FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Heat transfer is energy in transit, which occurs as a result of temperature gradient or difference.

This temperature difference is thought of as a driving force that causes heat to flow. The concepts of heat transfer and temperature, the key words in the discipline of heat transfer, are 2 of the most basic concepts of thermodynamics.

drivingfffff ffffffffff fffffforcef fffffffff Rate of transport process= fffffffffff or rate = coefficient Bdriving force resistance
System: a region in space containing a quantity of matter which is separated from its surroundings by a boundary. Closed system (no – flow system): no exchange of matter with the surroundings, only heat and work cross the boundary. Open system (flow system): there is matter exchange with the surroundings in addition to heat and work. Work (W): is a transient quantity (energy) which only appears at the boundary when a system changes its state due to the movement of a part of the boundary under the action of a force. Sign convention: system + the work is done by the system on the surroundings: the work exits the


the work is done on the system by the surroundings.

(Although there cannot be said to be any work in a system either before or after the change has taken place, work may be said to “flow” or be “transferred” across the boundary.) Heat (Q): is “something” (energy transfer), which only appears at the boundary when a system changes its state due to a difference in temperature between the system and its surrounding. Heat, like work, is a transient quantity, which only appears at a boundary while a change is taking place within the system. (Although there cannot be said to be any heat in a system before and after a change of state, loosely speaking heat may be said to “flow” or be “transferred” across the boundary. Strictly speaking it is energy which is transferred, but to say “heat is transferred” is a shorthand way of saying “the energy transferred by virtue of a temperature difference.”) Sigh convention: + if heat flows into a system from the surroundings: If heat flows from the system to the surroundings.

1.1 First Law of Thermodynamics It is the principle of conservation of energy. It is an axiom. The first law of thermodynamics says that there exists a property of a closed system (U) such that a change in its value is equal to the difference between the heat supplied and the work done during any change of state:

X δQ @ δW =U 2 @U 1




where U is the internal energy, J

Writing Q and W for the quantities of heat and work crossing the boundary during the change of non heat energy equation state: Q-W=U2-U1 By words: any quantity of heat supplied to a closed system must equal the increase of internal energy plus the work done by the system. The internal energy of a closed system remains unchanged. For isolated systems Q=0, W=0 therefore ∆U = 0 For irreversible non-flow processes the energy equation can only be applied in integrated form:

Q @ W = ∆U
For reversible processes, the energy equation can only be applied in differential form:

d Q @ δW = d U δQ @ pdV = dU δW = pdV


For reversible, constant pressure processes (closed system):

p = constant [ pdV = d pV [ δq @ d pV = dU δQ = d U + pV = dH where H = enthalpy, J or Q = ∆H
b c





Steady-flow energy equation (for open system)
b c 1 b c ` a f f 2 Q @ W = H 2 @ H1 + fm v 2 @ v12 + mg z 2 @ z1 2

The potential energy term is either zero or negligible compared with the other terms. The 1st law of thermodynamics does not make any distinction between heat transfer and work transfer: to it they are both energy “interactions” (non-properties) that must be distinguished from the energy change (property) 1.2 Second Law of Thermodynamics It is an axiom. It says that it is impossible to construct a system which will operate in a cycle, extract heat from a reservoir, and does an equivalent amount of work on the surroundings. The 1st law says: the net work can never be greater than the heat supplied.

The 2nd law says: it must always be less. Therefore if a system is to undergo a cycle and produce work, it must operate between at least 2 reservoirs of different temperature. As a consequence, work is a more valuable form of energy transfer than heat: heat can never be transformed continuously and completely into heat.

dQf fff fff ff f There exists a property of a closed system (s) such that a change in its value is equal to Z T


for any reversible process undergone by the system between state 1 and state 2
1 2f


dQf fff fff ff f T


= S 2 @ S 1 where S = entropy, J / K


or in differential for:

dQf fff fff ff f T


= dS


The entropy of a reversible isolated closed system remains constant. (For reversible adiabatic a dQf fff ff f process dQ = 0 but dS = fff d S = 0 [ S = constant ) [ T The entropy of an irreversible isolated closed system increases:
2f 2f

dQf fff ff f Z fff T

g g




since dQ = 0



dQf fff fff ff f T

= S 2 @ S1


dQf dQf fff ff f fff ff f The cycle as a wjhole is irreversible, and E fff Z fff = T T




Therefore S1-S2<0



The proper distinction between heat transfer and work transfer is made by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. There is always an entropy transfer associated with the heat transfer. A work transfer carries zero entropy. The 2nd law of only provides definite quantitative statement about reversible processes. Only for such processes is it possible to predict the work and heat transfers crossing the boundary of a system. For irreversible processes the law merely provides statements of trend (that the entropy of an isolated irreversible system must increase), and quantitative prediction of energy transfer

cannot be made. Therefore empirical relations (such as Newton’s law of viscosity, Fourier’s law of heat conduction, and Fick’s law of diffusion) are used. They all take the form of proportionality between a quantity transferred in an irreversible process and the property gradient. These “laws” are approximate empirical relations, whose accuracy is manifested by the fact that the “proportionality constants” are not in fact constants but vary with the conditions of the experiment (temperature, pressure, or their gradient,…)

1.3 TEMPERATURE It is the system property that determines whether the system is in thermal equilibrium with another system. In thermal equilibrium of system A and B: TA=TB. The temperature of a system is measured by placing the system in “contact” with a special system (a test system) called thermometer. Temperature scales have 2 reference points. Celsius scale 0oC Ice-point of water (ice and air-saturated water in equilibrium at standard atmosphere pressure) 100 oC: Boiling point of water (liquid water in equilibrium with its own vapor at standard atmospheric pressure) Fahrenheit scale 32 oF: Ice-point of water 212 oF: Boiling point of water ToC =5/9 [T(oF)-32] Kelvin scale (thermodynamic scale or absolute scale) 273.16K: Tripe-point of water (it is only slightly above that of the ice-point 273.15K) 0 K: Absolute zero The unit of thermodynamic temperature is 1/273.16 = 1K This odd unit makes Tbp-Ticepoint = 100K and ∆T ° C = ∆ K T The temperature difference in Kelvin is the same as it is in oC 0 oC=273.15K and T(K)= T(oC)+273.15
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1.4 The Modes of Heat Transfer There are 3 basic modes of heat transport: 1. Conduction 2. Convection 3. Radiation Conduction (Fourier’s law) Heat is transported on a molecular scale with no movement of macroscopic portions of matter relative to one another. Conduction can take place through solids, liquids, and gases. In fluids: The kinetic energy of the molecules is associated with the property we call temperature. In high – temperature regions, molecules have higher kinetic energies than those in a low – temperature region. The molecules in the high- temperature region transfer their energy, through collisions, to molecules in the low-temperature region. In solids: Conduction is due to motion of free electrons in metals, lattice waves (vibrations of the crystal lattice structure) in non metals, magnetic excitations and electromagnetic radiation. Convection (sensible heat; and Newton’s law) It is heat transport due to the bulk motion of the fluid. The process occurs through the movement of macroscopic volume elements of the fluid in space from a region of one temperature to that of another. The energy transported in this way is called sensible heat.
Q = mc p T
fl in


fl out



Convection also involves the energy exchange between a solid and a fluid (interface transport). Convection is only possible in a fluid medium 2 types of convection are distinguished (a) free or natural convection – The fluid moves because of the density difference resulting from the temperature difference in the fluid (b) forced convection – The fluid is forced to flow past a solid surface


Radiation It is the transport of energy by electromagnetic radiation having a defined range of wavelength. The wavelength range of interest in thermal radiation extends from 0.2-20µm. (The wavelength range of visible radiation is 0.3-0.8µm, and that of infrared (IR) radiation is 0.8-400µm). All substances emit radiant heat but the net flow of heat is from the high – to – low temperature region. So the cooler substance will absorb more radiant heat energy than it emits. The radiation from all bodies depends on temperature (increases with temperature). No physical medium is needed for the propagation of radiation. Often all 3 forms of radiation are involved simultaneously. It is then usual to calculate the heat transport by each mode separately and adding the separate effects to provide an estimate of the total rate of heat transport. In a number of cases, 1 mode of heat transport is dominant. 1.5 Fourier’s law of heat conduction Fourier’s law of heat conduction is based on the empirical observation of one- dimensional steady heat flow through a solid. (Steady flow means that the temperature at any point does not vary with time; one-dimensional means that the temperature is uniform over surfaces perpendicular to the direction of heat flow.)

The slab is of Area A Heat is conducted through the slab in only 1 direction (x)

qf dTf ff f f ff ff ff ff f xf =@k Fourier’s law (1822) A dx
Where qx= heat flow rate in the x direction, J/s= W

k can be considered constant. so the right-hand side of the equation is a positive quantity. For large temperature ranges K=ko +bT where ko= thermal conductivity at 0oC b = empirical constant 7 . Constant k. but not a very strong one. For small changes of temperature. at x=L T=T2. constant heat flux. Constant heat flux. Fourier’s law of heat conduction is an experimentally observed law and serves as a definition of the property of substances called the thermal conductivity. m2 dt/dx= temperature gradient or slope of the temperature curve k= thermal conductivity. K is a function of temperature.A= area normal to the heat flow direction. Its numerical value is an indication of how fast heat is conducted through the material. qff ff fZ f x dx = @ k Z dT A 0 T1 L T2 qff Tffffff ff ff f ffffff f@T f f Xf 1 f ff = k fffff2f A L Thermal conductivity k Thermal conductivity is a property of a material. the temperature decreases. w/mk Qx/A= Heat flux (heat flow rate per unit area) W/m2 As x increases. The – sign ensures that the equation properly indicates that the heat flow is in the direction of temperature fall. T=T1. at x=L T=T2 . Solving Fourier’s equation for the slab: qff f f x Z ff = Z @ kdT At x=0 T= T1. constant k dx A 0 T1 L T2 At x=0.

The characteristics of the flow affect greatly the heat transfer rate between the wall and the stream.k varies over a wide range.04-0. A few examples of thermal conductivities Material Metals Alloys Water Air Insulators K. W A= characteristic area.Newton’s law of cooling Convective heat transfer occurs when a fluid acts as a carrier or conveyor belt for the energy that it draws from (or delivers to) a solid wall. 1. The heat flow may be related to the temperature difference between the temperature at the interphase (Tw) and that in the fluid (Tfl) q = hA T w @T b fl c Newton. oC h=heat transfer coefficient. The thermal conductivities of most liquids are rather small. the rise in temperature that this heat will produce will vary with the specific heat (cp) and the density (ρ) of the body.0251(at 20 oC) 0. It is highest for metals and lowest for finely powdered materials.598 (at 20oC) 0. W/m2K (or film transfer coefficient or surface conductivity) This is not really a law but rather a defining equation for h heat-transfer coefficient h is not defined for a specific situation until A and ∆T are stated.2 While the rate of heat is transported in a body (q) is dependent on the thermal conductivity (k) and the temperature gradient (∆T).6 Interphase transport (convective heat transfer) . W/mK 50-400 10-120 0. m2 ∆T= characteristic temperature difference. 8 . s law of cooling 1701 ` a Where q = heat flow rate. except for metallic liquids.

