@T ffffffff@ffb2ff + T w2 ff f T ffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffff ffff fw1 fffb1 2 c b c  the logarithmic mean temperature difference Heat transfer coefficient The heat. flow velocity and velocity distribution. W/m2K 525 30300 601800 3006000 300060000 10 . and surface temperature distribution For a particular situation it can be obtained either by direct measurement or from existing empirical or semiempirical correlations. It depends in a complicated way on –fluid properties (µ. characteristic temperature difference (∆T). cp. k) system geometry. These correlations are in the form of equations involving dimensionless numbers. roughness of the surface. Typical values of the convective heat transfer coefficient for various fluids: Fluid and condition Air in natural convection Superheated steam or air in forced convection Oil in forced convection Water in forced convection Boiling of water h.transfer coefficient is not a constant characteristic of the fluid medium.
the contribution of radiation to heat transfer is not significant at low temperatures. W A=surface area of the body. Their emissive power is reduced by ε qr = AσT4 (ε<1. K Real materials do not emit electromagnetic radiation ideally as black bodies. A black body is defined as one that absorbs all radiant energy at all wavelengths and reflects none: α=1. Actually no material with ε =1 and zero reflectivity (fraction of the total energy reflected) exists. 11 . part is absorbed by the body in the form of heat. but becomes predominant at the temperature levels encountered in pyrometallurgical processing. where α is the absorptivity or fraction absorbed. part is reflected back into space.0) Because of the 4th power of the absolute temperature.α =0. Stefan Boltzmann constant T= absolute temperature of the black body. where ε is the emissivity – the ratio of the emissive power of a surface to that of a black body. qr = AσT4 (ε=1. m2 StephanBoltzmann equation σ=5. they have an emissivity ε< 1.0) where qr= heat flow rate .7 Radiation heat transport When thermal radiation falls upon a body. A black body also emits radiation.676 x 108 W/m2K4. Even the blackest surfaces occurring in nature still have a reflectivity of about 1% (absorptivity of 99%.9) A black body emits thermal energy at a rate that is proportional to the 4th power of its absolute temperature.Condensation of steam 6000120000 1. depending on its temperature ε=1.0 and are called grey bodies. and part may be transmitted through the body.0.this is negligible in process engineering.
930.96 0. This however holds only for low temperature radiation.850. The maximum intensity of radiation shifts to greater wavelengths with decreasing temperature.890. the absorptivity is much smaller than when it hits a black surface.Emissivity The surface of a substance highly influences its radiation characteristics and therefore the amount of radiative heat the surface can absorb. The emissivity of metallic surfaces increases with increasing temperature. If shortwave radiation. highly polished metallic surfaces have very low emissivities.95 0. transmit.07 0. Thus.95 0. radiation at low temperature is mainly longwave radiation. Non metallic materials are characterized by high emissivities in the infrared region.930. The good reflection of sunlight by ice or white fabrics is well known. It is less known that the reflection of the same bodies is very small for longwave radiation. The corresponding rates of emission and absorption will depend on the temperature of 12 .93 0. window Paint black Paint white Red brick skin Soil Water Wood ε 0. reflect and emit.800. Smooth and rough surfaces have almost the same emissivity. like that of the sun strikes a white surface or ice.96 0.96 0. Some normal emissivity values of various materials at room temperature Material Aluminum polished Aluminum rough Asphalt Concrete Glass.900.04 0.880.98 0. Net heat transfer between 2 radiating surfaces In an enclosure all surfaces will simultaneously emit and absorb radiant energy from the other surfaces.97 0. Most metals have emissivities that are quite high – approaching the black body limit of unity.90 Clean. Kirchhoff’s law states that at the same temperature T1 α 1 = ε1 of a given surface. The emissivity is determined entirely by the properties of the surface of the material and its temperature.93 0. Emissivity is a property that describes how radiant energy interacts with the surface of the material.
the resultant rate of heat transfer by radiation from one to the other may be determined. that electromagnetic radiation travels in straight lines F12 shape factor is defined as the fraction of total radiant energy that leaves surface 1 and arrives on surface 2.each surface. . then the net heat flux from (1) to (2) is b c 1 4 4 ffffffffff ffffffffff fffffffff q. When 2 surfaces are at a given distance from each other. F12 ≤ 1 and is a dimensionless factor. View factors of several geometries are available in many literatures. = ffffffffffσ T 1 @ T 2 f g 1f 1f ff f f f f f f + ff 1 @ ε1 ε2 Radiation to a small object from surroundings Let’s examine a small gray object (area A1. The small object emits an amount of radiation of A1 ε1 α T 1 It absorbs energy from the surroundings at T2 by A1 ε1 α T 2 The net heat of absorption: 4 4 α 1 at T 2 ≈ ε1 at T 1 qr = A1 ε1 σ T 2 @ T 1 4 b 4 c View factor (or shape factor) In radiation heat transport it must be considered . The net radiation heat transfer from cylinder (1) to cylinder (2) b c 1 4 4 ffffffffffff ffffffffffff ffffffffffff f q = ffffffffffffσA1 T 1 @ T 2 g 1f Aff 1f ff f1f ff f f f ff f f f f + f f@ 1 ε1 A 2 ε2 Infinite parallel plates If plate (1) is at higher temperature than plate (2). 13 . Two long concentric cylinders and concentric spheres Cylinder (1) with a surface A1 and the temperature T1 encloses cylinder (2) with a surface area A2 and the temperature T2 (T1>T2). temperature T1) in a large enclosure at a higher temperature ofT2 so there is a net radiation to the small object.
Effect of radiation on temperature measurement The temperature of a flowing fluid in a tube is usually measured by a thermometer or thermocouple put into a well. W hr = radiation heat transfer coefficient. 14 . which is welded into the tube wall.qr = A1 ε1 σF1 @ 2 T 2 @ T 1 4 b 4 c Radiation heat transfer coefficient Analogously to Newton’s law of cooling. Energy will be transferred by convection to the thermometer and then dissipated by radiation to the surroundings. When a thermometer is placed in a gas stream to measure temperature. a radiation heat transfer coefficient hr can be defined as qrad = A1 hr T 2 @ T 1 b c qrad = heat transfer rate by radiation. the temperature indicated by the sensing element is determined by the overall energy balance on the element. Consider the element shown on the next sketch. W / m 2 K b c When radiation heat transfer occurs from a surface it is usually accompanied by convective heat transfer unless the surface is in vacuum: qconv = A1 hc T 2 @ T 1 The total heat transfer is the sum of the two: q = qconv + qrad = hc + hr A1 T 2 @ T 1 b c b c Note: The convective heat transfer is not strongly dependent on temperature. however the radiation heat transfer coefficient is a very strong function of temperature.
Radiation from the sun The sun radiates very nearly like a black circular disk with a temperature of 5600K. The radiation shield must be designed so that it protects the temperature sensing element of the thermometer from the radiation coming from the walls but does not inhibit convective heat transfer at the thermometer surface. A short. The heat transfer coefficient h for the above heat balance can be estimated from: Nu=0. They do not deliver or remove any heat from the overall system. As a consequence of the high temperature. m Radiation shields are frequently employed to alleviate this difficulty. Solar radiation has a short wavelength and the absorptivity for such radiation may be considerably different from the absorptivity for long wave radiation . This insulation power depends upon the emissivity of the shield surface. Vey large errors can result temperature measurements if this energy balance is not taken into account. 42% is reflected or refracted back to space from clouds and the air and reflected from the earth’s surface. This equation shows that the temperature indicated by the thermometer is not the true gas temperature but some radiation –convection equilibrium temperature. which a surface absorbs.This equation assumes that the surroundings are either very large or black. 15 . An estimate of the errors in temperature measurement should be made in each installation. 40% in the visible wavelength range and 55% in the infrared (IR) up to ~3µm. the maximum radiation intensity is found at 0.57 where Nu=hd/k= Nusselt number Re=ρvd/µ= Reynolds number d= outer diameter of thermocouple well (house). they only place another resistance in the heat flow path so that the overall heat transfer is reduced.For instance. Radiation shields are made of metals which are highly reflective outside the blackened inside. a white surface has considerably smaller absorptivity than the Al surface for solar radiation. depends on its absorptivity.3 Re0. In a yearly average the earth absorbs ~43% of the radiation coming from the sun (27% directly and 16% directly as diffuse sky radiation). The amount of the solar radiation. and 15% is absorbed in the temperature. hollow cylinder open on both ends is a desirable configuration.5µm wavelength and approximately 5 % of the radiation occurs in the ultravoilet (UV) range.
Θ = @ f fff r ∂Θ q. y . r = @ k fff . . e z are unit vectors in the x. ∂r kf∂Tf f fff f ff f q. x = @ k fff . . ∂x q. . y = @ k ∂Tf fff fff ff f ∂y ∂Tf fff ff f q. . . . It has dimensions of 1/L (1/m) 5= F ff ff ∂f G ∂ff ∂ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff . r = @ k fff . . . z = @ k fff . ∂z 16 ∂Tf fff ff f q. y = @ k ∂Tf fff fff ff f . . . z = @ k ∂Tf fff fff ff f ∂z Fourier’s law in vector form: q / / = @ k 5 T f ∂ff f ∂ff f ∂f f ff f ff f ff f ff f ff f ff The del operator 5 in rectangular coordinates: 5 =e x ff+ e y ff+ e z ff ∂x ∂y ∂z f f f f 5 is a vector. vector or tensor function. ∂y q. φ = @ k ffff ∂Tf ffff fff ffff fff ffff ff f rsinθ ∂φ ∂Tf fff ff f q. W/m2 q”’= heat flow rate per unit volume W/m3 2.2 THE GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION Symbols used: q= heat flow rate. ∂r kf∂Tf f fff f ff f q. z = @ k fff ∂z . and z direction f f f f f f f f f 5 in cylindrical coordinates: 5 =e r 5 in spherical coordinates: 5 =e r f f f f ∂f eff fff f ∂f f ff ff fff f ff f ff ff ∂ f f ff ff Θ f ff f f ff f f f f f f f ∂f eff fff ffff ff f ff ff fff ffff ∂ff f ff ff ∂ f e φ ff ff ff Θ f ff ffff ff f f ff ∂r + r ∂Θ +e z ∂z ∂r + r ∂Θ + rsinθ ∂φ Fourier’s law then in the different coordinate systems: Rectangular Cylindrical Spherical ∂Tf fff ff f q. ∂x q. e y .1 Fourier’s law of heat conduction in 3 dimensions ∂Tf fff ff f Fourier’s law in 3 dimensions: q. ∂x ∂y ∂z 5 =e x . W q”= heat flux: heat flow rate per unit area normal to the heat flow direction. it cannot stand alone but must operate on a scalar. . x = @ k fff . Θ = @ f fff r ∂Θ ∂Tf fff ff f q. . .
by virtue of overall fluid motion (sensible heat) 17 . by heat conduction. The conversion of chemical energy into heat (reaction heat of chemical reactions) 3. The degradation of electrical energy (as a result of electric current passing through the material) 2. Nuclear reaction Thermal energy in or out: 1.2.2 The general heat conduction equation The statement of the law of conservation of energy: Rate of thermal energy accumulation = Rate of thermal energy in Rate of thermal energy out + Rate of thermal energy production Thermal energy may be “produced” by: 1.consider only this now 2. The Degradation of mechanical energy (viscous dissipation) 4.
xLx + fM . ρ =@ + + z + q/ ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z L M LM L M LM L M LM Substitute Fourier’s law in all direction and from thermodynamics: du=dh=cpdT [u=hpv. . .ffffffffff. .fffff fffff∆yfffq. ∆z Q 0 L M LM L M LM L M LM q. xLx L Rate of thermal energy out by conduction Across surface at x+ ∆x Across the surface at y + ∆y Across the surface at z + ∆z Rate of thermal energy production: Rate of thermal energy accumulation: L ∆x∆y q. Since in solids p and ρ are constants therefore v=constant so du=dh.ffff∆xfffq. xLx + ∆x L ∆x∆y q. ffffffffff.ff ∂qfff ∂qfff ∂uf ff ff ff f ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff fx f ff fy .vdp. z fz + fM ∂uf q. . .ffffffffffLff∆zff ff ffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffff ff fffx fffffffffff f fffffffffffffff fffffffffffffff ρ ff= ffffffffffffffff+ ffffffffffffffff+ ffffffffffffffff+ q/ ∂t ∆x ∆y ∆z LM L M LM L M LM L M Take the limits as ∆x Q 0. ∆y Q 0. y fy + fM .ffffffffff. differentiating gives du=dh. zLz + ∆z L ∆x ∆y∆z q/ ∆x~ }~ B { ~ ~ρ ~∆y∆z~~y ~~ ~ ~ ~ mass rate of change in internal energy per mass ∂uf ff ff ff f w ∂t Substitute into the energy balance equation and divide by ∆x ∆y∆z M . fffffffffffffff q.fffff fffff∆zfffq. x ff @ q.fffff ffffffffff ffff f x x + f @ ff x x f. From the definition of specific heat dh=cpdT] 18 . . . yLyM @ q.pdv.f ff fff f. . yL y L ∆x∆z q. fz fff f z z + f @ ff f z ρ ff= @ lim ffffffffffffffff lim ffffffffffffffff @ lim ffffffffffffffff+ q/ @ ∆x Q 0 ∆y Q 0 ∆z Q 0 ∂t ∆x ∆y ∆z f g ∂qf.ffLffffff. fy fff f y y + f @ ff f y f.fffff q.ffff∆xff q. zLz L ∆y∆z q. zLzM @ q.ffffffffffLff∆yff q. yLy + ∆y ∆y∆z q.Rate of thermal energy in by conduction across surface at x across surface at y across surface at z ∆y∆z q. fffffffffffffff ∂uf ff ff f f.
f 1f∂Tf 2 fffff f fff f ff f ffff ff.ρc p ∂Tf ∂ff ∂Tf ff ∂ff ∂Tf ∂f ∂Tf fff fff ff f ff ff ff fff fff ff f ff ff fff fff ff ff f ff ff fff fff ff f =@ @k @ @k + @k + q. . . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂Tf fff fff ff f =k ∂t h i T T Tf ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff fffk fff fff fff j ∂fff ∂fff ∂fff 2 2 2 f g f g f g ρc p ∂x 2 + ∂ y2 + ∂ z2 + q. in rectangular coordinates it is + ∂ z2 ∂x 2 ∂ ff ∂ ff ∂ f fff fff fff fff fff fff ff f ff f ff f ∂ y2 k ff fff fff ff f Introducing α = pc p thermal diffusivity. f = ∆ T + ffff which is another form of the general 3dimension unsteadystate α ∂t k conduction equation Simplified forms of the heat conduction equation No heat source ∂Tf 2 fff ff f ρc p fff k∆ T = ∂t 2 ∂Tf 2 fff ff f or fff α ∆ T = ∂t Steady state and no heat source ∆ T =0 Laplacian equation 2. m2/s q. Boundary conditions are restrictions (specifications) applied at the physical boundaries of the system. Initial conditions are specifications applied at a specific time for unsteady problems. . . The number of boundary and initial conditions required is dependent on the order of the differential equation (for a second order differential equation 2 conditions are required) 19 .fff . In vector notation: ∂Tf 2 fff ff f ρc p fff k∆ T + q. = ∂t Where ∆ = 2 ∆ + 2 operator is called the Laplacian. . .3 Boundary and initial conditions Boundary and initial conditions are required to determine the integration constants. This is the general 3dimensional unsteadystate conduction equation in rectangular coordinate system.
= qc .4 kinds of conditions are commonly used: 1. The temperature at the surface may be specified e. 2. q . (This is equivalent to specifying the temperature gradient at the surface.fluid interface the heat flux may be related to the difference between the temperature at the interface and that in the fluid by Newton’s law of cooling. An initial time condition: the temperature or heat flux may be specified at the start. ` M a ∂Tf fff ffM fM @ k fff x = 0 = h T Mx = 0 @T 1 ∂x 4.g. steady –state is reached.g. Time goes to infinity ( for a number of problems when t =1 .) qf.) 20 . At a solid. The heat flux at a surface may be specified e.ff ∂Tf fff fff ff f fff f o f = @ fff= constant ∂x k 3. Initial conditions are commonly of 2 types: 1. At solidsolid interfaces the continuity of temperature and heat flux may be specified. T=Tw 2.
Read the problem carefully. Comment A) Plane geometry systems 3.C to obtain the temperature distribution 6. Find the heat transfer rate 7.1 Heat conduction in a plane wall ∂Tf 2 2 fff ff f ρc p fff K∆ T + q / [ ∆ T = 0 = ∂t 21 .3 STEADYSTATE CONDUCTION IN ONE DIMENSION The temperature is a function of only one space variable Objectives: To determine the temperature distributionTo find the heat transfer rate Procedure to solve problems: 1.C and I. Begin with the appropriate form of the general conduction equation 4. 2. Make assumptions to simplify the differential equation 5. identify the given quantities and change them to appropriate units. Solve the differential equation by integrating and using B. sketch 3.
o C thermal resistance. W temperature difference. C . s law: qx = @ kA fff @ fffT 2 @T 1 = fffT 1 @ T 2 = ff dx δ δ Rate of flow= driving force / resistance Rate of flow: Driving force: Resistance: qx heat flow rate.In x @ direction: 2 dfff dTf ffTf ffff fff f fff ff f = 0 [ fff c1 [ T = c1 x + c2 = 2 dx dx Where c 1 and c2 are integration constants. qx=∆T/R 22 . K/W ∆T= T1T2 R=δ/kA ∆Tff fff ffff ∆T f ffff ff ff ff qx = ffff= fff δ / kA R 3. 2 at x = δ T= Tffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff 2 @T 1 x + T1 δ T = T 1 [ T 1 = C2 T = T 2 [ T 2 = C1 δ + T 1 [ C1 = Tffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff 2 @T 1 δ the temperature distribution i the slab is linear b c kA b c dTf kAf fff ff f ff f ff ff ff Fourier. 1 at x = 0 B .2 Composite walls (Materials in series) A composite wall consist o 3 materials placed next to each other For each layer we can apply the solution of the slab. B . C .
∆T 1 = T 0 @ T 1 ∆T 2 = T 1 @ T 2 ∆T 3 = T 2 @ T 3 R1 = δ1 / k 1 A R2 = δ 2 / k 2 A R3 = δ 3 / k 3 A b b c c b c qx1 = qx2 = qx3 = ∆Tff ff1 f fff ff ff R1 ∆T 1 = qx1 R1 ∆T 2 = qx2 R2 ∆T 3 = qx3 R3 ∆Tff ffff fff fff f2 R2 ∆Tff ffff fff fff f3 R3 Since all the heat passes through the first layer must pass through the second and the third one.3 Overall heat transfer coefficient 23 . qx1 = qx2 = qx3 = qx = constant ∆T = ∆T 1 + ∆T 2 + ∆T 3 = qx R1 + R 2 + R 3 b c ∆T difference ffffffffff overallfffffffffffffffffff fffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffff ffffftemperature fffffffff qx = ffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffff = fffffffffffffff R1 + R 2 + R 3 thermal resistances P T ffff3 fffffffffffff ffffo @fffffff ffffff T fffff qx = ffffffffffffff δff fff fff δ ff fff fff f1ff fff fff fff fff f2ff d 3ff f f f + fff+ fff k1 A k2 A k3 A 3.
h cold and k are known b c 1 ffff ffff ffff q = hhot A T hot @ T 1 [ ∆T 1 = T hot @ T 1 = q fffff hhot A b c kAf δf ff ff f ff ff f q = fffT 1 @ T 2 [ ∆T 2 = T 1 @ T 2 = q fff δ kA b c fffff f1fff ffff f q = hcold A T 2 @ T cold [ ∆T 3 = T 2 @ T cold = q fffff hcold A 24 . Most of the temperature drop in the fluids occurs very near the wall in a relatively stagnant boundary layer (laminar sublayer) which adheres to the wall. Despite the fact that the heat flow across this layer by conduction. the mechanism is called convective heat transfer.hcold and k are known. The fluid temperatures an be the bulk temperatures. or freestream temperatures. when the fluids flow through ducts. hhot . In practice the entire resistance to the heat transfer is regarded as being in the laminar sublayer .Frequently it is required to calculate the heat flow through a wall separating 2 fluids of known temperature. when the fluid flows are external. when the surface temperatures of the walls are unknown. Newton’s law of cooling applies.
inside radius R1.4 Heat conduction in a cylindrical wall Derive an equation for the heat flow through the wall of a hollow cylinder of outside radius R2. outside wall temperature T2.T hot @ T cold = ∆T = ∆T 1 + ∆T 2 + ∆T 3 = q fffffffffffffff ffTfffffffffff fffff@T ffffff f fffffff f Therefore q = ffffhotffffcoldf1fff 1 δ f ffff fffff fff fffff ffff ffff ffff ff ffff ff fffff f ffff + ff+ fffff f hhot A g 1 fffff fff fffff ffff δ f fffff ffff ff f1fff ffff ff ffff f f + kA + hcold A h hot A kA h cold A It is convenient to express the heat transfer rate in terms of an overall heat transfer coefficient for both convection and conduction resistances: q = UA T hot @ T cold b c Where U =overall heat transfer coefficient based on an area A. length L. and T=T(r) the temperature varies only with r (radial direction) 25 . W/m2K Comparing the last 2 equations: 1 ffffffffffff fffffffffffff fffffffffff fffffffffffff fffffffffff fffff1fffffff fffffffffff ffffffffffff f c for a plane wall U= 1 = b fff δf f1ff fff f fff f ff ff f fff f fff f ff fff f A R1 + R2 + R3 + + h hot k h cold B) Cylindrical geometry systems 3. No internal heat generation K= constant. and inside wall temperature T1 Assumptions:  Steady state.