Heat is transferred from the wall to the fluid. The bulk temperature is the temperature that would be attained if all the fluid flowing across the section in question were withdrawn and mixed adiabatically to a uniform temperature b T w @ T b can be –the initial temperature difference c -the arithmetic mean temperature difference 9 . The temperature decreases from Tw at the wall to T 1 free stream temperature at some distance from the wall. q = hA T w @ T 1 Where h= average heat transfer coefficient. that is customarily assumed over b c the length of plate. An internal flow configuration (tube flow) q = h D A π L T w @ T 1 where Tb = bulk fluid temperature ` ab c Bulk temperature is also called “cup mixing temperature” or “flow average temperature” When a fluid is being heated or cooled. known as the hydrodynamic boundary layer. In many cases. The temperature distribution T(y) is also drawn. empirical correlations are available to predict h. since it often cannot be predicted theoretically. This distance is called thermal boundary layer thickness and is highly dependent on the flow velocity.A heated plate with a uniform wall temperature of Tw is immersed in a uniform fluid flow of velocity v V 1 and temperature T 1 . At any location the velocity at the wall is 0 and increases with increasing y to V 1 free stream velocity at some vertical distance away. the temperature will vary throughout the cross section of the stream.

and -surface temperature distribution For a particular situation it can be obtained either by direct measurement or from existing empirical or semi-empirical correlations. k) -system geometry. Typical values of the convective heat transfer coefficient for various fluids: Fluid and condition Air in natural convection Superheated steam or air in forced convection Oil in forced convection Water in forced convection Boiling of water h.transfer coefficient is not a constant characteristic of the fluid medium. -roughness of the surface. W/m2K 5-25 30-300 60-1800 300-6000 3000-60000 10 . It depends in a complicated way on –fluid properties (µ. -characteristic temperature difference (∆T). -flow velocity and velocity distribution. ρ. cp.b T ff@T ffffffff@ffb2ff + T w2 ff f T ffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffff ffff fw1 fffb1 2 c b c - the logarithmic mean temperature difference Heat transfer coefficient The heat. These correlations are in the form of equations involving dimensionless numbers.

9) A black body emits thermal energy at a rate that is proportional to the 4th power of its absolute temperature. m2 Stephan-Boltzmann equation σ=5.α =0. Stefan Boltzmann constant T= absolute temperature of the black body. they have an emissivity ε< 1. Actually no material with ε =1 and zero reflectivity (fraction of the total energy reflected) exists.0 and are called grey bodies. where ε is the emissivity – the ratio of the emissive power of a surface to that of a black body.0) Because of the 4th power of the absolute temperature.Condensation of steam 6000-120000 1.676 x 108 W/m2K4. Even the blackest surfaces occurring in nature still have a reflectivity of about 1% (absorptivity of 99%. A black body also emits radiation.this is negligible in process engineering. Their emissive power is reduced by ε qr = AσT4 (ε<1. qr = AσT4 (ε=1. A black body is defined as one that absorbs all radiant energy at all wavelengths and reflects none: α=1. depending on its temperature ε=1. where α is the absorptivity or fraction absorbed. the contribution of radiation to heat transfer is not significant at low temperatures.7 Radiation heat transport When thermal radiation falls upon a body.0. 11 .0) where qr= heat flow rate . but becomes predominant at the temperature levels encountered in pyrometallurgical processing. and part may be transmitted through the body. part is absorbed by the body in the form of heat. W A=surface area of the body. part is reflected back into space. K Real materials do not emit electromagnetic radiation ideally as black bodies.

96 0.96 0. Net heat transfer between 2 radiating surfaces In an enclosure all surfaces will simultaneously emit and absorb radiant energy from the other surfaces. Smooth and rough surfaces have almost the same emissivity.93 0. highly polished metallic surfaces have very low emissivities. If short-wave radiation. transmit. window Paint black Paint white Red brick skin Soil Water Wood ε 0.04 0. It is less known that the reflection of the same bodies is very small for long-wave radiation. This however holds only for low temperature radiation. like that of the sun strikes a white surface or ice. The maximum intensity of radiation shifts to greater wavelengths with decreasing temperature.96 0.Emissivity The surface of a substance highly influences its radiation characteristics and therefore the amount of radiative heat the surface can absorb. reflect and emit. Non metallic materials are characterized by high emissivities in the infrared region.88-0. the absorptivity is much smaller than when it hits a black surface. Thus. Some normal emissivity values of various materials at room temperature Material Aluminum polished Aluminum rough Asphalt Concrete Glass.93 0. The good reflection of sunlight by ice or white fabrics is well known. Kirchhoff’s law states that at the same temperature T1 α 1 = ε1 of a given surface.07 0.93-0.95 0. The emissivity of metallic surfaces increases with increasing temperature.80-0. Most metals have emissivities that are quite high – approaching the black body limit of unity. The corresponding rates of emission and absorption will depend on the temperature of 12 .90 Clean.93-0. radiation at low temperature is mainly long-wave radiation. Emissivity is a property that describes how radiant energy interacts with the surface of the material.95 0.98 0.85-0.97 0.89-0.90-0. The emissivity is determined entirely by the properties of the surface of the material and its temperature.

F1-2 ≤ 1 and is a dimensionless factor. The net radiation heat transfer from cylinder (1) to cylinder (2) b c 1 4 4 ffffffffffff ffffffffffff ffffffffffff f q = ffffffffffffσA1 T 1 @ T 2 g 1f Aff 1f ff f1f ff f f f ff f f f f + f f@ 1 ε1 A 2 ε2 Infinite parallel plates If plate (1) is at higher temperature than plate (2). = ffffffffffσ T 1 @ T 2 f g 1f 1f ff f f f f f f + ff 1 @ ε1 ε2 Radiation to a small object from surroundings Let’s examine a small gray object (area A1. then the net heat flux from (1) to (2) is b c 1 4 4 ffffffffff ffffffffff fffffffff q. Two long concentric cylinders and concentric spheres Cylinder (1) with a surface A1 and the temperature T1 encloses cylinder (2) with a surface area A2 and the temperature T2 (T1>T2). 13 . temperature T1) in a large enclosure at a higher temperature ofT2 so there is a net radiation to the small object. the resultant rate of heat transfer by radiation from one to the other may be determined. that electromagnetic radiation travels in straight lines F1-2 shape factor is defined as the fraction of total radiant energy that leaves surface 1 and arrives on surface 2. When 2 surfaces are at a given distance from each other.each surface. . View factors of several geometries are available in many literatures. The small object emits an amount of radiation of A1 ε1 α T 1 It absorbs energy from the surroundings at T2 by A1 ε1 α T 2 The net heat of absorption: 4 4 α 1 at T 2 ≈ ε1 at T 1 qr = A1 ε1 σ T 2 @ T 1 4 b 4 c View factor (or shape factor) In radiation heat transport it must be considered .

qr = A1 ε1 σF1 @ 2 T 2 @ T 1 4 b 4 c Radiation heat transfer coefficient Analogously to Newton’s law of cooling. 14 . W hr = radiation heat transfer coefficient. W / m 2 K b c When radiation heat transfer occurs from a surface it is usually accompanied by convective heat transfer unless the surface is in vacuum: qconv = A1 hc T 2 @ T 1 The total heat transfer is the sum of the two: q = qconv + qrad = hc + hr A1 T 2 @ T 1 b c b c Note: The convective heat transfer is not strongly dependent on temperature. however the radiation heat transfer coefficient is a very strong function of temperature. Effect of radiation on temperature measurement The temperature of a flowing fluid in a tube is usually measured by a thermometer or thermocouple put into a well. When a thermometer is placed in a gas stream to measure temperature. Consider the element shown on the next sketch. which is welded into the tube wall. the temperature indicated by the sensing element is determined by the overall energy balance on the element. a radiation heat transfer coefficient hr can be defined as qrad = A1 hr T 2 @ T 1 b c qrad = heat transfer rate by radiation. Energy will be transferred by convection to the thermometer and then dissipated by radiation to the surroundings.

A short. This equation shows that the temperature indicated by the thermometer is not the true gas temperature but some radiation –convection equilibrium temperature.This equation assumes that the surroundings are either very large or black. the maximum radiation intensity is found at 0. m Radiation shields are frequently employed to alleviate this difficulty. depends on its absorptivity. The heat transfer coefficient h for the above heat balance can be estimated from: Nu=0. The amount of the solar radiation. 40% in the visible wavelength range and 55% in the infrared (IR) up to ~3µm. Radiation shields are made of metals which are highly reflective outside the blackened inside. They do not deliver or remove any heat from the overall system.3 Re0. Vey large errors can result temperature measurements if this energy balance is not taken into account. and 15% is absorbed in the temperature. The radiation shield must be designed so that it protects the temperature sensing element of the thermometer from the radiation coming from the walls but does not inhibit convective heat transfer at the thermometer surface. a white surface has considerably smaller absorptivity than the Al surface for solar radiation. As a consequence of the high temperature.For instance. Radiation from the sun The sun radiates very nearly like a black circular disk with a temperature of 5600K. 15 . Solar radiation has a short wavelength and the absorptivity for such radiation may be considerably different from the absorptivity for long wave radiation . they only place another resistance in the heat flow path so that the overall heat transfer is reduced. which a surface absorbs. This insulation power depends upon the emissivity of the shield surface. hollow cylinder open on both ends is a desirable configuration.57 where Nu=hd/k= Nusselt number Re=ρvd/µ= Reynolds number d= outer diameter of thermocouple well (house). An estimate of the errors in temperature measurement should be made in each installation. In a yearly average the earth absorbs ~43% of the radiation coming from the sun (27% directly and 16% directly as diffuse sky radiation). 42% is reflected or refracted back to space from clouds and the air and reflected from the earth’s surface.5µm wavelength and approximately 5 % of the radiation occurs in the ultravoilet (UV) range.

z = @ k fff . z = @ k fff ∂z . r = @ k fff . ∂x q. x = @ k fff . ∂y q. . . . Θ = @ f fff r ∂Θ ∂Tf fff ff f q. . x = @ k fff . . e z are unit vectors in the x. and z direction f f f f f f f f f 5 in cylindrical coordinates: 5 =e r 5 in spherical coordinates: 5 =e r f f f f ∂f eff fff f ∂f f ff ff fff f ff f ff ff ∂ f f ff ff Θ f ff f f ff f f f f f f f ∂f eff fff ffff ff f ff ff fff ffff ∂ff f ff ff ∂ f e φ ff ff ff Θ f ff ffff ff f f ff ∂r + r ∂Θ +e z ∂z ∂r + r ∂Θ + rsinθ ∂φ Fourier’s law then in the different coordinate systems: Rectangular Cylindrical Spherical ∂Tf fff ff f q. e y . φ = @ k ffff ∂Tf ffff fff ffff fff ffff ff f rsinθ ∂φ ∂Tf fff ff f q. . . W q”= heat flux: heat flow rate per unit area normal to the heat flow direction. y = @ k ∂Tf fff fff ff f . y = @ k ∂Tf fff fff ff f ∂y ∂Tf fff ff f q. r = @ k fff . . . ∂r kf∂Tf f fff f ff f q. . it cannot stand alone but must operate on a scalar.2 THE GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION Symbols used: q= heat flow rate. Θ = @ f fff r ∂Θ q. ∂r kf∂Tf f fff f ff f q. W/m2 q”’= heat flow rate per unit volume W/m3 2. . ∂z 16 ∂Tf fff ff f q. ∂x q. z = @ k ∂Tf fff fff ff f ∂z Fourier’s law in vector form: q / / = @ k 5 T f ∂ff f ∂ff f ∂f f ff f ff f ff f ff f ff f ff The del operator 5 in rectangular coordinates: 5 =e x ff+ e y ff+ e z ff ∂x ∂y ∂z f f f f 5 is a vector. vector or tensor function. It has dimensions of 1/L (1/m) 5= F ff ff ∂f G ∂ff ∂ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff . . y .1 Fourier’s law of heat conduction in 3 dimensions ∂Tf fff ff f Fourier’s law in 3 dimensions: q. ∂x ∂y ∂z 5 =e x . .

by heat conduction.2. The conversion of chemical energy into heat (reaction heat of chemical reactions) 3. by virtue of overall fluid motion (sensible heat) 17 . The degradation of electrical energy (as a result of electric current passing through the material) 2. The Degradation of mechanical energy (viscous dissipation) 4.consider only this now 2. Nuclear reaction Thermal energy in or out: 1.2 The general heat conduction equation The statement of the law of conservation of energy: Rate of thermal energy accumulation = Rate of thermal energy in Rate of thermal energy out + Rate of thermal energy production Thermal energy may be “produced” by: 1.