C 2 at r=R1 at r=R2 T=T1 T=T2 26 .C 1 B.1f∂Tf 1f∂f ∂Tf 1f ∂fff ∂fff q/ff T T fffff f ff f fff fff f ff f ff f = ff r fff ffffff ffff fff + fff ffffff ffff fff + 2f fff+ fff+ ff 2 α ∂t r ∂r ∂r r ∂Θ k ∂ z2 2 2 After simplification and solving: 1fdf dTf df dTf rdTf f ff fff fff ff fff f ff ff fff ff f fff fff ff r ff = 0 [ ffr fff = 0 [ ffff C 1 = r dr dr dr dr dr Cff ff f 1 dT = ffdr [ T = C 1 ln r + C 2 r f g f g The temperature distribution is a logarithmic function. To determine the integration constants: B.
5 Composite cylindrical walls 27 .T 1 = C 1 ln R1 + C 2 [ C 2 = T 1 @ C 1 ln R1 T 2 = C 1 ln R 2 + C 2 [ C 2 = T 2 @ C 1 ln R1 T 1 @ C 1 ln R1 = T 2 @ C1 ln R2 Tffffff Tffffff ffffff fffff ffffff f@ T f f 1 @T f 1 f ff C 1 = fffff2f C 2 = T 1 @ C1 ln R1 = T 1 @ fffff2fln R1 [ Rff Rff ff ff f f ff f f 1 ln ln f1f R2 R2 Substituting the integration constants to get the temperature distribution: ln b c ln R @T1 ffffff Tffffff ffffff fffff fffff f 1 ffffff fffff fR 1 T = T 1 + T 1 @ T 2 ffffff ffffff= ffffff [ ffffff fffff g g T 1 @T 2 Rff Rff ff f f ff f f ln f1f ln f1f R2 R2 d rff ff ff f f e d rf ff ff ff f e The heat flow from the Fourier’s law: ∂Tf ff ff f f fff ff f = @ kA fff qr ∂r A = 2πr L the normal to the heat flow T f@T f dTf Cff 1ffffff2f fff ff f ffffff fff ff f ffffff ff f f 1 1 f ff = f= g dr r r f Rff ff f f ln f1f R2 b c ∆T T f@T f fffLf ` a 1f ffffff 2πk fff f ffffff fffff fff fff ff f ffff f 1 f ff qr = @ k 2πrL f fffff2f= ffffff T 1 @T 2 = fff f g g r RT Rff Rff ff ff f f ff ff f f 1 1 ln ln R2 R2 ln Therefore the thermal resistance is RT = g Rff ff ff f f 2 R1 ffffff ffffff fffff fffff f 2πkl 3.
the heat flow rate in radial direction in the composite cylindrical wall can be determined Temperature distribution Location d rf ff ff ff f e Thermal resistance g Rff ff ff f f 2 R1 ffffff ffffff fffff fffff f Tffffff ffffff @T 1 R ffffff ffffff ffffff fffff ffffff fffff = f 1g T 2 @T1 Rff ff f f ln f2f R1 ln R1 ≤ r ≤ R2 RT1 = ln 2πk 1 L f Tffffff ffffff @T 2 R ffffff ffffff ffffff fffff ffffff fffff = f 2g T 3 @T1 Rff ff f f ln f3f R2 ln d rf ff ff ff f e R2 ≤ r ≤ R 3 RT2 = g Rff ff ff f f 3 ln R2 ffffff ffffff fffff fffff 2πk 2 L f Tffffff ffffff @T 3 R ffffff ffffff ffffff fffff ffffff fffff = f 3g T 4 @T 3 Rff ff f f ln f4f R3 ln d rf ff ff ff f e R3 ≤ r ≤ R 4 RT3 = ln 2πk 3 L g Rff ff ff f f 4 R3 ffffff ffffff fffff fffff 2πL T f T 4 @ Tffffff ffffffffff1fffffffffff @T 4 fffffff ffffffffffffffffffff fffffff ffffffffffffffffffff ffffff ffffffffffffffffffff d e d e qr = 1 = d e f2 f ff f f ff ff ff f4 f ff f f 3 X RT i ln Rff ln Rff ln Rff Rf ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff fff1ff fff f ffR 2ff fff f ff ffR 3ff fff f ff i + + k1 k2 k3 b c 28 . Using the temperature distributions and thermal resistances given in the next table. We can apply the results obtained for cylindrical wall.A composite cylindrical wall consists of 3 materials placed in series.
L= length of tube δ = Ro @ Ri = wall thickness = Rhot = hi Ai ln d 1 ffff ffff fff fff Ai = 2πLRi R wall = R cold 2π k 1 L 1 ffff ffff ffff ffff = A i = 2π LR 0 ho A o b c b c e Rff fo f ff ff f ffffff ffffff ffR fff fffff fi T hot @ T cold 2π L f hot @ T ff ∆Tff fffffffffffffffff fffffTfffffffffff fffff fffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffcoldfff ffff ff f d e d qr = fffff ffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffefffffff = fffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffff = Rff Rff fof ff f f fof ff f f XR ln ln 1 1 ffff ffff ffffff ffff f1 ff ffffff f1ff ffff ffffff ffff ffff ffffff ffff ffff ffR iff f f f ff f ffff ffffff ffff ffff ffR iff fff fffff f fff + fff ff+ ffff ffff+ ffffff ffff + fff h o Ao 2πk L hi Ai ho Ro k h i Ri 29 .6 Overall heat transfer coefficient In many problems fluids with different temperatures are flowing inside and around tubes and we need to determine the heat transfer rate knowing the bulk fluid temperatures.3.
however. To= outside tube wall temperature Ro= outside tube radius T∞=ambient fluid temperature The overall resistance is the sum o the “cylindrical shell” resistance of the insulation and the external convective heat transfer resistance: 30 . In some cases.Often it is desirable to express this equation in terms of an overall heat transfer coefficient U: qr = UA T hot @ T cold b c The question is which area to select for A. insulating a pipe is a common practice because it is an inexpensive method of retarding heat losses.7 Critical thickness of insulation In industry. the overall heat transfer coefficient Uo based on Ao is Uo = 1 fffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff ho e Rff fof ff f f Ri 1f ffffffff 1fRff ff ffffffff ff ff ff ffffffff ff ff ff fffffff f fffffff ff f f 0 f + R o ln d k + h i Ri The overall heat transfer coefficient Ui based on Ai is Uo = ffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff fffffff1fffffffff f h o Ro e Rff fof ff f f 1f ff ffffffff 1f ffRff ffffffff ff ff ff ffffffff ff ff ff ffffR iff f if fffffff f ff f + R i ln d k + hi 3. Comparing the last 2 equations. adding insulation causes an increase in heat loss. It is customary to select the outside surface area (Ao) of the cylinder (pipe). but sometimes the inside surface area (Ai) is chosen.
In case of a “thick” bare cylinder: Ro> Rins crit . the addition of the first layer of insulation decreses the overall thermal resistance R. for a given current. In case of a “thin” bare cylinder: Ro< Rins crit . the addition of insulation always increases the insulation effect. than the same wire if bare. so enhances heat transfer. If Rins< Rins crit . A practical application is the problem of insulating electrical wires where the objective would be the provision of adequate electrical insulation at the same time providing the maximum wire cooling. then adding insulation increases the heat transferred.) The critical insulation radius for a sphere is Rins crit= 2(k/ho) 31 . not insulating until Rins>Rins crit.e Rfff fff ff ff f insf ln Rf 1 ffffff ffffffffff ffffff ffffffffff fffo ff fffffffff c R = fffffff bffffffffff + d 2πkL 2πRins L ho b 2π T O @ T 1 Tfffffff qf fffffffffffff ffffff f@ffff ff T 1 f ffffffffffff d e q = f0ffffff f= fffffffffffff [ f fffffffffffff f ff ff ff R L ln Rffff ins 1 fffffff fffff ffffff ffffff ffffff fffff ffR o ff fffff ff ffff + ffff k h o R ins c q/L reaches a maximum or R a minimum where ∂Rff ffff ffff fff ff ∂ or d e qf f f f f fffff ffL ff fffff ffff f ∂Rins =0 ∂Rins =0 ∂Rff fff1fffff fffff 1ff 1 ffff fffffffff fffffffff ffff fffffffff fffffffff fff ff ffffffff f fffff ff f =` a fff@ h 2π L 2 1ff ff ff ∂Rins 2πk L fff o Rins R ins Solving for the critical insulation radius for the cylinder Rins crit f g 1 1 fffffffff 1f fffffff fffffffff f fffffff fff f1fff f fffffff fff ffff f fffffff f 2π L Rins crit k kf ff f Rins crit = ff ho @ ho Rins crit 1f fffffff 1 f fffffff f fffffff = 0 [ f= fffffff k ho Rins crit The critical insulation radius corresponds to maximum heat transferred. (Eg. A wire insulated with a covering of not too low thermal conductivity may run cooler.
cooling of ingots. annealing of casting.STATE HEAT CONDUCTION In transient –conduction problems temperature varies with the location within the system and with time..… The aim is to find . ρ In 2dimension:  2 boundary conditions for x  2 boundary conditions for y.It may control the rate at which process equipment is brought to stable operating conditions. Unsteady state heat conduction is important in determining the processing time of many solid articles (eg. heat treating and casting of metals). UNSTEADY. burning of bricks. Curing time of objects made of molded plastic or rubber. Other examples are heat flow through a building wall during the daily 24hour heating and cooling cycle. 1f∂Tf 2 fffff f fff f ff f ffff = ∆ T + ffff α ∂t k Assumptions:  No internal heat generation ( q’’’/k=0).the heattransfer rate. and 1 initial condition for t 32 . or The time needed to attain a certain temperature  The general heat conduction equation: qffff . The temperature history. Constant k.4. Many industrial heat conduction problems are unsteady state.fff .
Still. for others both are important. If the thermal conductivity of the object is high. At any instant in time there are no temperature gradients within the object. but for more complicated systems we need numerical or graphical techniques.For relatively simple geometries the above differential equation can be solved.1 Systems with negligible internal resistance. There are 2 types of resistances to the heat transport:  Internal thermal resistance: δ/kA Surface or film resistance : 1/hA We can identify 3 types of problems that arise for a transient problem. For some problems the internal resistance is negligible compared to the surface resistance. There is a heat loss or gain by convection (internal transfer) to the surroundings.Lumped capacitance model Consider an object at an initial temperature of Ti that is being cooled (or heated) by a fluid stream at a temperature of T∞. For other problems the surface resistance is negligible. 4. only a temperature difference between the surface and the free stream The heat transferred between the object and the fluid is controlled by the surface resistance (ie the value of the heat transfer coefficient h)   33 . the internal resistance (δ/kA) to the het flow is small then:  The temperature profile within the object is uniform and everywhere equal to the surface temperature.
we can formulate a model by performing an energy balance on the object.The heat –transfer process is called Newtonian cooling (or heating). To simplify the differential equation we introduce dimensionless temperature Then the heat flow rate becomes This means that the bodyfluid difference decays exponentially. 34 . Because the temperature does not change (significantly) withi the solid.
ρ cp V  lumped capacitance ρcpV/hA . It presents the ratio of heat transfer by conduction to the energy storage rate within the material. or thermal time constant. It is called the lumped capacitance equation. Examining the exponent of the lump capacitance equation: The ratio of volume to surface area for an object is often used as a characteristic length Lch Where Fourier number is a dimensionless time parameter. It takes a longer time for the body to reach equilibrium with the surroundings fluid when its lumped capacitance is large and / or its product hA is small. or decay time constant. Thus the lump capacitance equation becomes: 35 .the characteristic time of decay.This equation describes the timetemperature history of the solid object.
This is the criterion for the lump.capacitance equation to apply. the instantaneous rate of heat transfer q(t) in Watt from the body is Where T= instantaneous temperature. At any time.1.The assumption of negligible internal resistance is reasonably accurate when Bi < 0. The instantaneous temperature from the lump capacitance equation is This implies: The amout of heat Q in Joules transferred from the solid from time t=0 to t= t is 36 .
The aim is to predict the temperature profile in the plate with time. At some time zero. Fourier solved this problem by developing the method of Fourier series.2 Systems with negligible surface resistance Consider an infinite plate of thickness 2L at an initial uniform temperature Ti. The descriptive differential equation: 37 . will assume the same temperature as the fluid: T1=T∞ which holds when Bi>1. The thickness of the plate is 2L.) If the heat transfer coefficient h is very large then the film resistance (1/hA) is negligible so the surface temperature. the left and right surfaces of the plate are suddenly cooled to T1 by a fluid at a temperature T∞.4. an the heat transfer rate. once exposed.
Fo. The analytical solution got by the separation of variables method: 38 .The boundary conditions are: Change to dimensionless quantities: The dimensionless differential equation is then: The new boundary and initial boundary conditions are: The Fourier number appears in the dimensionless equation therefore Θ=Θ(Bi. x/L) the temperature distribution is a function of Fourier and Biot numbers and x/L.
only the first term in the series need to be used in the solution (except at points very close to the boundaries).This equation is for the case where the left and right faces of an infinite wall are maintained at the same temperature Ti. The centerline of the plate is a line of symmetry and therefore analogous to an insulated or adiabatic surface. The temperature history at the midplane (x=L) is of practical interest and is a function of Fourier number: For values of Fo much greater than 0.1.6).This makes possible a graphical presentation . On a chart (Fig 6. An infinite cylinder is a cylinder where the diameter is small compared to the length. An infinite plate is a plate whose thickness is small in relation to the other dimensions. knowing Fo number the dimensionless temperature for the center plane can be read for different shapes. The instantaneous heat flow rate (q) and the amout of heat transferred (q) for the infinite plate are : 39 .
The solutions are conveniently summarized graphically on the above charts. Heisler charts (1) The dimensionless temperature history at the center of an infinite plate of thickness. 40 . Calculations made from such solutions are presented in graphical form by Heisler (1947) and Grober (1961).1<Bi< 1 Analytical solutions for a variety of problems are given in the literature. a sphere and other types of common geometries. a semiinfinite solid.7) q (in watt) and Q (in Joule) can be read as a function of Fo A similar analysis can be formulated for an infinitely long cylinder . The solutions are complex in form.On a chart (fig 6.3 Systems with finite internal and surface resistances Both internal and film resistances are significant 0. 4.
which in turn can be used in the next chart to determine the temperature at any other x location within the plate.9 Q= the total amount of energy (J) that has passed through the wall up to any time t 41 . (2) The dimensionless temperature distribution in an infinite plate at any x location within the plate is given in Fig 3.This chart can be used to calculate the midplane temperature from Fourier number.
The solution to this problem appeared in fig 6.7 for the case of negligible surface resistance ( h is high Ts =T∞). This is also represented on the charts. the surface at x=0 is suddenly raised to temperature Ts and maintained at the temperature fot t>0 constant wall temperature. Let’s examine the analytical solution to the same problem. Lch=R) are also available. 42 . For this case 1/Bi=k/hLch=0.Qo = the initial internal energy of the wall relative to the fluid temperature T∞( it is equal to the maximum internal energy change that can occur) Qo = ρcpV(TiT∞) Similar charts for infinite cylinder (L/R > or = 10 at least.4 Semiinfinite solid A solid body occupying the space from x=0 to x= ∞ is initially at temperature Ti. Note: the characteristic length (Lch) used in the lumpedcapacitance method is different from the characteristic length used in the Heisler and Grober charts. For the negligible surface resistance case the heat transfer coefficient is large (ie. At time T=0. H ∞). 4.
Assumptions:  heat conduction occurs only in x direction. This integral is a function of its upper limit. The conduction equation The boundary conditions for the constant surface temperature: This integral has no closed form. Its values are available in tables. no heat generation. The right hand side is called Gauss error function or probability integral and denoted by error function of lamda . constant physical properties. Some properties of the error function: Therefore: 43 .
therefore we can define a thermal penetration thickness δT as that didtance x for which the temperature dropped to a value of 0.001(TsTi) For distances x> δT .The error function reaches a value of 0. the initial temperature is changed by less than 1 % of the difference ( TsTi) 44 .99 when the argument is about 2.
The next figure compares the solutions the 3 types of possible boundary conditions. When V is of the order of magnitude of plate thickness L. The heat flux is Then the heat flux at the surface is The total amount of heat (Q) transferred from the solid from t=0 to t=t is The problem can be redefined and the surface convection effect or constant heat flux at the surface could be accounted for. then the semiinfinite solid solution can be used. 45 . then the finite slab solution (rectangular parallelopipedon) has to be used.When δT is small with respect to the plate thickness L.
t) For the purpose of simplifying the notation.t) are known solutions to 2 separate onedimensional problems. 2(y.t).5 Bodies of Finite Size Solutions to one – dimensional problems can be combined to obtain the solutions having finite geometries.t) . their product gives the solution to the combined problem: 2(y.t)= 1(x. If 1(x.t) and 2(x.4. 1(x.y. we shall use the following symbols: 46 .
and at the time zero it is subjected to a fluid temperature T∞ with a heat transfer coefficient h.The following figures show how the solutions to 2 one dimensional problems are combined to obtain the solution to a 2dimensional problem. Other combinations can be made. Finite cylinder 47 . In each case the solid exists at an initial temperature Ti.
Infinite rectangular bar Semiinfinite plate 48 .
5. Forced convection The e fluid flow is established by an external driving force (pressure difference –provided by a pump or gravitational force).Parallelipiped (rectangular bar) This body can be viewed as the intersection of 3 infinite plates that are perpendicular. The method of solution: First the velocity profile is found. Free or Natural convection The fluid flow is caused by the buoyant effect resulting from heating o cooling the fluid. There are 2 types of heat transport involving fluids: 1. CONVECTION In most transfer processes heat transfer in fluids is accompanied by some fluid motion so that the heat transfer does not occur by conduction. The method o solution: 49 . 2. th en it is used to derive the temperature profile.
the mathematical difficulties with the integration of these simultaneous nonlinear partial differential equations are such that analytical solutions exist only for relatively simple problems.2 Equation of motion (equation of conservation of momentum) 50 . External flows. Whether the heat transfer mechanism is natural or forced convection.1 Equation of continuity (equation of conservation of mass) The equation of continuity in vector form is The equation of continuity in rectangular coordinates (Table 7. Internal flows. we have 2 types of flow situation: 1. energy. at high velocities it is laminar near the heating surface and turbulent at some distance away. At low velocities the flow is laminar throughout the system.1) is For incompressible fluid 5. All problems of convective heat transfer can be expressed in terms o f differential mass.they are enclosed completely by solid surfaces (flow in a pipe or duct) 5. 2.they are not enclosed but have contact with a solid surface. and momentum balance (equations of change). the fluid motion can be described by the equations of fluid mechanics. In general. However.The velocity profile and temperature profile are intimately related and therefore determined together.
then the thermal energy equation (Table 7.2) The xcomponent in rectangular coordinate system: 5. and k are constants.3) becomes 51 . If ρ.F or ρ= constant. µ.3 Equation of thermal energy It is more convenient to have the thermal energy equation in terms of fluid properties (µ T cp). µ= constant – Navier stokes equation (Table 7.