ffffffffffLff∆yff q.Rate of thermal energy in by conduction across surface at x across surface at y across surface at z ∆y∆z q. differentiating gives du=dh. ∆y Q 0. ρ =@ + + z + q/ ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z L M LM L M LM L M LM Substitute Fourier’s law in all direction and from thermodynamics: du=dh=cpdT [u=h-pv. . . yLyM @ q.fffff fffff∆yfffq. . . Since in solids p and ρ are constants therefore v=constant so du=dh. ∆z Q 0 L M LM L M LM L M LM q.ffffffffff. zLzM @ q. From the definition of specific heat dh=cpdT] 18 . fz fff f z z + f @ ff f z ρ ff= @ lim ffffffffffffffff lim ffffffffffffffff @ lim ffffffffffffffff+ q/ @ ∆x Q 0 ∆y Q 0 ∆z Q 0 ∂t ∆x ∆y ∆z f g ∂qf.fffff ffffffffff ffff f x x + f @ ff x x f. .vdp. x ff @ q. . yL y L ∆x∆z q. fffffffffffffff ∂uf ff ff f f.ffff∆xfffq.pdv. fy fff f y y + f @ ff f y f.ffffffffff. fffffffffffffff q. zLz + ∆z L ∆x ∆y∆z q/ ∆x~ }~ B { ~ ~ρ ~∆y∆z~~y ~~ ~ ~ ~ mass rate of change in internal energy per mass ∂uf ff ff ff f w ∂t Substitute into the energy balance equation and divide by ∆x ∆y∆z M .fffff fffff∆zfffq.fffff q. zLz L ∆y∆z q. y fy + fM . z fz + fM ∂uf q. .f ff fff f. . yLy + ∆y ∆y∆z q.ffLffffff. ffffffffff.ffff∆xff q.ffffffffffLff∆zff ff ffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffff ff fffx fffffffffff f fffffffffffffff fffffffffffffff ρ ff= ffffffffffffffff+ ffffffffffffffff+ ffffffffffffffff+ q/ ∂t ∆x ∆y ∆z LM L M LM L M LM L M Take the limits as ∆x Q 0. xLx + fM . xLx + ∆x L ∆x∆y q.ff ∂qfff ∂qfff ∂uf ff ff ff f ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff fx f ff fy . xLx L Rate of thermal energy out by conduction Across surface at x+ ∆x Across the surface at y + ∆y Across the surface at z + ∆z Rate of thermal energy production: Rate of thermal energy accumulation: L ∆x∆y q.

. . . . = ∂t Where ∆ = 2 ∆ + 2 operator is called the Laplacian. in rectangular coordinates it is + ∂ z2 ∂x 2 ∂ ff ∂ ff ∂ f fff fff fff fff fff fff ff f ff f ff f ∂ y2 k ff fff fff ff f Introducing α = pc p thermal diffusivity. m2/s q. Boundary conditions are restrictions (specifications) applied at the physical boundaries of the system.f 1f∂Tf 2 fffff f fff f ff f ffff ff. . . In vector notation: ∂Tf 2 fff ff f ρc p fff k∆ T + q. The number of boundary and initial conditions required is dependent on the order of the differential equation (for a second order differential equation 2 conditions are required) 19 .ρc p ∂Tf ∂ff ∂Tf ff ∂ff ∂Tf ∂f ∂Tf fff fff ff f ff ff ff fff fff ff f ff ff fff fff ff ff f ff ff fff fff ff f =@ @k @ @k + @k + q. f = ∆ T + ffff which is another form of the general 3-dimension unsteady-state α ∂t k conduction equation Simplified forms of the heat conduction equation No heat source ∂Tf 2 fff ff f ρc p fff k∆ T = ∂t 2 ∂Tf 2 fff ff f or fff α ∆ T = ∂t Steady state and no heat source ∆ T =0 Laplacian equation 2. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂Tf fff fff ff f =k ∂t h i T T Tf ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff fffk fff fff fff j ∂fff ∂fff ∂fff 2 2 2 f g f g f g ρc p ∂x 2 + ∂ y2 + ∂ z2 + q.3 Boundary and initial conditions Boundary and initial conditions are required to determine the integration constants.fff . Initial conditions are specifications applied at a specific time for unsteady problems. This is the general 3-dimensional unsteady-state conduction equation in rectangular coordinate system.

The temperature at the surface may be specified e. An initial time condition: the temperature or heat flux may be specified at the start.ff ∂Tf fff fff ff f fff f o f = @ fff= constant ∂x k 3. q . At solid-solid interfaces the continuity of temperature and heat flux may be specified. T=Tw 2.) qf.g. = qc .fluid interface the heat flux may be related to the difference between the temperature at the interface and that in the fluid by Newton’s law of cooling. Initial conditions are commonly of 2 types: 1. 2. steady –state is reached.4 kinds of conditions are commonly used: 1.) 20 . (This is equivalent to specifying the temperature gradient at the surface. At a solid. Time goes to infinity ( for a number of problems when t =1 . The heat flux at a surface may be specified e.g. ` M a ∂Tf fff ffM fM @ k fff x = 0 = h T Mx = 0 @T 1 ∂x 4.

Solve the differential equation by integrating and using B.1 Heat conduction in a plane wall ∂Tf 2 2 fff ff f ρc p fff K∆ T + q / [ ∆ T = 0 = ∂t 21 . Find the heat transfer rate 7. Read the problem carefully. 2. Comment A) Plane geometry systems 3.3 STEADY-STATE CONDUCTION IN ONE DIMENSION The temperature is a function of only one space variable Objectives: -To determine the temperature distribution-To find the heat transfer rate Procedure to solve problems: 1. Begin with the appropriate form of the general conduction equation 4.C to obtain the temperature distribution 6. Make assumptions to simplify the differential equation 5.C and I. sketch 3. identify the given quantities and change them to appropriate units.

qx=∆T/R 22 . C . W temperature difference. 2 at x = δ T= Tffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff 2 @T 1 x + T1 δ T = T 1 [ T 1 = C2 T = T 2 [ T 2 = C1 δ + T 1 [ C1 = Tffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff 2 @T 1 δ the temperature distribution i the slab is linear b c kA b c dTf kAf fff ff f ff f ff ff ff Fourier. 1 at x = 0 B . s law: qx = @ kA fff @ fffT 2 @T 1 = fffT 1 @ T 2 = ff dx δ δ Rate of flow= driving force / resistance Rate of flow: Driving force: Resistance: qx heat flow rate. o C thermal resistance. B . K/W ∆T= T1-T2 R=δ/kA ∆Tff fff ffff ∆T f ffff ff ff ff qx = ffff= fff δ / kA R 3.2 Composite walls (Materials in series) A composite wall consist o 3 materials placed next to each other For each layer we can apply the solution of the slab. C .In x @ direction: 2 dfff dTf ffTf ffff fff f fff ff f = 0 [ fff c1 [ T = c1 x + c2 = 2 dx dx Where c 1 and c2 are integration constants.

qx1 = qx2 = qx3 = qx = constant ∆T = ∆T 1 + ∆T 2 + ∆T 3 = qx R1 + R 2 + R 3 b c ∆T difference ffffffffff overallfffffffffffffffffff fffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffff ffffftemperature fffffffff qx = ffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffff = fffffffffffffff R1 + R 2 + R 3 thermal resistances P T ffff3 fffffffffffff ffffo @fffffff ffffff T fffff qx = ffffffffffffff δff fff fff δ ff fff fff f1ff fff fff fff fff f2ff d 3ff f f f + fff+ fff k1 A k2 A k3 A 3.∆T 1 = T 0 @ T 1 ∆T 2 = T 1 @ T 2 ∆T 3 = T 2 @ T 3 R1 = δ1 / k 1 A R2 = δ 2 / k 2 A R3 = δ 3 / k 3 A b b c c b c qx1 = qx2 = qx3 = ∆Tff ff1 f fff ff ff R1 ∆T 1 = qx1 R1 ∆T 2 = qx2 R2 ∆T 3 = qx3 R3 ∆Tff ffff fff fff f2 R2 ∆Tff ffff fff fff f3 R3 Since all the heat passes through the first layer must pass through the second and the third one.3 Overall heat transfer coefficient 23 .

In practice the entire resistance to the heat transfer is regarded as being in the laminar sublayer . the mechanism is called convective heat transfer.hcold and k are known. The fluid temperatures an be the bulk temperatures. when the fluids flow through ducts. or free-stream temperatures. when the surface temperatures of the walls are unknown. h cold and k are known b c 1 ffff ffff ffff q = hhot A T hot @ T 1 [ ∆T 1 = T hot @ T 1 = q fffff hhot A b c kAf δf ff ff f ff ff f q = fffT 1 @ T 2 [ ∆T 2 = T 1 @ T 2 = q fff δ kA b c fffff f1fff ffff f q = hcold A T 2 @ T cold [ ∆T 3 = T 2 @ T cold = q fffff hcold A 24 . hhot . when the fluid flows are external. Newton’s law of cooling applies. Most of the temperature drop in the fluids occurs very near the wall in a relatively stagnant boundary layer (laminar sublayer) which adheres to the wall. Despite the fact that the heat flow across this layer by conduction.Frequently it is required to calculate the heat flow through a wall separating 2 fluids of known temperature.

inside radius R1.4 Heat conduction in a cylindrical wall Derive an equation for the heat flow through the wall of a hollow cylinder of outside radius R2. outside wall temperature T2.T hot @ T cold = ∆T = ∆T 1 + ∆T 2 + ∆T 3 = q fffffffffffffff ffTfffffffffff fffff@T ffffff f fffffff f Therefore q = ffffhotffffcoldf1fff 1 δ f ffff fffff fff fffff ffff ffff ffff ff ffff ff fffff f ffff + ff+ fffff f hhot A g 1 fffff fff fffff ffff δ f fffff ffff ff f1fff ffff ff ffff f f + kA + hcold A h hot A kA h cold A It is convenient to express the heat transfer rate in terms of an overall heat transfer coefficient for both convection and conduction resistances: q = UA T hot @ T cold b c Where U =overall heat transfer coefficient based on an area A. W/m2K Comparing the last 2 equations: 1 ffffffffffff fffffffffffff fffffffffff fffffffffffff fffffffffff fffff1fffffff fffffffffff ffffffffffff f c for a plane wall U= 1 = b fff δf f1ff fff f fff f ff ff f fff f fff f ff fff f A R1 + R2 + R3 + + h hot k h cold B) Cylindrical geometry systems 3. No internal heat generation K= constant. length L. and T=T(r) the temperature varies only with r (radial direction) 25 . and inside wall temperature T1 Assumptions: - Steady state.

To determine the integration constants: B.1f∂Tf 1f∂f ∂Tf 1f ∂fff ∂fff q/ff T T fffff f ff f fff fff f ff f ff f = ff r fff ffffff ffff fff + fff ffffff ffff fff + 2f fff+ fff+ ff 2 α ∂t r ∂r ∂r r ∂Θ k ∂ z2 2 2 After simplification and solving: 1fdf dTf df dTf rdTf f ff fff fff ff fff f ff ff fff ff f fff fff ff r ff = 0 [ ffr fff = 0 [ ffff C 1 = r dr dr dr dr dr Cff ff f 1 dT = ffdr [ T = C 1 ln r + C 2 r f g f g The temperature distribution is a logarithmic function.C 1 B.C 2 at r=R1 at r=R2 T=T1 T=T2 26 .

5 Composite cylindrical walls 27 .T 1 = C 1 ln R1 + C 2 [ C 2 = T 1 @ C 1 ln R1 T 2 = C 1 ln R 2 + C 2 [ C 2 = T 2 @ C 1 ln R1 T 1 @ C 1 ln R1 = T 2 @ C1 ln R2 Tffffff Tffffff ffffff fffff ffffff f@ T f f 1 @T f 1 f ff C 1 = fffff2f C 2 = T 1 @ C1 ln R1 = T 1 @ fffff2fln R1 [ Rff Rff ff ff f f ff f f 1 ln ln f1f R2 R2 Substituting the integration constants to get the temperature distribution: ln b c ln R @T1 ffffff Tffffff ffffff fffff fffff f 1 ffffff fffff fR 1 T = T 1 + T 1 @ T 2 ffffff ffffff= ffffff [ ffffff fffff g g T 1 @T 2 Rff Rff ff f f ff f f ln f1f ln f1f R2 R2 d rff ff ff f f e d rf ff ff ff f e The heat flow from the Fourier’s law: ∂Tf ff ff f f fff ff f = @ kA fff qr ∂r A = 2πr L the normal to the heat flow T f@T f dTf Cff 1ffffff2f fff ff f ffffff fff ff f ffffff ff f f 1 1 f ff = f= g dr r r f Rff ff f f ln f1f R2 b c ∆T T f@T f fffLf ` a 1f ffffff 2πk fff f ffffff fffff fff fff ff f ffff f 1 f ff qr = @ k 2πrL f fffff2f= ffffff T 1 @T 2 = fff f g g r RT Rff Rff ff ff f f ff ff f f 1 1 ln ln R2 R2 ln Therefore the thermal resistance is RT = g Rff ff ff f f 2 R1 ffffff ffffff fffff fffff f 2πkl 3.

A composite cylindrical wall consists of 3 materials placed in series. the heat flow rate in radial direction in the composite cylindrical wall can be determined Temperature distribution Location d rf ff ff ff f e Thermal resistance g Rff ff ff f f 2 R1 ffffff ffffff fffff fffff f Tffffff ffffff @T 1 R ffffff ffffff ffffff fffff ffffff fffff = f 1g T 2 @T1 Rff ff f f ln f2f R1 ln R1 ≤ r ≤ R2 RT1 = ln 2πk 1 L f Tffffff ffffff @T 2 R ffffff ffffff ffffff fffff ffffff fffff = f 2g T 3 @T1 Rff ff f f ln f3f R2 ln d rf ff ff ff f e R2 ≤ r ≤ R 3 RT2 = g Rff ff ff f f 3 ln R2 ffffff ffffff fffff fffff 2πk 2 L f Tffffff ffffff @T 3 R ffffff ffffff ffffff fffff ffffff fffff = f 3g T 4 @T 3 Rff ff f f ln f4f R3 ln d rf ff ff ff f e R3 ≤ r ≤ R 4 RT3 = ln 2πk 3 L g Rff ff ff f f 4 R3 ffffff ffffff fffff fffff 2πL T f T 4 @ Tffffff ffffffffff1fffffffffff @T 4 fffffff ffffffffffffffffffff fffffff ffffffffffffffffffff ffffff ffffffffffffffffffff d e d e qr = 1 = d e f2 f ff f f ff ff ff f4 f ff f f 3 X RT i ln Rff ln Rff ln Rff Rf ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff ffffff fff1ff fff f ffR 2ff fff f ff ffR 3ff fff f ff i + + k1 k2 k3 b c 28 . We can apply the results obtained for cylindrical wall. Using the temperature distributions and thermal resistances given in the next table.

L= length of tube δ = Ro @ Ri = wall thickness = Rhot = hi Ai ln d 1 ffff ffff fff fff Ai = 2πLRi R wall = R cold 2π k 1 L 1 ffff ffff ffff ffff = A i = 2π LR 0 ho A o b c b c e Rff fo f ff ff f ffffff ffffff ffR fff fffff fi T hot @ T cold 2π L f hot @ T ff ∆Tff fffffffffffffffff fffffTfffffffffff fffff fffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffcoldfff ffff ff f d e d qr = fffff ffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffefffffff = fffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffff = Rff Rff fof ff f f fof ff f f XR ln ln 1 1 ffff ffff ffffff ffff f1 ff ffffff f1ff ffff ffffff ffff ffff ffffff ffff ffff ffR iff f f f ff f ffff ffffff ffff ffff ffR iff fff fffff f fff + fff ff+ ffff ffff+ ffffff ffff + fff h o Ao 2πk L hi Ai ho Ro k h i Ri 29 .3.6 Overall heat transfer coefficient In many problems fluids with different temperatures are flowing inside and around tubes and we need to determine the heat transfer rate knowing the bulk fluid temperatures.

Often it is desirable to express this equation in terms of an overall heat transfer coefficient U: qr = UA T hot @ T cold b c The question is which area to select for A. It is customary to select the outside surface area (Ao) of the cylinder (pipe). adding insulation causes an increase in heat loss. but sometimes the inside surface area (Ai) is chosen. To= outside tube wall temperature Ro= outside tube radius T∞=ambient fluid temperature The overall resistance is the sum o the “cylindrical shell” resistance of the insulation and the external convective heat transfer resistance: 30 .7 Critical thickness of insulation In industry. Comparing the last 2 equations. insulating a pipe is a common practice because it is an inexpensive method of retarding heat losses. the overall heat transfer coefficient Uo based on Ao is Uo = 1 fffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff ho e Rff fof ff f f Ri 1f ffffffff 1fRff ff ffffffff ff ff ff ffffffff ff ff ff fffffff f fffffff ff f f 0 f + R o ln d k + h i Ri The overall heat transfer coefficient Ui based on Ai is Uo = ffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff fffffff1fffffffff f h o Ro e Rff fof ff f f 1f ff ffffffff 1f ffRff ffffffff ff ff ff ffffffff ff ff ff ffffR iff f if fffffff f ff f + R i ln d k + hi 3. In some cases. however.

the addition of the first layer of insulation decreses the overall thermal resistance R.e Rfff fff ff ff f insf ln Rf 1 ffffff ffffffffff ffffff ffffffffff fffo ff fffffffff c R = fffffff bffffffffff + d 2πkL 2πRins L ho b 2π T O @ T 1 Tfffffff qf fffffffffffff ffffff f@ffff ff T 1 f ffffffffffff d e q = f0ffffff f= fffffffffffff [ f fffffffffffff f ff ff ff R L ln Rffff ins 1 fffffff fffff ffffff ffffff ffffff fffff ffR o ff fffff ff ffff + ffff k h o R ins c q/L reaches a maximum or R a minimum where ∂Rff ffff ffff fff ff ∂ or d e qf f f f f fffff ffL ff fffff ffff f ∂Rins =0 ∂Rins =0 ∂Rff fff1fffff fffff 1ff 1 ffff fffffffff fffffffff ffff fffffffff fffffffff fff ff ffffffff f fffff ff f =` a fff@ h 2π L 2 1ff ff ff ∂Rins 2πk L fff o Rins R ins Solving for the critical insulation radius for the cylinder Rins crit f g 1 1 fffffffff 1f fffffff fffffffff f fffffff fff f1fff f fffffff fff ffff f fffffff f 2π L Rins crit k kf ff f Rins crit = ff ho @ ho Rins crit 1f fffffff 1 f fffffff f fffffff = 0 [ f= fffffff k ho Rins crit The critical insulation radius corresponds to maximum heat transferred. than the same wire if bare. In case of a “thick” bare cylinder: Ro> Rins crit . A wire insulated with a covering of not too low thermal conductivity may run cooler. not insulating until Rins>Rins crit. the addition of insulation always increases the insulation effect. If Rins< Rins crit . then adding insulation increases the heat transferred. for a given current. (Eg. so enhances heat transfer.) The critical insulation radius for a sphere is Rins crit= 2(k/ho) 31 . In case of a “thin” bare cylinder: Ro< Rins crit . A practical application is the problem of insulating electrical wires where the objective would be the provision of adequate electrical insulation at the same time providing the maximum wire cooling.

cooling of ingots. or The time needed to attain a certain temperature - The general heat conduction equation: qffff . and 1 initial condition for t 32 . Curing time of objects made of molded plastic or rubber.4.It may control the rate at which process equipment is brought to stable operating conditions. Many industrial heat conduction problems are unsteady state. Constant k. The temperature history.the heat-transfer rate. ρ In 2-dimension: - 2 boundary conditions for x - 2 boundary conditions for y. 1f∂Tf 2 fffff f fff f ff f ffff = ∆ T + ffff α ∂t k Assumptions: - No internal heat generation ( q’’’/k=0). annealing of casting. UNSTEADY.fff ..STATE HEAT CONDUCTION In transient –conduction problems temperature varies with the location within the system and with time. heat treating and casting of metals). Unsteady state heat conduction is important in determining the processing time of many solid articles (eg. burning of bricks.… The aim is to find . Other examples are heat flow through a building wall during the daily 24-hour heating and cooling cycle.

for others both are important. but for more complicated systems we need numerical or graphical techniques.1 Systems with negligible internal resistance. There is a heat loss or gain by convection (internal transfer) to the surroundings.Lumped capacitance model Consider an object at an initial temperature of Ti that is being cooled (or heated) by a fluid stream at a temperature of T∞. only a temperature difference between the surface and the free stream The heat transferred between the object and the fluid is controlled by the surface resistance (ie the value of the heat transfer coefficient h) - - 33 . For some problems the internal resistance is negligible compared to the surface resistance. the internal resistance (δ/kA) to the het flow is small then: - The temperature profile within the object is uniform and everywhere equal to the surface temperature.For relatively simple geometries the above differential equation can be solved. Still. For other problems the surface resistance is negligible. At any instant in time there are no temperature gradients within the object. 4. There are 2 types of resistances to the heat transport: - Internal thermal resistance: δ/kA Surface or film resistance : 1/hA We can identify 3 types of problems that arise for a transient problem. If the thermal conductivity of the object is high.

Because the temperature does not change (significantly) withi the solid. we can formulate a model by performing an energy balance on the object. 34 .The heat –transfer process is called Newtonian cooling (or heating). To simplify the differential equation we introduce dimensionless temperature Then the heat flow rate becomes This means that the body-fluid difference decays exponentially.

ρ cp V - lumped capacitance ρcpV/hA . or decay time constant.This equation describes the time-temperature history of the solid object. It is called the lumped capacitance equation. Examining the exponent of the lump capacitance equation: The ratio of volume to surface area for an object is often used as a characteristic length Lch Where Fourier number is a dimensionless time parameter. or thermal time constant. Thus the lump capacitance equation becomes: 35 . It presents the ratio of heat transfer by conduction to the energy storage rate within the material. It takes a longer time for the body to reach equilibrium with the surroundings fluid when its lumped capacitance is large and / or its product hA is small.the characteristic time of decay.

At any time.1. The instantaneous temperature from the lump capacitance equation is This implies: The amout of heat Q in Joules transferred from the solid from time t=0 to t= t is 36 . the instantaneous rate of heat transfer q(t) in Watt from the body is Where T= instantaneous temperature. This is the criterion for the lump.The assumption of negligible internal resistance is reasonably accurate when Bi < 0.capacitance equation to apply.

The thickness of the plate is 2L. will assume the same temperature as the fluid: T1=T∞ which holds when Bi>1.) If the heat transfer coefficient h is very large then the film resistance (1/hA) is negligible so the surface temperature.4. The aim is to predict the temperature profile in the plate with time. an the heat transfer rate.2 Systems with negligible surface resistance Consider an infinite plate of thickness 2L at an initial uniform temperature Ti. Fourier solved this problem by developing the method of Fourier series. The descriptive differential equation: 37 . the left and right surfaces of the plate are suddenly cooled to T1 by a fluid at a temperature T∞. At some time zero. once exposed.

The boundary conditions are: Change to dimensionless quantities: The dimensionless differential equation is then: The new boundary and initial boundary conditions are: The Fourier number appears in the dimensionless equation therefore Θ=Θ(Bi. Fo. The analytical solution got by the separation of variables method: 38 . x/L) the temperature distribution is a function of Fourier and Biot numbers and x/L.