4 Applications of equations of change to turbulent flow The equation s of change in laminar flow for a certain simple geometrical situations can be solved and the temperature distribution can be determined analytically. other parameters. Therefore. it is customary to “timesmooth” the instantaneous velocity. 52 . It is usually negligible. it is needed only in special situations. such as heat flux or bulk temperature. Once the temperature profile is known. Simplification of the equation of thermal energy: For ideal gas For a fluid at constant pressure ( ρ=constant) In rectangular coordinate system: For solids (ρ=constant) 5. pressure and temperature to get mean values and timeaveraged the equation of change.Where Øv= viscous dissipation function . can be calculated. For turbulent flows none of the velocities vanish in the Navier –Stokes equation and all of the non linear terms remain.
5 Boundary layer flow Consider the problem of the 2dimensional steady flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid with constant properties over a flat plate in laminar flow. The refore alternative solution methods have been devised such as boundary –layer theory. He recognized in 1904 that the effect of the solid boundary on the flow is confined too a very thin layer of fluid immediately adjacent to the solid wall and can be considered negligible beyond d it. dimensional analysis… 5. This layer is called the boundary layer. but for most of the situations we cannot.For very simple geometry. 53 . these equations can be solved. The equations of change describing the flow are Equation of continuity: These equations were considerably simplified by Prandtl.
Anywhere along the plate the velocity profile changes from the uniform free. Typically . The thermal boundary layer thickness δT where the temperature approaches T∞: T is approximately T∞. Within the boundary layer the velocity in x direction varies only with y: Vx=Vx(y) Similar behavior occurs with temperature. ρ=constant) (2) A boundary layer (the fluid adheres to the surface due to viscous effects) The thickness of the layer in which the fluid is retarded becomes greater with distance in the direction of flow. We divide the flow regions into 2 parts: (1) A non –viscous region away from any solid surfaces (ideal fluid: µ=0. and therefore the boundary layer strictly has no precise outer limit. However. both are important in determining drag forces and heat transfer rates.stream profile. The boundary layer grows from the leading edge with distance x. That is the hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness δ is where Vx is approximately 0.When a fluid flows over a surface the elements in contact with the surface will be brought to rest and the adjacent layers layers retarded by the viscous drag of the fluid. it is convenient to define the boundary layer thickness such that the velocity at its outer edge equals 99% of the free stream velocity.99V∞. The velocity increases from zero at the surface to nearly the free stream value at some distance away . the velocity in the neighborhood of the surface will change with distance perpendicular to the flow. The fluid in contact with the surface will be brought to rest and will gradually approach the free stream velocity v∞ at some distance from the surface. Despite their size. a velocity gradient is set up because of the viscous forces acting within the liquid. The free stream velocity is approached asymptotically. Suppose a fluid approaches the plate with uniform v∞ (or free stream velocity) and T∞ temperature when the fluid reaches the surface. This layer was termed boundary layer by Prandtl. δ and ∆t are a few thousandths of a millimeter thick. 54 . Thus.
As a result of (1). q’’w or Tw can be constant) There are 2 strategies for solving the boundary momentum equation for the velocity profile: 1. 55 .The mathematical simplifications for the equations of change: 1. 2. 4. The pressure across the boundary layer is assumed to be constant: dp/dy is approx 0 5. d2Vx/dx2 is much smaller than d2Vx/dy2 3. vy<<vx (so all terms in the Navier – stokes equation ycomponent which involve Vy may be neglected). The exact solution by Blasius (1908). The boundary layer is thin compared to the distance measured from the leading edge. There is no pressure gradient or gravity force in x direction 6. There is negligible heat conduction in the direction of flow: d2T/dx2<< d2T/dy2 The equations for the boundary layer become: Solutions for the temperature profiles depend on the boundary conditions specified (heating could begin at the leading edge of the plate or somewhere downstream.
that is they have the same functional dependence o y regardless of x location. That is δ.0 instead of 4.2. Some literature gives the constant 5. We are not really interested in the details of the velocity or temperature profiles in the boundary layer. Solution by the integral method This method for solving the boundary layer momentum equation is approximate and much easier to apply to a wide range of problems than is any exact method of solution. Therefore . to make ordinary differential equations of them. the thickness of the boundary layer is proportional to the square root of the kinematic viscosity (ν) and the square root of the downstream distance x. If δ is the value where Vx/V∞ = 0. y=0.96.99. The approximate solution from the integral method developed by von Karman and Pohlhausen (1921) Blasius’ exact solution It is assumed that the velocity profiles have similar shapes at various distances from the leading edge of the plate. then: where The Reynolds number based on the downstream distance x. we integrate the boundary layer equations from the wall . (These slopes give the shear stress and the heat flux at the wall ). y=δ. beyond learning their slopes at the wall. to the boundary layer thickness. It turns out that 56 .
The solution leads to the boundary layer thickness The result is in close agreement with that obtained in the exact solution.these much simpler equations do not reveal anything new about the temperature and velocity profiles. The total skin friction drag obtained by integrating the wall shear stress over the plate area ( with W as the plate width): Heat and momentum transfer analogy Let’s define a new dimensionless group called Prandtl number as The physical significance of the Prandtl number of a fluid is that it represents the ratio of the transport coefficient for viscous momentum transport to the transport coefficient for heat conduction. Shear stress at the wall The shear stress at the surface of the plate τw(x) may be determined from the rate o fluid shear (dvx/dy) in the boundary layer at y=0. 57 . but they do give accurate explicit equations for τw and q’’w.
the dimensionless velocity profile solution is the same as the dimensionless temperature profile solution and for any point in the flow system. the hydrodynamic boundary layer is greater than the thermal boundary layer. as in the case of slags. Under these conditions. the hydrodynamic boundary layer is relatively small and we neglect the effect of the solid surface on the velocity distribution when we formulate the thermal energy balance. that is we may ignore any velocity gradients and assume that all the fluid moves at the free stream velocity. If α=ν. When the Prandtl is large. then the differential equations are identical. δ=δT.e. the ability of the fluid to transport momentum is greater than that to transport thermal energy. as in the case of liquid metals. δ=δT   (a) For Pr=1 The equation of energy is similar to the equation of motion. The boundary conditions are identical for dimensionless velocity and dimensionless temperature. the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers practically coincide. as in the case with most gases. For Prandtl numbers much smaller than unity. When Prandtl is close to unity. δ>δT. the dimensionless velocity is equal to the dimensionless temperature): In the case we can immediately calculate the heat transfer coefficient from the heat flux at the wall from Blasius’ exact solution: 58 . so each problem must have the same solution( i.
So Nux =0. the temperature gradient at the wall becomes: So the heat flux at the wall.It is customary to express the heat transfer coefficient in terms of dimensionless group Nux.332 Re ½ for Pr =1 (b) For Pr not equal to 1 From the integral method of solution Pohlhausen found that With this. local heat transfer coefficient and the local Nusselt number is: 59 .
in real situations are not. The average heat transfer coefficient h (or h) for the entire surface is Since the analysis was based on constant fluid properties. fluid temperature. fluid properties have to be evaluated at the average temperature of the fluid in the boundary layer: Turbulent flow over a flat plate 60 .These equations give the local heat transfer coefficient (hx) and the dimensionless local heat transfer coefficient (Nux) at a distance x from the leading edge of the plate. they depend on the local temperature. which.
however. For flow in a conduit. there is still a laminar sublayer near the surface. However. Transition usually occurs over a range 2 x 10 5 < or = Rex < or =3 x 106 and not a single point. The velocity profiles in laminar and turbulent flows are different. the integral method gives very good results. For purposes of calculation it is customarily assumed that transition occurs at Rex= 5 x 105. Convective Heat Transfer in closed Conduit The most important convective heattransfer process industrially is that of cooling or heating a fluid flowing inside a closed conduit in pipe. 61 . and each has an associated heat transfer coefficient. The relationship between temperature profile and heat transfer at a boundary surface is defined in terms of the heat transfer coefficient introduced in Newton’s law of cooling. at distances farther from the leading edge. It is not possible to solve the boundary layer equations to obtain an exact solution. a point is reached where turbulence appears. In turbulent region. The heat transfer coefficient depends on the temperature difference selected.As the boundary layer thickens. there are several temperature differences of importance. The hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness is And the local nusselt number is 6. the turbulent profile is flatter over a greater portion of the boundary layer due to mixing effect. The onset of turbulence is characterized by a sudden rapid increase in the thickness of the boundary layer.
even for laminar flow. then both thermal and hydrodynamic boundaries begin developing at the pipe inlet. in terms of the heat transfer coefficient. momentum. engineers prefer to work with heat transfer coefficients.Although the solution for the differential energy balance in the laminar flow regime is available. For flow over a plate. Constant wall heat flux In the number of practical problems q’’ wall heat flux is constant rather than Tw wall temperature. The thickness of these boundaries layer grows till δ=R at z=ze. To relate the heat transferred to the fluid temperature between the wall a nad the fluid 6. entrance region A fluid usually enters a pipe with uniform velocity and temperature profiles. where ze is the hydrodynamic entrance length and δT = R at z=zT. where zT is the thermal entry length. and energy equations have been solved for the constant wall heat flux problem to give the following exact solution: 62 . To relate the heat transferred to the temperature change experienced by the fluid. the continuity. There are 2 objectives 1. If the pipe wall is heated or cooled. This is not usually the case for the heat transfer with turbulent flow. it is customary to express heat transfer performance. 2. Ass a result. The heat transfer coefficients for the laminar flow have a strong dependence on position.1 Laminar flow.
If we integrate the local coefficient hz over a definite area (such as the surface area As). but with the constant heat input that exists. The local heat transfer coefficient hz is TwTb is the temperature difference between the wall and the fluid. At any axial location z. It is an important quantity.constant heat flux at the wall The heat flux at the wall q’’w = q/A = constant.2 Heat transfer in laminar flow. T varies from Tw to some value at the center line. TT∞ increases with increasing axial distance z. The temperature profile reaches a nonchanging shape (thermally developed flow). Experimentally this can be achieved by passing electric current through a metal pipe by wrapping the duct with a material through which an electric current is passed. the integrated result would be h. Both Tw and Tb can vary in the zdirection. The solution to the problem: 63 .Therefore for Pr> 1 the flow develops hydrodynamically more rapidly than it does thermally. The solution in the entrance region The Leveque solution (1928) for the Nusselt number in the entrance region for laminar flow and constant wall temperature 6.average heat transfer coefficient. The fluid temperature at the inlet is T∞ and varies within the tube.