The temperature history at the midplane (x=L) is of practical interest and is a function of Fourier number: For values of Fo much greater than 0. An infinite cylinder is a cylinder where the diameter is small compared to the length. only the first term in the series need to be used in the solution (except at points very close to the boundaries). The instantaneous heat flow rate (q) and the amout of heat transferred (q) for the infinite plate are : 39 .This equation is for the case where the left and right faces of an infinite wall are maintained at the same temperature Ti. knowing Fo number the dimensionless temperature for the center plane can be read for different shapes.This makes possible a graphical presentation . On a chart (Fig 6.6).1. An infinite plate is a plate whose thickness is small in relation to the other dimensions. The centerline of the plate is a line of symmetry and therefore analogous to an insulated or adiabatic surface.

a sphere and other types of common geometries. The solutions are conveniently summarized graphically on the above charts. The solutions are complex in form.1<Bi< 1 Analytical solutions for a variety of problems are given in the literature. 40 .On a chart (fig 6.7) q (in watt) and Q (in Joule) can be read as a function of Fo A similar analysis can be formulated for an infinitely long cylinder . 4.3 Systems with finite internal and surface resistances Both internal and film resistances are significant 0. Heisler charts (1) The dimensionless temperature history at the center of an infinite plate of thickness. Calculations made from such solutions are presented in graphical form by Heisler (1947) and Grober (1961). a semi-infinite solid.

This chart can be used to calculate the midplane temperature from Fourier number.9 Q= the total amount of energy (J) that has passed through the wall up to any time t 41 . which in turn can be used in the next chart to determine the temperature at any other x location within the plate. (2) The dimensionless temperature distribution in an infinite plate at any x location within the plate is given in Fig 3.

H ∞). This is also represented on the charts. Let’s examine the analytical solution to the same problem. For this case 1/Bi=k/hLch=0. The solution to this problem appeared in fig 6.7 for the case of negligible surface resistance ( h is high Ts =T∞).4 Semi-infinite solid A solid body occupying the space from x=0 to x= ∞ is initially at temperature Ti. For the negligible surface resistance case the heat transfer coefficient is large (ie. 42 . Lch=R) are also available. At time T=0. 4.Qo = the initial internal energy of the wall relative to the fluid temperature T∞( it is equal to the maximum internal energy change that can occur) Qo = ρcpV(Ti-T∞) Similar charts for infinite cylinder (L/R > or = 10 at least. Note: the characteristic length (Lch) used in the lumped-capacitance method is different from the characteristic length used in the Heisler and Grober charts. the surface at x=0 is suddenly raised to temperature Ts and maintained at the temperature fot t>0 constant wall temperature.

This integral is a function of its upper limit. The right hand side is called Gauss error function or probability integral and denoted by error function of lamda .Assumptions: - heat conduction occurs only in x direction. no heat generation. constant physical properties. Some properties of the error function: Therefore: 43 . Its values are available in tables. The conduction equation The boundary conditions for the constant surface temperature: This integral has no closed form.

The error function reaches a value of 0. therefore we can define a thermal penetration thickness δT as that didtance x for which the temperature dropped to a value of 0. the initial temperature is changed by less than 1 % of the difference ( TsTi) 44 .001(Ts-Ti) For distances x> δT .99 when the argument is about 2.

45 . then the semi-infinite solid solution can be used. The heat flux is Then the heat flux at the surface is The total amount of heat (Q) transferred from the solid from t=0 to t=t is The problem can be redefined and the surface convection effect or constant heat flux at the surface could be accounted for.When δT is small with respect to the plate thickness L. then the finite slab solution (rectangular parallelopipedon) has to be used. When V is of the order of magnitude of plate thickness L. The next figure compares the solutions the 3 types of possible boundary conditions.

t)= 1(x. we shall use the following symbols: 46 .t) . 1(x.y.4. their product gives the solution to the combined problem: 2(y. If 1(x.t).t) are known solutions to 2 separate one-dimensional problems.5 Bodies of Finite Size Solutions to one – dimensional problems can be combined to obtain the solutions having finite geometries. 2(y.t) For the purpose of simplifying the notation.t) and 2(x.

The following figures show how the solutions to 2 one dimensional problems are combined to obtain the solution to a 2-dimensional problem. Finite cylinder 47 . and at the time zero it is subjected to a fluid temperature T∞ with a heat transfer coefficient h. Other combinations can be made. In each case the solid exists at an initial temperature Ti.

Infinite rectangular bar Semi-infinite plate 48 .

Forced convection The e fluid flow is established by an external driving force (pressure difference –provided by a pump or gravitational force). There are 2 types of heat transport involving fluids: 1. The method of solution: First the velocity profile is found.Parallelipiped (rectangular bar) This body can be viewed as the intersection of 3 infinite plates that are perpendicular. th en it is used to derive the temperature profile. Free or Natural convection The fluid flow is caused by the buoyant effect resulting from heating o cooling the fluid. 5. 2. The method o solution: 49 . CONVECTION In most transfer processes heat transfer in fluids is accompanied by some fluid motion so that the heat transfer does not occur by conduction.

at high velocities it is laminar near the heating surface and turbulent at some distance away. and momentum balance (equations of change). the mathematical difficulties with the integration of these simultaneous non-linear partial differential equations are such that analytical solutions exist only for relatively simple problems. All problems of convective heat transfer can be expressed in terms o f differential mass.1) is For incompressible fluid 5. we have 2 types of flow situation: 1.1 Equation of continuity (equation of conservation of mass) The equation of continuity in vector form is The equation of continuity in rectangular coordinates (Table 7. In general. At low velocities the flow is laminar throughout the system.they are not enclosed but have contact with a solid surface. the fluid motion can be described by the equations of fluid mechanics. energy. External flows.they are enclosed completely by solid surfaces (flow in a pipe or duct) 5. Internal flows. 2.2 Equation of motion (equation of conservation of momentum) 50 .The velocity profile and temperature profile are intimately related and therefore determined together. However. Whether the heat transfer mechanism is natural or forced convection.

and k are constants. then the thermal energy equation (Table 7. If ρ.3 Equation of thermal energy It is more convenient to have the thermal energy equation in terms of fluid properties (µ T cp). µ= constant – Navier stokes equation (Table 7. µ.2) The x-component in rectangular coordinate system: 5.3) becomes 51 .F or ρ= constant.

For turbulent flows none of the velocities vanish in the Navier –Stokes equation and all of the non linear terms remain. It is usually negligible. Therefore. 52 . it is needed only in special situations. can be calculated. Simplification of the equation of thermal energy: For ideal gas For a fluid at constant pressure ( ρ=constant) In rectangular coordinate system: For solids (ρ=constant) 5. pressure and temperature to get mean values and time-averaged the equation of change. such as heat flux or bulk temperature. Once the temperature profile is known.4 Applications of equations of change to turbulent flow The equation s of change in laminar flow for a certain simple geometrical situations can be solved and the temperature distribution can be determined analytically.Where Øv= viscous dissipation function . it is customary to “time-smooth” the instantaneous velocity. other parameters.

This layer is called the boundary layer. He recognized in 1904 that the effect of the solid boundary on the flow is confined too a very thin layer of fluid immediately adjacent to the solid wall and can be considered negligible beyond d it. The equations of change describing the flow are Equation of continuity: These equations were considerably simplified by Prandtl. The refore alternative solution methods have been devised such as boundary –layer theory.5 Boundary layer flow Consider the problem of the 2-dimensional steady flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid with constant properties over a flat plate in laminar flow. 53 . dimensional analysis… 5.For very simple geometry. but for most of the situations we cannot. these equations can be solved.

The velocity increases from zero at the surface to nearly the free stream value at some distance away .When a fluid flows over a surface the elements in contact with the surface will be brought to rest and the adjacent layers layers retarded by the viscous drag of the fluid. The boundary layer grows from the leading edge with distance x. 54 . The thermal boundary layer thickness δT where the temperature approaches T∞: T is approximately T∞. The free stream velocity is approached asymptotically. Anywhere along the plate the velocity profile changes from the uniform free. However. δ and ∆t are a few thousandths of a millimeter thick. Typically . We divide the flow regions into 2 parts: (1) A non –viscous region away from any solid surfaces (ideal fluid: µ=0. That is the hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness δ is where Vx is approximately 0. Suppose a fluid approaches the plate with uniform v∞ (or free stream velocity) and T∞ temperature when the fluid reaches the profile. This layer was termed boundary layer by Prandtl. Thus. Despite their size. The fluid in contact with the surface will be brought to rest and will gradually approach the free stream velocity v∞ at some distance from the surface. a velocity gradient is set up because of the viscous forces acting within the liquid. the velocity in the neighborhood of the surface will change with distance perpendicular to the flow. Within the boundary layer the velocity in x direction varies only with y: Vx=Vx(y) Similar behavior occurs with temperature.99V∞. and therefore the boundary layer strictly has no precise outer limit. ρ=constant) (2) A boundary layer (the fluid adheres to the surface due to viscous effects) The thickness of the layer in which the fluid is retarded becomes greater with distance in the direction of flow. both are important in determining drag forces and heat transfer rates. it is convenient to define the boundary layer thickness such that the velocity at its outer edge equals 99% of the free stream velocity.

As a result of (1). 2. The exact solution by Blasius (1908). The boundary layer is thin compared to the distance measured from the leading edge. 4. d2Vx/dx2 is much smaller than d2Vx/dy2 3. There is no pressure gradient or gravity force in x direction 6. q’’w or Tw can be constant) There are 2 strategies for solving the boundary momentum equation for the velocity profile: 1. vy<<vx (so all terms in the Navier – stokes equation y-component which involve Vy may be neglected). There is negligible heat conduction in the direction of flow: d2T/dx2<< d2T/dy2 The equations for the boundary layer become: Solutions for the temperature profiles depend on the boundary conditions specified (heating could begin at the leading edge of the plate or somewhere downstream. The pressure across the boundary layer is assumed to be constant: dp/dy is approx 0 5. 55 .The mathematical simplifications for the equations of change: 1.

(These slopes give the shear stress and the heat flux at the wall ). Some literature gives the constant 5. Therefore . y=0.96. The approximate solution from the integral method developed by von Karman and Pohlhausen (1921) Blasius’ exact solution It is assumed that the velocity profiles have similar shapes at various distances from the leading edge of the plate. That is δ. It turns out that 56 . that is they have the same functional dependence o y regardless of x location.0 instead of 4. we integrate the boundary layer equations from the wall . to the boundary layer thickness. If δ is the value where Vx/V∞ = 0. the thickness of the boundary layer is proportional to the square root of the kinematic viscosity (ν) and the square root of the downstream distance x. Solution by the integral method This method for solving the boundary layer momentum equation is approximate and much easier to apply to a wide range of problems than is any exact method of solution.2. y=δ. to make ordinary differential equations of them. beyond learning their slopes at the wall.99. We are not really interested in the details of the velocity or temperature profiles in the boundary layer. then: where The Reynolds number based on the downstream distance x.

these much simpler equations do not reveal anything new about the temperature and velocity profiles. The solution leads to the boundary layer thickness The result is in close agreement with that obtained in the exact solution. Shear stress at the wall The shear stress at the surface of the plate τw(x) may be determined from the rate o fluid shear (dvx/dy) in the boundary layer at y=0. The total skin friction drag obtained by integrating the wall shear stress over the plate area ( with W as the plate width): Heat and momentum transfer analogy Let’s define a new dimensionless group called Prandtl number as The physical significance of the Prandtl number of a fluid is that it represents the ratio of the transport coefficient for viscous momentum transport to the transport coefficient for heat conduction. but they do give accurate explicit equations for τw and q’’w. 57 .

Under these conditions. For Prandtl numbers much smaller than unity. If α=ν. the dimensionless velocity is equal to the dimensionless temperature): In the case we can immediately calculate the heat transfer coefficient from the heat flux at the wall from Blasius’ exact solution: 58 .e. δ>δT. When Prandtl is close to unity. δ=δT - - (a) For Pr=1 The equation of energy is similar to the equation of motion. the hydrodynamic boundary layer is relatively small and we neglect the effect of the solid surface on the velocity distribution when we formulate the thermal energy balance. so each problem must have the same solution( i. δ=δT. the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers practically coincide. as in the case of slags. as in the case of liquid metals. as in the case with most gases.- When the Prandtl is large. then the differential equations are identical. the hydrodynamic boundary layer is greater than the thermal boundary layer. the dimensionless velocity profile solution is the same as the dimensionless temperature profile solution and for any point in the flow system. The boundary conditions are identical for dimensionless velocity and dimensionless temperature. that is we may ignore any velocity gradients and assume that all the fluid moves at the free stream velocity. the ability of the fluid to transport momentum is greater than that to transport thermal energy.

the temperature gradient at the wall becomes: So the heat flux at the wall.It is customary to express the heat transfer coefficient in terms of dimensionless group Nux. local heat transfer coefficient and the local Nusselt number is: 59 .332 Re ½ for Pr =1 (b) For Pr not equal to 1 From the integral method of solution Pohlhausen found that With this. So Nux =0.

which. The average heat transfer coefficient h (or h-) for the entire surface is Since the analysis was based on constant fluid properties.These equations give the local heat transfer coefficient (hx) and the dimensionless local heat transfer coefficient (Nux) at a distance x from the leading edge of the plate. they depend on the local temperature. in real situations are not. fluid properties have to be evaluated at the average temperature of the fluid in the boundary layer: Turbulent flow over a flat plate 60 . fluid temperature.

the integral method gives very good results. at distances farther from the leading edge. The heat transfer coefficient depends on the temperature difference selected. the turbulent profile is flatter over a greater portion of the boundary layer due to mixing effect. a point is reached where turbulence appears. For flow in a conduit. The velocity profiles in laminar and turbulent flows are different. However. In turbulent region. there is still a laminar sublayer near the surface. however. and each has an associated heat transfer coefficient. It is not possible to solve the boundary layer equations to obtain an exact solution. Convective Heat Transfer in closed Conduit The most important convective heat-transfer process industrially is that of cooling or heating a fluid flowing inside a closed conduit in pipe.As the boundary layer thickens. The relationship between temperature profile and heat transfer at a boundary surface is defined in terms of the heat transfer coefficient introduced in Newton’s law of cooling. 61 . The onset of turbulence is characterized by a sudden rapid increase in the thickness of the boundary layer. there are several temperature differences of importance. For purposes of calculation it is customarily assumed that transition occurs at Rex= 5 x 105. The hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness is And the local nusselt number is 6. Transition usually occurs over a range 2 x 10 5 < or = Rex < or =3 x 106 and not a single point.

If the pipe wall is heated or cooled. entrance region A fluid usually enters a pipe with uniform velocity and temperature profiles.Although the solution for the differential energy balance in the laminar flow regime is available. and energy equations have been solved for the constant wall heat flux problem to give the following exact solution: 62 . the continuity. Ass a result. where zT is the thermal entry length. then both thermal and hydrodynamic boundaries begin developing at the pipe inlet. Constant wall heat flux In the number of practical problems q’’ wall heat flux is constant rather than Tw wall temperature. The thickness of these boundaries layer grows till δ=R at z=ze. For flow over a plate. where ze is the hydrodynamic entrance length and δT = R at z=zT. 2. momentum. This is not usually the case for the heat transfer with turbulent flow. The heat transfer coefficients for the laminar flow have a strong dependence on position. There are 2 objectives 1. To relate the heat transferred to the fluid temperature between the wall a nad the fluid 6. engineers prefer to work with heat transfer coefficients. To relate the heat transferred to the temperature change experienced by the fluid. even for laminar flow.1 Laminar flow. in terms of the heat transfer coefficient. it is customary to express heat transfer performance.

The solution to the problem: 63 .Therefore for Pr> 1 the flow develops hydrodynamically more rapidly than it does thermally.average heat transfer coefficient. If we integrate the local coefficient hz over a definite area (such as the surface area As). the integrated result would be h. The temperature profile reaches a non-changing shape (thermally developed flow). Experimentally this can be achieved by passing electric current through a metal pipe by wrapping the duct with a material through which an electric current is passed. At any axial location z. Both Tw and Tb can vary in the z-direction. The solution in the entrance region The Leveque solution (1928) for the Nusselt number in the entrance region for laminar flow and constant wall temperature 6.constant heat flux at the wall The heat flux at the wall q’’w = q/A = constant. The fluid temperature at the inlet is T∞ and varies within the tube. T varies from Tw to some value at the center line. but with the constant heat input that exists.2 Heat transfer in laminar flow. It is an important quantity. T-T∞ increases with increasing axial distance z. The local heat transfer coefficient hz is Tw-Tb is the temperature difference between the wall and the fluid.

3 Heat transfer in laminar flow. The combined effect is that the local coefficient hz becomes constant in the thermally developed region. The heat transfer rate for the problem is 64 . (In case of a pure substance condensation is an isothermal process.) Tbcontinues to approach Tw with increasing Z.The is the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient based on the local heat transfer coefficient is: 6. but the flux q’’w decreases with increasing z.Constant wall temperature Experimentally constant wall temperature can be achieved by allowing a fluid to condense on the outside surface of the tub.

05 65 .Graphical representation of results The Nusselt number based on the local coefficient hz is significant parameter. From dimensional analysis it can be seen that: The following graph summarizes the results obtained from the solution of the differential equation of energy. The temperature profile is thermally developed when 1/Gz> 0.

For the combined problem of developing velocity and the temperature profiles. For this case the heat transfer in the entrance region is more sensitive to the Prandtl number.6. Sieder –Tate equation is useful : It applies to steady laminar flow of Newtonian fluid in a tube having constant wall temperature under the following conditions: 6. the case is referred to as the combined-entry-length problem.5 Heat transfer in turbulent flow in tubes in tubes Turbulent flow becomes hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed after a short distance from the entrance to the tube: Ze< 50 D 66 . Graphical representation of the problem (as graphs of Nu vs 1/Gz) is available in literature for constant wall temperature or constant wall flux as well. It is often impractical to have graphs from which to obtain Nusselt number.4 The combined.entry-length problem for the laminar flow When the laminar flow is not developed hydrodynamically or thermally.

This equation should be used for water. Dimensional analysis predicts that the Nusselt number depends on Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. which consists of using a dimensionless group j called the Colburn factor: The dimensionless group j is often plotted against the Re number Dittus.Boelter Equation 67 . It is not possible to obtain a closed – form solution for the velocity profile in turbulent flow. Since the rate of heat transfer is greater I turbulent flow than in laminar flow. The use of this equation may be trial and error. In place of this type of correlation another is often used. Combining with experimental results.Heat transfer coefficients are higher with turbulent flow than with laminar flow. at the wall temperature. the following is found to apply: Sieder-Tate equation: This correlation is applicable in case of moderate temperature differences between the wall and the fluid. and hence µw. most equipment are operated in the turbulent range. since value of hL must be known to evaluate Tw.

68 . The average Nusselt number based on a heat transfer coefficient for the entire tube is not available. When dealing with non-circular conduits.These correlations for the turbulent regime predict the local Nusselt number. the hydraulic diameter or equivalent diameter is used in the heat transfer correlations whenever D diameter appears.

the other flows through the tubes. . It is usually assumed.single pass -multi pass The objective is to predict: - the amount of heat transferred the outlet temperature of one or both fluid streams . that all the heat lost by the hot fluid is transferred to the cold fluid (that is there are no heat losses). (2) By construction .the two fluid streams travel in the same direction along the exchanger. One fluid flows through the inner pipe. the other flows through the annulus .tube heat exchanger – it consists of a huge outer cyclinder ( shell ) within whiocmh are contained many tubes (tube bundle).7. depending on what is known. the required the heat transfer area .1 Classification of Heat exchangers (1) By flow arrangement: -parallel flow.counterflow ( or countercurrent flow) – the 2 fluid streams travel in opposite direction. . 69 .the 2 fluid paths cross each other at right angles. One fluid flows through the shell.double-pipe heat exchanger – It consists of 2 concentric pipes. . HEAT EXCHANGERS A heat exchanger is a device designed for exchanging heat between two fluids.crossflow.others (3) By the number of passes: .shell – and. 7.

the upper limit of t2 is T2 70 .7. however.2 Temperature Distributions In the counter-flow arrangement t2 ( cold fluid outlet temperature) can be greater than T2 (hot fluid outlet temperature). In parallel flow.

7. high pressure and countercurrent operation For low flowrates.57m) or 20ft (6.3 Double-pipe heat exchanger One fluid flows through the center pipe while another flows in the annulus. 71 .1m) Application of double-pipe exchangers: - It is useful. Such an exchanger may consist of several passes arranged in a vertical stack. Effective lengths: -12ft (3.65m) - 15ft (4. when not more. than 9-14m2 of heat transfer surface is required It is preferred for small capacity.

tube heat exchanger Where a high flow rate is involved. as an association of heat exchanger equipment fabricators. they require considerable space. If for the shell and tube heat exchanger the number of tubes are less than about 30(3/4in=19mm OD tubes) and the diameter of the shell is less than 200mm.4 Shell-and. the number of double –pipe heat exchangers required becomes large (high flow space requirement. shell and tube heat exchanger can be used. Disadvantages -Each double-pipe exchanger introduces no fewer than 14 points at which leakage might occur . 7.Considerable time and expense required for dismantling and periodically cleaning it compared with the other types of equipment. high capital cost). Under these conditions a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is uneconomic. has developed a standard for basic construction. so an alternative apparatus. a large number of small diameter shells in series are required to provide adequate velocities and near-countercurrent flow.- If the heat duty (q) is less than 500kW. The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer’s Association (TEMA) . 72 . -when a large number are connected.

The tubes are attached to perforated flat plates. The tubes pass through a number of flat plates. 8 Condensation heat transfer Condensation is a convective process associated with a phase change of fluid. Condensation occurs when a saturated vapor comes into contact with a solid surface whose surface temperatureTw is below the saturation temperature Tsat. called the tie bundle is held together by a system of tie rods and spacer tubes. The condensing vapor may consist of - A single substance ( eg steam) 73 . to form a liquid.The number of tubes in the tube bundle ranges from about 20 to over 1000. The assembly of tubes and baffles. along their length. at each end. which serve to support them and direct the fluid flow in the shell in such a way that the heat transfer is enhanced. Processes of heat transfer accompanied by phase change are more complex than simple heat exchange between fluids. termed tube sheets. called baffles.

The average coefficient for dropwise condensation may be 5-10 times that for the film-type condensation and can be as high as 110 000W/m2K.g. Mixed vapors condensing at constant pressure condense over a temperature range and yield a condensate of variable composition until the entire vapor stream is condensed. There are 2 types of condensation -dropwise condensation -film-type condensation Dropwise condensation The condensate begins to form at microscopic nucleation sites (eg tiny pits. sweep away condensate. The drops grow and coalesce with their neighbors’ to form visible fine drops. nitrobenzene. steam and air) A mixture of 2 or more condensable vapors. steam…). The liquid film flows over a surface by the action of gravity. Film –type condensation When the condensate wets the surface. During drop wise condensation. consequently the heat transfer coefficient at these bare areas is very high.- A mixture of condensable and non-condensable substances (e. glycerin. specks …). scratches. - The condensing temperature of a single pure substance depends on ly on the pressure therefore the process is isothermal. and clear the surface for more droplets.g. For normal design purposes film-type condensation is assumed. dust. large portion of the surface area is covered with an extremely thin film of liquid of negligible thermal resistance. isoheptane. which flow down the surface under the force of gravity. coalesce into small streams. It is this film of 74 . it forms a continuous liquid film through which heat must be transferred. The fine drops. in turn. Dropwise condensation occurs when the condensate does not wet the surface (e. This type of condensation is so unstable and is so difficult to maintain (because the surfaces become wetted after prolonged exposure to a condensing vapor) that the method is not uncommon. ethylene glycol.