) Tbcontinues to approach Tw with increasing Z.3 Heat transfer in laminar flow. The heat transfer rate for the problem is 64 . (In case of a pure substance condensation is an isothermal process. but the flux q’’w decreases with increasing z. The combined effect is that the local coefficient hz becomes constant in the thermally developed region.Constant wall temperature Experimentally constant wall temperature can be achieved by allowing a fluid to condense on the outside surface of the tub.The is the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient based on the local heat transfer coefficient is: 6.
From dimensional analysis it can be seen that: The following graph summarizes the results obtained from the solution of the differential equation of energy. The temperature profile is thermally developed when 1/Gz> 0.05 65 .Graphical representation of results The Nusselt number based on the local coefficient hz is significant parameter.
5 Heat transfer in turbulent flow in tubes in tubes Turbulent flow becomes hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed after a short distance from the entrance to the tube: Ze< 50 D 66 .4 The combined. Graphical representation of the problem (as graphs of Nu vs 1/Gz) is available in literature for constant wall temperature or constant wall flux as well. For this case the heat transfer in the entrance region is more sensitive to the Prandtl number. For the combined problem of developing velocity and the temperature profiles. the case is referred to as the combinedentrylength problem.6. Sieder –Tate equation is useful : It applies to steady laminar flow of Newtonian fluid in a tube having constant wall temperature under the following conditions: 6. It is often impractical to have graphs from which to obtain Nusselt number.entrylength problem for the laminar flow When the laminar flow is not developed hydrodynamically or thermally.
since value of hL must be known to evaluate Tw. at the wall temperature. The use of this equation may be trial and error. In place of this type of correlation another is often used.Boelter Equation 67 .Heat transfer coefficients are higher with turbulent flow than with laminar flow. Since the rate of heat transfer is greater I turbulent flow than in laminar flow. This equation should be used for water. Combining with experimental results. the following is found to apply: SiederTate equation: This correlation is applicable in case of moderate temperature differences between the wall and the fluid. and hence µw. which consists of using a dimensionless group j called the Colburn factor: The dimensionless group j is often plotted against the Re number Dittus. most equipment are operated in the turbulent range. Dimensional analysis predicts that the Nusselt number depends on Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. It is not possible to obtain a closed – form solution for the velocity profile in turbulent flow.
These correlations for the turbulent regime predict the local Nusselt number. The average Nusselt number based on a heat transfer coefficient for the entire tube is not available. When dealing with noncircular conduits. the hydraulic diameter or equivalent diameter is used in the heat transfer correlations whenever D diameter appears. 68 .
HEAT EXCHANGERS A heat exchanger is a device designed for exchanging heat between two fluids. .single pass multi pass The objective is to predict:  the amount of heat transferred the outlet temperature of one or both fluid streams .counterflow ( or countercurrent flow) – the 2 fluid streams travel in opposite direction.the two fluid streams travel in the same direction along the exchanger. . depending on what is known. that all the heat lost by the hot fluid is transferred to the cold fluid (that is there are no heat losses). One fluid flows through the shell.tube heat exchanger – it consists of a huge outer cyclinder ( shell ) within whiocmh are contained many tubes (tube bundle). 7. the other flows through the tubes.doublepipe heat exchanger – It consists of 2 concentric pipes. the required the heat transfer area .1 Classification of Heat exchangers (1) By flow arrangement: parallel flow. .shell – and.others (3) By the number of passes: . 69 . (2) By construction .crossflow. It is usually assumed. One fluid flows through the inner pipe.7.the 2 fluid paths cross each other at right angles. the other flows through the annulus .
the upper limit of t2 is T2 70 . however.2 Temperature Distributions In the counterflow arrangement t2 ( cold fluid outlet temperature) can be greater than T2 (hot fluid outlet temperature). In parallel flow.7.
7. when not more.65m)  15ft (4. Such an exchanger may consist of several passes arranged in a vertical stack.57m) or 20ft (6. 71 . than 914m2 of heat transfer surface is required It is preferred for small capacity. high pressure and countercurrent operation For low flowrates.1m) Application of doublepipe exchangers:  It is useful.3 Doublepipe heat exchanger One fluid flows through the center pipe while another flows in the annulus. Effective lengths: 12ft (3.
has developed a standard for basic construction. If for the shell and tube heat exchanger the number of tubes are less than about 30(3/4in=19mm OD tubes) and the diameter of the shell is less than 200mm. the number of double –pipe heat exchangers required becomes large (high flow space requirement. a large number of small diameter shells in series are required to provide adequate velocities and nearcountercurrent flow. so an alternative apparatus.Considerable time and expense required for dismantling and periodically cleaning it compared with the other types of equipment. they require considerable space. If the heat duty (q) is less than 500kW. 7. shell and tube heat exchanger can be used.tube heat exchanger Where a high flow rate is involved. Disadvantages Each doublepipe exchanger introduces no fewer than 14 points at which leakage might occur . when a large number are connected. high capital cost). 72 .4 Shelland. as an association of heat exchanger equipment fabricators. Under these conditions a shellandtube heat exchanger is uneconomic. The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer’s Association (TEMA) .
termed tube sheets. along their length. at each end. The tubes pass through a number of flat plates. to form a liquid. called the tie bundle is held together by a system of tie rods and spacer tubes. The assembly of tubes and baffles. The condensing vapor may consist of  A single substance ( eg steam) 73 . called baffles. 8 Condensation heat transfer Condensation is a convective process associated with a phase change of fluid.The number of tubes in the tube bundle ranges from about 20 to over 1000. Processes of heat transfer accompanied by phase change are more complex than simple heat exchange between fluids. Condensation occurs when a saturated vapor comes into contact with a solid surface whose surface temperatureTw is below the saturation temperature Tsat. which serve to support them and direct the fluid flow in the shell in such a way that the heat transfer is enhanced. The tubes are attached to perforated flat plates.
and clear the surface for more droplets. coalesce into small streams. sweep away condensate. glycerin. large portion of the surface area is covered with an extremely thin film of liquid of negligible thermal resistance.g. A mixture of condensable and noncondensable substances (e. The drops grow and coalesce with their neighbors’ to form visible fine drops. The fine drops. which flow down the surface under the force of gravity. During drop wise condensation. scratches.g. Film –type condensation When the condensate wets the surface. dust. in turn. isoheptane. consequently the heat transfer coefficient at these bare areas is very high. it forms a continuous liquid film through which heat must be transferred. The average coefficient for dropwise condensation may be 510 times that for the filmtype condensation and can be as high as 110 000W/m2K. specks …). It is this film of 74 . There are 2 types of condensation dropwise condensation filmtype condensation Dropwise condensation The condensate begins to form at microscopic nucleation sites (eg tiny pits. Dropwise condensation occurs when the condensate does not wet the surface (e. nitrobenzene. ethylene glycol. Mixed vapors condensing at constant pressure condense over a temperature range and yield a condensate of variable composition until the entire vapor stream is condensed. The liquid film flows over a surface by the action of gravity. This type of condensation is so unstable and is so difficult to maintain (because the surfaces become wetted after prolonged exposure to a condensing vapor) that the method is not uncommon.  The condensing temperature of a single pure substance depends on ly on the pressure therefore the process is isothermal. steam…). steam and air) A mixture of 2 or more condensable vapors. For normal design purposes filmtype condensation is assumed.
The film may flow in the laminar or in the turbulent regime. and geometry The usual design for condensers employs tubes. These same basic design equations used for heat exchangers are valid. so that condensation is a constant pressure process. Friction losses in a condenser are normally small. with the condensate formed inside or outside of the tubes. The thickness of the film increase rapidly in the first few centimeters and then more and more slowly.liquid between the surface and vapour that forms the main resistance to heat transfer. Pure vapors are usually condensed on the outside of tubes (shell side). The basic equations for the rate of heat transfer in filmtype condensation were first developed by Nusselt (1916) 75 . depending upon whether the condensation process takes place on vertical or horizontal tubes. Condensing film coefficients are much greater than those in forced convection and are of the order of magnitude of several thousand of W/m2K. depending upon: the rate of condensation fluid properties length of path of the growing condensate film. but the nature of the coefficient correlations is somewhat different.
The temperature of the condensing surface Tw is constant. 76 . The condensate film flows in laminar flow 3. 5.1 Vertical surfacesLaminar flow On a vertical flat surface of width W a vapor is condensing in a filmtype manner. 6. The temperature distribution through the film is linear. Pure vapor is at its Tsat saturation temperature 2.8. Heat is transferred through the film solely by conduction ( 4. Negligible vapor shear exists at the interface. The physical properties of the condensate are constant and evaluated at a mean film temperature Tf hz = k/δ) 7. Nusselt Assumptions: 1. The film is 2dimensional and has a thickness of δ at any z location [δ=δ(z)].
Velocity distribution The velocity distribution in the falling film can be determined from the NavierStokes equation as 77 .
78 .
79 .
80 .
81 .
82 .
electrodialysis. Mass transfer operations include distillation. The mass transfer is a result of concentration difference. the diffusing substance moving from a place of high to one of low concentration. adsorption. The function of the operations: Distillation: is to separate. liquid extraction. leaching. These operations separate mixtures into its component parts. petrol. kerosene. (dialysis.PART 2 1. filtration. 83 . washing of NH3 from a mixture of NH3 – air by liquid water). If the operations involve changes in composition of solutions. a liquid of miscible and volatile substances into individual components or into groups of components (e. Liquid extraction (solvent extraction): a mixture of 2 components is treated by a solvent that dissolves 1 or more of the components in the mixture Leaching (extraction of solids): a soluble material is dissolved from its mixture with an inert solid by means of a liquid solvent. they are called mass transfer operations. etc but these are nonequilibrium operations). crystallization. H2O vapor of a stream of N2 by condensation). gas absorption. or gradient (which is the driving force). by vaporization. Dehumidification: a pure liquid is partially removed from an inert or carrier gas by condensation (e. Adsorption: A solute is removed from either a liquid or gas through contact with a solid adsorbent. dehumidification. The operations may be conducted in either batchwise or continuous manner. screening…). crude oil into LPG. fuel oil.g mixture of alcohol and water.g. Mass transfer can occur in the same phase orfrom one phase to the other. Such operations may be entirely mechanical (e.…) Gas adsorption: a soluble vapor is absorbed by means of a liquid in which the solute gas is more or less soluble. The solute is then recovered from the liquid by distillation. INTTRODUCTION A large number of the unit operations used in the recovery and purification of metals are concerned with the problem of changing the composition of solutions and mixtures through methods not involving chemical reactions. diesel.g. The mass transfer operations are characterized by transfer of a substance through another on a molecular scale. drying.g. from its mixture with an inert gas (e. permeation. O2 Ar. the surface of which has a special affinity for the solute. liquid air into N2.