These same basic design equations used for heat exchangers are valid. Condensing film coefficients are much greater than those in forced convection and are of the order of magnitude of several thousand of W/m2K. but the nature of the coefficient correlations is somewhat different. The film may flow in the laminar or in the turbulent regime. with the condensate formed inside or outside of the tubes. depending upon: -the rate of condensation -fluid properties -length of path of the growing condensate film. and -geometry The usual design for condensers employs tubes.liquid between the surface and vapour that forms the main resistance to heat transfer. so that condensation is a constant pressure process. depending upon whether the condensation process takes place on vertical or horizontal tubes. Pure vapors are usually condensed on the outside of tubes (shell side). The basic equations for the rate of heat transfer in film-type condensation were first developed by Nusselt (1916) 75 . The thickness of the film increase rapidly in the first few centimeters and then more and more slowly. Friction losses in a condenser are normally small.

76 . Negligible vapor shear exists at the interface. The physical properties of the condensate are constant and evaluated at a mean film temperature Tf hz = k/δ) 7. The condensate film flows in laminar flow 3. The temperature of the condensing surface Tw is constant.1 Vertical surfaces-Laminar flow On a vertical flat surface of width W a vapor is condensing in a film-type manner. 6. 5. The temperature distribution through the film is linear. The film is 2dimensional and has a thickness of δ at any z location [δ=δ(z)]. Heat is transferred through the film solely by conduction ( 4. Pure vapor is at its Tsat saturation temperature 2.8. Nusselt Assumptions: 1.

Velocity distribution The velocity distribution in the falling film can be determined from the Navier-Stokes equation as 77 .

78 .

79 .

80 .

81 .

82 .

PART 2 1. a liquid of miscible and volatile substances into individual components or into groups of components (e. by vaporization.g mixture of alcohol and water. The mass transfer is a result of concentration difference. gas absorption. Such operations may be entirely mechanical (e. Liquid extraction (solvent extraction): a mixture of 2 components is treated by a solvent that dissolves 1 or more of the components in the mixture Leaching (extraction of solids): a soluble material is dissolved from its mixture with an inert solid by means of a liquid solvent. fuel oil. screening…). liquid air into N2.g. 83 .g. washing of NH3 from a mixture of NH3 – air by liquid water). the diffusing substance moving from a place of high to one of low concentration. petrol. Dehumidification: a pure liquid is partially removed from an inert or carrier gas by condensation (e. filtration. dehumidification. etc but these are non-equilibrium operations). These operations separate mixtures into its component parts. The operations may be conducted in either batchwise or continuous manner. H2O vapor of a stream of N2 by condensation). permeation. The solute is then recovered from the liquid by distillation. The function of the operations: Distillation: is to separate. electrodialysis. diesel. (dialysis. drying. kerosene. from its mixture with an inert gas (e. The mass transfer operations are characterized by transfer of a substance through another on a molecular scale. Mass transfer can occur in the same phase orfrom one phase to the other. O2 Ar. or gradient (which is the driving force). adsorption. leaching. INTTRODUCTION A large number of the unit operations used in the recovery and purification of metals are concerned with the problem of changing the composition of solutions and mixtures through methods not involving chemical reactions. liquid extraction. Adsorption: A solute is removed from either a liquid or gas through contact with a solid adsorbent.…) Gas adsorption: a soluble vapor is absorbed by means of a liquid in which the solute gas is more or less soluble.g. If the operations involve changes in composition of solutions. Mass transfer operations include distillation. they are called mass transfer operations. the surface of which has a special affinity for the solute. crude oil into LPG. crystallization.

Sometimes the diffusion process is accompanied by bulk flow of the mixture in a direction parallel to the direction of diffusion and it is often associated with heat flow. This is called eddy diffusion. This mechanism is analogous to the heat transfer by conduction. You have already seen that analogy between momentum and energy transfer. the transfer occurs through stagnant layers of solid or fluid by molecular diffusion. mass transfer occurs by the mechanism of forced or natural convection.Auxilliary operations -heat addition orremoval ( to change temperature or phase conditions) -work addition or removal ( to change pressure) . however. involve knowledge of the equilibrium relationships between phases. All mass transfer calculations.mixing or dividing. If there is a bulk mixing of phases or layers of fluids by mechanical stirring or because of a density gradient. We will consider only binary mixtures 84 . If the mixture is stagnant. -Solids separation by size Mass transfer problems can be solved by 2 distinctly different methods: -based on diffusional rate processes. The choice of method depends on the kind of equipment in which the operation is carried out. we will extend the analogy to include mass transfer. -utilizing the concept of equilibrium stages.

the diffusion rate is very slow. no matter how small. (To demonstrate the importance of the barrier molecular collision presents to diffusive movement: the rate of evaporation of water at 25oc into complete vacuum is approximately 3. spontaneous alteration through molecular diffusion also occurs. A concentration gradient tends to move the compound in such direction as to equalize concentrations and destroy the gradient. the net distance in one direction which it moves in a given time. In a two-phase system not at equilibrium. being only a small fraction of the length of its actual path. MOLECULAR DIFFUSION 2.2. which is the ultimate process. But the process is very slow. A 1.1 mm thick layer of stagnant air at 1 atm pressure above the water surface reduces the rate by a factor of approximately 600) The same general mechanism prevails also for the liquid state. the flow of the diffusing component is continuous. When the gradient is maintained by constantly supplying the diffusing component to the high-concentration end of the gradient and removing it at the low-concentration end. whereupon its velocity changes n both magnitude and direction. The average distance the molecule travels between collisions is its mean free path. But placing a 0. This method of solute transfer is called eddy or turbulent diffusion. and the average velocity depends on the temperature.3kg/s per 1m2 of water surface. the salt will. the diffusion rates are even slower than in gases. but because of the considerably higher molecular concentration. ultimately coming everywhere to one-half its concentration in the original brine. completely penetrate the liquid.g. 85 .75m. It can be calculated that the salt concentration at the top surface will still be only 87. The analogy between heat and mass transfer is so straightforward that equations developed for the former are often found to apply to the latter by simply changing the meaning of the symbols. uniformity is achieved only by molecular diffusion. On the other hand. the rate of diffusion.75m deep layer of pure water is carefully placed over the brine without disturbing the brine in any way. Within each eddy. For this reason.5% of its final value after 10 years and will reach 99% of is final value after 28 years. (e.1 Molecular Diffusion is the movement of individual molecules through a substance by virtue of their thermal energy. A 0. A molecule is imagined to travel in a straight line at a uniform velocity until it collides with another molecule. The molecule thus travels in a zig-zag path. If the contents of the tank are left completely undisturbed.) Diffusion also takes place in fluids by physical mixing and by eddies of turbulent flow. by molecular diffusion. a simple paddle agitator rotating in the tank at 22rpm will bring about complete uniformity in approximately 60s. sum as layer of NH3-air as a gas solution in contact with a layer of liquid water.5m diameter tank is filled with a salt solution to a depth of 0. The kinetic theory of gases provides a means of visualizing what occurs.

The molecular mass species i is Mi. ωi. diffusion occurs in at least 1 phase and often in both phases (e. will be uniform everywhere throughout the system at equilibrium and this brings the diffusive process to a halt.ultimately bringing the entire system to a state of equilibrium whereupon alteration stops. 2. solute diffuses through the gas phase to the interface between the phases and through the liquid phase from the interface. We will use four: the mass concentration.2 Definitions of concentrations. the concentration of any constituent is the same throughout a phase. 86 . which is differently dependent on concentration in the 2 phases. ρi. the molar concentration. ci. the mass fraction. velocities and mass fluxes In a multicomponent system the concentrations of various species may be expressed in numerous ways.g. and the mole fraction. and the average molecular mass of the mixture is M. In all mass transfer operations. The chemical potential ( or activity ) of the components. but it will not be the same in both phases. In gas absorption. xi. At the end.

Then.I In a diffusing mixture the various chemical species are moving at different velocities. Let vi denote the velocity of species I with respect to stationary coordinate axes. for a mixture the local mass average velocity v is defined as 87 .

Expressed mathematically. since the diffusion velocity vAd is added to that of the bulk phase molar average velocity v*. 88 . the velocity of A relative to the stationary point VA is then the sum of the diffusion vAd and the molar average velocity v*.This is the local velocity one would measure by a Pitot tube and identical to the bulk flow velocity v as used in for pure fluids. its diffusion velocity is measured relative to the moving fluid. The velocity of a particular species relative to the molar average velocity (v*) is called the diffusion velocity (vAd ). A is moving faster than the bulk of the phase. Similarly. To a stationary observer. we may define a local molar average velocity v* as When the whole fluid is moving in convective flow and component A is diffusing in the same direction as the flow.

However. in cases foe which there is a concentration gradient in the direction of flow.) 89 . vA and vB are identical. the mass flux is not equal to the molar flux N times the average molecular mass M. the velocity used has been the mass average velocity. and the mas flux is then equal to he molar flux N multiplied by the average molecular mass M.The mass or molar flux of a species is a vector quantity denoting the mass or moles of the species that passes through a unit surface area per unit time. there is no interdiffusion effect . which apply to mixtures. because the mass average velocity and the molar average velocity are different. Therefore. ( In the flow of a uniform mixture through a pipe. The motion may be referred to as stationary coordinates or to the local molar average velocity v* In any of the equations derived for the integral or differential balances. vA and vB differ with effect noted above.

N= the molar flux relative to a fixed location in space. the area being measured in a direction normal to the diffusion.g distillation) 3. Diffusion quantities In a non-uniform solution.When the mole fraction xA or mass fraction ωA are small. nA) is approximately equal to the flux relative to the average velocity of the fluid due to diffusion (JA. (eg. but the molar fluxes are unequal (e. and the total flow is the same as the flow of A. (e. kmol/m2s ( it is important in the design of equipment) J= the molar flux relative to a fixed location in space kmol/m2s (it is more characteristic of the nature of the constituent.) 90 . and this leads to the use of 2 fluxes to describe the motion of 1 constituent. the flux with respect to stationary coordinates (NA. Only 1 component (A) of the mixture is transferred to or from the interface. Absorption of a single component from a gas into a liquid) 2.we don’t deal with this) Diffusion rates are described in terms of molar flux (mole/area-time). so that there is no net molar flow. Diffusion of A and B takes place in opposite direction. jA) 2.3 Fick’s first law There are 3 types of situations in diffusion: 1. both constituent must diffuse if uniformity is the ultimate result. The diffusion of component A in a mixture is balanced by an equal aand opposite molar flow of component B.g in diffusion of chemically reacting species to and from a catalyst surface. even containing only 2 constituents.

rather than the average molar velocity of the fluid. but in general. velocities. This can be done by the following consideration: -The movement of A carried by the convective bulk fluid flow. and diffusional fluxes exist in all direction. For steady state conditions the net flux is NA+NB=N It is usually convenient to describe the mass flux by diffusion (diffusion flux) relative to a stationary coordinate system. Fick’s law is the definition of diffusivity DAB . concentration gradients . NA= NxA+JA since xA=cA/c and N =cvz All the above has considered diffusion in only 1 direction .Fick’s first law states that the species A diffuses (moves relative to the mixture) in a direction of decreasing concentration of A. just as heat flows by conduction in the direction of decresing temperature. -The movement of a carried by molecular diffusion. 91 .

The diffusivity in concentrated solutions differs from that in dilute solutions because of changes in viscosity with concentration and also because of changes in the degree of non-ideality of the solution. Solids 92 . the diffusion rates are those of the individual ions. Diffusivities in gases can be predicted with considerable accuracy from kinetic theory.1. which move rapidly than the large. an approximate value of D is sometimes obtained. The diffusivity of gases varies inversely with pressure: The diffusivity of gases varies wit temperature as DAB=const T3/2: Liquids The theory of diffusion in liquids is not advanced nor the experimental data as plentiful as gas diffusion.4 Diffusivity Diffusivities are best established by experimental measurements. DAB ranges 10-5 to 10-6cm2/s and it varies appreciably with the concentration and temperature. undissociated molecules.1. Unlike the case for binary gas mixtures the diffusivity for a dilute solution of A in B is not the same as for a dilute solution of B in A. Gases DAB values fall in the range of 0. Diffusivities for dilute solutions can be calculated approximately from formulas presented in literature. For strong electrolytes dissolved in water.0 cm2/s. The diffusivities can be considered independent of concentration at pressures below ~5atm.2. For intermediate concentrations. Often the desired values are available and they must be estimated from published correlations. but this method can lead to large errors for non-ideal solutions.

DAB values are given in reference books. A may be produced by chemical reaction at a molar rate RA. An atom vibrates about it equilibrium position. The effect of diffusion in solids is very important in metallurgy and ceramic industry. For concentrated systems the diffusivity is a strong function of composition and temperature. We can write a mass balance for the diffusion species A over the volume element as we have done it for total mass and momentum before. It is of the order of 10-8 to 10-10 cm2/s.1 The equation of continuity for a binary mixture Consider a volume element fixed in space. Diffusion in Binary Mixtures 3. Within this element. 3. The diffusion process in solids may be strongly nonisotropic. the equation of continuity for component A will be Reminder: the differential energy balance equation for ρ=constant was 93 . Its energy is low at the lattice position but higher in between. the atom needs certain activation energy to jump over this energy barrier. kmol/m3s. A balance equation in general: Rate of A out – Rate of A in + Rate of accumulation of A=Rate of generation of A Expressed in mathematical terms. The atoms in a crystalline solid are localized at certain positions in the crystal lattice. and occasionally a vibration becomes strong enough to cause the atom to escape its original position and jump to a new place. through which a binary of A and B is flowing.One component in a solid will diffuse through the other at a measurable rate if there is a suitable concentration gradient and the temperature is high enough. The rate of reaction in some chemical processes is determined by solid diffusion.

1 component in a gaseos mixture will be transported relative to a fixed plane (say. and if the bulk flow through the volume element is negligible. In gas absorption a soluble gas A will be ranferred to a liquid surface where it dissolves. In evaporation from a free surface. The vapor is diffusing at a constant rate (steady-state0 from the liquid surface up through the layer of stagnant air in the tube. the component balance equation for A results in a second-order differential equation in terms of the concentration: 3. and we maintain the liquid level at z=z1. This implies that NB =0 94 . Consider liquid A (water) is evaporating into gas B (air). a liquid interface) and the other will undergo no net movement. whereas the insoluble gas B wll undergo no net movement with respect to the interface.If there are no chemical reactions (steady stse.2 Diffusion through a stagnant fluid (one-component mass transfer or one-way diffusion) In several important processes. since generation of A is zero). the vapor will move away from the surface but the air will have kno movement.

95 .

96 .

97 .

wher substance leaves or enters the phase for which kc is the mass transfer coefficient.4. the properties of the fluid . It ws convenient to express the rate of heat flow in terms of a convective heat transfer coefficient by Newton’s law of cooling: The analogous situation in mass transfer is handled by an equation of the form: The dimensions of kc from the above definition: kc may apply to forced or natural convection. or boundary. the fluids are always in motion. For unsteady state situation. The fluid flow is more frequently turbulent to increase the rate of transfer per unit area or to increase the interfacial area. Its value is a function of the geometry of the system. So the solution of the differential component mass balance is difficult as it was for the differential energy balance equation. so that we don’t have stagnant fluids. the location along the surface. and concentration. 98 . MASS TRANSFER COEEFICIENTS 4.1 Individual mass transfer coefficients In the practical applications of the mass transfer operations. NA is defined a the flux at the phase interface. the mass transfer coefficient may also depend on time. the fluid velocity .

99 . In th eegreat majority of cases however. we depend on direct measurement under known conditions. Comparing the rate equation with the solution of “Transfer of A through stationary B” In a few limited situations mass transfer coefficients can be deduced from theoretical principles.2 Mass transfer models Film theory This is the oldest and most obvious picture of the meaning of the mass transfer coefficient borrowed from a similar concept used for convective heat transfer. 4. for use later in design.Transfer of A through stagnant B Since the convective flow term has been ignored in the solution. these mass-transfer coeeficients are useful only for low mass transfer rates.

That is the resistance to diffusion in the entire flowing fluid is considered equivalent to that in a stagnant film of δ thickness.When a fluid flows turbulently past a solid surface. such that the entire concentration difference (cA1-cA2) is attributed to molecular diffusion within an effective film of thickness δ. Instead of attempting to solve the equation of the fluid flow. the concentration distance relation ia sa shown by the full curve. its thickness cannot be determined by any experiment. the the concentration at the outer edge of this film is cA2.) The problem is now reduced to steady-state diffusion through a stagnant film of thickness δ. we use film theory. The shape of the curve is controlled by ED eddy diffusivity to DAB. Thus. because of a concentration difference of (cA1-cA2). since it does not exist. with mass transfer occurring from the surface to the fluid. (This is a fictitious film. The problem was solved to give the molar flux of A as 100 . The film theory assumes that the concentration will follow the broken curve of the figure.

Higbie (1935) described the contact of 2 fluids with this theory. since the thickness of this hypothetical film δ. so that the concentration gradient of the film theory.That is the k-type mass transfer of coefficients for different solutes are directly proportional to the DAB’s for the solutes. and in predicting the effect o reaction rate on mass transfer. So this fictitious thickness of laminar-flowing fluid offers the same resistance to transfer as actually exists in the entire turbulently flowing fluid. Unfortunately this last equation does not allow a direct way to evaluate kc. since only part of the concentration gradient is in the laminar sublayer and all of it is postulated to occur across a laminar film. but does well in case of high mass transfer flux. since it does not exist.) Penetration theory In many situations the time of exposure of a fluid to mass transfer is short. 101 . Obviously δ can never be measured. The film theory is in conflict with our knowledge of turbulent flow. would not have time to develop. (Although there exists a laminar sublayer next to the wall in turbulent flow. geometry. is a function of the same parameters as the mass transfer coefficient itself: velocity and properties of the fluid. characteristic of steady state. The thickness of this fictitious film extends beyond the laminar sublayer to allow for the change in concentration in the buffer layer and turbulent core. the effect of mass transfer on heat transfer. concentration levels etc. this is not equivalent to a laminar-flowing film.

102 .

The average flux over the time interval 0 to tT is

This independence on DAB is typical of short exposure times, where the depth of solute penetration is small relative to the depth of absorbing pool. Difficulty: tT is not usually known. The depth of penetration, defined as the distance at which the concentration change is 1% of the final value is

Surface renewal theory The Higbie theory assumed a constant time of the eddies of fluid at the surface. Danckwerts gave more realistic picture, where the eddies are exposed for varying length of time. The liquid-gas interface is then a mosaic of surface elements of different exposure-time histories. Since the rate of solute penetration depends on exposure time, the average rate for a unit surface area must be determined by summing up the individual values.

In most mass transfer operations 2 insoluble phases are brought into contact to transfer of constituent substances between them. Therefore, we have to apply simultaneously the diffusional mechanism for each phase to the combined system. The rate of diffusion within each phase is dependent on the concentration gradient existing within it. At the same time, the concentration gradients of the 2-phase system are indicative of the departure from equilibrium, which exists between the phases. When equilibrium is established, the concentration gradients and hence the rate of diffusion falls to zero.

5.1 Equilibrium Dynamic equilibrium
Example: the absorption of NH3 from NH3-air mixture by water.

A fixed amount of water and NH3-air mixture is placed in a closed container and maintained at constant temperature and pressure. Since NH3is very soluble in water, some NH3 molecules will instantly transfer from the gas into the liquid, crossing the interfacial surface separating the 2 phases. A portion of the NH3 escapes back into the gas, at a rate proportional to their concentration in the liquid. As more NH3 enters the liquid, the concentration increases in the liquid and the rate at which NH3 returns to the gas increases, until eventually the rate at which it enters the liquid exactly equals that at which it leaves. At the same time, through the mechanism of diffusion, the concentration throughout each phase becomes uniform. A dynamic equilibrium now exists, and while NH3 molecules continue to transfer back and forth from phase to the other, the net transfer falls to zero. The concentration within each phases no longer change. To the observer who cannot see the individual molecules the diffusion has apparently stopped.

Equilibrium relations
There are many useful equilibrium equations in books on physical chemistry. A few simple equations relating to vapor-liquid equilibrium and gas absorption: Dalton’s law According to this law the partial pressure of a gas within a gas mixture is equal to the product of the total pressure (P) and its mole fraction (yi) of the gas phase. This law applies whether the gas is ideal or nonideal


Roult’s law When the liquid phase can be considered ideal, it is possible to predict the equilibrium partial pressure (pi*)of an ideal gas/vapor from the solution concentration and the physical properties of the pure components.

In reality there are no ideal solutions. Ideality would require that the mplcules of the constituents be similar in size, structure and chemical nature. Practically however, many solutions are so nearly ideal that for engineering purposes they can be so considered. Roult’s law matches experimental data best for components present in high concentration.

Henry’s law
For liquid solutions, which are not ideal, Roult’s law gives highly incorrect results. If the solution is sufficiently diluted, th eproportionality constant is no longer the vapor pressure of the pure componenet Pi but Hi


The mass transfer occurs between two immiscible fluids. which is real driving force. To get around the problem. Consider the extraction of a soluble component from a liquid mixture. since diffusion of the solute A occurs. the solubility is defined by giving the Henry law constant and the temperature. The bulk concentrations cs and cm are notequilibrium values. the name should be 2-resistance theory. or dependent on. Lewis and Whitman (1923) assumed: 106 .3 Two-film theory. It is convenient to use an overall mass transfer coefficient. Most gases follow Henry’s law to equilibrium pressure to ~5 std atm. the film theory of mass transfer. just as an overall heat transfer coefficient was used in heat transfer. But these bulk concentrations cannot be used directly with a mass transfer coefficient since the 2 concentrations are differently related to the chemical potential.Overall mass transfer coefficient The theory has a wrong name because it is related to.When Henry’s law holds. Since the solute is diffusing from the liquid mixture (phases) into water (phase m). with continous flow of th e contacted phases such that concentrations at any point in the equipment used do not change with time. Many of the mass transfer operations are carried out in the steady flow. 5. Correctly. by water. there must be a concentration gradient in the direction of mass transfer within each phase.

There is no resistance to solute transfer across the interface separating the phases. Point P: represents the 2 bulk-phase concentrations Point M: represents the concentrations at the interface 107 .I and cm. This implies that The concentrations cs.- The only diffusional resistances are those residing in the fluids themselves.I are equilibrium values==> - (Experiments verify the validity of the assumption) The concentrations are shown graphically in the next figure.

For steady-state mass transfer. 108 . as in the penetration theory. Mass transfer in either film may be by diffusion through a laminar boundary layer or by unsteady-state diffusion. the rate at which A reaches the interface from Liquid 1 must equal that at which it diffuses to the bulk liquid II . so that no accumulation or depletion of A at the interface occur The overall resistance to mass transfer is the sum of individual resistances (hence “tworesistance theory) The “films” in the model need not be stagnant layers of a certain thickness in order for the 2-film theory to apply.

heat.6. MASS TRANSFER WITH LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW. 6.1 Mass transfer with laminar flow In laminar flow molecular diffusion prevails and therelationships developed for steady-state diffusion of A through stagnant B” can be used to calculate mass transfer rates. Laminar flow occurs in only a few systems. However. laminar boundary layer exists when mass transfer occurs between a solid and a fluid and in a falling liquid film. and mass transfer Dimensionless groups 109 . 6.2 Similarity between momentum. because most mass transfer systems contain more than one fluid phase. so that stable laminar boundary layers cannot build up.

110 .The Schmidt number …………………….

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