Auxilliary operations heat addition orremoval ( to change temperature or phase conditions) work addition or removal ( to change pressure) . This mechanism is analogous to the heat transfer by conduction. Sometimes the diffusion process is accompanied by bulk flow of the mixture in a direction parallel to the direction of diffusion and it is often associated with heat flow. utilizing the concept of equilibrium stages. mass transfer occurs by the mechanism of forced or natural convection. We will consider only binary mixtures 84 . If the mixture is stagnant. we will extend the analogy to include mass transfer. Solids separation by size Mass transfer problems can be solved by 2 distinctly different methods: based on diffusional rate processes. If there is a bulk mixing of phases or layers of fluids by mechanical stirring or because of a density gradient. This is called eddy diffusion. involve knowledge of the equilibrium relationships between phases.mixing or dividing. You have already seen that analogy between momentum and energy transfer. The choice of method depends on the kind of equipment in which the operation is carried out. the transfer occurs through stagnant layers of solid or fluid by molecular diffusion. however. All mass transfer calculations.
being only a small fraction of the length of its actual path. a simple paddle agitator rotating in the tank at 22rpm will bring about complete uniformity in approximately 60s.2. In a twophase system not at equilibrium. the flow of the diffusing component is continuous.) Diffusion also takes place in fluids by physical mixing and by eddies of turbulent flow. On the other hand. The analogy between heat and mass transfer is so straightforward that equations developed for the former are often found to apply to the latter by simply changing the meaning of the symbols. The average distance the molecule travels between collisions is its mean free path. This method of solute transfer is called eddy or turbulent diffusion. If the contents of the tank are left completely undisturbed. completely penetrate the liquid. (e. the net distance in one direction which it moves in a given time. MOLECULAR DIFFUSION 2. the salt will. 85 . When the gradient is maintained by constantly supplying the diffusing component to the highconcentration end of the gradient and removing it at the lowconcentration end. A molecule is imagined to travel in a straight line at a uniform velocity until it collides with another molecule. by molecular diffusion. A concentration gradient tends to move the compound in such direction as to equalize concentrations and destroy the gradient.75m deep layer of pure water is carefully placed over the brine without disturbing the brine in any way. But placing a 0. ultimately coming everywhere to onehalf its concentration in the original brine.3kg/s per 1m2 of water surface. A 0. no matter how small. uniformity is achieved only by molecular diffusion.5m diameter tank is filled with a salt solution to a depth of 0. whereupon its velocity changes n both magnitude and direction. the rate of diffusion.75m. but because of the considerably higher molecular concentration.1 Molecular Diffusion is the movement of individual molecules through a substance by virtue of their thermal energy. A 1. Within each eddy.g. The molecule thus travels in a zigzag path. the diffusion rates are even slower than in gases. (To demonstrate the importance of the barrier molecular collision presents to diffusive movement: the rate of evaporation of water at 25oc into complete vacuum is approximately 3. and the average velocity depends on the temperature. sum as layer of NH3air as a gas solution in contact with a layer of liquid water. For this reason. But the process is very slow. the diffusion rate is very slow. It can be calculated that the salt concentration at the top surface will still be only 87. The kinetic theory of gases provides a means of visualizing what occurs.5% of its final value after 10 years and will reach 99% of is final value after 28 years. which is the ultimate process.1 mm thick layer of stagnant air at 1 atm pressure above the water surface reduces the rate by a factor of approximately 600) The same general mechanism prevails also for the liquid state. spontaneous alteration through molecular diffusion also occurs.
At the end. the concentration of any constituent is the same throughout a phase.2 Definitions of concentrations. the mass fraction. solute diffuses through the gas phase to the interface between the phases and through the liquid phase from the interface. The molecular mass species i is Mi. velocities and mass fluxes In a multicomponent system the concentrations of various species may be expressed in numerous ways. diffusion occurs in at least 1 phase and often in both phases (e.ultimately bringing the entire system to a state of equilibrium whereupon alteration stops. the molar concentration. In all mass transfer operations. but it will not be the same in both phases. xi.g. ωi. The chemical potential ( or activity ) of the components. ci. will be uniform everywhere throughout the system at equilibrium and this brings the diffusive process to a halt. 2. We will use four: the mass concentration. 86 . In gas absorption. and the average molecular mass of the mixture is M. and the mole fraction. ρi. which is differently dependent on concentration in the 2 phases.
I In a diffusing mixture the various chemical species are moving at different velocities. Then. Let vi denote the velocity of species I with respect to stationary coordinate axes. for a mixture the local mass average velocity v is defined as 87 .
the velocity of A relative to the stationary point VA is then the sum of the diffusion vAd and the molar average velocity v*.This is the local velocity one would measure by a Pitot tube and identical to the bulk flow velocity v as used in for pure fluids. its diffusion velocity is measured relative to the moving fluid. we may define a local molar average velocity v* as When the whole fluid is moving in convective flow and component A is diffusing in the same direction as the flow. Similarly. 88 . The velocity of a particular species relative to the molar average velocity (v*) is called the diffusion velocity (vAd ). Expressed mathematically. since the diffusion velocity vAd is added to that of the bulk phase molar average velocity v*. A is moving faster than the bulk of the phase. To a stationary observer.
and the mas flux is then equal to he molar flux N multiplied by the average molecular mass M.The mass or molar flux of a species is a vector quantity denoting the mass or moles of the species that passes through a unit surface area per unit time. the mass flux is not equal to the molar flux N times the average molecular mass M. the velocity used has been the mass average velocity. ( In the flow of a uniform mixture through a pipe. which apply to mixtures. because the mass average velocity and the molar average velocity are different. vA and vB are identical. The motion may be referred to as stationary coordinates or to the local molar average velocity v* In any of the equations derived for the integral or differential balances. in cases foe which there is a concentration gradient in the direction of flow. Therefore.) 89 . vA and vB differ with effect noted above. there is no interdiffusion effect . However.
g distillation) 3. nA) is approximately equal to the flux relative to the average velocity of the fluid due to diffusion (JA. the flux with respect to stationary coordinates (NA.) 90 . both constituent must diffuse if uniformity is the ultimate result. and this leads to the use of 2 fluxes to describe the motion of 1 constituent. Diffusion of A and B takes place in opposite direction. the area being measured in a direction normal to the diffusion.When the mole fraction xA or mass fraction ωA are small. Absorption of a single component from a gas into a liquid) 2.g in diffusion of chemically reacting species to and from a catalyst surface. (e. but the molar fluxes are unequal (e. jA) 2. (eg.3 Fick’s first law There are 3 types of situations in diffusion: 1. and the total flow is the same as the flow of A. Only 1 component (A) of the mixture is transferred to or from the interface. kmol/m2s ( it is important in the design of equipment) J= the molar flux relative to a fixed location in space kmol/m2s (it is more characteristic of the nature of the constituent.we don’t deal with this) Diffusion rates are described in terms of molar flux (mole/areatime). so that there is no net molar flow. Diffusion quantities In a nonuniform solution. even containing only 2 constituents. The diffusion of component A in a mixture is balanced by an equal aand opposite molar flow of component B. N= the molar flux relative to a fixed location in space.
NA= NxA+JA since xA=cA/c and N =cvz All the above has considered diffusion in only 1 direction . The movement of a carried by molecular diffusion. velocities. just as heat flows by conduction in the direction of decresing temperature. concentration gradients . but in general. rather than the average molar velocity of the fluid. 91 . Fick’s law is the definition of diffusivity DAB . For steady state conditions the net flux is NA+NB=N It is usually convenient to describe the mass flux by diffusion (diffusion flux) relative to a stationary coordinate system. and diffusional fluxes exist in all direction. This can be done by the following consideration: The movement of A carried by the convective bulk fluid flow.Fick’s first law states that the species A diffuses (moves relative to the mixture) in a direction of decreasing concentration of A.
2.0 cm2/s. DAB ranges 105 to 106cm2/s and it varies appreciably with the concentration and temperature. Unlike the case for binary gas mixtures the diffusivity for a dilute solution of A in B is not the same as for a dilute solution of B in A. Often the desired values are available and they must be estimated from published correlations. Diffusivities in gases can be predicted with considerable accuracy from kinetic theory. Solids 92 . undissociated molecules.1.1. which move rapidly than the large. an approximate value of D is sometimes obtained.4 Diffusivity Diffusivities are best established by experimental measurements. For strong electrolytes dissolved in water. but this method can lead to large errors for nonideal solutions. For intermediate concentrations. Diffusivities for dilute solutions can be calculated approximately from formulas presented in literature. Gases DAB values fall in the range of 0. The diffusivity of gases varies inversely with pressure: The diffusivity of gases varies wit temperature as DAB=const T3/2: Liquids The theory of diffusion in liquids is not advanced nor the experimental data as plentiful as gas diffusion. The diffusivity in concentrated solutions differs from that in dilute solutions because of changes in viscosity with concentration and also because of changes in the degree of nonideality of the solution. the diffusion rates are those of the individual ions. The diffusivities can be considered independent of concentration at pressures below ~5atm.
kmol/m3s. The rate of reaction in some chemical processes is determined by solid diffusion. The diffusion process in solids may be strongly nonisotropic. A may be produced by chemical reaction at a molar rate RA. and occasionally a vibration becomes strong enough to cause the atom to escape its original position and jump to a new place. DAB values are given in reference books. through which a binary of A and B is flowing. The atoms in a crystalline solid are localized at certain positions in the crystal lattice. For concentrated systems the diffusivity is a strong function of composition and temperature. An atom vibrates about it equilibrium position.One component in a solid will diffuse through the other at a measurable rate if there is a suitable concentration gradient and the temperature is high enough. the atom needs certain activation energy to jump over this energy barrier. It is of the order of 108 to 1010 cm2/s. The effect of diffusion in solids is very important in metallurgy and ceramic industry. the equation of continuity for component A will be Reminder: the differential energy balance equation for ρ=constant was 93 . A balance equation in general: Rate of A out – Rate of A in + Rate of accumulation of A=Rate of generation of A Expressed in mathematical terms. 3. Diffusion in Binary Mixtures 3. We can write a mass balance for the diffusion species A over the volume element as we have done it for total mass and momentum before. Within this element.1 The equation of continuity for a binary mixture Consider a volume element fixed in space. Its energy is low at the lattice position but higher in between.
If there are no chemical reactions (steady stse. 1 component in a gaseos mixture will be transported relative to a fixed plane (say. In evaporation from a free surface. the vapor will move away from the surface but the air will have kno movement. and we maintain the liquid level at z=z1.2 Diffusion through a stagnant fluid (onecomponent mass transfer or oneway diffusion) In several important processes. whereas the insoluble gas B wll undergo no net movement with respect to the interface. This implies that NB =0 94 . In gas absorption a soluble gas A will be ranferred to a liquid surface where it dissolves. a liquid interface) and the other will undergo no net movement. Consider liquid A (water) is evaporating into gas B (air). The vapor is diffusing at a constant rate (steadystate0 from the liquid surface up through the layer of stagnant air in the tube. and if the bulk flow through the volume element is negligible. since generation of A is zero). the component balance equation for A results in a secondorder differential equation in terms of the concentration: 3.
95 .
96 .
97 .
So the solution of the differential component mass balance is difficult as it was for the differential energy balance equation. and concentration. The fluid flow is more frequently turbulent to increase the rate of transfer per unit area or to increase the interfacial area. 98 . NA is defined a the flux at the phase interface. It ws convenient to express the rate of heat flow in terms of a convective heat transfer coefficient by Newton’s law of cooling: The analogous situation in mass transfer is handled by an equation of the form: The dimensions of kc from the above definition: kc may apply to forced or natural convection. For unsteady state situation. or boundary. the mass transfer coefficient may also depend on time.1 Individual mass transfer coefficients In the practical applications of the mass transfer operations.4. the properties of the fluid . wher substance leaves or enters the phase for which kc is the mass transfer coefficient. Its value is a function of the geometry of the system. MASS TRANSFER COEEFICIENTS 4. the location along the surface. the fluids are always in motion. the fluid velocity . so that we don’t have stagnant fluids.
Transfer of A through stagnant B Since the convective flow term has been ignored in the solution. Comparing the rate equation with the solution of “Transfer of A through stationary B” In a few limited situations mass transfer coefficients can be deduced from theoretical principles. 99 . these masstransfer coeeficients are useful only for low mass transfer rates.2 Mass transfer models Film theory This is the oldest and most obvious picture of the meaning of the mass transfer coefficient borrowed from a similar concept used for convective heat transfer. In th eegreat majority of cases however. for use later in design. we depend on direct measurement under known conditions. 4.
the concentration distance relation ia sa shown by the full curve. The film theory assumes that the concentration will follow the broken curve of the figure.When a fluid flows turbulently past a solid surface. since it does not exist. its thickness cannot be determined by any experiment. The problem was solved to give the molar flux of A as 100 . Thus. Instead of attempting to solve the equation of the fluid flow. the the concentration at the outer edge of this film is cA2.) The problem is now reduced to steadystate diffusion through a stagnant film of thickness δ. we use film theory.That is the resistance to diffusion in the entire flowing fluid is considered equivalent to that in a stagnant film of δ thickness. such that the entire concentration difference (cA1cA2) is attributed to molecular diffusion within an effective film of thickness δ. (This is a fictitious film. The shape of the curve is controlled by ED eddy diffusivity to DAB. with mass transfer occurring from the surface to the fluid. because of a concentration difference of (cA1cA2).
the effect of mass transfer on heat transfer. 101 . characteristic of steady state.) Penetration theory In many situations the time of exposure of a fluid to mass transfer is short. and in predicting the effect o reaction rate on mass transfer. The thickness of this fictitious film extends beyond the laminar sublayer to allow for the change in concentration in the buffer layer and turbulent core. geometry. The film theory is in conflict with our knowledge of turbulent flow. Higbie (1935) described the contact of 2 fluids with this theory.That is the ktype mass transfer of coefficients for different solutes are directly proportional to the DAB’s for the solutes. Unfortunately this last equation does not allow a direct way to evaluate kc. since it does not exist. but does well in case of high mass transfer flux. would not have time to develop. since the thickness of this hypothetical film δ. So this fictitious thickness of laminarflowing fluid offers the same resistance to transfer as actually exists in the entire turbulently flowing fluid. since only part of the concentration gradient is in the laminar sublayer and all of it is postulated to occur across a laminar film. so that the concentration gradient of the film theory. this is not equivalent to a laminarflowing film. concentration levels etc. Obviously δ can never be measured. is a function of the same parameters as the mass transfer coefficient itself: velocity and properties of the fluid. (Although there exists a laminar sublayer next to the wall in turbulent flow.
102 .
The average flux over the time interval 0 to tT is
This independence on DAB is typical of short exposure times, where the depth of solute penetration is small relative to the depth of absorbing pool. Difficulty: tT is not usually known. The depth of penetration, defined as the distance at which the concentration change is 1% of the final value is
Surface renewal theory The Higbie theory assumed a constant time of the eddies of fluid at the surface. Danckwerts gave more realistic picture, where the eddies are exposed for varying length of time. The liquidgas interface is then a mosaic of surface elements of different exposuretime histories. Since the rate of solute penetration depends on exposure time, the average rate for a unit surface area must be determined by summing up the individual values.
5. INTERPHASE MASS TRANSFER
In most mass transfer operations 2 insoluble phases are brought into contact to transfer of constituent substances between them. Therefore, we have to apply simultaneously the diffusional mechanism for each phase to the combined system. The rate of diffusion within each phase is dependent on the concentration gradient existing within it. At the same time, the concentration gradients of the 2phase system are indicative of the departure from equilibrium, which exists between the phases. When equilibrium is established, the concentration gradients and hence the rate of diffusion falls to zero.
5.1 Equilibrium Dynamic equilibrium
Example: the absorption of NH3 from NH3air mixture by water.
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A fixed amount of water and NH3air mixture is placed in a closed container and maintained at constant temperature and pressure. Since NH3is very soluble in water, some NH3 molecules will instantly transfer from the gas into the liquid, crossing the interfacial surface separating the 2 phases. A portion of the NH3 escapes back into the gas, at a rate proportional to their concentration in the liquid. As more NH3 enters the liquid, the concentration increases in the liquid and the rate at which NH3 returns to the gas increases, until eventually the rate at which it enters the liquid exactly equals that at which it leaves. At the same time, through the mechanism of diffusion, the concentration throughout each phase becomes uniform. A dynamic equilibrium now exists, and while NH3 molecules continue to transfer back and forth from phase to the other, the net transfer falls to zero. The concentration within each phases no longer change. To the observer who cannot see the individual molecules the diffusion has apparently stopped.
Equilibrium relations
There are many useful equilibrium equations in books on physical chemistry. A few simple equations relating to vaporliquid equilibrium and gas absorption: Dalton’s law According to this law the partial pressure of a gas within a gas mixture is equal to the product of the total pressure (P) and its mole fraction (yi) of the gas phase. This law applies whether the gas is ideal or nonideal
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Roult’s law When the liquid phase can be considered ideal, it is possible to predict the equilibrium partial pressure (pi*)of an ideal gas/vapor from the solution concentration and the physical properties of the pure components.
In reality there are no ideal solutions. Ideality would require that the mplcules of the constituents be similar in size, structure and chemical nature. Practically however, many solutions are so nearly ideal that for engineering purposes they can be so considered. Roult’s law matches experimental data best for components present in high concentration.
Henry’s law
For liquid solutions, which are not ideal, Roult’s law gives highly incorrect results. If the solution is sufficiently diluted, th eproportionality constant is no longer the vapor pressure of the pure componenet Pi but Hi
105
It is convenient to use an overall mass transfer coefficient. with continous flow of th e contacted phases such that concentrations at any point in the equipment used do not change with time.When Henry’s law holds. by water. Most gases follow Henry’s law to equilibrium pressure to ~5 std atm. there must be a concentration gradient in the direction of mass transfer within each phase. or dependent on. which is real driving force. the film theory of mass transfer.Overall mass transfer coefficient The theory has a wrong name because it is related to. Since the solute is diffusing from the liquid mixture (phases) into water (phase m). But these bulk concentrations cannot be used directly with a mass transfer coefficient since the 2 concentrations are differently related to the chemical potential. Consider the extraction of a soluble component from a liquid mixture. The mass transfer occurs between two immiscible fluids. 5. the solubility is defined by giving the Henry law constant and the temperature. The bulk concentrations cs and cm are notequilibrium values. Many of the mass transfer operations are carried out in the steady flow. Correctly. just as an overall heat transfer coefficient was used in heat transfer. To get around the problem. Lewis and Whitman (1923) assumed: 106 . the name should be 2resistance theory. since diffusion of the solute A occurs.3 Twofilm theory.
I and cm. This implies that The concentrations cs. The only diffusional resistances are those residing in the fluids themselves.I are equilibrium values==>  (Experiments verify the validity of the assumption) The concentrations are shown graphically in the next figure. Point P: represents the 2 bulkphase concentrations Point M: represents the concentrations at the interface 107 . There is no resistance to solute transfer across the interface separating the phases.
as in the penetration theory.For steadystate mass transfer. so that no accumulation or depletion of A at the interface occur The overall resistance to mass transfer is the sum of individual resistances (hence “tworesistance theory) The “films” in the model need not be stagnant layers of a certain thickness in order for the 2film theory to apply. the rate at which A reaches the interface from Liquid 1 must equal that at which it diffuses to the bulk liquid II . 108 . Mass transfer in either film may be by diffusion through a laminar boundary layer or by unsteadystate diffusion.
6. Laminar flow occurs in only a few systems. heat. However. so that stable laminar boundary layers cannot build up.6. because most mass transfer systems contain more than one fluid phase. and mass transfer Dimensionless groups 109 .2 Similarity between momentum.1 Mass transfer with laminar flow In laminar flow molecular diffusion prevails and therelationships developed for steadystate diffusion of A through stagnant B” can be used to calculate mass transfer rates. MASS TRANSFER WITH LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW. 6. laminar boundary layer exists when mass transfer occurs between a solid and a fluid and in a falling liquid film.
110 .The Schmidt number …………………….